You are on page 1of 68

Cathodic Protection

ME 472-061 Corrosion Engineering I ME, KFUPM Dr. Zuhair M. Gasem

Dr. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM


¾ References:
‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

ASM Handbook, vol 13, pp. 466-477 Corrosion for Science and Engineering, K.R. Trethewey and J. Chamberlain, chapter 16 Handbook of Corrosion Engineering, P.R. Roberge Cathodic Protection in ARAMCO’s Engineering Encyclopedia

Dr. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM

Anodic and Cathodic Reactions of Iron in Acids
Acid Solution



H2 H+

Corrosion Cell on a Metal Surface









Electron Flow


Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Basic Physics of CP of Iron in Acids 4 ¾ Electrons from an external source are forced to flow into the structure to be protected resulting in: ‰ ‰ Increased cathodic reaction (2H+ + 2e.→ H2) Decreased anodic reaction and hence reduced corrosion rate H+ H+ Electrolyte H+ H Fe2+ H2 H2 H2 H+ H2 H+ H+ H H H+ H H+ H H H H H+ H+ H+ H+ e e e e H+ H+ e e e ee e e e e e e e e Electrons from external source . Z.Dr.

Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Polarization Principle of CP of Iron in Acids 5 ¾ Before CP: ‰ ‰ ianode = icathode = icorr E = Ecorr icorr = ia icathode = ic iapp = ic – ia E = ECP ECP ¾ After CP: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ . Z.

Z.Dr. Before CP: ‰ ‰ ¾ After CP: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ianode = icathode = iL E = Ecorr icorr = ia icathode = ic = iL iapp = ic – ia E = ECP ECP . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Polarization Principle of CP of Iron in Water 6 ¾ ¾ The cathodic reaction for corrosion of steel and iron in aerated-water is usually (O2+2H2O+2e→4OH-) under concentration polarization.

Dr. Z. The main applications of CP include: ‰ Buried pipeline ‰ Acids storage tanks ‰ Offshore steel structures such as platforms and oil rigs ‰ Ships ‰ Concrete structures exposed to seawater such as bridges . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Cathodic Protection CP makes the structure’s potential more negative which promotes cathodic reactions and slows anodic reaction Increases icathode Decreases ianode Need to supply iapp = icathode . with the coat providing the primary form of corrosion protection and the CP system acts as a supporting protection.ianode 7 ¾ Summary of cathodic protection: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ¾ ¾ Where CP is used? ‰ CP is often applied to coated structures.

Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM CP of Buried Pipelines 8 ¾ Before CP is applied: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ Anodes and cathodes are on the same surface of the pipe The soil is the electrolyte Ionic current flow b/w the anode and the cathode in the external surfaces Electrons flow in the metal from anode to cathode .Dr.

Dr. Z. e- cathode +ve ions current in electrolyte Sacrificial anode . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM CP of Buried Pipelines 9 ¾ After CP is applied: ‰ The structure to be protected becomes the cathode ‰ The anode is an external electrode: Î Amore active metal (sacrificial anode) Î An inert anode with impressed DC current (Impressed current) ‰ The soil is the electrolyte ‰ Ionic current flow b/w the anode and the cathode in the external surfaces ‰ Electrons flow between the anode and cathode through an insulated copper wire.

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM CP of Buried Pipelines 10 ¾ Sources of current ‰ ‰ Sacrificial anode system Impressed current system (note the .polarity from the rectifier) .Dr. Z.

Zn) Î M → M+n + ne- . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Electrochemical reaction in sacrificial Anode CP System 11 ¾ Cathodic reactions on the steel structure: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ In aerated wet soil Î In aerated wet acidic soil Î O2+2H2O+4e.⇒ 2OH.⇒ 2H2O O2+2H2O+4e.+H2 At active anode in sacrificial anode CP system (Mg.Dr.⇒ 4OH- In de-aerated soil or water Î ¾ Anode reactions ‰ 2H2O+2e. Z.⇒ 4OH- In neutral seawater Î O2+4H+ + 4e. Al.

. because the anode-electrolytecathode is at external surfaces. or by using a corrosion resistant alloy. Z. Above ground. CP is not usually used to protect internal surfaces of pipelines because of difficulty in placing anodes. internal surfaces of pipelines can be protected by: inhibitors. structures cannot be protected by cathodic protection because the current discharged from the current source can not travel through the atmosphere (no electrolyte). Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM CP of pipelines 12 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Note that cathodic protection current will only protect external surfaces on buried structures.Dr. coatings.

Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Protection Criteria 13 ¾ How ‰ ‰ much current is needed to protect the pipeline? Little current will lead to ineffective protection High current will lead to disbonding of coatings and hydrogen embrittlement (more power consumption and higher cost) Experience show that we should keep the pipeline potential less than a protection potential. ‰ . Z.

Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Protection Criteria 14 ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ In less corrosive soil.Dr. E< -0. the protection potential for cross-country pipeline is -1.850 mV wrt Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode this reference electrode is used because it is less sensitive to temperature variation (0. .1 V vs Cu/CuSO4 (due to highly corrosive soil) More –ve potential means more current required and more operation cost.318 s. SHE) In Saudi’s Aramco.

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Reference Electrodes reference electrodes used in CP 15 ¾ Common ‰ Cu/CuSO4 in soil Î Î CuSO4 + 2e. SHE 0.Dr.318 V AgCl + e.↔ Cu+SO42E vs. Z.222 V ‰ AgCl in seawater Î Î .↔ Ag + ClE vs. SHE 0.

318 V Hence. Fe is stable and corrosion is minimum if potential is (-0.850 mV vs.6 V vs SHE Cu/CuSO4 is more +ve than SHE by 0. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Potential Protection 16 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Why <-0.918 V vs Cu/CuSO4) .318= -0. Fe is stable below -0. Z. Cu/CuSO4? From Pourbaix diagram.Dr.6-0.

7 -0.Dr. hydrogen blistering. Z.9 -0.9 to -1. Cu/CuSO4) -0.5 to -0.4 .6 -0.8 -0.6 to -0. HE) 17 Potential (V vs.7 to -0.1 -1.8 to -0.1 to -1. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Potential and Corrosion of Buried Steel Corrosion condition Intense corrosion Corrosion Slow corrosion Cathodic protection Overprotection Severe overprotection (disbonding of coatings.

Z.Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM NACE Standards for CP 18 .

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Saudi Aramco’s Potential Requirements Structure Minimum Required Potentials 19 Buried Cross-Country Pipelines Buried Plant Piping. Z.90 volt or more negative versus AgCl electrode . Tank Bottom Externals. -850 mV versus CuSO4 electrode. Isolated Buried Casings Water Tank Interiors -1.00 volt versus CuSO4 electrode.10 volts versus CuSO4 electrode. AgCl electrode Marine structures -0.90 volts vs.Dr. -0. -1.

002 mm) .Dr. Fine sand (0.2 mm) Coarse sand (0. and high dissolved salts will be most corrosive. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Soil Corrosivity 20 ¾ ¾ Soil is composed mainly of mineral particles (mainly SiO2). Z.02-0. high electrical conductivity.2-2 mm) Slit (0. Soils with a high proportion of sand have very limited storage capacity for water whereas clays are excellent in retaining water Air in the pores contains 10-20 times as much CO2 as atmospheric air. Soil is composed of a mixture of: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ The soil particles are covered with thin surface film of moisture with dissolved salts and gases.002-0. The total volume of soil consists of solid particles and pores filled with moisture and air. high acidity. Soils with high moisture content.02 mm) Clay (< 0.

industrial wastes.Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Soil Corrosivity 21 ¾ Variables affecting soil corrosivity: ‰ ‰ ‰ Water is the electrolyte for electrochemical corrosion reactions Oxygen: the oxygen concentration decreases with increasing depth of soil pH: soils usually have a pH range of 5-8 Î Î Soil acidity is produced by decomposition of acidic plants. and acid rain Alkaline soils tend to have high sodium. potassium. Z. magnesium and calcium contents which form calcareous deposits on buried structures with protective properties against corrosion. ‰ ‰ Chloride level: harmful for metals sulfate level: harmful for concreter .

000 to 10. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Soil Corrosivity Soil Corrosivit resistivity y Rating (ohm cm) >20. the most important property of a soil in determining its corrosivity is its electrical conductivity.000 <1. and water distribution systems.Dr. Z.000 Clay with saline water (sabkha) . Soil resistivity is measured by Wenner 4-pin method 10.000 5.000 to 20.000 to 5. Soil corrosion causes corrosion in underground petroleum storage tanks.000 1. pipelines.000 Essentially noncorrosive Mildly corrosive Moderately corrosive Corrosive Very corrosive Dry sand 22 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ For CP design against corrosion. The table shows soil corrosion severity ratings.

000 500 Moderately Corrosive Corrosive Very Corrosive Ohm-cm . Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Soil Corrosivity Seawater Resistivity 23 Progressively Less Corrosive 10.000 ¾ Electrolyte Resistivity (ohm-cm) Mildly Corrosive ¾ ¾ ¾ Seawater (Gulf) Raw water Drinking water 16 200-2000 2000-5000 2.000 1.Dr.

Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Current density required to reach Ecp for steel in moving and standing seawater and in soil 24 ASM Handbook Vol#13 p.476 Environment Bare Steel (mA/m2) Coated steel (mA/m2) Initial CP Applied Initial CP current CP current current Applied CP current Moving seawater Stagnant seawater soil 325375 160270 43-54 75-105 45-75 11-16 32-54 11-32 5.54 .4-11 11-16 5-11 1. Z.1-0.

¾ iinitial = 5.000*2/3*10 = 33.666 mA = 117 A ¾ iapplied = 5. calculate the amount of initial current and applied current necessary to cathodically protect the structure. 2/3 is immersed in seawater. Z.Dr.333 mA = 34 A ¾ . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Current Calculation for Design 25 Given a coated offshore structure with a surface area of 5. ¾ The initial and applied current density requirement for coated seawater structures is 35 and 10 mA/m2.000 m2.000*2/3*35= 116.

then the current requirement would be ¾ = 354*1=354 mA (5 times more than above) .75 m diameter steel pipe coated with fusion bonded epoxy (FBE).Dr.1 mA/m2 ¾ = 354*0. Z.1 = 67.3 mA ¾ Note that if the whole pipe is not coated.1 mA/m2 while for uncoated steel is 1 mA/m2 .9*0. ¾ surface area = πDL=354 m2 ¾iinitial = bare area*1 mA/m2 + coated area*0. Assume that 10% of the coating was damaged during installation.1*1 + 354*0. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Example 26 Given a 150 m section of 0. calculate the total amount of current required. Assume that the required current density for FBE coated buried pipeline is 0.

Z.Dr. Always assume 5-10% of coated area as bare due to damage during pipe installation. . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Coatings in CP Systems 27 ‰ ‰ ‰ Bare structures require more current than coated structures Economical applications of CP for buried pipelines applied only for coated pipelines.

Zn. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Sacrificial Anode CP Systems 28 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ a more active metal than steels can act as a sacrificial anode. The amount of current output is increased by increasing the number of anodes. . Usually applied in: ‰ ‰ Low current requirement application Soil resistivity < 10.000 (Ω. The galvanic series indicate that Mg. and Al are more active than steels. A number of anodes are electrically connected to the steel structure to be protected to provide the needed current.

Dr. low cost Provides uniform distribution of current 29 ¾ Advantages of sacrificial CP: ‰ ‰ ‰ ¾ Disadvantages ‰ ‰ ‰ Limited current and power output High resistivity environments or large structures require a large number of anodes Periodic replacement of anodes . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Sacrificial Anode CP Systems No external power source needed Ease of installation. Z. low maintenance.

brass.5 -0. coke . 0. graphite.2 to -0. bronze High silicon cast iron Mill scale on steel Carbon. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Galvanic Series in soil and seawater Volts (referenced to Cu/CuSo4) -1.5 to -0.Dr.5 -0.75 -1. Z.1 -0.15% Mn) Zinc Aluminum alloy (5% Zn) Commercially pure aluminum Mild steel (clean and shiny) Mild steel (rusted) Cast Iron Lead Mild steel in concrete Copper.2 -0.3 30 Metal Commercially pure magnesium Magnesium alloy (6% Al.1 -1.6 -1.8 -0.5 -0. 3%.2 -0.2 +0.2 -0. Zn.8 -0.

special backfills are used with sacrificial anodes to improve anode efficiency. Z.Dr. Clay: ‰ ‰ ‰ absorbs moisture from the soil and reduce anode resistance of anode/electrolyte distribute the anodic reaction all over the anode Increase the life of the anode . Anodes are packaged in porous bags prefilled with backfill materials such as clay. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Sacrificial anodes 31 ¾ ¾ In soil.

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Sacrificial anodes 32 ¾ ¾ Anodes are packaged in bags filled with backfill material Commercial anodes ( ‰ ‰ 60 inch in length 4 Kg ¾ ¾ Anodes for buried structures (pipes.2Mn) ‰ Pure Zn For marine applications ‰ Al alloy containing 5% Zn is used ‰ Zn alloy .Dr. Z. tanks): ‰ Pure Mg ‰ Mg alloy (Mg+6Al+3Zn+0.

Cu/CuSO4 ) Soil resistivity ranges from (500-20.000 Ω*cm) Seawater ranges from ( 10-50 Ω*cm) Current requirement table (see slide#24) Current requirement test (see slide#35) ¾ Estimate cathodic current requirement which depends on the environment and the surface area to be protected using either: ‰ ‰ ¾ ¾ ¾ Select a suitable sacrificial anode and calculate the theoretical capacity and the driving voltage (slide#37 and 38) Estimate the number of anodes needed based on groundbed resistance (slide#41 and 42) Estimate anode life and replacement period . Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Design of Sacrificial Anode CP 33 ¾ Select Protection Criterion (depends on the environment) ‰ ¾ Measure resistivity of environment (slide#34): ‰ ‰ For buried steel (NACE standard gives protection potential = -850 mV vs.Dr.

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Wenner 4-pin Method to Measure Soil Resistivity 34 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ This method is done by placing four pins at equal distances from each other.Dr. Z. the resistance can be calculated using Ohm's law (Resist = ∆V/I). Power supply voltmeter . Soil resistivity = 191. A current is passed through the two outer pins using a power supply. the voltage across the two inner pins is measured using a voltmeter. where R is the soil resistance and d is the pin spacing in feet.2*∆V/I*d (d in feet) ohm-cm.

Current requirement test: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ A small DC power system is used (10 A) A temporary anode ground bed is installed Potential loggers are installed at selected test locations to monitor potentials A current is applied and the potential is measured The current that brings the potential of the whole pipe below the protective potential is used the required current for protection .85 V with respect to a copper sulfate reference electrode placed directly above the pipe. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Current Requirement Test 35 ¾ The current may be increased gradually until the voltmeters at positions A and B reaches -0.Dr. Z.

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Sacrificial Anode High driving potential to generate sufficient current Stable operating potentials over a range of current outputs (Eanode does not vary a lot with i) High capacity to deliver current per unit mass Does not passivate Theoretical capacity: the total charge in coulombs produced by the corrosion (dissolution) of a unit mass of the anode material [units in (A* hr)/Kg]. High Efficiency (efficiency = actual capacity/theoretical capacity*100) 36 ¾ Anodes must have: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ .Dr. Z.

hr)/Kg .4 moles of e. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Calculating the theoretical capacity 37 MW of Mg is 24.3g=41.1600 Coulomb/Kg *1 hr/3600s=2. density=1.1600 Coulomb/(Kg of Mg) 795.*96500 Coulomb/(mole e)= 795.74 g/cm3 ¾ Mg→Mg+2 + 2e.2 mole of Mg # of e. Z.2=82.mole= 2*41.Dr.3 g/mol.200 (A.(one mole of Mg produces 2 moles of electrons) ¾ Take 1 Kg of Mg as a basis: ¾ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ 1000g * mole/24.4 moles of e82.

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Calculating driving potential 38 ¾ ED = Eanode – Ep + Epolar ‰ ED = driving potential ‰ Eanode = anode potential ‰ Ep = protection potential ‰ Epolar = change in potential of anode due to current flow (polarization).Dr. usually taken as 0. Z.1 V ED .

0 V Epolar = 0.85) = -0.(-0. Z.1.75 – (-1.0) +0.75 vs Cu/CuSO4 Ep (buried pipeline cross country) = -1.85 V and Epola=0 and Eanode=-1. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Driving Potential 39 ¾ Example: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ calculate the driving potential for Mg in soil assuming: Eanode = -1.25 V .1 = -0.1 V ED = -1.65 V ¾ Example: calculate the driving potential for Al alloy (5%Zn) in soil assume Ep = -0.Dr.1V ‰ ED = -1.

1 Cu/CuSO4) . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Sacrificial Anodes Mg Zn 810 780 >90% Al 2980 2640 >90% -1.75 V (vs -1.1 40 Theoretical capacity Actual capacity Efficiency potential 2200 (A*hr)/Kg 1232 50-60% -1.Dr. Z.

Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Anode bed (groundbed) resistance 41 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ In both systems. The highest resistance to current flow is due to the anode/electrolyte resistance (Rab) RS (structure/electrolyte) resistance. Z. the flow of current is analogous to a simple resistive circuit. depends on the anode shape and the resistivity of the environment. Rab = Resistance of anode/electrolyte. Rtotal = Ra+RLW+RS (RS and RLW) can be neglected Rtotal ≈ Rab Electric Circuit E I Battery Resistor R total . RLW (lead wire) resistance.

Z.Dr.3 m away from the steel structure) ‰ ‰ ‰ A La= length of anode (cm) ρ = soil resistivity (Ω.cm) Da = anode diameter (cm) C Rab ¾ Anode current output i = ED/Ra . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Anode bed (ground bed) resistance 42 ¾ ¾ Dwight’s equation for single vertical anodes: Ra = ρ/(2πLa)*(ln(8La/Da) -1) (for slender anodes mounted at least 0.

Assume very corrosive soil (ρ=1000 Ω*cm) Calculate the driving potential assuming Epola = 0.15/3.85 V Calculate the ground bed resistance ‰ ‰ ED = -1. EZn = -1. Calculate the maximum current output from each anode i = ED/Ra = 0.85)-0.1 – (-0.6 Ω .1V.1 vs Cu/CuSO4.Dr.1 = -0. Ep (buried pipeline) = -0.6 = 0. 3.15 V 2. ‰ Example: Calculate the maximum current output for zinc anodes (L = 150 cm and D = 15 cm) in sacrificial anode CP system. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Anode bed (ground bed) resistance 43 ¾ 1.042 A = 42 mA Ra = ρ/(2πLa)*(ln(8La/Da) -1) Ra = 1000/(2π*150)*(ln(8*150/15)-1) = 3.

Z.042 A.042) ≈ 24 anodes to give sufficient protection. Distance of anode to cathode: Î Î Î Too far: high resistance in the soil leads to voltage drop Too short: current distribution is not uniform Needs experience (usually less than a meter) . Each anode provides 0. you need to have 1/(0.Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Anodes distribution 44 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Example: suppose you need 1 A to protect a steel structure by using Zn anodes as in the previous example. Then.

From the previous example. D=15 cm) are available. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Design Example 45 Example: design a CP system for a section of coated steel buried pipe assuming that the current required to shift the pipeline potential to the EP was approximated by a current requirement test to be 500 mA.593. Assume Zn efficiency is 90% and ρ=1000 Ω*cm. #anodes = 500/42 = 12 anodes. Z.14 g/cm3).9*810*(A.Dr.14*D2*L/4*7. (Density of Zn = 7. each Zn anode produces 42*2270 Kg= 1.593. Then.14 g/cm3= 2270 Kg Total charge available = efficiency*theoretical capacity*mass= 0.5A= 189540 hr = 364 years . Total mass of anodes = 12*vol*density =12*3. Zn anodes (L=150 cm.540 (A*hr)/0.540 (A*hr) Replacement period = 1.

Monitoring Sacrificial CP ‰ ‰ Measure the potential of the pipe and make sure it is -850mV Monitor the current flow from each anode at the junction box . Keep each anode 30-100 cm away from the pipe. The system design life is indefinite. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Sacrificial Anode CP System 46 ¾ ¾ Install 12 anodes evenly distributed along the pipeline.Dr.

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Applications: buried tanks. pipelines. marine structures 47 Anodes Aluminum alloy anode AA-036348 . ship hulls. internal protection of heat exchangers and vessels.Dr. Z.

Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Impressed Current CP (ICCP) System 48 ICCP is used if: ‰ ‰ high current is required high resistance electrolyte . Z.

Dr. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM ICCP 49 ¾ Components of ICCP system ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ A transformer: to reduce the voltage from high to low voltage A rectifier to convert AC to DC A current distributor (junction box) Anodes with backfills .

⇒ 2H2O O2+2H2O+4e.⇒ 4OH- In neutral seawater Î O2+4H+ + 4e. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Reactions 50 ¾ The anode potential is set at high +ve potential and the following oxidations reactions become possible: Î Î Î Reactions at the cathode: ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ 2H2O→ O2 + 4H++4e.+H2 Cathode anode .(in water or in wet soil) 2Cl-→Cl2 + 2e.⇒ 4OH- In de-aerated soil or water Î 2H2O+2e.Dr.⇒ 2OH. Z.(in salt or brackish water) C+2H2O→ CO2 + 4H++4e(in graphite anodes) In aerated wet soil Î In aerated acidic solution Î O2+2H2O+4e.

Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Advantages and Disadvantages of Impressed Current Systems Advantages ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ 51 ¾ Higher Current and power outputs Adjustable protection levels (controlled current) Large areas of protection Low number of anodes Can be used to protect poorly coated structure Complex equipment and installation costs Higher maintenance costs Possible interference problems with foreign structures Risk of incorrect polarity connections Disadvantages ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ . Z.Dr.

consumable anodes (scrap steel. graphite. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Components of ICCP external power source AC transmission lines A solar power system 52 ¾ An ‰ ‰ ¾ Anodes ‰ are not necessarily more active than the structure to be protected Two types of anodes Î Î inert or non-consumable anodes: platinized anodes (a few micrometers thick coating of platinum on Ti or Niobium). high-Si Cr cast iron) .Dr. Z.

Z. Anode to coke resistance Coke breeze Soil . extends the life of the anode. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Anodes for ICCP 53 ¾ Anodes are used with carbonaceous backfill called coke-breeze to: ‰ ‰ ‰ Anode Coke-to-earth Resistance increases the effective size of the anode lowers the anode-toground resistance.Dr.

Dr. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM

Anodes in ICCP
Material Consumption rate (Kg/(A*yr) applications


Platinized niobium (inert) Platinized Ti (inert) Graphite (inert) Scrap steel High Si-cast iron

8x10-6 8x10-6 0.1-1 7-9 1-0.25

Seawater, concrete, == Soil, Potable water Marine, soil Marine, soil

Dr. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM



Ships (with coatings) ¾ Offshore platforms ¾ Buried pipelines (pref method) ¾ Oil well casing ¾ Concrete Structures (offshore bridges)

Dr. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM

Buried pipelines


Dr. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Well Casing Junction Box Rectifier 57 Remote Surface Anode Bed Producing Zone Perforations . Z.

Evaluation of electrolyte resistivity Estimating the current requirement Î Î Current requirement test Current requirements theoretical estimation 3. 2. 5. Selecting anode material and current distribution Î Î Uniform current distribution Avoid interference (stray current) 4. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM ICCP Design 58 1.Dr. Z. Determine the anode bed ground resistance Determine number of required anodes Select the power source capacity . 6.

Dr. Z. The lowest effective soil resistivity points are the most favorable anode bed locations. Electrolyte Resistivity Survey 59 Measure soil resistivity along the pipeline ¾ The data from a soil resistivity survey along a 6 km section of pipeline is shown below. ¾ . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM 1.

protection Criteria for bare pipeline must check I*RΩ effect. Thus. Interruption Test for Bare Pipeline in Impressed Current System 60 ¾ ¾ ¾ In impressed current system for bare structure.Dr. The protection criterion for bare steel pipeline uses interruption test where a negative (cathodic) change in potential of >300 mV must take place immediately after potential CP current is applied. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM 2. the applied current is high and IR drop can not be neglected. Z. CP power on CP Power off 300 mV time .

Current distribution 61 Variation of electrolyte resistivity b/w anode and cathode (largest current flows along least resistant path) ¾ Defects in coatings: current concentrates at defects ¾ . Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM 3. Z.Dr.

Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Stray Currents 62 ¾ ¾ Stray Currents: currents flowing in the electrolyte from external sources other than the applied CP.Dr. Sources of stray currents: ‰ Subway system ‰ Interference with another CP system ‰ Welding equipment ‰ Electrical power transmission lines .

Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM 4. Number of Required Anodes 63 N = Y*C*I/W N = anodes Y = I = C = W = number of impressed current design life in years total current required in amperes anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr weight of a single anode in kg .Dr.

Resistance calculation equation for single vertical 64 ¾ Dwight’s anode: ‰ ¾A group of vertical or horizontal anodes (buried 6 ft below ground): ‰ ‰ ‰ Ra = ρ/(2πLa)*(ln(8La/Da) -1) Vertical anodes ( Rv = ρ*F/537) Î Each anode is 8-12 in in diameter and 10 ft in length Horizontal anodes (RH = ρ*F/483) Î Each anode is 10 ft in length and 6 ft below surface F is called adjusting factor (F=1 for single anode) . Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM 5.Dr.

Dr. Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM F : Adjusting Factor 65 .

Power Source Selection 66 ¾ The ‰ ‰ ‰ size of the power source is determined by: the amount of current required to protect the structure (I) the voltage required to force the current through the anode ground bed resistance (R) E=I*R . Z. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM 4.Dr.

Design life of 20 years ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ . Z.2 mA/m2 for FBE.000 ohm-cm Required current density is 0.24 ohm Neglect cable resisitivity. x 300cm. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Example: Design for ICCP 67 Design an impressed current system to protect a buried pipeline coated with fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) using the following information: ¾ Horizontal anodes 6 ft below ground with 20 ft spacing Anode material: High silicon-cast iron ( C=0. Soil resistivity: 2. weight=50 Kg Pipeline length: 500 m and 115 mm in diameter ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ the anode to soil resistance is 0.Dr.5 Kg/(A*yr)) Anode dimensions with backfill: 25 cm dia.

use a DC power with a minimum current supply of 40 A and a minimum voltage of 40 V (1600 Watt rating).2 anodes .2 = 36. Z.24=1 Ω ‰ E = I*R=1*36. Gasem ME 472-061 KFUPM Example: Design for ICCP 68 ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Current required = surface area * current density = π d L *i= 3.14*0. Then use 8 anodes.1 V ‰ Hence.115*500 *0.184/483 = 0.1 = 36.184) ‰ = 2000*0.1 A # anodes= Y*I*C/W = 20*36. To calculate the resistance: ‰ RH = ρ*F/483 (for 8 horizontal anodes F=0. .5/50 = 7.76+0.1*0.Dr.76Ω ‰ Total R= 0.