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TELECOMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY

DE LORENZO

s.r.l. Viale Romagna, 20 - 20089 Rozzano (Milano) Italy - Tel. ++39 2 8254551 - Fax ++39 2 8255181 • Telex 321122 DELOR I

B U K UP E N TU N JU K P E LA TIH A N D CS E R V O

TABEL [MUATAN/INDEKS]

1. Pengenalan 2. Percobaan menggunakan ' DL 2305 Servo Sistem Percobaan 1 Percobaan 2 percobaan 3 percobaan 4 percobaan 5 percobaan 6 percobaan 7 percobaan 8 percobaan 9 percobaan 10 percobaan 11 percobaan 12 percobaan 13 Kecepatan Motor dan watak masukan Kecepatan Motor dan karakteristik pembebanan Reaksi transien suatu motor Penguat operasional Teknik pengendalian Kecepatan Motor Loop tertutup Sistem Gain Dan Kendali kecepatan Motor Bi-Directional Kendali Kecepatan Motor Efisiensi Kendali Kecepatan Motor Isyarat Kesalahan Kontrol posisi Pengontrol Posisi Loop tertutup Reaksi transien suatu pengontrol posisi Pengontrol Posisi dengan umpan balik kecepatan Stabilisasi pengontrol posisi tidak stabil

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo

2

Lab Sistem Control

percobaan 14

Konstruksi suatu pengontrol posisi

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo

3

Lab Sistem Control

Instrumen ini siap tersedia pada paket DE LORENZO Osiloskop : osiloskop dengan kemampuan jejak rangkap. Voltmeter : Voltmeter harus mempunyai impedans masukan tinggi. Pada osciloskop lebih baik mempunyai suatu penyesuaian variabel untuk mempelihatkan gambar yang muncul pada layar dengan periode waktu yang lebih panjang. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 4 Lab Sistem Control . Para pemakai harus menyediakan peralatan. Jejak yang rangkap harus bisa mulai menghasilkan X dan Y keluaran pada layar. Tegangan DC diperlukan minimum 15V. dengan daftar di atas instrumen yang berikut adalah penting melakukan untuk eksperimen.Alat bantu Peralatan Untuk memaksimalkan efisiensi pembelajar.

Pada akhir manual ini. Konstruksi yang modular pada DL 2305 sangat sederhana dan mudah untuk melakukan percobaan. Konsep utama DL 2305 sistem adalah untuk memepelajari DC Servo Loop tertutup dengan modul yang praktis dari para pemakai dengan mengintegrasikan teori dasar dan tahap demi tahap percobaan dengan permasalahannya.1. terdapat karakteristik motor menggunakan DL 2305 dan informasi ini bersifat tambahan . Pendahuluan Pelatih DC servo DL 2305 dari DE LORENZO adalah Kontruksi dengan kontruksi modul DC servo sistem loop tertutup. masing-masing bagian diakhiri dengan suatu ringkasan untuk menyimpulkan apa yang telah dipraktekan. Semua percobaan hanya melakukan penyambungan sistem dengan kabel sesuai dengan petunjuknya. Untuk memaksimalkan pengajaran. Total 14 percobaan di lakukan dalam modul ini. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 5 Lab Sistem Control .

it means that there is an excessive current flowing in the circuit. the U -162 Function Generator generates a ramp signal which is in phase with the output.2. which is proportional to the speed. Whenever the servo motor and potentiometer (U158) are required to be linked together. make sure it is done correctly. • In orde r to di spla y the system re spon se in an ea sy wa y. • The ta cho ge nerator is mecha nica ll y co uple d to th e servo RPM. rotating speed is expressed in volts. Otherwise. The "0" indication on the brake means the load from the brake is zero. The converted voltage is used as a feedback signal.tovoltage) converter. Throughout the experiments in this manual. the internal time reference of an oscilloscope is not necessary. It generates AC voltage and frequency outputs proportional to motor's frequency to an equivalent voltage through a WV(frequency. • When the "OVERLOAD" indicator of the Power Supply Unit (U-156) is on. and check for the cause of the overload. there is no specific location for each module. GENERAL GUIDELINES IN USING ED-4400 SERVO SYSTEM The following guidelines are common to all experiments in this manual. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 6 Lab Sistem Control . The Tacho Amp Unit (U-155) converts the m otor. Make the connection to the low speed shaft (1/60 of the motor speed) by hand. • The ± 15V power supply is omitted from wiring diagrams. Therefore. Modules are placed as the user prefers. • When modules are placed on a panel for an experiment. Turn the power off immediately. • The high speed shaft of the servo motor can adapt the electronic brake set (U-63). The user should be well aware of these guidelines before setting up DL 2305 for actual experiments. the motor will experience unnecessary loads.

1Hz"10Hz and Ramp output) Magnet Brake air gap : 4mm. Functional descriptions of each module: U-151 U-152 U-153 U-154 U-155 U-156 U-157 U-158 U-159 U-161 Dual attenuator (0. 9/10 • •• 1/10 attenuation) Summing amplifier (gain : 0 dB.. 3Vp-p/4000RPM Function Generator ( 0.• • The ± 15V power supply is omitted from wiring diagrams.Q or 10 kS2 5W) Tachometer (FS 4000 RPM) Servo motor Motor : 12V. 10 step variable input power : AC 220V. EXT. NET) Pre-amplifier (gain : 20 dB) Motor driver amplifier (10 watts) Tacho Amp unit DC power supply ( -±15V 0.5W U-162 U-163 Tacho Generator : Approx. 4.2A and Motor Power) Potentiometer (Reference) ( 11(S2 or 10 kš2 5W) Potentiometer (Motor Coupling) (1k.1"1 Hz. 50 60Hz DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 7 Lab Sistem Control .

Module Identifications DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 8 Lab Sistem Control .

As electric currents flow through the windings. the point "a" occurs because a motor requires a certain minimum voltage to overcome the mechanical friction from brushes. In DL 2305 trainer system. It is because the counter electromotive force in the armature coil is also increased as the input voltage is increased. bearings and other moving parts before it starts to move. the field winding is replaced by permanent magnets. torque is developed between these two windings. the speed of the motor begins to increase in linear fashion as the input voltage is increased. a motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical rotation.Experiment 1 MOTOR SPEED AND INPUT CHARACTERISTICS 1. The motor in DL 2305 system is driven by U-154 Motor Driver Amplifier with U-151 DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 9 Lab Sistem Control . The permanent magnets provide . In Figure 1- 1. Basic theory In general. This relationship is shown in Figure 1-1. and at some point. the motor speed becomes only a function of the voltage applied to the armature winding. The key elements of a DC motor are a field winding and an armature winding. constant lines of magnetic flux and therefore. any further increase in input voltage does not produce increased electric currents in the coil. this linear characteristics is not maintained beyond the saturation point. However. Once the input voltage exceeds the minimum voltage.

U-159. The detection of the motor speed is accomplished by converting the Tacho output of the motor (U-161) through the F/V Converter (U-155). The AC output from the Tacho motor is converted into DC which is proportional to the motor speed through U-155 DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 10 Lab Sistem Control . The converted output is indicated on the Tacho meter.Attenuator as a voltage control.

Make a graph on motor speed vs. Plug U-156 Turn U-157 slowly counterclockwise until the motor begins to move. 1. increasing the input voltage will not increase motor speed. 2. 2. At saturation. place the modules needed in the experiment on flat surface or on top of the DL 2305 cover. and turn the power switch ON. Review the relationships between these two parameters. and connect modules as indicated in the figure. ). record the U-159 indication. 5.. The motor current is not linearly proportional to the input voltage.. motor current using the data obtained in step 5 and 6. Connect the Tacho-meter U-159 across U-155 meter and GND. the motor input current no longer increases The motor speed in a servo system is proportional to the input • DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 11 Lab Sistem Control . Experiment. 2V. 7. Avoid saturation in this experiment. procedure. Record the U-157 position and the input voltage. Summary • voltage. line cord to the power outlet. [Caution] When the motor is saturated. motor speed using the a b o v e measurement data. Increase the input voltage by slowly turning the U-157 clockwise. Make a graph on input voltage vs. 3V . For every one volt increment of the input voltage (1V. 3. Set the angle on U'-157 to 180 degrees. Referring to Figure 1-2 and 1-3. 8. Verify that the line voltage is correct (100V or 220V). 9. 6. Repeat the steps 5 -7 several times to reduce the measurement error.2.. 4.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 12 Lab Sistem Control . below which a motor can't start. The. The sa tu ra ti on e ffe ct is c a u sed b y th e cou n te r electromotive force in the armature coil. range in a motor. deadband is caused by various mechanical frictions in the system. • There exists a "deadband input voltage. Motor input voltage is required to be greater than the largest value of the deadband to initiate motion.even if the input vo l ta g e is i n cre a se d .

.....m = input current in amps Wm = speed of the motor in rad/sec The input voltage and speed of the motor are related to other parameters according to the following equations: Vt = Ea+ Ra Ia...................... (2-2) T = KΦIa ........ the counter emf (electromotive force) of a motor (E a ) is generated by the action of the armature conductors cutting lines of force................. the torque (T) generated in the motor becomes a function of only the input current (Ia).. (2-5) Kφ ( Kφ ) = input voltage in Volt = Resistance of armature coil in Ohms Ra where Vt DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 13 Lab Sistem Control ........... K Φ =constant . Basic theory Typical output ratings of permanent magnet based DC motors range from a few watts to several hundred watts............ and is proportional to the speed of the motor (Wm)..... (2-4) Wm = Vt RT − a 2 (rad / sec) ………………............Experiment 2 MOTOR SPEED AND THE LOAD CHARACTERISTICS 1. Also.... and this type of motors exhibit an excellent power efficiency.... (2-3) where K Φ = magnetic flux (line of force) of the permanent magnet Ea T Ia = counter emf in volts = torque in N.......................... permanent magnets in the motor provide constant magnetic flux (K Φ )............ Therefore................... These relationships are nexpressed in the following formulas.......... As was mentioned earlier..... (2-1) Ea = KΦWm....

The relationship between motor speed and load is illustrated in Figure 2-2.It should be noted that the input current increases as the mechanical load of the motor is increased. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 14 Lab Sistem Control . the counter emf keeps the motor speed constant when a motor is not loaded. Also. resulting in increased input power.

on. record the corresponding motor current moving toward O. 4.2. and push the button and measure the RPM on U-159. Repeat the measurements in Step 3 by starting from 10. Adjust U-157 to obtain maximum speed on U-159 without saturation. 2. and In Step 3 and 4. and turn the power switch of U-156 them together. Referring to Figure 2-1 and 2-3. Experiment procedure 1. Raise the electric brake setting on U-163 from 0 to 10 by one step each time. See also Step 5. 1. Attach the aluminum disk to the high speed shaft of U-161 as shown in Figure 2-4. 5. See also Step 5. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 15 Lab Sistem Control . arrange the modules and connect Set U-151 attenuator to "8" .

• Overloading a motor causes excessive currents in the motor winding. 3. 6. Summary • When a motor is loaded. the speed of the motor decreases. showing the relationships between brake setting and motor speed and motor currents. and could result in damage to the motor due to the heat generated by the product of the motor voltage and motor current.readings as indicated on U-156 Power Suppl y module. and the input current increases. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 16 Lab Sistem Control . This is the current flowing between U-154 (Motor Driver Amp) and U-161 (Motor). Plot the data points obtained in Steps 3 and 4.

Basic theory Previous experiments defined steady state motor characteristics. is added to the rotating shaft. the motor speed decreases linearly to zero. The point "b" is where the motor input is removed. The se fig ure s are ob tai ned from an oscill oscope with th e moto r inp ut and horizontal time signals as shown in Figure 3-4 are applied to the oscilloscope. This relationship is illustrated in Figure 3-1 and 3-2. such as a flywheel. a motor can't respond instantaneously to a step input. When an inertia load. the response of a motor is significantly slow as shown in Figure 3-2. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 17 Lab Sistem Control .Experiment 3 TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF A MOTOR 1. The point "a" in Figures 3-1 and 3-2 indicates where the motor begins to move. Instead. and the speed of the motor begins to fall. It's obvious that the inertia in a motor affects the rate of delay in response. Due to the existence of non-ideal parameters in the real motors. a motor responds in an exponential rise in speed. When the input is removed.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 18 Lab Sistem Control .

Adjust the gain of X-input (CH2) of the oscilloscope for proper display on the screen. 4. Set the frequency of the Function Generator (U-162) to 0. Experiment procedure 1. use U-157 instead of U-151.2. Set the oscilloscope for X-Y mode. Adjust U-151 to set the motor speed which is indicated on U-159 below saturation. 2. 6. Turn the power of U-156 on. Apply the Ramp output from U-162 to the X-input of the oscilloscope. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 19 Lab Sistem Control . If necessary. Referring to Figure 3-3 and 3-5. 3. arrange modules and an oscilloscope and connect them together. 5.1Hz.

3. real motors respond to a step input with an exponential rise in speed. Plot the obtained data. Turn the power off (U-156). and repeat the above experiments. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 20 Lab Sistem Control . 8. 10. Move the flywheel to the low speed shaft of U-161.7. the worse the response. 9. and observe the trace on the oscilloscope. Turn the power on. Observe the trace on the oscilloscope. Summary • Unlike an ideal motor. • The rotational inertia in the motor affects the transient response of a motor. Adjust the gain of Y-input (CH1) of the oscilloscope for proper display on the screen. Attach a flywheel to the high speed shaft of U161. 11. The larger the inertia.

the closed loop reacts in a way to reduce the error . The error detection is done by comparing the input and sampled output voltage using an operational amplifier. The key elements of an operational(OP) amplifier circuit are the resistors and the gain of the amplifier itself which is typically in the range of 1000 to 100. The detected difference is returned to the system controller as an error signal. the output of the amplifier is given by the following equation. Once the amount of error is defined. Several OP amp circuits using U-152 Summing Amplifier Unit are shown in Figure 4-1. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 21 Lab Sistem Control .000.Experiment 4 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. Because the gain of the amplifier "A" is very large. Basic theory A closed loop servo system needs information as to how much the output speed of the motor is different from the preset input. and the loop repeats the process until the error detected becomes zero.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 22 Lab Sistem Control .

In equation (4-1). DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 23 Lab Sistem Control .1 second. the Vo can be scaled down by a factor of −1 with the α a representing the ratio between the divided resistance to the entire resistance of the divider network. When a capacitor is placed in the feedback path in parallel with a resistor. In U-152. R1 −t (4-2) The above expression of Vo assumes that the Vo does not exceed 12V supply voltage. only Figure 4-1 (b) circuit is utilized. When the selector is set to "b" . In this experiment. the output Vo is obtained from. it can be seen that when R 1 = R 2 . and CR 2 = 0. setting the selector switch to "a" will configure the amplifier to Figure 4-1 (a) with R 1 = R 2 . Also when a voltage divider network is used as in Figure 4-1 (b). the output Vo becomes the sum of the inputs. R V0 = −V1 2 (1 − e τ 2 ) where τ 2 = C 2 R2 …………………. the amplifier will be configured to Figure 4-1 (c) -with R 1 = R 2 . the response of the output to a step input is affected by the time constant of the RC network. as in Figure 4-1 (c). In this case.

Observe how the U-151 position affects the input and output relationships. S e t U -15 1 to "0 " . and measure the output of U-152. Adjust such that the outputs of U-157 and U-158 are +1V respectively. When the polarity of the output changes to "-" ? Examine the summed output value. Adjust the voltage to O. C he ck 11. The summing output includes the polarity of the input signals. the selector switch of Summing Amp U-152 to "EXT" . Notice that when U-151 is set to "0" . 2. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 24 Lab Sistem Control . 4.01V). Set U-151 to O. 5. Make sure the output is at near 0 (around O. Measure the output of the U-152 using a high input impedance voltmeter. Summary • An operational amplifier is a linear Amplifier. Measure the output voltage of U-152. Set 2. 3. • Operational amplifiers are used in error detection circuits where more than two signals are compared and added together. th e summed output appearing at U-152. Experiment procedure 1 . The high input impedance of an operational amplifier results in negligible signal loss. Set U-151 to "5" . arrang e the ne cessa ry module s an d connect them together. 1 0 . V a r y th e ou tp u t o f U -15 7 an d U -15 8 . Referring to Fig ure 4-2 and 4-3 . U s i n g a h i g h i n p u t i m p e d a n ce ( 1 Mo h m o r l a r g e r ) vo l tm e te r o r a n oscilloscope. the gain is at maximum because R2 is maximized. 2. and observe the relationships to the input.2. Rl a = R 2 and the gain becomes unity (one). 'rile output is proportional to thc input. When U-151 is set to "10" . and inversely proportional to the negative feedback. 12. 4. 3. Turn the power of U-156 on. 3. measure the voltage at U-157 and U-158 terminals (slide side).

At this point. then. Basic theory Quite often. A closed loop speed control system is a self-regulating system in which the measured speed of the motor is compared to the preset value to produce an error output. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 25 Lab Sistem Control . when a motor is used as a source of mechanical force. the actual speed of the motor is equal to the preset speed. Th is self-correcting process continues until the detected error' voltage becomes zero.Experiment 5 CLOSED LOOP MOTOR SPEED CONTROL TECIINIQUES 1. the systems built in the previous experiments are identified as an open loop system. and the motor maintains a constant speed. the motor is required to provide constant speed regardless of the change in loads. The detected error voltage is. amplified and fed back to the control circuit to compen sa te th e diffe ren ce be twee n the actu al and p res et sp eed . Compared to the closed loop system. The conceptual difference between an open laop and closed loop systems is graphically illustrated in Figure 5-1.

In Figure 5-1. it's clear that a system with feedback is far superior than DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 26 Lab Sistem Control .

4. 2. Turn the power of U-156 on. record the RPM reading at each setting. Set ATT-2 of the U-151 to "10" to prevent Tacho output from entering the system. In a closed loop system. 2. Also it is critical that the feedback signal is 180 degrees out of phase to the reference signal to maintain proper control. Experiment procedure 1. the error signal is amplified before it arrives to the input of the Servo Driver (U154). 2. With the brake's setting increased by one notch at a time. Set ATT-1 to "5" . Set the selector switch of Summing Amp U-152 to "a" . DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 27 Lab Sistem Control . 3. arrange the required modules and connect them together. 1. 3. Measure the error voltage at each brake setting.an open loop system in maintaining a constant speed against load variations. it's important that the error signal is amplified to a proper level to eliminate "deadband" effect. Referring to Figure 5-2 and 5-3. For this reason. Adjust U-157 to obtain about one half of the maximum speed. Attach an electronic brake U-163 as was done in Figure 2-4. This is same as setting for 2500 RPM on U-159 meter.

and plot the results between Steps 3-7 and Steps 8-11. the error Voltage will vary only when the preset speed is changed to a different value. 8. 3. the feedback signals at the input of the summing amp can't be larger than the reference signal. Set ATT-2 of U-151 to "5" . Summary • I n a cl o s e d l o o p s ys t e m . 10. Adjust U-157 to obtain 2500 RPM. 9. Measure 11. 8. r e d u c t i o n i n m o t o r s p e e d d u e t o a l o a d i s compensated. Therefore. by an error signal which is proportional to the drift of speed and is 180 degrees out of phase to the reference setting. The feedback signal should be adjusted to the right level for given load and amplifier gain. the speed and error voltage at each brake setting. Adjust U-157 to obtain the same speed as in Step 5 (around 2500 RPM) . Plot the data points on the chart provided in Figure 5-4. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 28 Lab Sistem Control . Notice that the the data on the chart. within the limit.[Note] There is no feedback signal at this point. Compare loop was closed for Steps 8 through 11. Therefore. • Excessive feedback signals will reduce the reference setting. Change ATT-2 setting to "0" . Measure the Tacho output and error voltage at different brake points.

Experiment 6 SYSTEM GAIN AND MOTOR SPEED CONTROL 1. In general. Basic theory A simplified diagram of a closed loop constant motor speed control system is shown in Figure 6-1. the two signals are compared at the input of the summing amplifier through addition of two signals with opposite polarity. this signal compensates the motor speed in the direction to achieve a constant speed.. then . The outpu t of the compa rator i s. the speed of a motor and the error signal have the following relationship.(6-1) θo = the motor speed E = error signal K = system gain K = system gain DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 29 Lab Sistem Control . Because the error signal is out of phase to the reference signal. θo = KE Where ……………………………………. As the reference or control voltage is applied to the input of the comparator. an e rro r si gnal wh ich rep resents the difference between the preset and actual speed. and the Tacho generator produces a signal which is equivalent to the speed of the motor.

the motor speed is linearly proportional to Vref only. (6-5) From equation (6-5).Vref Kg θ0 = ………………….K g θ0) ………… (6-3) θo = K • Vref . it's clear that for a given Tacho generator constant Kg.The error signal is defined as: E= V re f .K g θ0 = K .Vref θ0 = 1 + K . θ0 = K(V ref . DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 30 Lab Sistem Control . This is the most beneficial advantage of a closed loop motor speed control system.K g θ0 ………………………….Vref 1= θ0 − K . Equation (6-4) is reduced to.K g ……………… (6-4) In case the K is very large in forward direction.K g K .Vref 1 + K . . and is not dependent on the deviation of the system gain. (6-2) where Vref = reference voltage Kg θ0 = output of the Tacho generator Replacing E in (6-1) with (6-2) yields.K • Kg θ0 K .

K = 1 + K g . when the gain is beyond the acceptable level. error and motor speed are shown in Figure 6-2 at two different system gain levels.K E= Vref 1 + K g . and it will cause irregular motor rotation. Although large system gain is desired in general. E = Vref .. Replacing 60 in (6-2) with (6-1). the transient characteristics of the system will suffer. (6-6) 1= Vref E Vref E − K g . maintaining a high system gain means reduction of the deadband. In a practical system. The relationships between load.Kg K • E …………………. the gain should be lim ited to an acceptable level.K …………………. as well as desensitizing motor speed to the load changes.(6-7) Equation (6-7) indicates that the error voltage E can be reduced when the gain K is increased. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 31 Lab Sistem Control .Similar relationships can be developed for the error signal in a closed loop system.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 32 Lab Sistem Control . Also. the system will become unstable. the system response will be slow and the "deadband" effect will get worse. the motor will not run at constant speed. Otherwise. However. the output of t h e Frequency. when the gain of the amplifier U-153 is low. in case the gain is too high.to-Voltage converter U-155 should be large enough to provide sufficient feedback signal.For an equivalent system diagram of Figure 6-3.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 33 Lab Sistem Control .

However. and measure the error voltage at each point. Turn the power of U-156 on.2. Adjust the motor speed to 2500 RPM. and repeat Step 5. Compute the error deviation ratio as defined by the following equation. Experiment procedure 1. Referring to Figure 2-4. Using U-157. 2. this method will reduce the amount of feedback control signal and thus decrease the over-all ability to control the system. Adjust U-157 to approximately one half of the maximum motor speed (2500 RPM). Notes : The same motor speed can be obtained by increasing the reference signal level and decreasing the amplifier gain. brake setting by one increment. For each point of ATT-1 setting. Adjust ATT-1 from 0 to 9. 2. Set U-151 ATT-2 to "5". 3. Th is wil l minimize the reference setting. and plot the results in Figure 6-5 (b). S et ATT-1 o f U-151 to "9" and A TT-2 to "10" . and the feedback will be almost zero. 7. and each time. hold the high speed motor shaft by hand and repeat the experiments in Step 7. and set the brake to "0" . Set the U-151 A T T . Note Error Deviation Ratio = error measured with motor stalled error measured with motor running DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 34 Lab Sistem Control . Set the selector switch of U-152 to "a" . 8. Raise the . Plot the data obtained in Figure 6-5 (a). attach the disk brake to the high speed shaft of the servo motor. . set the motor speed to 2500 RPM.2 to "5" . 1. Referring to Figure 6-4. arrange all the modules and an oscilloscope and connect them together. press the brake button and measure the motor speed and the associated error signal. 6.

As a motor approaches to constant speed operation.3. Summary • In a closed loop servo system. the magnitude of the error signal becomes very small. the gain of the error amplifier requires to be large. • Constant motor speed is obtained when the detected motor speed signal is equal to the preset reference signal. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 35 Lab Sistem Control . reducing controllability a constant motor speed. lower system gain produces larger error voltage. Therefore.

The direction of the rotation is determined by the position of the potentiometer setting referenced to O. However. and the curves labeled as "2" represent the response in reverse direction. The motor used in DL 2305 changes its direction as the input polarity changes. Figure 7-1 shows the bi-directional response of a motor at two different loads when a squarewave input signal is applied to the system. The speed of the motor which should be constant after proper regulation is linearly variable as a function of the potentiometer setting. The error signal polarity follows the input polarity change at the same time. The curves labeled as "1" represent the response in forward direction. motor speed control requires to be available in both directions: forward and reverse. Basic theory The closed loop speed control system that has been investigated so far has negative feedback based speed control ability only in one direction. The Tacho output in DL 2305 is an AC signal which does not discriminate DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 36 Lab Sistem Control . in real applications.Experiment 7 BI-DIRECTIONAL MOTOR SPEED CONTROL 1.

However. the input polarity is monitored and correct polarity is assigned to the converted DC signal. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 37 Lab Sistem Control . when the AC Tacho output is converted into DC in U-155.the direction of the motor.

Set U-162 frequency to 0. Apply U-155 output to Y. Adjust X and Y input gains for proper display. Reduce ATT-1 of U-151 from 10 to 5. When the motor stops. Adjust U157 dial to the mid point (180 degrees). arrange necessary modules and connect them together. and U-162 Ramp output to X-input of the oscilloscope.2Hz. 4. Set U-157 back to 180 degrees. Observe the motor changing its direction for every 2. Turn the dial on U-157 to left or right from its 180 degree position and observe the motor direction. Insert an ammeter between U-154 output and U-161 and record the current reading at each brake setting. 2. 2. fix the Zero Count setting. 3. Increase the load (brake) and observe the trace on the oscilloscope. 2. Plot the data obtained in Steps 4 and 5. Set the U-157 dial to 180 degree position. and ATT-2 to "6" or "7" . Increase brake setting from 0 . and observe the trace on the oscilloscope. Turn U-157 slightly to left as well as right from 180 degree position. 1. Set U-152 switch to "b" and repeat Steps 7 through 9. Turn the dial on U-157 clockwise until the motor speed reaches one half of the maximum speed. Stop the motor by adjusting the Zero Count of U-153. Turn the dial on U-157 counterclockwise until the motor speed reaches one half of the maximum speed. Repeat experiments as described in Step 4. the syste m resp onse is de la yed and may cause oscillation in servo motion. Sketch the difference.input of an oscilloscope. 10. Set U-152 switch to "a" . N ote : whe n U -152 s wi tch is in posi ti on "b". Referring to Figure 7-2.2.5 seconds. 1. Experiment procedure 1. Set ATT-1 of U-151 to "10" . Turn the power of U-156 on. Compare the difference in waveforms on the oscilloscope between setting "a" and setting "b" . and record the motor speed at each brake setting. 1. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 38 Lab Sistem Control . Bring back the dial setting to 180 degrees.

Set ATT-1 of U-151 to "7" or "8". Note : It should be observed that as delays are introduced into the system. oscillation lasts longer as feedback is increased. The duration of oscillation depends on the magnitude of the feedback. the motor speed is not the same between identical forward and reverse direction settings of U-157 (same magnitude of input signals). • For a bi-directional motor. Observe and sketch oscillation pattern in servo motion. and change ATT-2 from "5" to "9". • Any delays in a servo system will slow down the system response and will cause oscillation. Summary • The rotational direction of a DC servo motor can be changed depending upon the polarity of the control input signals.11. 3. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 39 Lab Sistem Control .

the existence of time constants in the system can add to the delay. Basic theory The key elements affecting motor speed control have to do with deadband and system response time. Some of the characteristic curves are shown in Figure 8-1. The error voltage in this case is significant only when the motor changes its direction. and improved over-all system response time. Time delays in the error channel means the error signal can't change fast enough to catch the change in speed. Such a characteristic has been experimented with U-152 selector switch set at "b" . However. So far. as shown in Figure 8-1 (b). when the gain is not sufficient. previous experiments demonstrated that a higher gain has minimized the deadband effect. In a practical system.Experiment 8 MOTOR SPEED CONTROL EFFICIENCY 1. Also the error is significantly increased throughout the operation period as shown in Figure 8-1 (d). when the system gain is large. Closed loop motor speed characteristics can be made visual on an oscilloscope. the system response is very good as shown in Figure 8-1 (a). the response of the motor slows down with the final speed reduced than before as in Figure 8-1 (c). DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 40 Lab Sistem Control .

It's clearly demonstrated that the time delay in the error channel causes oscillation in the system. The corresponding error signal is displayed in Figure 8-3 (b). by selecting U-152 switch to "b" .. some of the oscilloscope output due to an injection of electrical delay. it will overload the system power supply. . Oscillation also occurs in the error signal.but at a slower pace as shown in Figure 8-3 (a). When a motor is mechanically loaded. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 41 Lab Sistem Control . by a brake in this experiments.The effect of time delay in the error channel is displayed in Figure 8-2 (a) and (b). Finally. When the load exceeds the rated value. is shown in Figure 8-4 (a) and (b). the motor reaches the same final speed as it would without a load.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 42 Lab Sistem Control .

Add two angles together. Observe the Tacho and error signal on the oscilloscope . Repeat Step 9 with ATT . then to "9" .2. stop the motor by adjusting U .157 to exactly 180 degrees to make the output ±OV.162 output connected as in Step 5. turn the control on U . Set U-152 switch to "b" .and Y . With ATT .161. Attach a flywheel to the high speed shaft of U . Compare with the results of Step 7. Set ATT . Set ATT . arrange necessary modules and connect them together. Set U .1 and ATT . Connect the Ramp output to X-input of an oscilloscope. Set U-152 to "b" . Experiment procedure 1. 3. Set ATT .1 to "3" . Compare the difference in deadband between two ATT . ( ) 2. Measure the Tacho output and error signal at "0" as well as "9" position of ATT . Repeat this experiment with ATT . Apply the squarewave output ( ) of U . 9. Turn the power of U .157 control to counterclockwise this time.1 and ATT . and return back to 180 degree position. Adjust the gains of X . and compare the results between the switch setting of "a" and "b" . and U .152 switch to "a" and do not connect the squarewave output of U-162 at this time. Repeat the experiments in Step 7. Sketch the output. Set U .151 to "9" and repeat the above procedure.2 set to "0" first.1Hz. Record the position.157 from its 180 degree position to first clockwise until the motor begins to move.152 switch to "a" .157 to stop position (180 degrees).1 and ATT . 7. Reset U-152 switch to "a" .162 to the input of U 152. Referring to Figure 8-5. 6. Turn U . and find the angle where the motor begins to move. Sketch the outputs obtained on the oscilloscope. and set the frequency to 0.1 of U . Set U .1 set to "0" first. 8. then to "9" respectively. 1 0.2 to 5 respectively.1. In case the motor turns.2 of U . Set U . DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 43 Lab Sistem Control . 4.153 Zero Adjust. Set ATT .inputs to see the Tacho output and the error signal on the oscilloscope. 5.2 to "5" respectively. Set ATT .2 set to "9" .151 to "0" . To measure the deadband. observe the results on the oscilloscope.1 settings.156 on.

Y display is used to display the relationships between two variables more effectively. and repeat Steps 9 and 10. Set U . due to the time delay in the amplifier and the load change. has been experimented in this section. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 44 Lab Sistem Control . An oscilloscope with an X . Optimum settings of the system parameters to maintain stable and constant speed have been experimented also. 3. Summary • The impact on the system performance.1 1.152 switch to "b" .

Basic theory The basic function of an angular position controller is to provide an output angular position signal which precisely follows the input angular position signal.Experiment 9 ERROR SIGNALS IN A POSITION CONTROLLER 1. A potentiometer is used to convert the angular position to an equivalent electrical signal. and Po the output potentiometer. The Pi in the figure is the input potentiometer. Figure 9-1 shows a circuit diagram which utilizes potentiometers as an angle-to-voltage converter. its necessary to rotate a motor until the signal detected for the motor position is equal to the signal representing the reference or the input position. Due to the polarity applied to P i DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 45 Lab Sistem Control . To achieve the control function. The input or output position information is expressed in terms of the selected angle around a circle. The amplifier (-A) is configured as an inverting amplifier.

A closed loop control system can be formed when the error signal is further amplified and applied to a motor. where Ke represents a conversion factor. In general. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 46 Lab Sistem Control . As the motor reacts to the incoming error signal. error detection and associated motor reaction processes continue until the error signal is reduced to zero. and θi. and also the motor is coupled to the output potentiometer Po. Also the relative angular position error between P i and Po is defined as (θi – θo). when the input and output positions are identical. is the angular position of Po. when the angular position of Pi is 8 i. the loop is closed. Ke can be determined for a given system when the actual output voltage of the amplifier is measured. As the loop is closed. the output of the amplifier becomes zero.and Po. The converted and amplified output of the error from the amplifier can be set to Ke (θi – θo).

157 and U . Keep U .158 (P1 and P2). 9. Set U . 3.158 clockwise 5 degrees each time and measure U . Note : The voltage polarity of U . Referring to Figure 9 . Repeat the process at 5 degree increment for up to 30 degree (120 degree) position.158.157 and U .2.156 on. and measure the U . 8.157 and U .152 switch to "a" . Make sure the U .158 is identical. It should be zero.157 and U . 4. Measure the output of U . Set U . arrange modules and a voltmeter and connect them together.158 dials to 180 degrees. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 for counterclockwise rotation.152. adjust each dial for zero reading.157 as in Step 6. Turn U .152 output voltage. Experiment procedure 1. Measure the contact voltage of U . 7. 6.157 and U . Turn the power of U . 2.157 clockwise 15 degrees (same as 195 degrees). Summary • The output of the summing amplifier produces zero output when the two inputs are same in magnitude but opposite in polarity (Vo = V1 + (-V2)).152 output is zero when the relative position of U .152 output voltage. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 47 Lab Sistem Control . Turn U . 3. Measure the voltage at the rotating contacts of U .158 is opposite each other for the same direction of rotation. In case the voltage is not zero.2. 5. Plot the relationships between the positional difference and corresponding error voltage.

and drives the motor in the direction to reduce the error voltage between P i and Po. A simplified system diagram of a closed loop position controller which will be used in this experiment is shown in Figure 10-1. if Pi is at +3V. A2 is an error signal amplifier and A3 is the driver for the motor M. the positional information from an output potentiometer (Po) which is mechanically coupled to a motor is fed back to a control amplifier. When the two positions are identical. Therefore. The Al is an error signal generator. The final relative position between Pi and Po depends upon the gain of the amplifiers. At this point. This feedback action continues until the output of Al is reduced to zero. There are three amplifiers in Figure 10-1. the difference between two potentiometer voltages become an error signal which appears at the input of Al. Basic theory In a closed loop position controller system. then Po is at -3V. For example. Po follows the same direction. as Pi is turned clockwise. As P i is turned away from Po. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 48 Lab Sistem Control . Then.Experiment 10 CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROLLER 1. the reference position input from the input potentiometer (Pi) is combined with the feedback signal at the input of the amplifier which drives the motor in proportion to the difference between two signals. The error signal is further amplified through A2 and A3. the voltage measured at Pi and Po are same but in opposite polarity. the output of the amplifier becomes zero. making the sum of two zero.

For a large gain, the position of Po can be almost equal to the position of Pi. But when the gain is not sufficient, there can be an offset in the relative position. This offset is the "deadband" for a position controller.

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2. Experiment procedure
1. Referring to Figure 10-2, arrange the modules, including coupling of U-158 to U161, and connect them together. 2. Set U-152 switch to "a" and U-151 to "10" . Turn the power of U-156 on. Set U157 dial to 180 degrees. 3. Adjust U-153 to make the output of U-154 zero. Once the adjustment is done, do not alter U-153 setting. 4. Set U-151 to "9" . Within -±20 degrees from the original 180 degree setting, turn U-157 either clockwise or counterclockwise, and see if U-158 follows the movement. U-158 motion should lag U-157. In case U-158 leads U-157, switch the wires of U-161 motor. 5. Turn U-157 clockwise from 0 degree position by 10 degree increment up to 150 degrees. Measure the angle of U-158 at each position of U-157. Repeat the measurements with U-157 turned counterclockwise. Calculate the offset error angle between U-157 and U-158 at each position. 6. Increase the system gain by setting U-151 to 7, 5, 3 and 1. At each U-151 setting, repeat Step 5 experiment. Observe the change in offset error angle as a function of the system gain. 7. Plot the results of Steps 5 and 6. Plot the relationships between system gain and deadband.

3. Summary
• • Reducing the system gain worsens the deadband as well as the offset error. Increasing the system gain improves the system response and reduces the offset error. • Angular resolution of P; and Po affects the position control accuracy. To improve the resolution, a potentiometer is required to have larger circumference and the winding is prefered to have large number of turns.

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Experiment 11 TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF A POSITION CONTROLLER
1. Basic theory
When a step input is given to a position controller, the loop takes time to react to the applied input. Also, depending upon the given system parameters, oscillation can occur at the output during the transient time period. The major cause of the time delay comes from the added inertia of the moving parts. Therefore, the higher the inertia, there will be more delay. Usually, the system gain is preferred to be high to improve system response time. However, when the gain becomes excessive, it will cause undesired overshoot at the output. Transient response of a system can be easily observed on an oscilloscope when the system is stimulated with a squarewave input. Such an arrangement is shown in Figure 11-1.

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As it is shown in the figure. When the output voltage from Po is fed into the Y .input of the oscilloscope. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 52 Lab Sistem Control .input of an oscilloscope. the ramp signal is used to drive the X . To get the best results. it is recommended that the frequency of the squarewave be kept below 1 Hz. transient response curves as shown in Figure 11-2 can be obtained.The function generator in Figure 11-1 provides synchronized squarewave and ramp signals.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 53 Lab Sistem Control .

Experiment procedure 1.Y mode. Sketch the resultant response.2Hz. Referring to Figure 11-3. the rise time (tr) in Figure 11-2 is long. Sketch each trace on a piece of paper. 0 in sequence and observe impact on the trace at each time. it will slow the transient response. 5.153 with a voltmeter.2. if the gain is too high. oscillation can still take place in the system response. 4. • As the system gain is increased. arrange the modules and an oscilloscope. it will cause overshoot in the response. Sketch the trace on the oscilloscope on a piece of paper. Set U . and repeat Step 6.158 turning to left and right. 8. Summary • When the system gain is low. Set U .162 frequency to 0. and repeat Step 6. This means that the response of the system is slow.151 to "10" . the response of the system improves. At what gain setting oscillation appears in the trace ? 7. Even if there is a delay in the transmission characteristics.153 for zero output. Set U . Set U .152 switch to "b" .156 on. Attach the flywheel to the high speed shaft of the servo motor. 2. • When the load to a motor is an inertia type. 3. adjust U . 2. and connect them together. 3. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 54 Lab Sistem Control .151 to "8" and observe U . Sketch the resultant response. adjust the horizontal range for best display on the screen. Set U-151 to 6. While monitoring the output of U . However. Turn the power of U . 4. 6. Set U-152 to "a" . With an oscilloscope in X .152 switch to "a" . Adjust the Y-input of the oscilloscope for best display. Set U .

Experiment 12 POSITION CONTROL WITH SPEED FEEDBACK 1. The speed control loop provides a negative feedback signal from the output of the Tacho generator which is proportional to the speed of the motor.An optimum control of the speed feedback loop produces a system response as shown in (b). DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 55 Lab Sistem Control . . (b). The effect of adding a speed loop is illustrated in Figure 12-1 (a). it consumes a significant power and makes acceleration of the load difficult. Basic theory When the gain is raised in a position control system to minimize the deadband effect. The brake method may produce a satisfactory result. the closed loop system responded with an overshoot which resulted in undesired system oscillation. and (c). However. Better way of preventing oscillation is to add a speed control loop to the position control loop. One way to mitigate oscillation is to add a brake which is proportional to the speed to the output shaft.

this system is essentially the same system as experimented in the previous two sections. it is needed to replace the input potentiometer with a squarewave input and connect Po signal to an oscilloscope. As it can be seen in the figure. To obtain the waveforms in Figure 12-1. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 56 Lab Sistem Control . except that one more loop which is consisted of the Tacho circuit and VR2 is added.An actual system with both the speed and position control loops is shown in Figure 12-2.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 57 Lab Sistem Control .

Set an oscilloscope to X-Y mode. Using U-153 Zero Adjust. Adjust the oscilloscope X and Y inputs for best display. Summary • A position control system without a speed control loop can generate oscillation when the system gain is too high. and repeat Step 5. Also set a Function Generator to 0. Increase the system gain by changing ATT-1 from "10" toward "0" until oscillation is observed. Referring to Figure 12-3. Set U-153 output switch to "a" . 6. and set U-152 switch to "b" . Observe the pattern on the oscilloscope and sketch the pattern on a piece of paper. 4. Change ATT-2 from "10" to "0" . 7.2Hz. and connect them together. set the output of U-153 to "0" . Experiment procedure 1. Turn the power of U-156 on. Set ATT-1 to half of the gain setting in Step 4.2. Place ATT-1 right before where oscillation takes place. arrange the modules and an oscilloscope. Set ATT-1 and ATT-2 of U-151 to "10" respectively. and repeat Steps 4 and 5. 2. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 58 Lab Sistem Control . Adding a speed control negative feedback loop can stabilize the system. 3. Compare the difference in servo time delay. 3. 5.

Basic theory For a properly designed system. for an improperly. the transient response can lead into an oscillation which can be sustained over a long period of time. in case a highly stable system is desired with a maximum gain. designed system. A closed loop speed controller can mitigate oscillation up to certain extent. or an excessive gain in the system. the transient response effect should gradually decay within a few seconds. However. However. and the system should reach a steady state operation. The instability of a system is mainly caused by either A long time constant in the system. The same experiment system as in the previous section is used for this experiment. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 59 Lab Sistem Control .Experiment 13 STABILIZING AN UNSTABLE POSITION CONTROLLER 1. Such a system is unstable and should be corrected for a stable operation. The experiment in this section is limited to a speed controlled stabilization method. the system needs more advanced technique than a simple speed control loop.

DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 60 Lab Sistem Control .

6. Scan ATT-1 from "10" to "0" . Connect U-157 output to U-152 input as indicated by the broken line in the figure. Vary R and observe the results. Set U-157 to 180 degree position. In case U158 oscillates. Turn ATT-1 of U-151 from "10" to "0" . Compare the results. Also set the Function Generator frequency to O. Find a place where system begins to oscillate.1Hz. Keep U-152 switch at "b" . Remove the squarewave output of U-162 from U-152 input. Adjust ATT-2 to stop oscillation. Set U-152 switch to "b" and turn the power of U-156 on. Maximize the speed feedback by setting ATT-2 to "0" . and observe U-158. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 61 Lab Sistem Control . Make sure the coupling of U-161 and U-158 shaft is straight. and find a place where oscillation begins to take place in the system. Oscillation may occur due to excessive gain. 10. arrange all modules and connect between them. 2. Explain why oscillation has stopped. 8. With U-152 switch left at EXT. Referring Figure 13-1. Set ATT-1 and ATT-2 (U-151) to "10" respectively. 11. 9.2. Quickly turn U-157 clockwise about 30 degrees. Set U-152 switch to "a" and repeat Steps 8 and 9. Set the Zero Adjust of U-153 so that the output of U-153 is zero. Experiment procedure 1. Leave ATT-1 slightly before where oscillation starts. Set both ATT-1 and ATT-2 to "10" . connect a 1 MD variable resistor to NET terminals. adjust U-158 to eliminate oscillation. 5. Set U-152 switch to EXT. Set an oscilloscope for X-Y mode operation. Turn U-156 off. 7. Leave ATT-1 where oscillation occurs. Turn the power of U156 on. 3. 12. 4.

instability occurs in the system due to the phase shift of the feedback signal. load. B.3. Requirements for a stable position control operation: • • • • Optimum system gain Optimum speed feedback Avoid inertia type load Reduce delay parameters in the system DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 62 Lab Sistem Control . Summary A. the system response is slow. slow response and unstable oscillation due to excessive delays in the system Oscillation or vibration due to an overshoot during transient time period When a servo motor is loaded with an inertia type . Also. Typical problems associated with a position control servo system: • • • • Increased position error and slow response when the gain of the error amplifier is not sufficient Increased position error.

2. 1. Observe the relationship between the system gain ( ATT-1 adjust) and response time. Observe the relationship between the system gain and the position control error signal. 5. or reduce the speed feedback to improve the response time. The impact to a servo motor due to inertia and torque 5. Phase relationship between feedback signal and control input signal. Optimum system settings between a moderate transient response and the response time. The key considerations for a stable position controller are reviewed below: Avoid excessive system gain. 2. Experiment procedure 1. Response time vs. Observe the relationship between the speed feedback and transient suppression. When these two signals are in phase. Referring to Figure 14-1. DC Servo Triner Delorenzo 63 Lab Sistem Control . arrange modules and connect them together. Basic theory This section is the conclusion of all the preceding experiments. Explain why oscillation tends to occur at "0" position. Increased error due to insufficient system gain 3. then oscillation would occur in the system. 6. A practical and working position controller will be built in this section. 3.Experiment 14 CONSTRUCTION OF A PRACTICAL POSITION CONTROLLER 1. Observe the relationship between the speed feedback (ATT-2 adjust) and the response time. Turn slightly the position control input potentiometer from "0" position to either left or right. 4. delay parameters of the system 4. 2. Also try the following either increase the amplifier gain significantly.

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