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Integrals of Functions

of a
Real Variable


I. The Indefinite Integral

x
2
2 x
x x
e x
) x (ln x
dx
) e x (
) x (ln ] x ln e ) x 1 ( ) e x ( 2 [





A Problem-Solving Approach
with Computer Algebra Support



A Learning Tool
A Reference of Methods and Techniques
A Source of Modern Algorithms
(Hermite-Horowitz, Rothstein-Trager,
Risch, Adamchik-Marichev)



Solomon M. Antoniou

SKEMSYS
Scientific Knowledge Engineering and
Management Systems



2






In memory

of my grandfather Solomon Chattab

In memory

of my grandmother Sarah Chambar


























3


Preface

This book is an attempt to systematize the methods of integration of functions of a
real variable.
The book is mainly addressed to the student who wishes an in depth knowledge of
integration techniques.
We have tried to include the following:
Good Taxonomy
Explicit Calculations
Easy to remember tricks
Modern Information Technology Tools, like Computer Algebra Systems
(Symbolic Languages)
Modern Algorithms

In a separate report, we are going to include some other issues concerning
mainly
Learning Lab
Metacognitive Tools like Concept Maps and Vee Diagrams
Questions based on Blooms Taxonomy and Gardners Multiple
Intelligence

The book can be used both as a learning tool and as a reference of methods,
techniques and formulas.
Solomon M. Antoniou

Corinth, May 2012
solomon_antoniou@yahoo.com


4


Bibliography

[1] T. Apostol Calculus
Vol.I, Blaisdel Publishing Company 1962
[2] T. Apostol Mathematical Analysis
Addison-Wesley 1957
[3] F. Ayres and E. Mendelson Theory and Problems of Differential and
Integral Calculus
Third Edition, Schaums Outline Series
[4] R. Bartle and D. Sherbert Introduction to Real Analysis
Wiley 1982
[5] G. N. Berman A Problem Book in Mathematical Analysis
Mir Publishers 1980
[6] R. Ellis and D. Gulick Calculus with Analytic Geometry
Saunders, Fifth Edition 1994
[7] H. Flanders Calculus
W. H. Freeman, 1985
[8] I.S. Gradshteyn and I.M. Ryzhik: Table of Integrals, Series and
Products
Academic Press, 1996. Sixth Edition
[9] G. H. Hardy: A Course of Pure Mathematics
Cambridge University Press, 10th Edition, 1952
[10] G. H. Hardy: The Integration of Functions of a Single Variable
Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1916
[11] A. Jeffrey and H-H. Dai: Handbook of Mathematical Formulas and
Integrals
Elsevier 2008. Fourth Edition
5

[12] K. Kuratowski: Introduction to Calculus
Second Edition, Pergamon 1969
[13] N. Piskunov: Differential and Integral Calculus
Mir Publishers, Moscow 1969
[14] W. Rudin Principles of Mathematical Analysis
Second Edition, Mc-Graw Hill 1964
[15] V. I. Smirnov A Course of Higher Mathematics
Vol. I, Vol. III, Pergamon 1964
[16] M. Spivac Calculus
McGraw Hill 1968
[17] A.M. - . .

1988
[18] G. Thomas and R. Finney Calculus
Ninth Edition, Addison-Wesley 1996













6



Web Sites of the Computer Algebra Systems

AXIOM www.open-axiom.org
MATLAB www.mathworks.com
Mathematica www.wolfram.com
Maple www.maplesoft.com
Reduce reduce-algebra.com
SAGE www.sagemath.org
Macsyma www.symbolics-dks.com
Maxima maxima.sourceforge.net
Scientific WorkPlace www.mackichan.com




















7



Volume I

The Indefinite Integral


Contents
1. Definition and Properties of the Indefinite Integral 8
2. Elementary Examples of Integration . 12
3. The Method of Substitution 47
4. Integration by Parts . 80
5. Integrals of Polynomial Functions 121
6. Integrals of Rational Functions .. 138
7. Integrals of Exponential Functions 389
8. Integrals of Logarithmic Functions 430
9. Integrals of Trigonometric Functions 474
10. Integrals of Hyperbolic Functions . 640
11. Integrals of Irrational Functions 653
12. Integrals of Inverse Trigonometric Functions . 875
13. Integrals of Inverse Hyperbolic Functions .. 891
14. Elliptic Integrals 900
15. The Risch Algorithm .. 918
16. The Adamchik-Marichev Algorithm . 935

1

Definition and Properties
of the Indefinite Integral



1.1. The Primitive of a Real Function.
Let R I : f be a function defined on an interval I. A function F differentiable
in I such that
I x ) x ( f ) x ( F e = '
is called a primitive of the function f in I.
Example 1. The function
4 x 2 x 3 x ) x ( F
3 4
+ =
is the primitive of the function 2 x 9 x 4 ) x ( f
2 3
+ = , since
) x ( f 2 x 9 x 4 ) x ( F
2 3
= + = ' R xe
Example 2. The function
6 x e 4 x 3 sin
3
2
) x ( F
2 x
+ + =
is the primitive of the function x 2 e 4 x 3 cos 2 ) x ( f
x
+ = , since
) x ( f x 2 e 4 x 3 cos 2 ) x ( F
x
= + = ' R xe
It is obvious that if F is a primitive of the function f, i.e..
Chapter 1-Definition and properties of the indefinite integral
9
I x ) x ( f ) x ( F e = ' ,
then the function C ) x ( F + will also be a primitive of the function ) x ( f , since
I x ) x ( f ) x ( F ) C ) x ( F ( e = ' = ' +
Therefore if F is a primitive of f, then the set of primitives of f will be C F+ .
We have the following basic Theorem:
Theorem 1.
- If ) x ( F is a primitive of the function ) x ( f on I then C ) x ( F + is a
primitive of ) x ( f on I.
- Inversely, every primitive of the function ) x ( f has the form C ) x ( F +
Proof.
- If ) x ( F is a primitive of the function ) x ( f on I then C ) x ( F + is also a
primitive of the function ) x ( f R Ce , since
I x ) x ( f ) x ( F ) C ) x ( F ( e = ' = ' +
- If, other than the function ) x ( F there is another primitive ) x ( G of the
function ) x ( f , then we would have
I x ) x ( f ) x ( G and ) x ( f ) x ( F e = ' = '
from which it follows that ) x ( G ) x ( F ' = ' . This means that the functions
) x ( F and ) x ( G will differ only by a constant: C ) x ( G ) x ( F = from which
we get that C ) x ( G ) x ( F + =

1.2. The Indefinite Integral.
Indefinite integral of a function ) x ( f on an interval I is the set of all the primitive
functions of f, denoted by
}
dx ) x ( f . We would therefore have
C ) x ( F dx ) x ( f + =
}


The function ) x ( f appearing under the integral sign, is called the integrand.
Chapter 1-Definition and properties of the indefinite integral
10
We also have the equivalence
R C and I x ) x ( f ) x ( F C ) x ( F dx ) x ( f e e = ' + =
}

It is also obvious that
R C and I x C ) x ( f dx ) x ( f e e + = '
}

1.3. Properties of the Indefinite Integral
The indefinite integral admits the following properties:
[1]
} }
= dx ) x ( f dx ) x ( f , for every non-zero real constant .
[2]
} } }
= dx ) x ( g dx ) x ( f dx )] x ( g ) x ( f [
The above two properties can be written as a single property
= + + +
}
dx )] x ( f ) x ( f ) x ( f [
n n 2 2 1 1
.

} } }
+ + + = dx ) x ( f dx ) x ( f dx ) x ( f
n n 2 2 1 1

for any non-zero real constants
n 2 1
, , , .



We list below a Table of Integrals, which the student should know (preferably to
be remembered). These are the absolutely necessary integrals one must know. In
most of the cases we shall examine below, every integral to be evaluated, using
some appropriate techniques, can in principle be converted into a combination of
integrals appearing in the Table.
The proof of the relations appearing in the Table is based on the equivalence
) x ( f ) x ( F C ) x ( F dx ) x ( f = ' + =
}

For example
C x sin dx x cos + =
}
since x cos ) C x (sin = ' +


Chapter 1-Definition and properties of the indefinite integral
11
1.4 Table of Elementary Integrals


1. C x dx + =
}

2. C
1 n
x
dx x
1 n
n
+
+
=
}
+
, 1 n =
3. C | x | ln
x
dx
+ =
}

4. C e dx e
x x
+ =
}

5. C x cos dx x sin + =
}

6. C x sin dx x cos + =
}

7.
}
+ = C x cot
x sin
dx
2

8.
}
+ = C x tan
x cos
dx
2

9.
}
+ =
+
C x arctan
x 1
dx
2

10.
}
+ =

C x arcsin
x 1
dx
2

11.
}
+ + =

C a x x ln
a x
dx
2 2
2 2





2

Elementary Examples
of Integration



Learning Objectives

In this Section the student will learn how to evaluate
elementary integrals.
In this case the integral transforms into a combination of
integrals and then each one is evaluated using the Table.




Trying to evaluate integrals we always use methods which convert them into one
of the forms listed in the Table of Integrals. The procedure will become clearer
through the following examples. The examples we consider make use of the
Properties and the Table.
More complicated cases require special methods and techniques, like substitution,
integration by parts, partial fraction decomposition or even advanced algorithms.
In next sections we introduce a taxonomy of cases and consider a number of
specialized methods.


Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
13

2.1 Case I. Integrals of the form
}
dx a .
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx 3 I
Solution. C x 3 dx 3 dx 3 I + = = =
} }

General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form
}
dx a may proceed as
follows:
C x a dx a dx a + = =
} }

2.2 Case II. Integrals of the form
}
dx x a
n
( R a e , 1 n > )
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx x 5 I
3

Solution. In our case we recognize that 5 is a constant factor and therefore can be
factored out of the integral, using the property
} }
= dx ) x ( f dx ) x ( f . We thus
obtain

} }
= = dx x 5 dx x 5 I
3 3

Next, evaluate the integral
}
dx x
3
, which is of the form
}
dx x
n
and appears as
the second case in the Table of Integrals.
We thus have
C x
4
5
C
4
x
5 C
1 3
x
5 dx x 5 dx x 5 I
4
4 1 3
3 3
+ = + = +
+
= = =
+
} }

In practice we usually write
C x
4
5
C
4
x
5 dx x 5 dx x 5 I
4
4
3 3
+ = + = = =
} }

General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form
}
dx x a
n
( R a e , 1 n > )
may proceed as follows:
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
14
C x
1 n
a
C
1 n
x
a dx x a dx x a
1 n
1 n
n n
+
+
= +
+
= =
+
+
} }
, e a , 1 n >
2.3 Case III. Integrals of the form dx
x
a
}
( R a e )
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
x
2
}

Solution.
C | x | ln 2 dx
x
1
2 dx
x
2
+ = =
} }

General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form dx
x
a
}
may proceed as
follows:
C | x | ln a dx
x
1
a dx
x
a
+ = =
} }

2.4 Case IV. Integrals of Polynomial Functions
These are integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x ( P I where ) x ( P is an n-th degree
polynomial. In this case we convert the integral into a sum of integrals of the form
dx x a
n
}
( 0 n > )
which are evaluated according to

1 n
x
a dx x a
1 n
n
+
=
+
}
( 1 n > ) and x a dx a =
}

Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+ = dx ) 2 x x 3 x 2 ( I
2 3

Solution. In this case, in order to evaluate the integral, we have to write it in the
form of sum of four integrals, according to the linearity property.
We thus get

}
+ = dx ) 2 x x 3 x 2 ( I
2 3

} } } }
+ = dx 2 dx x dx x 3 dx x 2
2 3

Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
15
C x 2
2
x
3
x
3
4
x
2
2 3 4
+ + =
C x 2 x
2
1
x x
2
1
2 3 4
+ + =
A remark is in order. Instead of using four constants for each one of the particular
integrals, we use just a single constant C.
Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx ) 2 x 3 ( I
2

Solution. Since 4 x 12 x 9 ) 2 x 3 (
2 2
+ = , we get
= + = =
} }
dx ) 4 x 12 x 9 ( dx ) 2 x 3 ( I
2 2

= + =
} } }
dx 4 dx x 12 dx x 9
2

C x 4 x 6 x 3 C x 4
2
x
12
3
x
9
2 3
2 3
+ + = + + =
2.5 Case V. Integrals of the form dx
x
a
n
}
( R a e , 2 n > )
Example 3. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx
x
2
I
3

Solution. In this case we remark that the integral can be expressed as

}

= dx x 2 I
3

making use of the known property
n
n
x
x
1

= . Therefore using the second case
from the Table of Integrals, we get
= +
+
= = =
+

} }
C
1 3
x
2 dx x 2 dx x 2 I
1 3
3 3

C
x
1
C x C
2
x
2
2
2
2
+ = + = +


Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
x
5
4
}


Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
16
Solution.
= +
+
= = =

} } }
C
1 4
x
5 dx x 5 dx
x
1
5 dx
x
5
1 4
4
4 4

C
x
1
3
5
C
3
x
5
3
3
+ = +

=


General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form dx
x
a
n
}
( R a e , 2 n > )
may proceed as follows:
= +
+
= = =
+

} } }
C
1 n
x
a dx x a dx
x
1
a dx
x
a
1 n
n
n n

C
x
1
1 n
a
C x
1 n
a
1 n
1 n
+

= +

=

+
, 2 n >
2.6 Case VI. Integrals of Rational Functions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
x
3 x 2 x 5
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. On performing division of the numerator by the denominator, we have
x
3
2 x 5
x
3
x
x 2
x
x 5
x
3 x 2 x 5
2 2
+ = + =
+

Therefore the integral becomes

} }
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
= dx
x
3
2 x 5 dx
x
3 x 2 x 5
I
2

which can be further split into three particular integrals, each evaluated separately
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
=
} }
dx
x
3
2 x 5 dx
x
3 x 2 x 5
I
2

= + =
} } }
dx
x
1
3 dx 2 dx x 5
C | x | ln 3 x 2
2
x
5
2
+ + =
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
17
C | x | ln 3 x 2 x
2
5
2
+ + =
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x
3 x
I
2
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We remark that the integrand can be written as
1 x
2
1
1 x
2
1 x
1 x
1 x
2 ) 1 x (
1 x
3 x
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
+
+ =
+
+
+
+
=
+
+ +
=
+
+
.
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
+
+
=
} } } }
dx
1 x
1
2 dx dx
1 x
2
1 dx
1 x
3 x
I
2 2 2
2

C x arctan 2 x + + =

The integrals in cases 2.7-2.16 and 2.20 can also be evaluated using the method of
substitution, to be explained in next Sections.

2.7 Case VII. Integrals of the form dx x a
}
( R a e )
In this case we use the known property

2
1
x x =
for converting a square root into power with a rational exponent. Therefore we
have
= +
+
= = =
+
} } }
C
1
2
1
x
a dx x a dx x a dx x a
1
2
1
2
1

C x x
3
a 2
C x
3
a 2
C
2
3
x
a
2
3
2
3
+ = + = + =
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
18
2.8 Case VIII. Integrals of the form: dx x x a
n
}
( R a e , 1 n > )
The evaluation of integrals of the form dx x x a
n
}
( R a e , 1 n > ) may proceed as
follows:
= = =
} } }
dx x x a dx x x a dx x x a
2
1
n n n

= +
+
= +
+ +
= =
+ + + +
+
}
C
2
3 n 2
x
a C
1
2
1
n
x
a dx x a
2
1
1 n 1
2
1
n
2
1
n

C x x
3 n 2
a 2
C
2
3 n 2
x
a
1 n
2
1
1 n
+
+
= +
+
=
+
+ +

Example. Evaluate the integral dx x x 2
2
}

Solution. = = =
} } }
dx x x 2 dx x x 2 dx x x 2
2
1
2 2 2

= + = +
+ +
= =
+ + +
+
}
C
2
7
x
2 C
1
2
1
2
x
2 dx x 2
2
1
3 1
2
1
2
2
1
2

C x x
7
4
3
+ =
2.9 Case IX. Integrals of the form: dx
x
a
}
( R a e )
The evaluation of integrals of the form dx
x
a
}
( R a e ) may proceed as follows:
= +
+
= = =
+

} } }
C
1
2
1
x
a dx x a dx
x
1
a dx
x
a
1
2
1
2
1

Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
19
C x a 2 C
2
1
x
a
2
1
+ = + =
2.10 Case X. Integrals of the form dx
x
x
a
n
}
( R a e , 1 n > )
The evaluation of integrals of the form dx
x
x
a
n
}
( R a e , 1 n > ) may proceed as
follows:
= = =
} } }

dx x a dx
x
x
a dx
x
x
a
2
1
n
2
1
n n

C x x
1 n 2
a 2
C
2
1 n 2
x
a C
1
2
1
n
x
a
n
2
1
n 1
2
1
n
+
+
= +
+
= +
+
=
+ +

Example. Evaluate the integral dx
x
x
) 3 (
3
}

Solution. = = =
} } }

dx x 3 dx
x
x
3 dx
x
x
) 3 (
2
1
3
2
1
3 3

C x x
7
6
C
2
7
x
3 C
1
2
1
3
x
3
3
2
1
3 1
2
1
3
+ = + = +
+
=
+ +

2.11 Case XI. Integrals of the form dx
x
x
a
n
}
( R a e , 1 n > )
The evaluation of integrals of the form dx
x
x
a
n
}
( R a e , 1 n > ) may proceed as
follows:
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
20
= = =
} } }

dx x a dx
x
x
a dx
x
x
a
n
2
1
n
2
1
n

C
x
x
n 2 3
a 2
C
2
n 2 3
x
a C
1 n
2
1
x
a
1 n
2
1
1 n 1 n
2
1
+

= +

= +
+
=

+ + +

Example. Evaluate the integral dx
x
x
5
2
}

Solution. = = =
} } }

dx x 5 dx
x
x
5 dx
x
x
5
2
2
1
2
2
1
2

C
x
10
C
2
1
x
5 C
1 2
2
1
x
5
2
1
1 2
2
1
+ = +

= +
+
=
+

2.12 Case XII. Integrals of the form dx x a I
n
m
}
=
Example 5. Evaluate the Integral dx x I
3
2
}
=
Solution. Using the known property
3
2
3
2
x x = , the integral takes the form
dx x dx x I
3
2
3
2
} }
= =
Therefore, using the second case from the Table of Integrals, we get
= + = +
+
= = =
+
} }
C
3
5
x
C
1
3
2
x
dx x dx x I
3
5
1
3
2
3
2
3
2

C x x
5
3
C x
5
3
3
2
3
5
+ = + =
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
21
General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form dx x a
n
m
}
may proceed
as follows: Since
n
m
n
m
x x = , we have
= +
+
= = =
+
} }
C
1
n
m
x
a dx x a dx x a I
1
n
m
n
m
n
m

C x x
n m
n a
C
n
n m
x
a
n
m
1
n
m
+
+
= +
+
=
+

2.13 Case XIII. Integrals of the form dx x x a I
n
m p
}
=
General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form dx x x a
n
m p
}
may
proceed as follows:
= = =
} }
dx x x a dx x x a I
n
m
p
n
m p

= +
+ +
= +
+ +
= =
+ + + +
+
}
C
n
n m pn
x
a C
1
n
m
p
x
a dx x a
n
m
1 p 1
n
m
p
n
m
p

C x x
n m n p
n a
C x x
n m pn
n a n
m 1 p
n
m
1 p
+
+ +
= +
+ +
=
+ +

Example. Evaluate the integral
dx x x 5 I
3
2 3
}
=
Solution. Since
3
2
3
2
x x = , we have
3
11
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
2 3
x x x x x x = = =
+
.
Therefore
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
22
= +
+
= = =
+
} }
C
1
3
11
x
5 dx x 5 dx x x 5 I
1
3
11
3
11
3
2 3

= + = + = + =
+
C x x
14
15
C x
14
15
C
3
14
x
5
3
2
4
3
2
4 3
14

C x x
14
15 3
2 4
+ =
2.14 Case XIV. Integrals of the form dx
x
x
a I
n
m
p
}
=
General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form dx
x
x
a I
n
m
p
}
= may
proceed as follows:
= = =
} }

dx x x a dx
x
x
a I
n
m
p
n
m
p

= +
+
= +
+
= =
+ +

}
C
n
m n pn
x
a C
n
m
1 p
x
a dx x a
n
m
1 p
n
m
1 p
n
m
p

C
x
x
m n pn
n a
C x x
m n pn
n a
n
m
1 p
n
m
1 p
+
+
= +
+
=
+

+

Example. Evaluate the integral
dx
x
x
) 3 ( I
2
3
4
}
=
Solution. We have
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
23

3
10
3
2
4
3
2
4
2
3
4
x x
x
x
x
x
= = =


Therefore
= +
+
= = =
+
} }
C
1
3
10
x
3 dx x 3 dx
x
x
) 3 ( I
1
3
10
3
10
2
3
4

= + = + = + =
+
C x x
13
9
C x
13
9
C
3
13
x
3
3
1
4
3
1
4 3
13

C x x
13
9 3
4
+ =
2.15 Case XV. Integrals of the form dx
x
a
I
n
m
}
=
General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form dx
x
a
n
m
}
may proceed as
follows:
= +
+
= = =
+

} }
C
1
n
m
x
a dx x a dx
x
a
I
1
n
m
n
m
n
m

= +
+
= +
+
=

+
C x x
n m
n a
C
n
n m
x
a
n
m
1
n
m

C
x
x
n m
n a
n
m
+
+
=
Example. Evaluate the Integral dx
x
5
I
3
2
}
=
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
24
Solution. Using the known properties
3
2
3
2 3
2
x
x
1
x
1

= = , the integral takes the
form dx x 5 dx
x
5
I
3
2
3
2
} }

= = . Therefore, using the second case from the Table
of Integrals, we get
C
1
3
2
x
5 dx x 5 dx
x
5
I
1
3
2
3
2
3
2
+
+
= = =
+

} }

C x 15 C
3
1
x
5
3
3
1
+ = + =
2.16 Case XVI. Integrals of the form dx
x
x
a I
p
n
m
}
=
General Case. The evaluation of integrals of the form dx
x
x
a I
p
n
m
}
= may
proceed as follows:
= = =
} }

dx x x a dx
x
x
a I
p
n
m
p
n
m

= +
+
= +
+
= =
+ +

}
C
n
n pn m
x
a C
1 p
n
m
x
a dx x a
n
m
p 1 1 p
n
m
p
n
m

C x x
n pn m
n a
C x x
n pn m
n a n
m p 1
n
m
p 1
+
+
= +
+
=




Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
25
Example. Evaluate the integral
dx
x
x
7 I
3
3
2
}
=
Solution. We have

3
7
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
2
x x
x
x
x
x

= = =
Therefore
= +
+
= = =
+

} }
C
1
3
7
x
7 dx x 7 dx
x
x
7 I
1
3
7
3
7
3
3
2

= + = +

= +
+
=

+
C x x
4
21
C
3
4
x
7 C
1
3
7
x
7
3
1
1
3
4
1
3
7

C
x x
1
4
21
C
x x
1
4
21
3
3
1
+

= +

=
2.17 Case XVII. Integrals of Trigonometric Functions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx x tan I
2

Solution. We can convert x tan
2
in a form which can be integrated using the
Table. We see that
1
x cos
1
x cos
x cos
x cos
1
x cos
x cos 1
x cos
x sin
x tan
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
= =

= =
Therefore
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
} } } }
dx dx
x cos
1
dx 1
x cos
1
dx x tan I
2 2
2

C x x tan + =
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
26
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
x sin 3
x sin 2 x sin 5
I
2
}

= .
Solution. Since

3
2
x sin
3
5
x sin 3
x sin 2
x sin 3
x sin 5
x sin 3
x sin 2 x sin 5
2 2
= =


we have
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
} }
dx
3
2
x sin
3
5
dx
x sin 3
x sin 2 x sin 5
I
2

= + = =
} }
C x
3
2
) x cos (
3
5
dx
3
2
dx x sin
3
5

C x
3
2
x cos
3
5
+ =
Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
x cos 2
x cos x 2 sin
I
2
}
+
= .
Solution. Since
=
+
=
+
x cos 2
x cos x cos x sin 2
x cos 2
x cos x 2 sin
2 2

x cos
2
1
x sin
x cos 2
x cos
x cos 2
x cos x sin 2
2
+ = + =
we have
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
=
} }
dx x cos
2
1
x sin dx
x cos 2
x cos x 2 sin
I
2

C x sin
2
1
x cos dx x cos
2
1
dx x sin + + = + =
} }

Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
x cos
x 2 cos
I
2
}
= .
Solution. Since

x cos
1
2
x cos
1
x cos
x cos 2
x cos
1 x cos 2
x cos
x 2 cos
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
= =

=
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
27
the integral takes the form

= = |
.
|

\
|
= =
} } } }
dx
x cos
1
dx 2 dx
x cos
1
2 dx
x cos
x 2 cos
I
2 2 2

C x tan x 2 + =

2.18 Case XVIII. Integrals of Exponential Functions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
e 4
e 3 e 2
I
x
x x 2
}

=
Solution. We can simplify the expression under the integral as

4
3
e
2
1
e 4
e 3
e 4
e 2
e 4
e 3 e 2
x
x
x
x
x 2
x
x x 2
= =


Therefore the integral becomes
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
} }
dx
4
3
e
2
1
dx
e 4
e 3 e 2
I
x
x
x x 2

C x
4
3
e
2
1
dx
4
3
dx e
2
1
x x
+ = =
} }


2.19 Case XIX. More Integrals.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
x 1
x 4 x 4 x 1
I
2
3 2
}

+
=
Solution. We have
=

+
=

+
2
2 2
2
3 2
x 1
) x 1 ( x 4 x 1
x 1
x 4 x 4 x 1

x 4
x 1
1
x 1
) x 1 ( x 4
x 1
x 1
2
2
2
2
2
+

=
Therefore

= +

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
} } }
dx x 4 dx
x 1
1
dx x 4
x 1
1
I
2 2

C x 2 x arcsin
2
+ + =
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
28
Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
5 x
dx
I
2

Solution.
C 5 x x ln
5 x
dx
I
2
2
+ + + =
+
=
}

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
2 x
3 2 x
I
2
2
}
+
+ +
=
Solution. We have

1 x
3
1 x
1
1 x
3
1 x
1 x
1 x
3 1 x
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+
=
+
+ +

Therefore

=
+
+
+
=
+
+ +
=
} } }
dx
1 x
1
3 dx
1 x
1
dx
1 x
3 1 x
I
2
2
2
2

C x arctan 3 1 x x ln
2
+ + + + =

2.20 More Examples
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
x 5
7 x x x 4 x 5
I
3
2
2 3
}
+
=
Solution. We simplify the integrand first. We have
= + =
+
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
2 3
x 5
7
x 5
x x
x 5
x 4
x 5
x 5
x 5
7 x x x 4 x 5

= + =
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
2
3
x
1
5
7
x
x x
5
1
x
x
5
4
x
x

3
2
6
5
3
4
3
7
x
5
7
x
5
1
x
5
4
x

+ =
Therefore the integral becomes
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
29
= + =
} } } }

dx x
5
7
dx x
5
1
dx x
5
4
dx x I
3
2
6
5
3
4
3
7

= +
+

+
+
+

+
=
+ + + +
C
1
3
2
x
5
7
1
6
5
x
5
1
1
3
4
x
5
4
1
3
7
x
1
3
2
1
6
5
1
3
4
1
3
7

= + + = C
3
1
x
5
7
6
11
x
5
1
3
7
x
5
4
3
10
x
3
1
6
11
3
7
3
10

C x
5
21
x x
55
6
x x
35
12
x x
10
3 3
6
5
3
2
3
3
+ + =

Example 2. Evaluate the integrals
(I) dx x x I
2
1 }
=
(II) dx x x
3
2
I
3
2 }
=
(III) dx
x
x 2
I
3
2
3 }
=
Solution.
(I) We have
2
5
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
x x x x x x = = =
+
. Therefore
C
1
2
5
x
dx x dx x x I
1
2
5
2
5
2
1
+
+
= = =
+
} }

C x x
7
2
C
2
7
x
3
2
7
+ = + =
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
30
(II) We have
3
4
3
1
1
3
1
3
x x x x x x = = =
+
. Therefore
= = = =
} } }
dx x
3
2
dx x x
3
2
dx x x
3
2
I
3
4
3 3
2

= + = + = +
+
=
+
C x x
7
2
C
3
7
x
3
2
C
1
3
4
x
3
2
3
1
2
3
7
1
3
4

C x x
7
2 3
2
+ =
(III) We have
3
1
3
2
1
3
2 3
2
x 2 x 2
x
x 2
x
x 2
= = =

. Therefore
= +
+
= = =
+
} }
C
1
3
1
x
2 dx x 2 dx
x
x 2
I
1
3
1
3
1
3
2
3

C x x
2
3
C x x
4
6
C
3
4
x
2
3
3
1
3
4
+ = + = + =














Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
31

Computer Algebra Systems

We list below the most important computer algebra systems.

1. Maple.
We list below three examples of integration using Maple.
In the first example, we first define a function which we call f which is
3
x 4 ,
using Maples format.
> f:=4*x^3;
:= f 4 x
3

We then use the command
> int(f,x);
x
4

We may also use

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
4 x
3
x x
4

In the second example, we define a function g
> g(x):=(1/2)*x^(-1/2);
:= ( ) g x
1
2 x

> int(g(x),x);
x

> Int(g(x),x)=int(g(x),x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
2 x
x x

In the third example, we define a function
3
2
x
1
) x ( h = by
> h:=x->x^(-2/3);
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
32
:= h x
1
x
( ) / 2 3

and then we perform the integration using the command

> int(h(x),x);
3 x
( ) / 1 3

> Int(h(x),x)=int(h(x),x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
(
1
x
( ) / 2 3
x 3 x
( ) / 1 3

In all the previous examples we have first defined the function under integration
using three different ways and then we used the command: int(expr, x). Using the
command Int(expr, x), the program puts the known symbol of integration in front
of the result of integration.
It is obvious that there is not need to define the function first. We may go directly
to the evaluation of the integral:
> int((2*x+a),x);
+ x
2
a x

> int((x^2+a)/(x^1+1),x);
+ +
x
2
2
x ( ) ln + x 1 a ( ) ln + x 1
In the above two examples, the function also contains a parameter.

2. Mathematica.
In the first example, we define the function x 2 x 3 ) x ( f
2
= by
I n[ 1] : = f 3 x^2 2 x
Out [ 1] = 2 x 3 x
2

and then we use the integration command: ] x , f [ Integrate
I n[ 2] : = Integrate f, x
Out [ 2] = x
2
x
3

Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
33
Mathematica contains also a nice interface, which can be used instead of writing
code. The second example performs the integration of the function x 2 x 3
2
:
I n[ 3] : = 3 x
2
2 x x
Out [ 3] = x
2
x
3


The third example defines a function the Mathematical way and then use again the
integration command:

I n[ 4] : = g x_ : x ^ 2 3 x
I n[ 5] : = Integrate g x , x
Out [ 5] =
3 x
2
2
x
3
3

We should also mention that there is an online tool, called The Integrator by
Wolfram Research, which can be used freely for evaluating integrals.
The address of the site is
integrals.wolfram.com

Notes.
It might sometimes appear that an integral we evaluate by hand would give
different result compared to the answer we get using Computer Algebra Systems.
This is due to the fact that many Systems use different integration algorithms. On
the other hand, we will notice that we get different answers using different
Systems. However we may establish that all the answers are equivalent each other.










Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
34

2a

Exercises on
Elementary Integration



Case I. Integrals of the form
}
dx a
General Case. C x a dx a dx a + = =
} }

Exercise 1. Evaluate the integrals
(1)
}
dx 4 (2)
}
dx ) 3 (
(3)
}
+ dx ) a 1 ( (4)
}
+ dx ) 6 (
Answers. (1) C x 4 + (2) C x 3 + (3) C x ) a 1 ( + + (4) C x ) 6 ( + +
Case II. Integrals of the form
}
dx x a
n
( R a e , 1 n > )
General Case.
C x
1 n
a
C
1 n
x
a dx x a dx x a
1 n
1 n
n n
+
+
= +
+
= =
+
+
} }

Exercise 2. Evaluate the integrals
(1)
}
dx x 3
2
(2)
}
dx x ) 2 (
3

(3)
}
dx x 5
4
(4)
}
dx x ) 6 (
3

Answers. (1) C x
3
+ (2) C x
2
1
4
+ (3) C x
5
+ (4) C x
2
3
4
+
Case III. Integrals of the form dx
x
a
}
( R a e )
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
35
General Case. C | x | ln a dx
x
1
a dx
x
a
+ = =
} }

Exercise 3. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
2
}
(2) dx
x
4
}


(3) dx
x
6
}
(4) dx
x
13
}

Answers. (1) C | x | ln 2 + (2) C | x | ln 4 + (3) C | x | ln 6 + (4) C | x | ln 13 +
Case IV. Integrals of Polynomial Functions
These are integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x ( P I where ) x ( P is an n-th degree
polynomial. In this case we convert the integral into a sum of integrals of the form
dx x a
n
}
( 0 n > )
which are evaluated according to the known formulas

1 n
x
a dx x a
1 n
n
+
=
+
}
( 1 n > ) and x a dx a =
}

Exercise 4. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx ) 3 x 2 (
}
(2) dx ) x 3 x (
2
}

(3) dx ) 2 x x 3 (
2
}
(4) dx ) 1 x 3 x 2 (
3
}
+
(1) Hint.
} } }
= dx 3 dx x 2 dx ) 3 x 2 ( Answer. C x 3 x
2
+
(2) Hint. dx x 3 dx x dx ) x 3 x (
2 2
} } }
= Answer. C x
2
3
3
x
2
3
+
(3) Hint.
} } } }
= dx 2 dx x dx x 3 dx ) 2 x x 3 (
2 2

Answer. C x 2
2
x
x
2
3
+
(4) Hint.
} } } }
+ = + dx dx x 3 dx x 2 dx ) 1 x 3 x 2 (
3 3

Answer. C x x
2
3
x
2
1
2 4
+ +
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
36
Case V. Integrals of the form dx
x
a
n
}
( R a e , 2 n > )
General Case.
= +
+
= = =
+

} } }
C
1 n
x
a dx x a dx
x
1
a dx
x
a
1 n
n
n n

C
x
1
1 n
a
C x
1 n
a
1 n
1 n
+

= +

=

+
, 2 n >
Exercise 5. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
3
3 }
(2) dx
x
2
2 }


(3) dx
x
5
4 }
(4) dx
x
11
6 }


(1) Hint.
3
3
x 3
x
3

= Answer. C
x 2
3
C x
2
3
2
2
+ = +


(2) Hint.
2
2
x 2
x
2

=

Answer. C
x
2
C x 2
1
+ = +


(3) Hint.
4
4
x 5
x
5

= Answer. C
x 3
5
C x
3
5
3
3
+ = +


(4) Hint.
6
6
x 11
x
11

=

Answer. C
x 5
11
C x
5
11
5
5
+ = +



Case VI. Integrals of Rational Functions
Exercise 6. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
1 x 3
}

(2) dx
1 x
2 x
2
2
}
+


(3) dx
x 2
4 x 2 x 3
2
2
}
+
(4) dx
x 3
2 x x 5
3
3
}
+

(1) Hint.
x
1
3
x
1
x
x 3
x
1 x 3
= =

Answer. C | x | ln x 3 +
(2) Hint.
1 x
3
1
1 x
3
1 x
) 1 x (
1 x
3 ) 1 x (
1 x
2 x
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
+
=
+

+
+
=
+
+
=
+


Answer. C x arctan 3 x +
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
37
(3) Hint.
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
x 2
x
1
2
3
x 2
4
x 2
x 2
x 2
x 3
x 2
4 x 2 x 3

+ = + =
+

Answer. C
x
2
| x | ln x
2
3
+
(4) Hint.
3 2
3 3 3
3
3
3
x
3
2
x
3
1
3
5
x 3
2
x 3
x
x 3
x 5
x 3
2 x x 5

+ = + =
+

Answer. C
x 3
1
x 3
1
x
3
5
2
+ +
Case VII. Integrals of the form dx x a
}
( R a e )
In this case we convert the square root into power with a rational exponent using
the property
2
1
x x = . Therefore we have the following general scheme:
= +
+
= = =
+
} } }
C
1
2
1
x
a dx x a dx x a dx x a
1
2
1
2
1

C x x
3
a 2
C x
3
a 2
C
2
3
x
a
2
3
2
3
+ = + = + =
Exercise 7. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x 5
}
(2) dx x ) 2 (
}

(3) dx x ) 7 (
}
(4) dx x 6
}

Answers. (1) x x
3
10
(2) x x
3
4
(3) x x
3
14
(4) x x 4
Case VIII. Integrals of the form dx x x a
n
}
( R a e , 1 n > )
Integrals of this form are evaluated according to the general scheme:
= = =
} } }
dx x x a dx x x a dx x x a
2
1
n n n

Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
38
= +
+
= +
+ +
= =
+ + + +
+
}
C
2
3 n 2
x
a C
1
2
1
n
x
a dx x a
2
1
1 n 1
2
1
n
2
1
n

C x x
3 n 2
a 2
C
2
3 n 2
x
a
1 n
2
1
1 n
+
+
= +
+
=
+
+ +

Exercise 8. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x x 3
2
}
(2) dx x x ) 4 (
}

(3) dx x x 5
3
}
(4) dx x x ) 6 (
4
}

(1) Hint.
2
5
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
x 3 x 3 x x 3 x x 3 = = =
+
Answer. C x x
7
6
C x
7
6
3
2
7
+ = +
(2) Hint.
2
3
x 4 x x ) 4 ( = Answer. C x x
5
8
C x
5
8
2
2
5
+ = +
(3) Hint.
2
7
3
x 5 x x 5 = Answer. C x x
9
10
C x
9
10
4
2
9
+ = +
(4) Hint.
2
9
4
x 6 x x ) 6 ( = Answer. C x x
11
12
C x
11
12
5
2
11
+ = +
Case IX. Integrals of the form dx
x
a
}
( R a e )
Integrals of this form are evaluated according to the general scheme:
= +
+
= = =
+

} } }
C
1
2
1
x
a dx x a dx
x
1
a dx
x
a
1
2
1
2
1

C x a 2 C
2
1
x
a
2
1
+ = + =
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
39
Exercise 9. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
1
}
(2) dx
x
3
}


(3) dx
x
5
}
(4) dx
x
7
}


Answers. (1) C x 2 + (2) C x 6 + (3) C x 10 + (4) C x 14 +
Case X. Integrals of the form dx
x
x
a
n
}
( R a e , 1 n > )
Integrals of this form are evaluated according to the general scheme:
= = =
} } }

dx x a dx
x
x
a dx
x
x
a
2
1
n
2
1
n n

C x x
1 n 2
a 2
C
2
1 n 2
x
a C
1
2
1
n
x
a
n
2
1
n 1
2
1
n
+
+
= +
+
= +
+
=
+ +

Exercise 10. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
x
3
3
}
(2) dx
x
x
5
2
}

(3) dx
x
x
) 8 (
}
(4) dx
x
x
6
4
}

(1) Hint.
2
5
3
x 3
x
x
3 = Answer. C x x
7
6
C x
7
6
3
2
7
+ = +
(2) Hint.
2
3
2
x 5
x
x
5 = Answer. C x x 2 C x 2
2
2
5
+ = +
(3) Hint.
2
1
x 8
x
x
) 8 ( = Answer. C x x
3
16
C x
3
16
2
3
+ = +
(4) Hint.
2
7
4
x 6
x
x
6 = Answer. C x x
3
4
C x
3
4
4
2
9
+ = +
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
40
Case XI. Integrals of the form dx
x
x
a I
n
}
= ( R a e , 1 n > )
Integrals of this form are evaluated according to the general scheme:
= = = =
} } }

dx x a dx
x
x
a dx
x
x
a I
n
2
1
n
2
1
n

C
x
x
n 2 3
a 2
C
2
n 2 3
x
a C
1 n
2
1
x
a
1 n
2
1
1 n 1 n
2
1
+

= +

= +
+
=

+ + +

Exercise 11. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
x
6
}
(2) dx
x
x
) 5 (
4 }

(3) dx
x
x
4
5
}
(4) dx
x
x
12
3
}

(1) Hint.
2
1
x 6
x
x
6

= Answer. C x 12 C x 12
2
1
+ = +
(2) Hint.
2
7
4
x 5
x
x
) 5 (

= Answer. C
x x
1
7
10
C x
7
10
2
2
5
+ = +


(3) Hint.
2
9
5
x 4
x
x
4

= Answer. C
x x
1
7
8
C x
7
8
3
2
7
+ = +


(4) Hint.
2
5
3
x 12
x
x
12

= Answer. C
x x
8
C x 8
2
3
+ = +


Case XII. Integrals of the form dx x a
n
m
}

Integrals of this form are evaluated according to the general scheme:
= +
+
= =
+
} }
C
1
n
m
x
a dx x a dx x a
1
n
m
n
m
n
m

Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
41
C x x
n m
n a
C
n
n m
x
a
n
m
1
n
m
+
+
= +
+
=
+

Exercise 12. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x 3
3
2
}
(2) dx x ) 5 (
4
5
}

(3) dx x 11
3
4
}
(4) dx x ) 14 (
5
3
}

(1) Hint.
3
2
3
2
x 3 x 3 = Answer. C x x
5
9
C x
5
9 3
2
3
5
+ = +
(2) Hint.
4
5
4
5
x 5 x ) 5 ( = Answer. C x x
9
20
C x
9
20 4
2
4
9
+ = +
(3) Hint.
3
4
3
4
x 11 x 11 = Answer. C x x
7
33
C x
7
33 3
2
3
7
+ = +
(4) Hint.
5
3
5
3
x 14 x ) 14 ( = Answer. C x x
4
35
C x
4
35 5
3
5
8
+ = +
Case XIII. Integrals of the form dx x x a
n
m p
}

General Case.
= =
} }
dx x x a dx x x a
n
m
p
n
m p

= +
+ +
= +
+ +
= =
+ + + +
+
}
C
n
n m n p
x
a C
1
n
m
p
x
a dx x a
n
m
1 p 1
n
m
p
n
m
p

C x x
n m n p
n a
C x x
n m n p
n a
n
m 1 p
n
m
1 p
+
+ +
= +
+ +
=
+ +

Exercise 13. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x x 5
3
2 2
}
(2) dx x x ) 12 (
4
3 3
}

Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
42
(3) dx x x ) 15 (
4
3 2
}
(4) dx x x
5
2 3
}

(1) Hint.
3
8
3
2 2
x 5 x x 5 = Answer. C x x
11
15
C x
11
15
3
2 3
3
11
+ = +
(1) Hint.
4
15
4
3 3
x 12 x x ) 12 ( = Answer. C x x
19
48
C x
19
48
4
3 4
4
19
+ = +
(1) Hint.
4
11
4
3 2
x 15 x x ) 15 ( = Answer. C x x 4 C x 4
4
3 3
4
15
+ = +
(1) Hint.
4
15
4
3 3
x x x = Answer. C x x
19
4
C x
19
4
4
3 4
4
19
+ = +
Case XIV. Integrals of the form dx
x
x
a
n
m
p
}

General Case.
= =
} }

dx x x a dx
x
x
a
n
m
p
n
m
p

= +
+
= +
+
= =
+ +

}
C
n
m n pn
x
a C
n
m
1 p
x
a dx x a
n
m
1 p
n
m
1 p
n
m
p

C
x
x
m n pn
n a
C x x
m n pn
n a
n
m
1 p
n
m
1 p
+
+
= +
+
=
+

+

Exercise 14. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
x
) 4 (
3
2
3
}
(2) dx
x
x
5
4
3
5
}

(3) dx
x
x
12
5
4
4
}
(4) dx
x
x
) 15 (
7
5
2
}

(1) Hint.
3
7
3
2
3
x 4
x
x
) 4 ( = Answer. C x x
5
6
C x
5
6 3
3
3
10
+ = +
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
43
(2) Hint.
4
17
4
3
5
x 5
x
x
5 = Answer.
4
5
4
21
x x
21
20
C x
21
20
= +
(3) Hint.
5
16
5
4
4
x 12
x
x
12 = Answer. C x x
7
20
C x
7
20 5
4
5
21
+ = +
(4) Hint.
7
9
7
5
2
x 15
x
x
) 15 ( = Answer. C x x
16
105
C x
16
105
7
2 2
7
16
+ = +
Case XV. Integrals of the form dx
x
a
n
m
}

General Case.
= +
+
= =
+

} }
C
1
n
m
x
a dx x a dx
x
a
1
n
m
n
m
n
m

= +
+
= +
+
=

+
C x x
n m
n a
C
n
n m
x
a
n
m
1
n
m

C
x
x
n m
n a
n
m
+
+
=
Exercise 15. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
1
4
3
}
(2) dx
x
2
3
2
}

(3) dx
x
12
4
3
}

(4) dx
x
16
5
3
}

(1) Hint.
4
3
4
3
x
x
1

= Answer. C x 4 C x 4
4
4
1
+ = +
(2) Hint.
3
2
3
2
x 2
x
2

= Answer. C x 6 C x 6
3
3
1
+ = +
Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
44
(3) Hint.
4
3
4
3
x 12
x
12

=

Answer. C x 48 C x 48
4
4
1
+ = +
(4) Hint.
5
3
5
3
x 16
x
16

= Answer. C x 40 C x 40
5
2
5
2
+ = +
Case XVI. Integrals of the form dx
x
x
a
p
n
m
}

General Case.
= =
} }

dx x x a dx
x
x
a
p
n
m
p
n
m

= +
+
= +
+
= =
+ +

}
C
n
n pn m
x
a C
1 p
n
m
x
a dx x a
n
m
p 1 1 p
n
m
p
n
m

C x x
n n p m
n a
C x x
n n p m
n a
n
m p 1
n
m
p 1
+
+
= +
+
=


Exercise 16. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x
x
5
4
3
2
}
(2) dx
x
x
) 6 (
2
4
3
}

(3) dx
x
x
13
2
5
3
}
(4) dx
x
x
) 7 (
3
5
2
}

(1) Hint.
3
10
4
3
2
4
3
2
x 5 x 5
x
x
5

= = . Answer. C
x x
1
7
15
C x
7
15
3
2
3
7
+

= +


(2) Hint.
4
5
2
4
3
2
4
3
x 6 x 6
x
x
6

= = . Answer. C
x
24
C x 24
4
4
1
+ = +


(3) Hint.
5
7
2
5
3
2
5
3
x 13 x 13
x
x
13

= = Answer. C
x
1
2
65
C x
2
65
5
2
5
2
+ = +


Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
45
(4) Hint.
5
13
3
5
2
3
5
2
x 7 x 7
x
x
) 7 (

= = Answer.
5
3
5
8
5
8
x x
1
8
35
x
1
8
35
x
8
35

= =


Case XVII. Integrals of Trigonometric Functions
Exercise 17. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x sin
3 x cos 2
2
2
}

(2) dx
x cos
2 x sin 3
2
2
}
+

(1) Hint. =

=

=

x sin
1 x sin 2
x sin
3 ) x sin 1 ( 2
x sin
3 x cos 2
2
2
2
2
2
2


x sin
1
2
x sin
1
x sin
x sin 2
2 2 2
2
=

=
Answer. C x cot x 2 + +
(2) Hint. =
+
=
+
=
+
x cos
5 x cos 3
x cos
2 ) x cos 1 ( 3
x cos
2 x sin 3
2
2
2
2
2
2


x cos
5
3
x cos
5
x cos
x cos 3
2 2 2
2
+ = +

=
Answer. C x tan 5 x 3 + +

Case XVIII. Integrals of Exponential Functions
Exercise 18. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
e 3
e 8 e 5
x
x x 2
}
+
(2) dx
e
e 3 e 2
x 2
x 2 x 3
}


(1) Hint.
3
8
e
3
5
e 3
e 8
e 3
e 5
e 3
e 8 e 5
x
x
x
x
x 2
x
x x 2
+ = + =
+

Answer. C x
3
8
e
3
5
x
+ +
(2) Hint. 3 e 2
e
e 3
e
e 2
e
e 3 e 2
x
x 2
x 2
x 2
x 3
x 2
x 2 x 3
= =


Answer. C x 3 e 2
x
+


Chapter 2-Elementary examples of integration
46
Case XIX. Miscellaneous Cases
Exercise 19. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x 1
x 4 x 4 x 1
2
3 2
}

+
(2)
}
+ 5 x
dx
2

(3) dx
1 x
3 1 x
2
2
}
+
+ +
(4) dx
x 5
7 x x x 4 x 5
3
2
2 3
}
+

(1) Hint. =

+
+

+
2
3
2
2
2
3 2
x 1
x 4 x 4
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 4 x 4 x 1


x 4
x 1
1
x 1
) x 1 ( x 4
x 1
1
2
2
2
2
+

= Answer. C x 2 x arcsin
2
+ +
(2) Answer. C | 5 x x | ln
2
+ + +
(3) Hint.
1 x
3
1 x
1
1 x
3
1 x
1 x
1 x
3 1 x
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+
=
+
+ +

Answer. C x arctan 3 | 1 x x | ln
2
+ + + +
(4) Hint. = + =
+
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
2 3
x 5
7
x 5
x x
x 5
x 4
x 5
x 5
x 5
7 x x x 4 x 5


3
2
6
5
3
4
3
7
3
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
3
x
5
7
x
5
1
x
5
4
x x
5
7
x
5
1
x
5
4
x

+ = + =
Answer. = + + C x
5
21
x
55
6
x
35
12
x
10
3
3
1
6
11
3
7
3
10

C x
5
21
x x
55
6
x x
35
12
x x
10
3 3
6
5
3
2
3
3
+ + =

3

The Method
of Substitution




Learning Objectives

In this Section the student will learn how to evaluate
integrals using the method of substitution.


Many cases of evaluation of indefinite integrals

}
dx ) x ( f
the function ) x ( f under integration (i.e. the integrand) is a rather complicated
expression. The integral either does not belong to any of the known forms listed in
the Table of Integrals, or cannot be reduced to any of those forms, using simple
algebraic manipulations. Here is where some methods come in. The most method
is the method of substitution.
This method converts the integral into another one, simpler, contained often to the
Table, and thus can easily be evaluated.
In this section we shall introduce the method in its simple, obvious version. More
complicated, special cases of substitution (like trigonometric substitutions,
hyperbolic substitutions, Euler substitutions, Chebyshev substitutions) will be
considered in the next sections.
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
48
The two most common cases are the following:
First Case. Let the integrand be a function Y X : f . We have to evaluate the
integral
}
dx ) x ( f
We substitute the independent variable x by an expression ) u ( :
) u ( x =
where X U : is an 1 1 function, having an inverse U X :
1

.
Considering the composition )) u ( ( f ) u )( f ( = , since du ) u ( dx ' = , we have
du ) u ( )) u ( ( f dx ) x ( f ' =
Therefore the integral transforms into

} } }
= ' = du ) u ( g du ) u ( )) u ( ( f dx ) x ( f
where the new transformed integral
}
du ) u ( g can be evaluated using the Table of
Elementary Integrals. It might also happen to have be converted into a more
simpler integral.
At the end of the calculation, after evaluating the integral
}
du ) u ( g , we have to
substitute u by ) x (
1
:

) x ( u ) x ( u
1 1
du ) u ( g du ) u ( )) u ( ( f dx ) x ( f

= =
} } }
= ' =
Example. Evaluate the integral
}

2
x 1
dx

Solution. Under the substitution u sin x = ( u sin ) u ( = ) we have
du u cos dx = , u cos u sin 1 x 1
2 2
= = and x arcsin u =
Therefore
= = =

=
=
} } }
x arcsin u
x arcsin u
2
du du
u cos
u cos
x 1
dx

Chapter 3-The method of substitution
49
C x arcsin C u
x arcsin u
+ = + =
=

This formula is already known from the Table of Integrals.
Second Case. In this case we substitute an expression contained in the function
) x ( f under integration by a new variable u:
) x ( u =
We then convert the integral into another one, containing the variable u only,
which can in turn be evaluated. Therefore we suppose that there exists a
differentiable function ) x ( and a function ) u ( g such that the integrand
dx ) x ( f can be written in the form
dx ) x ( )) x ( ( g dx ) x ( f ' =
Introducing the transformation (usually called substitution)
) x ( u = , dx ) x ( du ' =
we can convert the original integral into

) x ( u
du ) u ( g dx ) x ( )) x ( ( g dx ) x ( f
| =
} } }
= ' =
Example. Evaluate the integral dx x 1 x 2
2
}
+
Solution. We consider the substitution
2
x 1 u + = (
2
x 1 ) x ( + = ). We then have
dx x 2 du = and u x 1
2
= +
Therefore the integral transforms into
= + = = +
+ =
+ =
} }
C u u
3
2
du u dx x 1 x 2
2
2
x 1 u
x 1 u
2

C x 1 ) x 1 (
3
2
2 2
+ + + =
Note 1. We should stress the fact that there is not any unique substitution
transformation which can convert an integral into a simpler, easy-to-evaluate
integral. In this section we only consider some obvious forms of substitution. In
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
50
next sections we are going to consider special forms of substitution, depending on
the form of the integrand.
Note 2. We note that there are
- Special methods of substitution, like trigonometric substitutions, hyperbolic
substitutions, Euler substitutions, Chebyshev substitutions
- Special techniques like integration by parts and partial fraction
decomposition
- Special algorithms, like the Ostrogradsky algorithm, the Hermite-Horowitz
algorithm, the Rothstein-Trager algorithm, the Risch algorithm and the
Adamchik-Marichev algorithm.

We below list some examples of using the method of substitution, classified
according to the type of function under integration.
Case I. Integrals of Polynomial and Rational Functions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+ + + = dx ) 7 x 5 x )( 5 x 2 ( I
2

Solution. We see that under the substitution 7 x 5 x u
2
+ + = , we have
dx ) 5 x 2 ( du + =
Therefore the integral becomes
C
2
u
du u
2
+ =
}

Going back to the original variable, we have the value of the integral
C ) 7 x 5 x (
2
1
dx ) 7 x 5 x )( 5 x 2 ( I
2 2 2
+ + + = + + + =
}

Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
+ + = dx ) 1 x x 5 x 4 ( ) 1 x 10 x 12 ( I
3 2 3 2

Solution. We see that under the substitution 1 x x 5 x 4 u
2 3
+ = , we have
dx ) 1 x 10 x 12 ( du
2
+ =
Therefore the integral becomes
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
51
C
4
u
du u
4
3
+ =
}

Going back to the original variable, we have the value of the integral
= + + =
}
dx ) 1 x x 5 x 4 ( ) 1 x 10 x 12 ( I
3 2 3 2

C ) 1 x x 5 x 4 (
4
1
4 2 3
+ + =
Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
5 x 3 x
3 x 2
I
2
}
+

=
Solution. We see that under the substitution of the denominator by a new
variable u,
5 x 3 x u
2
+ =
we have dx ) 3 x 2 ( du = . The integral then becomes
}
= du
u
1
I ,which belongs to
one of the known integrals of the Table. Therefore
C | 5 x 3 x | ln C | u | ln du
u
1
dx
5 x 3 x
3 x 2
I
2
2
+ + = + = =
+

=
} }
.
Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
x 1
x
I
3
}
+
=
Solution. Under the substitution x 1 u + = , we have dx du = .
Therefore the integral transforms into
=
+
=

} }
du
u
1 u 3 u 3 u
du
u
) 1 u (
2 3 3

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
}
du
u
1
3 u 3 u
2

= + =
} } } }
du
u
1
du 3 du u 3 du u
2

= + + = C | u | ln u 3
2
u
3
3
u
2 3

C | u | ln u 3 u
2
3
u
3
1
2 3
+ + =
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
52
Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C | x 1 | ln ) x 1 ( 3 ) x 1 (
2
3
) x 1 (
3
1
dx
x 1
x
I
2 3
3
+ + + + + + =
+
=
}

Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx
) x 1 (
x
I
3
}
+
=
Solution. Under the substitution x 1 u + = , we have dx du = .
Therefore the integral transforms into
= = =

} } } } }
du
u
1
du
u
1
du
u
1
du
u
u
du
u
1 u
3 2 3 3 3

C
u 2
1
u
1
du u du u
2
3 2
+ + = =
} }


Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C
) x 1 ( 2
1
x 1
1
dx
) x 1 (
x
I
2 3
+
+
+
+
=
+
=
}

Example 6. Evaluate the integral dx
x 1
x 2
I
4
}
+
=
Solution. Under the substitution
2
x u = , we have dx x 2 du = .
Therefore
C ) x arctan( C u arctan
u 1
du
dx
x 1
x 2
I
2
2 4
+ = + =
+
=
+
=
} }

Example 7. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
2 2
x a
dx
I
Solution. Under the substitution t a x = , we have dt a dx = .
Therefore, since
) t 1 ( a t a a x a
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+ = + = + ,
the integral transforms to
C t arctan
a
1
t 1
dx
a
a
) t 1 ( a
dx a
2 2 2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Chapter 3-The method of substitution
53
Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C
a
x
arctan
a
1
x a
dx
I
2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Case II. Integrals of Irrational Functions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx 3 x x I
3 2
}
+ =
Solution. We see that under the substitution 3 x u
3
+ = we get dx x 3 du
2
= which
implies dx x du
3
1
2
= . Therefore the integral becomes du u
3
1
I
}
= which can be
evaluated using the Table. We have
= + = +
+
= = =
+
} }
C
2
3
u
3
1
C
1
2
1
u
3
1
du u
3
1
du u
3
1
I
2
3
1
2
1
2
1

C u u
9
2
+ =
Therefore
= + = = + =
} }
C u u
9
2
du u
3
1
dx 3 x x I
3 2

C 3 x ) 3 x (
9
2
3 3
+ + + =
Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}

=
2 2
x a
dx
I ( 0 a > )
Solution. Under the substitution t a x = , we have dt a dx = .
Therefore, since
) t 1 ( a t a a x a
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
= = ,
the integral transforms into
C t arcsin
t 1
dt
t 1 a
dt a
) t 1 ( a
dt a
2 2 2 2
+ =

} } }

Chapter 3-The method of substitution
54
Going back to the original variable, since
a
x
t = , we obtain
C
a
x
arcsin
x a
dx
I
2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
}

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
x 1
x 8
I
8
3
}

=
Solution. Under the substitution
4
x u = , since dx x 4 du
3
= , the integral becomes
C u arcsin 2 du
u 1
2
2
+ =

}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C ) x arcsin( 2 dx
x 1
x 8
I
4
8
3
+ =

=
}

Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x
4 x 3
I
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We split the integral into a sum of two integrals
=
+
+
+
=
+
+
=
} } }
dx
1 x
4
dx
1 x
x 3
dx
1 x
4 x 3
I
2 2 2

2 1
2 2
I I 3 dx
1 x
1
4 dx
1 x
x
3 + =
+
+
+
=
} }

The integral dx
1 x
x
I
2
1 }
+
= can be evaluated by the substitution 1 x u
2
+ = .
Since dx x 2 du = , the integral transforms into u
u
du
2
1
=
}
. Therefore we obtain
1 x dx
1 x
x
I
2
2
1
+ =
+
=
}

The integral dx
1 x
1
I
2
2 }
+
= is known from the Table with value
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
55
1 x x ln dx
1 x
1
I
2
2
2
+ + =
+
=
}

Therefore we obtain the value of the integral
C 1 x x ln 4 1 x 3 dx
1 x
4 x 3
I
2 2
2
+ + + + + =
+
+
=
}

Case III. Integrals of Logarithmic Functions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
=
x ln x
dx
I
Solution. Under the substitution x ln u = , since dx
x
1
du = , the integral transforms
into
C | u | ln
u
du
+ =
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain as the value of the integral
C | x ln | ln
x ln x
dx
I + = =
}

Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
x
x ln
I
3
}
=
Solution. Under the substitution x ln u = , since dx
x
1
du = , we get
C x ln
4
1
C
4
u
du u dx
x
x ln
I
4
4
3
3
+ = + = = =
} }

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
) x ln 1 ( x
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. Under the substitution x ln u = , we have dx
x
1
du = . Therefore
C ) x arctan(ln C u arctan
u 1
du
dx
) x ln 1 ( x
1
I
2 2
+ = + =
+
=
+
=
} }

Case IV. Integrals of Exponential Functions
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
56
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
e 1
e
I
x 2
x
}
+
=
Solution. Under the substitution
x
e u = , we have dx e du
x
= . Therefore
C ) e arctan( C u arctan
u 1
du
dx
e 1
e
I
x
2 x 2
x
+ = + =
+
=
+
=
} }

Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
e
1 e
I
x
x 2
}

=
Solution. We first split the integral into a sum of two integrals:
= = =

=
} } } } }

dx e dx e dx
e
1
dx
e
e
dx
e
1 e
I
x x
x x
x 2
x
x 2

dx e e
x x
}

=
Under the substitution x u = , we have dx du = . Therefore
x u u x
e e du e dx e

= = =
} }

The value of the integral thus becomes
C e e dx
e
1 e
I
x x
x
x 2
+ + =

=

}

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx a I
x
}
= , 0 a >
Solution. Using the identity
a ln x x
e a = and the substitution a ln x u = ,
dx ) a (ln du = , we have
C e
a ln
1
du e
a ln
1
dx e dx a I
u u a ln x x
+ = = = =
} } }

C a
a ln
1
C e
a ln
1
x a ln x
+ = + =
Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
2
3 7 2 5
I
x
x x
}
+
=
Solution.
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
57
=

=
+
=
} } }
dx
2
3 7
dx
2
2 5
dx
2
3 7 2 5
I
x
x
x
x
x
x x

dx
2
3
7 dx 5 dx
2
3
7 dx 5
x x
} } } }
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
C
2
3
2
3
ln
7
x 5
x
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx e e 1 I
x x
}
=
Solution. Under the substitution
x
e 1 u = , we have dx e du
x
= .
Therefore the integral becomes
C u u
3
2
du u + =
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C e 1 ) e 1 (
3
2
dx e e 1 I
x x x x
+ = =
}

Example 6. Evaluate the integral dx
x
e
I
x
}
=
Solution. Under the substitution x u = , since dx
x 2
1
du = , the integral
transforms into
C e 2 du e 2
u u
+ =
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C e 2 dx
x
e
I
x
x
+ = =
}

Example 7. Evaluate the integral dx
e 1
e
I
x 2
x
}

=
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
58
Solution. Under the substitution
x
e u = , we have dx e du
x
= .
Therefore
C ) e arcsin( C u arcsin
u 1
du
dx
e 1
e
I
x
2 x 2
x
+ = + =

=
} }

Example 8. Evaluate the integral dx
4 1
2
I
x
x
}

=
Solution. Under the substitution
x
2 u = , we have
2 x
u 1 4 1 = and
dx 2 ) 2 (ln du
x
= . Therefore the integral becomes
C u arcsin
2 ln
1
u 1
du
2 ln
1
2
+ =

}

Going back to the original variable, the integral has the value
C ) 2 arcsin(
2 ln
1
dx
4 1
2
I
x
x
x
+ =

=
}

Case V. Integrals of Trigonometric Functions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x tan I
}
=
Solution. Since
x cos
x sin
x tan = , we have dx
x cos
x sin
I
}
= . Under the substitution
x cos u = , dx x sin du = , the integral becomes C | u | ln du
u
1
+ =
}
. Going
back to the original variable, we get
C | x cos | ln dx x tan I + = =
}

Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx x cot I
}
=
Solution. Since
x sin
x cos
x cot = , we have dx
x sin
x cos
I
}
= .
Under the substitution x sin u = , dx x cos du = the integral becomes
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
59
C | u | ln du
u
1
+ =
}
.
Going back to the original variable, we get
C | x sin | ln dx x cot I + = =
}

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx x cos e I
x sin
}
=
Solution. Under the substitution x sin u = , since dx x cos du = , the integral
transforms into
C e du e
u u
+ =
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C e dx x cos e I
x sin x sin
+ = =
}

Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
e
x sin
I
x cos
}
=
Solution. Under the substitution x cos u = , since dx x sin du = , the integral
transforms into

} }

= du e
e
du
u
u

Under a second substitution u t = , since du dt = , the above integral takes the
form
C e dt e
t t
+ =
}

Going back to the original variable, since u t = and x cos u = , the value of the
integral is given by
C e dx
e
x sin
I
x cos
x cos
+ = =

}

Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx
x
) x ( cos
I
}
=
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
60
Solution. Under the substitution x u = , since dx
x 2
1
du = , the integral
transforms into
C u sin 2 du u cos 2 + =
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C ) x ( sin 2 dx
x
) x ( cos
I + = =
}

Example 6. Evaluate the integral dx
x sin x cos
x 2 sin
I
4 4
}

=
Solution. We simplify the denominator first. We have
= + = ) x sin x (cos ) x sin x (cos x sin x cos
2 2 2 2 4 4

x 2 cos ) x sin x (cos 1
2 2
= =
Therefore the integral becomes
dx
x 2 cos
x 2 sin
I
}
=
Under the substitution x 2 cos u = , dx x 2 sin 2 du = , we have
C | u | ln
2
1
u
du
2
1
I + = =
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C | x 2 cos | ln
2
1
I + =
Example 7. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
x tan 1 x cos
dx
I
2

Solution. Using the substitution x tan 1 u + = , we have
dx
x cos
1
du
2
=
Therefore the integral becomes
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
61
C u 2
u
du
+ =
}

Going back to the original variable, we find the value of the integral
C x tan 1 2
x tan 1 x cos
dx
I
2
+ + =
+
=
}

Case VI. Integrals of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
x 1
x arctan
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. Under the substitution x arctan u = , we have dx
x 1
1
du
2
+
= .
Therefore
C ) u (arctan
2
1
C
2
u
du u dx
x 1
x arctan
I
2
2
2
+ = + = =
+
=
} }

C )] x tan arctan(arc [
2
1
2
+ =
Case VII. Integrals with two successive substitutions
In evaluating integrals, there might appear the need for more than one substitution.
Let us list some Examples of this kind.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
5 e 3
e
I
x 2
x
}
+
=
Solution. Using the substitution
x
e u = , we get dx e du
x
= and the integral
transforms into

} }
+
=
+
3
5
u
du
3
1
5 u 3
du
2
2

Under a new substitution t
3
5
u = , since dt
3
5
du = and
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
62
) 1 t (
3
5
3
5
t
3
5
3
5
u
2
2
2
+ = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= + ,
the last integral becomes
C t arctan
15
1
dt
1 t
1
15
1
dt
) 1 t (
3
5
3
5
3
1
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Since
x
e
5
3
u
5
3
t = = , the value of the integral is
C e
5
3
arctan
15
1
I
x
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
9 x
x 4
I
6
2
}
+
=
Solution. We use the substitution
3
x u = first. We then have dx x 3 du
2
= and
thus du
3
1
dx x
2
= . Therefore the integral becomes

}
+ 9 u
du
3
4
2
(1)
Under the further transformation t 3 u = , since
) 1 t ( 9 9 ) t 3 ( 9 u
2 2 2
+ = + = + and dt 3 du =
the integral in (1) transforms into
C t arctan
9
4
1 t
dt
9
4
) 1 t ( 9
dt 3
3
4
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

We now have to go back to the original variable in reverse order.
Since
3
u
t = and
3
x u = , we find the value of the integral to be
C
3
x
arctan
9
4
dx
9 x
x 4
I
3
6
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Chapter 3-The method of substitution
63
Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
) x ln(sin
x cot
I
}
=
Solution. We use the substitution x sin u = first. We then have dx x cos du = and
thus
u ln u
du
dx
) x ln(sin ) x (sin
x cos
dx
) x ln(sin
x cot
= = . Therefore the integral becomes

}
u ln u
du
(1)
Under a second substitution u ln t = , since
u
du
dt = , the integral in (1) becomes
C | t | ln
t
dt
+ =
}

We now have to go back to the original variable in reverse order.
Since u ln t = and x sin u = , we find the value of the integral to be
C | ) x ln(sin | ln dx
) x ln(sin
x cot
I + = =
}

Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
) x ln 3 1 ( x
x ln
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. Under the substitution x ln u = , we have dx
x
1
du = . Therefore the
integral transforms into
du
u 3 1
u
2
}
+

Under a second substitution
2
u 3 1 t + = , since du u 6 dt = , the previous integral
transforms into
C | t | ln
t
dt
6
1
+ =
}

Going back to the original variable, since
2
u 3 1 t + = and x ln u = , we obtain the
value of the integral
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
64
C ) x ln 3 1 ( ln
6
1
dx
) x ln 3 1 ( x
x ln
I
2
2
+ + =
+
=
}

Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx
x a
x
I
4 2
}

= ( 0 a > )
Solution. Under the substitution
2
x u = , we have dx x 2 du = .
Therefore, since
2 2 4 2
u a x a = ,
the integral transforms to

}

2 2
u a
du
2
1

Under a further substitution t a u = , since dt a du = and ) t 1 ( a u a
2 2 2 2
= , the
last integral transforms into
C t arctan
2
1
t 1
dt
2
1
) t 1 ( a
dt a
2
1
2 2 2
+ =

} }

Going back to the original variable, since
a
u
t = and
2
x u = , we obtain
C
a
x
arcsin
2
1
dx
x a
x
I
2
4 2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
}

Case VIII. Integrals with two different substitutions
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
x 1
x arcsin x 2
I
2
}

=
Solution. The integral can be split into

2 1
2 2 2
I I dx
x 1
x arcsin
dx
x 1
x 2
dx
x 1
x arcsin x 2
I =

=
} } }

Chapter 3-The method of substitution
65
For the integral dx
x 1
x 2
I
2
1 }

= we make the substitution
2
x 1 u = . Therefore,
since dx x 2 du = , the integral becomes u 2
u
du
=
}
. Going back to the
original variable, we find

2
2
1
x 1 2 dx
x 1
x 2
I =

=
}

For the integral dx
x 1
x arcsin
I
2
2 }

= we make the substitution x arcsin t = .
Therefore, since dx
x 1
1
dt
2

= , the integral becomes


t t
3
2
dt t =
}

Going back to the original variable, we find that
x arcsin ) x (arcsin
3
2
dx
x 1
x arcsin
I
2
2
=

=
}

We thus find that the original integral has the value
C x arcsin ) x (arcsin
3
2
x 1 2 dx
x 1
x arcsin x 2
I
2
2
+ + =

=
}

Case VIII. Advanced Examples
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
) 1 x (
x
I
2 4
7
}
+
=
Solution. We use the substitution 1 x u
4
+ = . We then have 1 u x
4
= ,
dx x 4 du
3
= and thus du
4
1
) 1 u ( ) dx x ( x dx x
3 4 7
= = . Therefore the integral
transforms into
= =

} } }
du
u
1
4
1
du
u
u
4
1
du
u
1 u
4
1
2 2 2

Chapter 3-The method of substitution
66
C
u
1
4
1
| u | ln
4
1
du
u
1
4
1
u
du
4
1
2
+ + = =
} }

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral:
C
) 1 x ( 4
1
| 1 x | ln
4
1
dx
) 1 x (
x
I
4
4
2 4
7
+
+
+ + =
+
=
}

Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
x 2 1
x
I
2
3
}
+
=
Solution. Under the substitution
2
x 2 1 u + = , we find
2
1 u
x
2

= and then
du
4
1
dx x = . The term dx x
3
thus becomes du
8
1 u
du
4
1
2
1 u
) dx x ( x
2

=
|
.
|

\
|

= .
Therefore the integral transforms into
= =

} } }
du
u
1
8
1
du
u
u
8
1
du
u
1 u
8
1

C u
4
1
u u
12
1
du
u
1
8
1
du u
8
1
+ = =
} }

Going back to the original variable, we find the following value of the integral:
C x 2 1
4
1
x 2 1 ) x 2 1 (
12
1
dx
x 2 1
x
I
2 2 2
2
3
+ + + + =
+
=
}

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
2 x
1 x
I
2
3
}
+
+
=
Solution. We split the integral into a sum of two integrals:

2 1
2 2
3
2
3
I I dx
2 x
1
dx
2 x
x
dx
2 x
1 x
I + =
+
+
+
=
+
+
=
} } }

For the integral
1
I , under the substitution 2 x u
2
+ = , we find 2 u x
2
= and then
du
2
1
dx x = . The term dx x
3
thus becomes du
2
2 u
du
2
1
) 2 u ( ) dx x ( x
2

= = .
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
67
Therefore the integral
1
I transforms into
= =

} } }
du
u
1
du
u
u
2
1
du
u
2 u
2
1

u 2 u u
3
1
du
u
1
du u
2
1
= =
} }

Going back to the original variable, we find the following value of the integral:
2 x 2 2 x ) 2 x (
3
1
dx
2 x
x
I
2 2 2
2
3
1
+ + + =
+
=
}

The integral
1
I is elementary, giving the value

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+
=
}
2 x x ln dx
2 x
1
I
2
2
2

Therefore we find for the original integral
= + =
+
+
=
} 2 1
2
3
I I dx
2 x
1 x
I
C 2 x x ln 2 x 2 2 x ) 2 x (
3
1
2 2 2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + + =
Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx e 1 I
x
}
=
Solution. We try to get rid of the square root. Therefore we consider the
substitution
1 e u
x
=
Squaring both members of the previous relation and solving with respect to
x
e ,
we find

2 x
u 1 e + =
Inverting the above equation, we find
) u 1 ln( x
2
+ =
Therefore
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
68
du
u 1
u 2
dx
2
+
=
The integral thus transforms into
=
+
+
=
+
=
+
} } }
du
u 1
1 ) u 1 (
2 du
u 1
u
2 du
u 1
u 2
u
2
2
2
2
2

=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
} } }
du
u 1
1
2 du 2 du
u 1
1
1 2
2 2

C u arctan 2 u 2 + =
Going back to the original variable, we find the following value of the integral:
C e 1 arctan 2 e 1 2 dx e 1 I
x x x
+ = =
}



















Chapter 3-The method of substitution
69

3a

Exercises
on the
Method of Substitution



I) Integrals of Polynomial and Rational Functions
Exercise 1. Evaluate the integrals
(1)
}
+ dx ) 1 x 3 x 5 )( 3 x 10 (
2

(2)
}
+ + dx ) 4 x 5 x 2 )( 10 x 8 (
2

(3)
}
+ + dx ) 8 x 7 x 3 )( 7 x 6 (
3 2

(4)
}
+ + + dx ) 5 x 2 x 4 x 2 ( ) 2 x 8 x 6 (
4 2 3 2

(1) Hint. Let 1 x 3 x 5 u
2
+ = . Then dx ) 3 x 10 ( du = . The integral transforms
into C
2
u
du u
2
+ =
}
. Answer. C ) 1 x 3 x 5 (
2
1
2 2
+ +
(2) Hint. Let 4 x 5 x 2 u
2
+ = . Then dx ) 5 x 4 ( du + = .
Therefore dx ) 10 x 8 ( du 2 + = . The integral becomes C u du u 2
2
+ =
}

Answer. C ) 4 x 5 x 2 (
2 2
+ +
(3) Hint. Let 8 x 7 x 3 u
2
+ + = . Then dx ) 7 x 6 ( du + = and thus
dx ) 7 x 6 ( du = . The integral becomes C
4
u
du u
4
3
+ =
}
.
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
70
Answer. C ) 8 x 7 x 3 (
4
1
4 2
+ + +
(4) Hint. Let 5 x 2 x 4 x 2 u
2 3
+ + = . Then dx ) 2 x 8 x 6 ( du
2
+ = . Therefore
dx ) 2 x 8 x 6 ( du
2
+ = . The integral takes the form C
5
u
du u
5
4
+ =
}
.
Answer. C ) 5 x 2 x 4 x 2 (
5
1
5 2 3
+ + +
Exercise 2. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
3 x 5 x 2
5 x 4
2 }
+

(2) dx
x 1
x
3
}


(3) dx
) x 1 (
x 2
2 }

(4) dx
x 1
x 3
6
2
}
+

(1) Hint. Let 3 x 5 x 2 u
2
+ = . Then dx ) 5 x 4 ( du = . The integral becomes
C | u | ln
u
du
+ =
}
. Answer. C | 3 x 5 x 2 | ln
2
+ +
(2) Hint. Let x 1 u = . Then u 1 x = . Therefore du dx = and
3 3
) u 1 ( x = .
The integral becomes =
+
=

} }
du
u
u u 3 u 3 1
du
u
) u 1 (
3 2 3

C u
3
1
u
2
3
u 3 | u | ln du u du u 3 du 3
u
du
3 2 2
+ + + = + + =
} } } }
.
Answer. C ) x 1 (
3
1
) x 1 (
2
3
) x 1 ( 3 | x 1 | ln
3 2
+ + +
(3) Hint. Let x 1 u = . Then u 1 x = . Therefore du dx = . The integral
becomes
C | u | ln 2
u
2
u
du
2
u
du
2 du
u
) u 1 ( 2
2 2
+ + = + =

} } }
.
Answer. C | x 1 | ln 2
x 1
2
+ +


(4) Hint. Let
3
x u = . Then dx x 3 du
2
= . The integral becomes
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
71
C u arctan
u 1
du
2
+ =
+
}
. Answer. C ) x arctan(
3
+
II) Integrals of Irrational Functions
Exercise 3. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx 4 x x 5
3 2
}
+ (2) dx x 2 x 5 ) 1 x 10 (
4 3
}

(3)
}

=
2
x 9
dx
I (4) dx
x 1
x 5
I
6
2
}

=
(5) dx
3 x
5 x 4
I
2
}

= (6) dx
5 x
7 x 8
I
2
}
+
+
=
(1) Hint. Let 4 x u
3
+ = . Then dx x 3 du
2
= . The integral takes the form
C u u
3
2
3
5
du u
3
5
+ =
}
. Answer. C 4 x ) 4 x (
9
10
3 3
+ + +
(2) Hint. Let x 2 x 5 u
4
= . Then dx ) 1 x 10 ( 2 du
3
= . The integral becomes
C u u
3
2
2
1
du u
2
1
+ =
}
. Answer. C x 2 x 5 ) x 2 x 5 (
3
1
4 4
+
(3) Hint. Let u 3 x = . Then du 3 dx = and ) u 1 ( 9 ) u 3 ( 9 x 9
2 2 2
= = . The
integral becomes C u arcsin
u 1
du
) u 1 ( 9
du 3
2 2
+ =

} }
.
Answer. C
3
x
arcsin +
|
.
|

\
|

(4) Hint. Let
3
x u = . Then dx x 3 du
2
= . The integral becomes
C u arcsin
3
5
u 1
du
3
5
2
+ =

}
. Answer. C ) x arcsin(
3
5
3
+
(5) Hint. We have
2 1
2 2 2
I I dx
3 x
5
dx
3 x
x 4
dx
3 x
5 x 4
=

} } }

Chapter 3-The method of substitution
72
For the integral
1
I we use the substitution 3 x u
2
= . We then have dx x 2 du = .
The integral becomes u 4
u
du
2 =
}
. The integral
2
I is elementary (it is the
number 11 appearing in the Table). Answer. C | 3 x x | ln 5 3 x 4
2 2
+ +
(6) Hint. We have
2 1
2 2 2
I I dx
5 x
7
dx
5 x
x 8
dx
5 x
7 x 8
+ =
+
+
+
=
+
+
} } }
.
For the integral
1
I we use the substitution 5 x u
2
+ = . We then have dx x 2 du = .
The integral transforms into u 8
u
du
4 =
}
. The integral
2
I is elementary.
Answer. C | 5 x x | ln 7 5 x 8
2 2
+ + + + + .

III) Integrals of Logarithmic Functions
Exercise 4. Evaluate the integrals
(1)
}
=
2
) x (ln x
dx
I (2) dx
x
) x (ln
I
4
}
=
(3) dx
x ln 1 x
1
I
2
}
+
= (4) dx
x ln 1 x
3
I
2
}

=
(1) Hint. We use the substitution x ln u = . Since dx
x
1
du = , the integral
transforms into C
u
1
u
du
2
+ =
}
. Answer. C
x ln
1
+
(2) Hint. We use the substitution x ln u = . Since dx
x
1
du = , the integral
transforms into C
5
u
du u
5
4
+ =
}
. Answer. C ) x (ln
5
1
5
+ .
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
73
(3) Hint. We use the substitution x ln u = . Since dx
x
1
du = , the integral
transforms into C | u 1 u | ln
u 1
du
I
2
2
+ + + =
+
=
}

Answer. C | ) x (ln 1 x ln | ln
2
+ + +
(4) Hint. We use the substitution x ln u = . Since dx
x
1
du = , the integral
transforms into C u arcsin 3
u 1
du
3
2
+ =

}
. Answer. C ) x arcsin(ln 3 +
IV) Integrals of Exponential Functions
Exercise 5. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
e 1
e
I
x 2
x
}
+
= (2) dx
e
3 e 2 e
I
x
x x 2
}
+
=
(3) dx 5 I
x
}
= (4) dx
2
3 4 2 3
I
x
x x
}

=
(1) Hint. We use the substitution
x
e u = . Since dx e du
x
= and
2 x 2
u 1 e 1 + = + ,
the integral transforms into C | u 1 u | ln
u 1
du
2
2
+ + + =
+
}
.
Answer. C | e 1 e | ln
x 2 x
+ + + .
(2) Hint. Since = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
} }
dx
e
3
2 e dx
e
3 e 2 e
x
x
x
x x 2

dx e 3 dx 2 dx e
x x
} } }

+ = . The last integral is evaluated using x u = .
Answer. C e 3 x 2 e
x x
+ + +


(3) Hint. Since
5 ln x x
e 5 = , we use the substitution 5 ln x u = . Therefore
dx ) 5 (ln du = . The integral then becomes C
5 ln
e
du e
5 ln
1
u
u
+ =
}
.
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
74
Answer. C
5 ln
5
x
+ . In general C
a ln
a
dx a
x
x
+ =
}
, 0 a > .
(4) Hint. We have dx
2
3
4 dx 3 dx
2
3
4 3 dx
2
3 4 2 3
x
x
x
x
x x
} } } }
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

.
Answer. C
2
3
) 2 / 3 ln(
4
x 3
x
+
|
.
|

\
|

Exercise 6. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx e e 2 3 I
x x
}
= (2) dx
x 2
e
I
x
}

=
(3) dx
e 4
e
I
x 2
x
}

= (4) dx
9 1
3
I
x
x
}
+
=
(1) Hint. We use the substitution
x
e 2 3 u = . Since dx e 2 du
x
= , the integral
transforms into C u u
3
2
2
1
du u
2
1
+ =
}
.
Answer. C e 2 3 ) e 2 3 (
3
1
x x
+
(2) Hint. We use the substitution x u = . Since
x 2
dx
du = , the integral
transforms into C e du e
u u
+ =
}
. Answer. C e
x
+

.
(3) Hint. We use the substitution
x
e u = . Since dx e du
x
= and
2 x 2
u 4 e 4 =
the integral transforms into
}

2
u 4
du
. Using a second substitution t 2 u = , the
last integral transforms into C t arcsin
) t 1 ( 4
dt 2
2
+ =

}
. Going back to the original
variable, we get the following Answer. C
2
e
arcsin
x
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
.
(4) Hint. We use the substitution
x
3 u = . Since dx 3 ) 3 (ln du
x
= and
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
75
2 x
u 1 9 1 + = + , the integral transforms into
C
3 ln
| u 1 u | ln
u 1
du
3 ln
1
2
2
+
+ +
=
+
}
. Answer. C
3 ln
| 9 1 3 | ln
x x
+
+ +
.
V) Integrals of Trigonometric Functions
Exercise 7. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x sin e
x cos
}
(2) dx
e
x cos
x sin }

(3) dx
x 3
) x 2 ( sin
}
(4) dx
x cos 5
x sin
2
}
+

(5)
}
x cot 3 2 x sin
dx
2
(6) dx x sin x cos
5
}

(1) Hint. We use the substitution x cos u = . Since dx x sin du = , the integral
transforms into C e du e
u u
+ =
}
. Answer. C e
x cos
+
(2) Hint. We use the substitution x sin u = . Since dx x cos du = , the integral
transforms into C e du e
u u
+ =
}
. Answer. C e
x sin
+
(3) Hint. We use the substitution x 2 u = . Since dx
x
1
du = , the integral
transforms into C u cos
3
1
du u sin
3
1
+ =
}
. Answer. C ) x 2 ( cos
3
1
+
(4) Hint. We use the substitution x cos u = . Since dx x sin du = , the integral
transforms into C | u 5 u | ln
u 5
du
2
2
+ + + =
+

}
.
Answer. C | x cos 5 x cos | ln
2
+ + +
(5) Hint. We use the substitution x cot 3 2 u = . Since dx
x sin
3
du
2
= , the integral
transform into C u
3
2
u
du
3
1
+ =
}
. Answer. C x cot 3 2
3
2
+
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
76
(6) Hint. We use the substitution x sin u = . Since dx x cos du = , the integral
transforms into C
6
u
du u
6
5
+ =
}
. Answer. C
6
x sin
6
+
VI) Integrals of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Exercise 8. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x 1
x arcsin
I
2
}

= (2) dx
x 1
) x (arctan
2
3
}
+

(1) Hint. We use the substitution x arcsin u = . Since dx
x 1
1
du
2

= , the
integral transforms into C
2
u
du u I
2
+ = =
}
. Answer. C
2
) x (arcsin
2
+
(2) Hint. We use the substitution x arctan u = . Since dx
x 1
1
du
2
+
= , the integral
transforms into C
4
u
du u I
4
3
+ = =
}
. Answer. C
4
) x (arcsin
4
+
VII) Integrals with two successive substitutions
Exercise 9. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
4 e
e
I
x 2
x
}
+
= (2) dx
16 x
x 5
I
6
2
}
+
=
(3) dx
) x ln(cos
x tan
I
}
= (4) dx
) x ln 3 2 ( x
x ln 5
I
2 }
+
=
(1) Hint. We use the substitution
x
e u = . Since dx e du
x
= , the integral
transforms into
}
+ 4 u
du
2
. Under a second substitution t 2 u = , the integral
transforms into C t arctan
2
1
) 1 t ( 4
dt 2
2
+ =
+
}
. Going back to the original variable,
we get the following Answer. C
2
e
arctan
2
1
x
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
.
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
77
(2) Hint. We use the substitution
3
x u = . Since dx x 3 du
2
= , the integral
transforms into
}
+16 u
du
3
5
2
. Under a second transformation t 4 u = , the previous
integral transforms into C t arctan
12
5
) 1 t ( 16
dt 4
3
5
2
+ =
+
}
.
Answer. C
4
x
arctan
12
5
3
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
.
(3) Hint. We use the substitution ) x ln(cos u = . Since dx x tan du = , the integral
transforms into C | u | ln
u
du
+ =
}
. Answer. C | ) x ln(cos | ln + .
(4) Hint. We use the substitution x ln u = . Since
x
dx
du = , the integral transforms
into du
u 3 2
u 5
2
}
+
. Under a second transformation
2
u 3 2 t + = , since du u 6 dt = ,
the last integral transforms into C | t | ln
6
5
t
dt
6
5
+ =
}
. Answer. C ) x ln 3 2 ( ln
6
5
2
+ + .
VIII) Integrals with two different substitutions
Exercise 10. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
x 1
x arcsin 2 x 3
2
}

(2) dx
x 1
x arctan 6 x 5
2 }
+
+

(1) Hint. We have

2 1
2 2 2
I I dx
x 1
x arcsin 2
dx
x 1
x 3
dx
x 1
x arcsin 2 x 3
=

} } }

For the integral
1
I we use the substitution
2
x 1 u = . Since dx x 2 du = , this
integral transforms into u 3
u
du
2
3
=
}
. For the integral
2
I we use the
substitution x arcsin t = . Since dx
x 1
1
dt
2

= , this integral transforms into


Chapter 3-The method of substitution
78
2
t dt t 2 =
}
. Going back to the original variables, we get the following
Answer. C ) x (arcsin x 1 3
2 2
+
(2) Hint. We have

2 1
2 2 2
I I dx
x 1
x arctan 6
dx
x 1
x 5
dx
x 1
x arctan 6 x 5
+ =
+
+
+
=
+
+
} } }

For the integral
1
I we use the substitution
2
x 1 u + = . Since dx x 2 du = , this
integral transforms into | u | ln
2
5
u
du
2
5
=
}
. For the integral
2
I we use the
substitution x arctan t = . Since dx
x 1
1
dt
2
+
= , this integral transforms into
t t 4 dt t 6 =
}
. Going back to the original variable, we obtain the following
Answer. C x arctan x arctan 4 ) x 1 ln(
2
5
2
+ + +
VIII) Supplementary Examples
Exercise 11. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx
) 1 x (
x
4 5
9
}
+
(2) dx
x 4 1
x 2
2
3
}
+

(1) Hint. We use the substitution 1 x u
5
+ = . Since dx x 5 du
4
= , we have the
following transformation du
5
1
) 1 u ( ) dx x ( x dx x
4 5 9
= . Therefore the integral
becomes C
u
1
15
1
u
1
10
1
u
du
5
1
du
u
du
5
1
du
u
) 1 u (
5
1
3 2 4 3 4
+ + = =

} } }

Answer. C
) 1 x (
1
15
1
) 1 x (
1
10
1
3 5 2 5
+
+
+
+

(2) Hint. We use the substitution
2
x 4 1 u + = . We then get dx x 8 du = and
4
1 u
x
2

= . Since we have the transformation
Chapter 3-The method of substitution
79
du ) 1 u (
16
1
du
8
1
4
1 u
2 ) dx x ( x 2 dx x 2
2 3
=
|
.
|

\
|

=
the integral transforms into
C u
4
1
u u
12
1
u
du
8
1
du u
8
1
du
u
1 u
8
1
+ = =

} } }

Answer. C x 4 1
4
1
x 4 1 ) x 4 1 (
12
1
2 2 2
+ + + +




4

Integration by Parts


Learning Objectives

In this Section the student will learn how to evaluate
integrals using the integration by parts method.



In applying the method of integration by parts, we shall use the following
Theorem:
Theorem 4.1. If ) x ( f and ) x ( g are integrable functions, then

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f (1)
Proof. We start from the formula (Leibnitz rule)
) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f ] ) x ( g ) x ( f [ ' + ' = '
Integrating the above formula, we get

} } }
' + ' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ] ) x ( g ) x ( f [
which is equivalent to

} }
' + ' = dx ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f
from which we get relation (1).
Note. Formula (1) can also be written as

} }
= ) x ( dg ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( df ) x ( g (2)

Chapter 4-Integration by parts
81
4.1. Examples
Example 1. Evaluate the Integral dx e x I
x
}
=
Solution. In applying formula (1), it is instructive to form the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e
x

x
e
1

Using formula (1) and the above table, we get
C e e x dx e e x dx e x I
x x x x x
+ = = =
} }

Maple support:
> f:=x*exp(x);
:= f x e
x

> int(f,x);
( ) + 1 x e
x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
x e
x
x ( ) + 1 x e
x

Example 2. Evaluate the Integral dx x ln x I
3
}
=
Solution. In applying formula (1), it is instructive to form the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

3
x
x ln

4
x
4


x
1

Using formula (1) and the above table, we get
= = = =
} } }
dx x
4
1
x ln
4
x
dx
x
1
4
x
x ln
4
x
dx x ln x I
3
4 4 4
3

C x
16
1
x ln
4
x
C
4
x
4
1
x ln
4
x
4
4 4 4
+ = + =
Maple support:

Chapter 4-Integration by parts
82
> f:=x^3*log(x);
:= f x
3
( ) ln x

> int(f,x);

1
4
x
4
( ) ln x
x
4
16

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
x
3
( ) ln x x
1
4
x
4
( ) ln x
x
4
16

Example 3. Evaluate the Integral dx x ln I
}
=
Solution. In applying formula (1), it is instructive to form the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
1 x ln x

x
1

Using formula (1) and the above table, we get
C x x ln x dx x ln x dx
x
1
x x ln x dx x ln I + = = = =
} } }

Maple support:
> f:=log(x);
:= f ( ) ln x

> int(f,x);
x ( ) ln x x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
( ) ln x x x ( ) ln x x
Example 4. Evaluate the Integral dx x arctan I
}
=
Solution. In applying formula (1), it is instructive to form the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
1 x arctan x

2
x 1
1
+

Using formula (1) and the above table, we have
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
83
=
+
= =
} }
dx
x 1
1
x x arctan x dx x arctan I
2

C ) x 1 ln(
2
1
x arctan x dx
x 1
x 2
2
1
x arctan x
2
2
+ + =
+
=
}

Note. The integral dx
x 1
1
x
2
}
+
was written in the form dx
x 1
x 2
2
1
2
}
+
and then
was evaluated using the substitution
2
x 1 u + = , converting it to
C ) x 1 ln(
2
1
C | u | ln
2
1
u
du
2
1
2
+ + = + =
}
.
Maple support:
> f:=arctan(x);
:= f ( ) arctan x

> int(f,x);
x ( ) arctan x
1
2
( ) ln + 1 x
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
( ) arctan x x x ( ) arctan x
1
2
( ) ln + 1 x
2

Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx x arcsin I
}
=
Solution. In applying formula (1), it is instructive to form the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
1 x arcsin x
2
x 1
1


Using formula (1) and the above table, we have
=

= =
} }
dx
x 1
1
x x arcsin x dx x arcsin I
2

C x 1 x arcsin x dx
x 1
x 2
2
1
x arcsin x
2
2
+ + =

+ =
}

Chapter 4-Integration by parts
84
Note. The integral dx
x 1
1
x
2
}

was written in the form dx
x 1
x 2
2
1
2
}

and
then was evaluated using the substitution
2
x 1 u = , converting it into

2
x 1 C u
u
du
2
1
= + =
}
.
Maple support:
> f:=arcsin(x);
:= f ( ) arcsin x

> int(f,x);
+ x ( ) arcsin x 1 x
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
( ) arcsin x x + x ( ) arcsin x 1 x
2

Example 6. Evaluate the integrals
dx x sin x I
}
= and dx x cos x J
}
=
Solution. Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x sin x x cos 1
we have
dx x cos x cos x dx x sin x I
} }
+ = =
C x sin x cos x + + =
. Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x cos x x sin 1
we have
dx x sin x sin x dx x cos x J
} }
+ = =
C x cos x sin x + =
Maple support:
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
85
> f:=x*sin(x);
:= f x ( ) sin x

> int(f,x);
( ) sin x x ( ) cos x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
x ( ) sin x x ( ) sin x x ( ) cos x
> g:=x*cos(x);
:= g x ( ) cos x

> int(g,x);
+ ( ) cos x x ( ) sin x

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
= d
(
]
(
x ( ) cos x x + ( ) cos x x ( ) sin x
Example 7. Evaluate the integrals
dx x sin e I
x
}
= and dx x cos e J
x
}
=
Solution. Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e
x sin

x
e
x cos
we have
J x sin e dx x cos e x sin e dx x sin e I
x x x x
= = =
} }

or
x sin e J I
x
= +
Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e
x cos

x
e
x sin
we have
I x cos e dx x sin e x cos e dx x cos e J
x x x x
+ = + = =
} }

or
x cos e J I
x
= +
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
86
Solving the system
x sin e J I
x
= + and x cos e J I
x
= +
we obtain
) x cos e x sin e (
2
1
I
x x
= and ) x cos e x sin e (
2
1
J
x x
+ =
A generalization of this example is given in 9.21.
Maple support:
> f:=exp(x)*sin(x);
:= f e
x
( ) sin x

> int(f,x);
+
1
2
e
x
( ) cos x
1
2
e
x
( ) sin x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
e
x
( ) sin x x +
1
2
e
x
( ) cos x
1
2
e
x
( ) sin x

> g:=exp(x)*cos(x);
:= g e
x
( ) cos x

> int(g,x);
+
1
2
e
x
( ) cos x
1
2
e
x
( ) sin x

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
e
x
( ) cos x x +
1
2
e
x
( ) cos x
1
2
e
x
( ) sin x


Example 8. Evaluate the integrals
dx
x sin
x
I
2
}
= and dx
x cos
x
J
2
}
=
Solution. Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x sin
1
2

x x cot 1
we obtain
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
87
= + = + = =
} } }
dx
x sin
x cos
x cot x dx x cot x cot x dx
x sin
x
I
2

C | x sin | ln x cot x dx
x sin
) x (sin
x cot x + + =
'
+ =
}

Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x cos
1
2

x x tan 1
we obtain
= + = = =
} } }
dx
x cos
x sin
x tan x dx x tan x tan x dx
x cos
x
J
2

C | x cos | ln x tan x dx
x cos
) x (cos
x tan x + =
'
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=x/sin(x)^2;
:= f
x
( ) sin x
2

> int(f,x);
+ x ( ) cot x ( ) ln ( ) sin x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
x
( ) sin x
2
x + x ( ) cot x ( ) ln ( ) sin x
> g:=x/cos(x)^2;
:= g
x
( ) cos x
2

> int(g,x);
+ x ( ) tan x ( ) ln ( ) cos x

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
x
( ) cos x
2
x + x ( ) tan x ( ) ln ( ) cos x


Chapter 4-Integration by parts
88
Example 9. Evaluate the integrals
dx x tan x I
2
}
= and dx x cot x J
2
}
=
Solution. We have the formula: 1
x cos
1
x tan
2
2
= . Therefore
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
dx 1
x cos
1
x dx x tan x I
2
2

C
2
x
| x cos | ln x tan x dx x dx
x cos
x
2
2
+ = =
} }

where we have used the value of the integral dx
x cos
x
2 }
we have found in the
previous Example.
We have the formula: 1
x sin
1
x cot
2
2
= . Therefore
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
dx 1
x sin
1
x dx x cot x J
2
2

C
2
x
| x sin | ln x cot x dx x dx
x sin
x
2
2
+ + = =
} }

where we have used the value of the integral dx
x sin
x
2 }
we have found in the
previous Example.
Maple support:
> f:=x*tan(x)^2;
:= f x ( ) tan x
2

> int(f,x);
x ( ) tan x
x
2
2
1
2
( ) ln + 1 ( ) tan x
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
x ( ) tan x
2
x x ( ) tan x
x
2
2
1
2
( ) ln + 1 ( ) tan x
2

> g:=x*cot(x)^2;
:= g x ( ) cot x
2

Chapter 4-Integration by parts
89
> int(g,x);
+
x
1
2
x
2
( ) tan x
( ) tan x
( ) ln ( ) tan x
1
2
( ) ln + 1 ( ) tan x
2

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
x ( ) cot x
2
x +
x
1
2
x
2
( ) tan x
( ) tan x
( ) ln ( ) tan x
1
2
( ) ln + 1 ( ) tan x
2


Example 10. Evaluate the integral
dx
) x 1 (
x
I
2 2
2
}
+
=
Solution. Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

2 2
) x 1 (
x
+

x
) x 1 ( 2
1
2
+

1
we obtain
=
+
+
+
=
+
=
} }
dx
x 1
1
2
1
) x 1 ( 2
x
dx
) x 1 (
x
I
2 2 2 2
2

C x arctan
2
1
) x 1 ( 2
x
2
+ +
+
=
Maple support:
> f:=x^2/(1+x^2)^2;
:= f
x
2
( ) + 1 x
2
2

> int(f,x);

1
2
( ) arctan x
x
2 ( ) + 1 x
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
((
x
2
( ) + 1 x
2
2
x
1
2
( ) arctan x
x
2 ( ) + 1 x
2

Chapter 4-Integration by parts
90

Example 11. Evaluate the integral
dx ) x (arctan x I
2
}
=
Solution. Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x
2
) x (arctan

2
x
2
) x (arctan
x 1
2
2
+

we obtain
=
+
= =
} }
dx ) x (arctan
x 1
2
2
x
) x (arctan
2
x
dx ) x (arctan x I
2
2
2
2
2

J ) x (arctan
2
x
dx ) x (arctan
x 1
x
) x (arctan
2
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
+
=
}

The integral
dx ) x (arctan
x 1
x
J
2
2
}
+
=
can be written as
= |
.
|

\
|
+
=
}
dx ) x (arctan
x 1
1
1 J
2

L K dx ) x (arctan
x 1
1
dx ) x (arctan
2
=
+
=
} }

The integral dx ) x (arctan K
}
= was evaluated above in Example 4:
) x 1 ln(
2
1
x arctan x dx ) x (arctan K
2
+ = =
}

The integral
dx ) x (arctan
x 1
1
L
2 }
+
=
can be evaluated using the substitution x arctan u = .
Since dx
x 1
1
du
2
+
= , we find
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
91

2
2
2
) x (arctan
2
1
2
u
du u dx ) x (arctan
x 1
1
L = = =
+
=
} }

Collecting everything together, we obtain
= = = ) L K ( ) x (arctan
2
x
J ) x (arctan
2
x
I
2
2
2
2

C ) x (arctan
2
1
) x 1 ln(
2
1
x arctan x ) x (arctan
2
x
2 2 2
2
+ + + + =
Maple support:
> f:=x*arctan(x)^2;
:= f x ( ) arctan x
2

> int(f,x);
+ +
1
2
( ) arctan x
2
1
2
( ) arctan x
2
x
2
x ( ) arctan x
1
2
( ) ln + 1 x
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
x ( ) arctan x
2
x + +
1
2
( ) arctan x
2
1
2
( ) arctan x
2
x
2
x ( ) arctan x
1
2
( ) ln + 1 x
2



Example 12. Evaluate the integral
dx ) x (arctan x I
2
}
=
Solution. Using formula (1) and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

2
x
x arctan

3
x
3


2
x 1
1
+

we obtain
=
+
= =
} }
dx
x 1
x
3
1
) x (arctan
3
x
dx ) x (arctan x I
2
3 3
2

J
3
1
) x (arctan
3
x
3
=
The integral dx
x 1
x
J
2
3
}
+
= can be evaluated as follows
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
92
=
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=
} } } }
dx
x 1
x
dx x dx
x 1
x
x dx
x 1
x
J
2 2 2
3

) x 1 ( ln
2
1
2
x
dx
x 1
x 2
2
1
2
x
2
2
2
2
+ =
+
=
}

Therefore we obtain the value of the integral
= = =
}
J
3
1
) x (arctan
3
x
dx ) x (arctan x I
3
2

C ) x 1 ( ln
2
1
2
x
3
1
) x (arctan
3
x
2
2 3
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
or
C ) x 1 ln(
6
1
x
6
1
) x (arctan
3
x
dx ) x (arctan x I
2 2
3
2
+ + + = =
}

Maple support:
> f:=x^2*arctan(x);
:= f ( ) arctan x x
2

> int(f,x);
+
1
3
x
3
( ) arctan x
x
2
6
1
6
( ) ln + 1 x
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
( ) arctan x x
2
x +
1
3
x
3
( ) arctan x
x
2
6
1
6
( ) ln + 1 x
2



4.2. Reduction Formulas.
Example 1. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx e x I
x
1 }
= (2) dx e x I
x 2
2 }
= (3) dx e x I
x 3
3 }
=
Solution.
(1) This integral was evaluated previously in 4.1, Example 1:
C e e x dx e x I
x x x
1
+ = =
}
(1)
(2) Using the formula
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
93

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e

2
x

x
e
x 2
we have

1
x 2 x x 2 x 2
2
I 2 e x dx e x 2 e x dx e x I = = =
} }
(2)
where
1
I is given by (1).
(3) Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e

3
x

x
e

2
x 3
we have

2
x 3 x 2 x 3 x 3
3
I 3 e x dx e x 3 e x dx e x I = = =
} }
(3)
where
2
I is given by (2).
We see from the above Examples that we need to repeat integration so many times
as long as the exponent of x becomes higher and higher. It is further observed
that each integral is being expressed in terms of the integral having exponent of x
less by one:

0
x x
1
I e x dx e x I = =
}


1
x 2 x 2
2
I 2 e x dx e x I = =
}


2
x 3 x 3
3
I 3 e x dx e x I = =
}

Therefore considering the integral dx e x I
x n
n }
= , one expects that

1 n
x n x n
n
I n e x dx e x I

= =
}
( 1 n > ) (4)
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
94
This is indeed the case by considering the following table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e
n
x
x
e
1 n
x n


Using the table above we establish the formula

1 n
x n x 1 n x n x n
n
I n e x dx e x n e x dx e x I

= = =
} }

Therefore

1 n
x n
n
I n e x I

= , 1 n >
The above formula is a reduction formula for the integral dx e x I
x n
n }
= .
It is sometimes called iteration formula or recurrence relation.
It means that the evaluation of dx e x I
x n
n }
= is reduced to the evaluation of
1 n
I

, the evaluation of
1 n
I

is reduced to the evaluation of
2 n
I

, etc using
successively formula (3).
Using the above formula we can evaluate for example dx e x
x 4
}
without using
four times integration by parts.
For 4 n = we have from (4):
3
x 4
4
I 4 e x I =
For 3 n = we have from (4):
2
x 3
3
I 3 e x I =
For 2 n = we have from (4):
1
x 2
2
I 2 e x I =
For 1 n = we have from (4):
0
x
1
I e x I =
where it is obvious that

x x
0
e dx e I = =
}

Going from the last equation to the first one, we get
-
x x
0
x
1
e e x I e x I = =
-
x x x 2 x x x 2
1
x 2
2
e 2 e x 2 e x ) e e x ( 2 e x I 2 e x I + = = =
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
95
- = + = = ) e 2 e x 2 e x ( 3 e x I 3 e x I
x x x 2 x 3
2
x 3
3


x x x 2 x 3
e 6 e x 6 e x 3 e x + =
- = + = = ) e 6 e x 6 e x 3 e x ( 4 e x I 4 e x I
x x x 2 x 3 x 4
3
x 4
4


x x x 2 x 3 x 4
e 24 e x 24 e x 12 e x 4 e x + + =
(an arbitrary constant has been omitted).
Some remarks are now in order:
- No all reduction formulas can be established using the integration by parts
method.
- There are reduction formulas depending on two (or more) indices.
See for example reduction formulas for integration of trigonometric
functions (
- Computer Algebra Systems evaluate immediately integrals which are
evaluated by hand using reduction formulas.
Maple support:
> f:=x^4*exp(x);
:= f x
4
e
x

> int(f,x);
( ) + + 24 24 x 12 x
2
4 x
3
x
4
e
x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
x
4
e
x
x ( ) + + 24 24 x 12 x
2
4 x
3
x
4
e
x



4.3. Integrals in which integration by parts follows a
substitution.
In many cases we have to make a substitution first and then integrate by parts.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx
x
) x ln(ln
I
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
96
Solution. Using the substitution x ln u = , since
x
dx
du = , the integral becomes

}
= du u ln I
which was evaluated before (Example 3, 4.1):
C u u ln u du u ln + =
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral:
C ) x (ln ) x ln(ln ) x (ln dx
x
) x ln(ln
I + = =
}

Maple support:
> f:=log(log(x))/x;
:= f
( ) ln ( ) ln x
x

> int(f,x);
( ) ln ( ) ln x ( ) ln x ( ) ln x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
( ) ln ( ) ln x
x
x ( ) ln ( ) ln x ( ) ln x ( ) ln x

Example 2. Evaluate the integral
dx e x I
2
x 3
}

=
Solution. Using the substitution
2
x u = , since dx x 2 du = and
du u
2
1
du
2
1
) u ( dx x x dx x
2 3
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
the integral transforms into du e u
2
1
u
}
. The last integral was evaluated in 4.1,
Example 1:

u u u
e e u du e u =
}

Going back to the original variable, we find
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
97
C e
2
1
e ) x (
2
1
dx e x I
2 2 2
x x 2 x 3
+ = =

}

Maple support:
> f:=x^3*exp(-x^2);
:= f x
3
e
( ) x
2

> int(f,x);

1
2
( ) + 1 x
2
e
( ) x
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
x
3
e
( ) x
2
x
1
2
( ) + 1 x
2
e
( ) x
2

Example 3. Evaluate the integral
dx e I
x
}
=
Solution. Using the substitution u x = ,
2
u x = and du u 2 dx = , the integral
transforms into du e u 2
u
}
. The last integral was evaluated in 4.1, Example 1:

u u u
e e u du e u =
}

Going back to the original variable, we find
C e 2 e x 2 dx e I
x x x
+ = =
}

Maple support:
> f:=exp(sqrt(x));
:= f e
( ) x

> int(f,x);
2 e
( ) x
x 2 e
( ) x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
((
e
( ) x
x 2 e
( ) x
x 2 e
( ) x

Example 4. Evaluate the integrals
dx ) x cos(ln I
}
= and dx ) x sin(ln J
}
=
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
98
Solution. Under the substitution x ln u = , since
u
e x = and du e dx
u
= , the
integral I transforms into du e ) u (cos
u
}
, which was evaluated before (in 4.1,
Example 7):
) u cos e u sin e (
2
1
du e ) u (cos
u u u
+ =
}

Therefore going back to the original variable, we find
C )] x cos(ln x ) x sin(ln x [
2
1
dx ) x cos(ln I + + = =
}

Similarly, under the substitution x ln u = , since
u
e x = and du e dx
u
= , the
integral J transforms into du e ) u (sin
u
}
, which was evaluated before (in 4.1,
Example 7):
) u cos e u sin e (
2
1
du e ) u (sin
u u u
=
}

Therefore going back to the original variable, we find
C )] x cos(ln x ) x sin(ln x [
2
1
dx ) x sin(ln I + = =
}

Maple support:
> f:=cos(log(x));
:= f ( ) cos ( ) ln x

> int(f,x);
+
1
2
( ) cos ( ) ln x x
1
2
( ) sin ( ) ln x x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
( ) cos ( ) ln x x +
1
2
( ) cos ( ) ln x x
1
2
( ) sin ( ) ln x x

> g:=sin(log(x));
:= g ( ) sin ( ) ln x

> int(g,x);
+
1
2
( ) cos ( ) ln x x
1
2
( ) sin ( ) ln x x

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
99
= d
(
]
(
( ) sin ( ) ln x x +
1
2
( ) cos ( ) ln x x
1
2
( ) sin ( ) ln x x

Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx x sin I
}
=
Solution. We make the substitution
x sin u = (1)
Inverting the sine function, we find
u arcsin x =
Squaring both members of the previous relation, we obtain

2
) u (arcsin x = (2)
from which we calculate the differential:
du ) u (arcsin
u 1
2
dx
2

=
The integral thus becomes

}

du ) u (arcsin
u 1
2
u
2
(3)
Using the formula

} }
' = ' du ) u ( g ) u ( f ) u ( g ) u ( f du ) u ( g ) u ( f
and the table
) u ( f ' ) u ( g ) u ( f ) u ( g'

2
u 1
u


u arcsin 2
u 1
2
u 1
1


we get for the integral in (3):
du
u 1
1
) u 1 ( 2 ) u (arcsin u 1 2
2
2 2


}

or
C u 2 ) u (arcsin u 1 2 du 2 ) u (arcsin u 1 2
2 2
+ + = +
}

Going back to the original variable, we get the following value of the integral:
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
100
C x sin 2 x ) x sin ( 1 2 dx x sin I
2
+ + = =
}

C x sin 2 x ) x (cos 2 + + =
Maple support:
> f:=sin(sqrt(x));
:= f ( ) sin x

> int(f,x);
2 ( ) sin x 2 x ( ) cos x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
( ) sin x x 2 ( ) sin x 2 x ( ) cos x
4.4. Supplementary Exercises.
Exercise 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx
x
x ln
I
3
2

Solution. Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

3
2
x
1

x ln

3
x 3

x
1

we have
= = =
} }
dx
x
x
3 ) x (ln x 3 dx
x
x ln
I
3
3
3
2

C x 9 ) x (ln x 3 dx x 3 ) x (ln x 3
3 3
3
2
3
+ = =
}


Maple support:
> f:=log(x)/x^(2/3);
:= f
( ) ln x
x
( ) / 2 3

> int(f,x);
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
101
3 ( ) ln x x
( ) / 1 3
9 x
( ) / 1 3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
(
( ) ln x
x
( ) / 2 3
x 3 ( ) ln x x
( ) / 1 3
9 x
( ) / 1 3

Exercise 2. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx
x
) x (ln
I
2
2

Solution. Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

2
x
1


2
) x (ln

x
1

x
1
) x (ln 2
we have
J 2 ) x (ln
x
1
dx
x
x ln
2 ) x (ln
x
1
dx
x
) x (ln
I
2
2
2
2
2
+ = + = =
} }

For the integral
}
= dx
x
x ln
J
2
, using the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

2
x
1

x ln

x
1

x
1

we have

x
1
x
x ln
dx
x
1
x
x ln
dx
x
x ln
J
2 2
= + = =
} }

Collecting everything together, we obtain
C
x
) x ln 1 ( 2
) x (ln
x
1
dx
x
) x (ln
I
2
2
2
+
+
= =
}

Maple support:
> f:=log(x)^2/x^2;
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
102
:= f
( ) ln x
2
x
2

> int(f,x);

( ) ln x
2
x
2 ( ) ln x
x
2
x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
(
( ) ln x
2
x
2
x
( ) ln x
2
x
2 ( ) ln x
x
2
x

Exercise 3. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx x cos x sin x I
Solution. Since x 2 sin
2
1
) x cos x sin 2 (
2
1
x cos x sin = = , the integral takes
the form

} }
= = dx x 2 sin x
2
1
dx x cos x sin x I
Using the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x 2 sin x
2
x 2 cos

1
we have

} }
= = dx x 2 sin x
2
1
dx x cos x sin x I
C
2
x 2 sin
4
1
2
x 2 cos x
dx x 2 cos
4
1
2
x 2 cos x
+ + = + =
}

C x 2 sin
8
1
) x 2 cos x (
2
1
+ + =
Maple support:
> f:=x*sin(x)*cos(x);
:= f x ( ) sin x ( ) cos x

> int(f,x);
+ +
1
2
x ( ) cos x
2
1
4
( ) sin x ( ) cos x
x
4

Chapter 4-Integration by parts
103
> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
x ( ) sin x ( ) cos x x + +
1
2
x ( ) cos x
2
1
4
( ) sin x ( ) cos x
x
4


Exercise 4. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx
x sin
x cos x
I
3

Solution. Using the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x sin
x cos
3

x
x sin 2
1
2

1
and the integration by parts formula, we find
C x cot
2
1
x sin 2
x
x sin
dx
2
1
x sin 2
x
dx
x sin
x cos x
I
2 2 2 3
+ = + = =
} }

Maple support:
> f:=x*cos(x)/sin(x)^3;
:= f
x ( ) cos x
( ) sin x
3

> int(f,x);

1
2
x
( ) sin x
2
1
2
( ) cos x
( ) sin x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
x ( ) cos x
( ) sin x
3
x
1
2
x
( ) sin x
2
1
2
( ) cos x
( ) sin x

Exercise 5. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx
e
) 2 / x ( cos
I
x
2

Solution. We have the formula

2
x cos 1
) 2 / x ( cos
2
+
=
Therefore the integral becomes
= + =
+
=
} } }
dx
e
x cos
2
1
dx
e
1
2
1
dx
e
x cos 1
2
1
I
x x x

Chapter 4-Integration by parts
104
J
2
1
e
2
1
dx x cos e
2
1
dx e
2
1
x x x
+ = + =

} }

Using the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e


x cos

x
e


x sin
we have
dx x sin e x cos e dx x cos e J
x x x
} }

= =
We now have to calculate the integral dx x sin e
x
}

.
Using the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e


x sin

x
e


x cos
we have
J x sin e dx x cos e x sin e dx x sin e
x x x x
+ = + =

} }

Therefore
) J x sin e ( x cos e dx x cos e J
x x x
+ = =

}

from which we obtain
) x cos x (sin e
2
1
J
x
=


Collecting everything together, we find
C ) x cos x (sin e
4
1
e
2
1
I
x x
+ + =


Maple support:
> f:=cos(x/2)^2/exp(x);
:= f
|
\

|
.
|
|
cos
x
2
2
e
x

> int(f,x);
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
105
+
1
2
1
e
x
1
4
e
( ) x
( ) cos x
1
4
e
( ) x
( ) sin x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
|
\

|
.
|
|
cos
x
2
2
e
x
x +
1
2
1
e
x
1
4
e
( ) x
( ) cos x
1
4
e
( ) x
( ) sin x

Exercise 6. Evaluate the integral
dx e I
x arcsin
}
=
Solution. Using the formula
} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
1
x arcsin
e
x
x arcsin
2
e
x 1
1


we obtain
dx e
x 1
x
e x dx e I
x arcsin
2
x arcsin x arcsin
} }

= =
The last integral under the substitution x arcsin u = , since dx
x 1
1
du
2

= and
u sin x = , transforms into du e ) u (sin
u
}
, which was evaluated in 4.1, Example 7:
) u cos u (sin e
2
1
du e ) u (sin
u u
=
}

Therefore
} x 1 x { e
2
1
dx e
x 1
x
2 x arcsin x arcsin
2
=

}

where we have used the fact that x u sin = and
2
x 1 u cos = .
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
106
Collecting everything together, we find
C } x 1 x { e
2
1
e x dx e I
2 x arcsin x arcsin x arcsin
+ = =
}

or
C } x 1 x { e
2
1
dx e I
2 x arcsin x arcsin
+ + = =
}

Maple support: Maple cannot evaluate this integral.
> f:=exp(arcsin(x));
:= f e
( ) arcsin x

> int(f,x);
d
(
]
(
(
e
( ) arcsin x
x
Mathematica support:
Mathematica has been able to evaluate the integral.

I n [ 1 ] : = Exp ArcSin x x
O u t [ 1 ] =
1
2
ArcSin x
x 1 x
2

Exercise 7. Evaluate the integral
}

= dx
x 1
) x ( arcsin
I ( 1 x 0 < < )
Solution. Using the formula
} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x 1
1


x arcsin x 1 2

x 1
1
x 2
1


we obtain
= + =

=
} }
dx
x
1
) x ( arcsin x 1 2 dx
x 1
) x ( arcsin
I
C x 2 ) x ( arcsin x 1 2 + + =
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
107
Maple support:
> f:=arcsin(sqrt(x))/sqrt(1-x);
:= f
( ) arcsin x
1 x

> int(f,x);
2 x 2 ( ) arcsin x 1 x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
((
( ) arcsin x
1 x
x 2 x 2 ( ) arcsin x 1 x
Exercise 8. Evaluate the integral
}
+ = dx ) a x log( I
2 2

Solution. Using formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
1
) a x log(
2 2
+
x
2 2
a x
x 2
+

and the integration by parts formula, we find
dx
a x
x 2
x ) a x log( x dx ) a x log( I
2 2
2 2 2 2
} }
+
+ = + =
dx
a x
x
2 ) a x log( x
2 2
2
2 2
}
+
+ =
For the last integral we have
=
+
+
=
+
=
} }
dx
a x
a ) a x (
dx
a x
x
J
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2

=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
} } }
dx
a x
1
a dx dx
a x
a
1
2 2
2
2 2
2


|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
x
arctan a x
a
x
arctan
a
1
a x
2

Chapter 4-Integration by parts
108
Therefore
C
a
x
arctan a x 2 ) a x ( log x I
2 2
+ |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Maple support:
> f:=log(x^2+a^2);
:= f ( ) ln + x
2
a
2

> int(f,x);
+ x ( ) ln + x
2
a
2
2 x 2 a
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x
a

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
( ) ln + x
2
a
2
x + x ( ) ln + x
2
a
2
2 x 2 a
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x
a

Exercise 9. Prove the relation dy ) y ( f ) x ( f x dx ) x ( f
1 1
} }
=


where ) y ( f x = .
Solution. Using formula
} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
1
) x ( f
1

x
)) x ( f ( f
1
1
'

we obtain
dx
)) x ( f ( f
x
) x ( f x dx ) x ( f
1
1 1
} }


'
= (1)
Introducing the substitution ) x ( f y
1
= , we find
) y ( f x = and dx
)) x ( f ( f
1
dy
1
'
= (2)
Therefore

} }
=
'

dy ) y ( f dx
)) x ( f ( f
x
1
(3)
The integral in (1) thus takes on the form
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
109
dy ) y ( f ) x ( f x dx ) x ( f
1 1
} }
=

(4)
where ) y ( f x = .
Application. Evaluate the integral
}
dx x arctan .
We have, according to the above formula
} }
= dy y tan x arctan x dx x arctan where ) y ( f x = .
Since
| y cos | ln dy y tan =
}

and
) x arctan( y y tan x = =
we find
| ) x cos(arctan | ln | y cos | ln dy y tan = =
}

Therefore
C | ) x cos(arctan | ln x arctan x dx x arctan + + =
}
(5)
In Example 5 we have found the following result:
C ) x 1 ln(
2
1
x arctan x dx x arctan
2
+ + =
}
(6)
We now have to prove the equivalence of the two formulas (5) and (6).
The proof goes as follows:
= = | ) x (arctan cos | ln
2
1
| ) x cos(arctan | ln
2

) x 1 ln(
2
1
x 1
1
ln
2
1
) x (arctan tan 1
1
ln
2
1
2
2 2
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=




Chapter 4-Integration by parts
110
























4a

Exercises on
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
111
Integration by Parts


In applying the method of integration by parts, we shall use the following formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
proved in Theorem 4.1.
The previous formula can also be written as

} }
= ) x ( dg ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( df ) x ( g
Applying the above formulas, it is also instructive to use a Table, indicating which
functions have been assigned to ) x ( f and ) x ( g respectively.
Exercise 1. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx e x
x 2
}
(2) dx e x
x
}


(3) dx e x
x 2 2
}

(4) dx e x
x a 2
}

(1) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x 2
e
x

x 2
e
2
1

1
We then get
dx e
2
1
e x
2
1
dx e x
x 2 x 2 x 2
} }
=
Answer. C e
4
1
e x
2
1
x 2 x 2
+

(2) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e


x

x
e


1
We then get
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
112
dx e e x dx e x
x x x
} }

+ =
Answer. C e e x
x x
+


(3) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x 2
e


2
x

x 2
e
2
1


x 2
We then get
dx e x e x
2
1
dx e x
x 2 x 2 2 x 2 2
} }

+ =
The last integral is evaluated using the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x 2
e


x

x 2
e
2
1


1
We then get
dx e
2
1
e x
2
1
dx e x
x 2 x 2 x 2
} }

+ =
Answer. C e
4
1
e x
2
1
e x
2
1
x 2 x 2 x 2
+


(4) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x a
e
2
x

x a
e
a
1

x 2
We then get
dx e x
a
2
e x
a
1
dx e x
x a x a 2 x a 2
} }
+ =
The last integral is evaluated using the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x a
e
x

x a
e
a
1

1
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
113
We then get
dx e
a
1
e x
a
1
dx e x
x a x a x a
} }
+ =
Answer. C e
a
1
e x
a
1
a
2
e x
a
1
x a
2
x a x a 2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ +
Exercise 2. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x ln x I
5
}
= (2) dx x ln x I
}
=
(3) dx
x
x ln
I
}
= (4) dx x ln x I
3
2
}
=
(5) dx ) x (ln x I
2 2
}
= (6) dx
x
) x (ln
I
4
3
2
}
=
(1) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

5
x
x ln

6
x
6


x
1

We then get
dx x
6
1
x ln
6
x
dx
x
1
6
x
x ln
6
x
dx x ln x
5
6 6 6
5
} } }
= =
Answer. C
36
x
x ln
6
x
6 6
+
(2) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x
x ln
x x
3
2

x
1

We then get
dx x
3
2
x ln x x
3
2
dx x ln x
} }
=
Answer. C x x
9
4
x ln x x
3
2
+
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
114
(3) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
1

x ln
x 2

x
1

We then get
} }
=
x
dx
2 x ln x 2 dx
x
x ln

Answer. C x 4 x ln x 2 +
(4) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

3
2
x
x ln

3
2
x x
5
3

x
1

We then get
dx x
5
3
x x
5
3
dx x ln x
3
2
3
2
3
2
} }
=
Answer. C x x
25
9
x ln x x
5
3 3
2
3
2
+
(5) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

2
x
2
) x (ln

3
x
3


x
x ln 2

We then get
dx x ln x
3
2
) x (ln
3
x
dx ) x (ln x
2 2
3
2 2
} }
=
For the last integral we use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

2
x
x ln

3
x
3


x
1

We then get
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
115
dx x
3
1
) x (ln
3
x
dx x ln x
2
3
2
} }
=
Answer. C x
27
2
) x (ln x
9
2
) x (ln x
3
1
3 3 2 3
+ +
(6) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

4
3
x
1


2
) x (ln

4
x 4

x
x ln 2

We then get
dx
x
x ln
8 ) x (ln x 4 dx
x
) x (ln
4
3
2
4
4
3
2
} }
=
For the last integral we use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

4
3
x
1

x ln

4
x 4

x
1

We then get
dx
x
1
4 ) x (ln x 4 dx
x
x ln
4
3
2
4
4
3
} }
=
Answer. ] 32 ) x (ln 8 ) x (ln [ x 4
2
4
+
Exercise 3. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x arctan x
}
(2) dx x arcsin x
}

(1) Hint. We use the table

) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x x arctan

2
x
2


2
x 1
1
+

We then have
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
116
dx
x 1
x
2
1
) x (arctan
2
x
dx x arctan x
2
2 2
} }
+
=
and since dx
x 1
1
1 dx
x 1
1 ) x 1 (
dx
x 1
x
2 2
2
2
2
} } }
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
+
=
+
, we obtain the
following
Answer. C
2
x
x arctan
2
1
x arctan x
2
1
2
+ +
(2) Hint. We use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x x arcsin

2
x
2


2
x 1
1


We then have
dx
x 1
x
2
1
) x (arcsin
2
x
dx x arcsin x
2
2 2
} }

=
For the last integral, since dx
x 1
x
x dx
x 1
x
2 2
2
} }

=

, using the table


) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

2
x 1
x


x

2
x 1
1
We then have
dx x 1 x 1 x dx
x 1
x
2 2
2
2
} }
+ =


and since x arcsin
2
1
x 1 x
2
1
dx x 1
2 2
+ =
}
(11.8, Case 2, Example 2,
Method 4), we obtain the following
Answer. C
4
x 1 x
x arcsin
4
1
x arcsin x
2
1
2
2
+

+
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
117
Exercise 4. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x 2 sin x I
}
= (2) dx x 3 cos x I
}
=
(3) dx x 3 sin x I
2
}
= (4) dx x 2 cos x I
2
}
=
(1) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x 2 sin x

2
x 2 cos

1
we have
dx x 2 cos
2
1
x 2 cos x
2
1
dx x 2 sin x
} }
+ =
Answer. C x 2 sin
4
1
x 2 cos x
2
1
+ +
(2) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x 3 cos x

3
x 3 sin

1
we have
dx x 3 sin
3
1
x 3 sin x
3
1
dx x 3 cos x
} }
+ =
Answer. C x 3 cos
9
1
x 3 sin x
3
1
+
(3) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x 3 sin

2
x

3
x 3 cos

x 2
we have
dx x 3 cos x
3
2
x 3 cos x
3
1
dx x 3 sin x
2 2
} }
+ =
The last integral was evaluated previously.
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
118
Answer. C x 3 cos
27
2
x 3 sin x
9
2
x 3 cos x
3
1
2
+ + +
(4) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x 2 cos

2
x

2
x 2 sin

x 2
we have
dx x 2 sin x x 2 sin x
2
1
dx x 2 cos x
2 2
} }
+ =
The last integral was evaluated previously.
Answer. C x 2 sin
4
1
x 2 cos x
2
1
x 2 sin x
2
1
2
+ +
Exercise 5. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx x 2 sin e I
x
}

= (2) dx x cos e I
x 2
}
=
(1) Hint. Use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e


x 2 sin

x
e


x 2 cos 2
we have
dx x 2 cos e 2 x 2 sin e dx x 2 sin e I
x x x
} }

+ = =
or J 2 x 2 sin e I
x
+ =

(1). For the last integral, we use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x
e


x 2 cos

x
e


x 2 sin 2
we have
dx x 2 sin e 2 x 2 cos e dx x 2 cos e J
x x x
} }

= =
or I 2 x 2 cos e J
x
=

(2). From (1), using (2), we get
) I 2 x 2 cos e ( 2 x 2 sin e I
x x
+ =


We solve the previous equation with respect to I and we obtain the following
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
119
Answer. C ) x 2 cos 2 x 2 (sin e
5
1
I
x
+ + =


(2) Hint. We use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x 2
e
x cos

x 2
e
2
1

x sin
we have
dx x sin e
2
1
x cos e
2
1
dx x cos e I
x 2 x 2 x 2
} }
+ = =
or J
2
1
x cos e
2
1
I
x 2
+ = (1). For the last integral we use the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

x 2
e
x sin

x 2
e
2
1

x cos
and we have
dx x cos e
2
1
x sin e
2
1
dx x sin e J
x 2 x 2 x 2
} }
= =
or I
2
1
x sin e
2
1
J
x 2
= (2). Using (2), we obtain from (1) the equation
|
.
|

\
|
+ = I
2
1
x sin e
2
1
2
1
x cos e
2
1
I
x 2 x 2
. Solving this equation with respect to I we
obtain the following
Answer. C ) x sin x cos 2 ( e
5
1
I
x 2
+ + =
Exercise 6. Evaluate the integrals
(1)
}
=
x sin
dx
I
2
(2)
}
=
x cos
dx
I
2

(3) dx x tan I
2
}
= (4) dx x cot I
2
}
=
Chapter 4-Integration by parts
120
(1) Hint. Let u x = . Then
2
u x = and du u 2 dx = . The integral transforms into
du
u sin
u 2
I
2
}
= . We have | u sin | ln u cot u du
u sin
u
2
+ =
}
(4, Example 8).
Answer. C | x sin | ln 2 x cot x 2 + +
(2) Hint. Let u x = . Then
2
u x = and du u 2 dx = . The integral transforms into
du
u cos
u 2
I
2
}
= . Since | u cos | ln u tan u du
u cos
u
2
=
}
(4, Example 8),
Answer. C | x cos | ln 2 x tan x 2 +
(3) Hint. We have 1
x cos
1
x tan
2
2
= . Then
dx 1
x cos
1
dx x tan
2
2
} } |
|
.
|

\
|
= and use the previous result.
Answer. C x | x cos | ln 2 x tan x 2 +
(4) Hint. We have 1
x sin
1
x cot
2
2
= . Then
dx 1
x sin
1
dx x cot
2
2
} } |
|
.
|

\
|
= and use the previous result.
Answer. C x | x sin | ln 2 x cot x 2 + +



5

Integrals of
Polynomial Functions


Learning Objectives

In this Section the student will learn how to evaluate
integrals involving polynomial functions.
The classification involves five cases.



Contents and Taxonomy
- First Category. This Category includes integrals of the form

}
dx ) x ( P
where ) x ( P is an th n degree ( 1 n > ) polynomial
- Second Category. This Category includes integrals of the form
dx ) b x a ( I
n
}
+ =
- Third Category. This Category includes integrals of the form
dx ) b x a ( I
n m
}
+ =

Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
122

- Fourth Category. Integrals of the form
}
' = dx ) x ( P ) x ( P I and
}
' = dx ) x ( P )] x ( P [ J
m

- Fifth Category. Integrals of the form
}
dx ) x ( P ) x ( P ) x ( P
k 2 1
,
}
dx )] x ( P [
m


}
dx )] x ( P [ )] x ( P [ )] x ( P [
k 2 1
m
k
m
2
m
1


5.1 First Category. This Category includes integrals of the form

}
dx ) x ( P
where ) x ( P is an th n degree ( 1 n > ) polynomial:

n 1 n
2 n
2
1 n
1
n
0
A x A x A x A x A ) x ( P + + + + + =



=

=
n
0 k
k n
k
x A ) x ( P
In this case we apply the linearity property of the integral and then integrate term
by term using the formula
C
1 n
x
dx x
1 n
n
+
+
=
+
}
( 1 n > )
Therefore we have
= + + + + + =
} }

dx ) A x A x A x A x A ( dx ) x ( P
n 1 n
2 n
2
1 n
1
n
0

= + + + + =
} } } }

dx A dx x A dx x A dx x A
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

= + + + + +
+
=

+
C x A
2
x
A
n
x
A
1 n
x
A
n
2
1 n
n
1
1 n
0

C x A x
2
A
x
n
A
x
1 n
A
n
2 1 n n 1 1 n 0
+ + + + +
+
=
+

or, using the summation symbol,
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
123
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}

}

}

= =

dx x A dx x A dx ) x ( P
k n
n
0 k
k
n
0 k
k n
k

C x
1 k n
A
C
1 k n
x
A
1 k n
n
0 k
k
1 k n n
0 k
k
+
+
= +
+
=
+
=
+
=


Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+ + = dx ) 5 x 3 x 4 x 5 ( I
2 3

Solution.
= + + =
}
dx ) 5 x 3 x 4 x 5 ( I
2 3

= + + =
} } } }
dx 5 dx x 3 dx x 4 dx x 5
2 3

= + + + = C x 5
2
x
3
3
x
4
4
x
5
2 3 4

C x 5 x
2
3
x
3
4
x
4
5
2 3 4
+ + + =
Maple support:
> f:=5*x^3-4*x^2+3*x+5;
:= f + + 5 x
3
4 x
2
3 x 5

> int(f,x);
+ +
5
4
x
4
4
3
x
3
3
2
x
2
5 x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
+ + 5 x
3
4 x
2
3 x 5 x + +
5
4
x
4
4
3
x
3
3
2
x
2
5 x

5.2 Second Category. This Category includes integrals of the form
dx ) b x a ( I
n
}
+ =
In this case there is no need of expanding the binomial, since we can use the
substitution b x a u + = , dx a du = , du
a
1
dx = .
Therefore
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
124
= = = + =
} } }
du u
a
1
du
a
1
u dx ) b x a ( I
n n n

C u
a ) 1 n (
1
C
1 n
u
a
1
1 n
1 n
+
+
= +
+
=
+
+

and going back to the original variable,
C ) b x a (
a ) 1 n (
1
I
1 n
+ +
+
=
+

Maple support:
> f:=(a*x+b)^n;
:= f ( ) + a x b
n

> int(f,x);
( ) + a x b
( ) + n 1
a ( ) + n 1

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
( ) + a x b
n
x
( ) + a x b
( ) + n 1
a ( ) + n 1


Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx ) 5 x 3 ( I
4
}
=
Solution. Using the substitution 5 x 3 u = , we have dx 3 du = .
Therefore
C ) 5 x 3 (
15
1
C
5
u
3
1
du u
3
1
I
5
5
4
+ = + = =
}

Maple support:
> f:=(3*x-5)^4;
:= f ( ) 3 x 5
4

> int(f,x);
( ) 3 x 5
5
15

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
( ) 3 x 5
4
x
( ) 3 x 5
5
15

Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
125

Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx ) 3 x 5 ( I
8
}
+ =
Solution. Using the substitution 3 x 5 u + = , we have dx 5 du = .
Therefore
C ) 3 x 5 (
45
1
C
9
u
5
1
du u
5
1
I
9
9
8
+ + = + = =
}

Maple support:
> f:=(5*x+3)^8;
:= f ( ) + 5 x 3
8

> int(f,x);
( ) + 5 x 3
9
45

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
( ) + 5 x 3
8
x
( ) + 5 x 3
9
45


5.3 Third Category. This Category includes integrals of the form
dx ) b x a ( I
n m
}
+ =
In this case we have to use the binomial expansion

=

= +
n
0 k
k k n m n m
b ) x a ( ) b x a (
and then integrate term by term:
= = + =
}

}
=

dx b ) x a ( dx ) b x a ( I
n
0 k
k k n m n m

}
=

=

= = =
n
0 k
) k n ( m k k n
n
0 k
k k n m
dx x b a dx b ) x a (

=
+

= +
+
=
n
0 k
1 ) k n ( m
k k n
C
1 ) k n ( m
x
b a
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
126

=
+

+
+
=
n
0 k
1 ) k n ( m
k k n
C x
1 ) k n ( m
b a

Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx ) 2 x 3 ( I
3 2
}
+ =
Solution. Expanding the binomial we find
= + + + = +
3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2
2 2 ) x 3 ( 3 2 ) x 3 ( 3 ) x 3 ( ) 2 x 3 (
8 x 36 x 54 x 27
2 4 6
+ + + =
Therefore
= + + + = + =
} }
dx ) 8 x 36 x 54 x 27 ( dx ) 2 x 3 ( I
2 4 6 3 2

= + + + =
} } } }
dx 8 dx x 36 dx x 54 dx x 27
2 4 6

C x 8
3
x
36
5
x
54
7
x
27
3 5 7
+ + + + =
C x 8 x 12 x
5
54
x
7
27
3 5 7
+ + + + =
Maple support:
> f:=(3*x^2+2)^3;
:= f ( ) + 3 x
2
2
3

> int(f,x);
+ + + 8 x
27
7
x
7
54
5
x
5
12 x
3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
( ) + 3 x
2
2
3
x + + + 8 x
27
7
x
7
54
5
x
5
12 x
3


5.4 Fourth Category.
Integrals of the form
}
' = dx ) x ( P ) x ( P I and
}
' = dx ) x ( P )] x ( P [ J
m

In this case we make use of the substitution ) x ( P u = , dx ) x ( P du ' = .
Therefore we have
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
127
C )) x ( P (
2
1
C
u
du u dx ) x ( P ) x ( P I
2
2
2
+ = + = = ' =
} }

and

} }
= +
+
= = ' =
+
C
1 m
u
du u dx ) x ( P )] x ( P [ J
1 m
m m

C )] x ( P [
1 m
1
1 m
+
+
=
+

Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+ + = dx ) 7 x 10 x 6 ( ) 1 x 7 x 5 x 2 ( I
2 2 3

Solution. Using the substitution 1 x 7 x 5 x 2 u
2 3
+ = , we find
dx ) 7 x 10 x 6 ( du
2
+ = . Therefore
C
2
u
du u I
2
+ = =
}

and going back to the original variable,
C ) 1 x 7 x 5 x 2 (
2
1
I
2 2 3
+ + =
Maple support:
> f:=(2*x^3-5*x^2+7*x-1)*(6*x^2-10*x+7);
:= f ( ) + 2 x
3
5 x
2
7 x 1 ( ) + 6 x
2
10 x 7

> int(f,x);
+ + + 7 x 2 x
6
10 x
5
53
2
x
4
37 x
3
59
2
x
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
( ) + 2 x
3
5 x
2
7 x 1 ( ) + 6 x
2
10 x 7 x + + + 7 x 2 x
6
10 x
5
53
2
x
4
37 x
3
59
2
x
2


Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
+ + = dx ) 7 x 10 x 6 ( ) 1 x 7 x 5 x 2 ( I
2 5 2 3

Solution. Using the substitution 1 x 7 x 5 x 2 u
2 3
+ = , we find
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
128
dx ) 7 x 10 x 6 ( du
2
+ = . Therefore
C
6
u
du u I
6
5
+ = =
}

and going back to the original variable,
C ) 1 x 7 x 5 x 2 (
6
1
I
6 2 3
+ + =
Maple support:
> f:=(2*x^3-5*x^2+7*x-1)^5*(6*x^2-10*x+7);
:= f ( ) + 2 x
3
5 x
2
7 x 1
5
( ) + 6 x
2
10 x 7
> int(f,x);
7 x
32
3
x
18
160 x
17
1224 x
16
18496
3
x
15
22610 x
14
63410 x
13
837845
6
x
12
244545 x
11
683315
2
x
10
+ + + + +
1136365
3
x
9
328729 x
8
218025 x
7
640169
6
x
6
36737 x
5
8585 x
4
3961
3
x
3
255
2
x
2
+ + + +

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
d
(
]
(
(
(
( ) + 2 x
3
5 x
2
7 x 1
5
( ) + 6 x
2
10 x 7 x 7 x
32
3
x
18
160 x
17
1224 x
16
18496
3
x
15
22610 x
14
63410 x
13
+ + + =
837845
6
x
12
244545 x
11
683315
2
x
10
1136365
3
x
9
328729 x
8
218025 x
7
640169
6
x
6
36737 x
5
+ + + +
8585 x
4
3961
3
x
3
255
2
x
2
+ +

> -7*x+32/3*x^18-160*x^17+1224*x^16-18496/3*x^15+22610*x^14-
63410*x^13+837845/6*x^12-244545*x^11+683315/2*x^10-
1136365/3*x^9+328729*x^8-218025*x^7+640169/6*x^6-
36737*x^5+8585*x^4-3961/3*x^3+255/2*x^2;
7 x
32
3
x
18
160 x
17
1224 x
16
18496
3
x
15
22610 x
14
63410 x
13
837845
6
x
12
244545 x
11
683315
2
x
10
+ + + + +
1136365
3
x
9
328729 x
8
218025 x
7
640169
6
x
6
36737 x
5
8585 x
4
3961
3
x
3
255
2
x
2
+ + + +

> factor(%);
x ( ) + 2 x
2
5 x 7 ( ) + 2 x
3
5 x
2
7 x 2 ( ) + + + 4 x
6
20 x
5
53 x
4
72 x
3
54 x
2
7 x 1
( ) + + + 4 x
6
20 x
5
53 x
4
76 x
3
64 x
2
21 x 3 6 /

Mathematica support:
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
129
I n[ 2] : = 2 x
3
5 x
2
7 x 1
5
6 x
2
10 x 7 x
Out [ 2] = 7 x
255 x
2
2
3961 x
3
3
8585 x
4
36 737 x
5
640 169 x
6
6
218 025 x
7
328 729 x
8
1 136 365 x
9
3
683 315 x
10
2
244 545 x
11
837 845 x
12
6
63 410 x
13
22 610 x
14
18 496 x
15
3
1224 x
16
160 x
17
32 x
18
3

I n[ 3] : = Factor
Out [ 3] =
1
6
x 7 5 x 2 x
2
2 7 x 5 x
2
2 x
3
3 21 x 64 x
2
76 x
3
53 x
4
20 x
5
4 x
6
1 7 x 54 x
2
72 x
3
53 x
4
20 x
5
4 x
6

Example 3. Evaluate the integral
dx x ) b x a ( I
1 m n m
}
+ = , 2 m> , 2 n >
Solution. Using the substitution b x a u
m
+ = , we find dx x m a du
1 m
= .
Therefore the integral becomes
C
1 n
u
m a
1
du u
m a
1
1 n
n
+
+
=
+
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C ) b x a (
) 1 n ( m a
1
dx x ) b x a ( I
1 n m 1 m n m
+ +
+
= + =
+
}

Maple support:
> f:=(a*x^m+b)^n*x^(m-1);
:= f ( ) + a x
m
b
n
x
( ) m 1

> int(f,x);
( ) + a x
m
b ( ) + a x
m
b
n
a ( ) + 1 n m

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
130
= d
(
]
(
(
(
( ) + a x
m
b
n
x
( ) m 1
x
( ) + a x
m
b ( ) + a x
m
b
n
a ( ) + 1 n m


5.5 Fifth Category
Integrals of the form
}
dx ) x ( P ) x ( P ) x ( P
k 2 1


}
dx )] x ( P [
m


}
dx )] x ( P [ )] x ( P [ )] x ( P [
k 2 1
m
k
m
2
m
1

can be evaluated by first performing the indicated operations, collecting all terms
together, and then integrating term by term.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx ) 2 x 3 ( ) 4 x 3 x 2 ( I
3 2 2
+ =
}

Solution. Performing the operations we find
+ = +
5 6 7 3 2 2
x 1467 x 540 x 108 ) 2 x 3 ( ) 4 x 3 x 2 (
128 x 768 x 1928 x 2724 x 2462
2 3 4
+ +
Therefore
+ + =
} } } }
dx x 2462 dx x 1467 dx x 540 dx x 108 I
4 5 6 7

= + +
} } } }
dx 128 dx x 768 dx x 1928 dx x 2724
2 3

+ + =
5
x
2462
6
x
1467
7
x
540
8
x
108
5 6 7 8

= + + + C x 128
2
x
768
3
x
1928
4
x
2724
2 3 4

+ + =
5 6 7 8
x
5
2462
x
2
489
x
7
540
x
2
27

C x 128 x 384 x
3
1928
x 681
2 3 4
+ + +
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
131
Maple support:
> f:=(2*x^2-3*x+4)^2*(3*x-2)^3;
:= f ( ) + 2 x
2
3 x 4
2
( ) 3 x 2
3

> int(f,x);
+ + + + 128 x
27
2
x
8
540
7
x
7
489
2
x
6
2462
5
x
5
681 x
4
1928
3
x
3
384 x
2

























Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
132

5a

Exercises on Integrals of
Polynomial Functions


5.1 First Category. Integrals of the form
}
dx ) x ( P where ) x ( P is an th n
degree ( 1 n > ) polynomial:

n 1 n
2 n
2
1 n
1
n
0
A x A x A x A x A ) x ( P + + + + + =



=

=
n
0 k
k n
k
x A ) x ( P
In this case we apply the linearity property of the integral and then integrate term
by term using the formula
C
1 n
x
dx x
1 n
n
+
+
=
+
}
( 1 n > )
Therefore we have
= + + + + + =
} }

dx ) A x A x A x A x A ( dx ) x ( P
n 1 n
2 n
2
1 n
1
n
0

= + + + + =
} } } }

dx A dx x A dx x A dx x A
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

= + + + + +
+
=

+
C x A
2
x
A
n
x
A
1 n
x
A
n
2
1 n
n
1
1 n
0

C x A x
2
A
x
n
A
x
1 n
A
n
2 1 n n 1 1 n 0
+ + + + +
+
=
+

or, using the summation symbol,
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
133
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}

}

}

= =

dx x A dx x A dx ) x ( P
k n
n
0 k
k
n
0 k
k n
k

C x
1 k n
A
C
1 k n
x
A
1 k n
n
0 k
k
1 k n n
0 k
k
+
+
= +
+
=
+
=
+
=


Exercise 1. Evaluate the integrals
(1)
}
+ = dx ) 7 x 6 x 3 ( I
2

(2)
}
+ + = dx ) 3 x 2 x 7 x 4 ( I
2 3

(3)
}
+ + = dx ) 3 x 7 x 5 x 15 ( I
2 4

(1) Hint. The integral transforms into a sum of integrals

} } }
+ dx 7 dx x 6 dx x 3
2

Answer. C x 7 x 3 x
2 3
+ +
(2) Hint. The integral transforms into a sum of integrals

} } } }
+ + dx 3 dx x 2 dx x 7 dx x 4
2 3

Answer. C x 3 x x
3
7
x
2 3 4
+ + +
(3) Hint. The integral transforms into a sum of integrals
} } } }
+ + dx 3 dx x 7 dx x 5 dx x 15
2 4

Answer. C x 3 x
2
7
x
3
5
x 3
2 3 5
+ + +
5.2 Second Category. This Category includes integrals of the form
dx ) b x a ( I
n
}
+ =
In this case there is no need of expanding the binomial, since we can use the
substitution b x a u + = , dx a du = , du
a
1
dx = .
Therefore
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
134
= = = + =
} } }
du u
a
1
du
a
1
u dx ) b x a ( I
n n n

C u
a ) 1 n (
1
C
1 n
u
a
1
1 n
1 n
+
+
= +
+
=
+
+

and going back to the original variable,
C ) b x a (
a ) 1 n (
1
I
1 n
+ +
+
=
+

Exercise 2. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx ) 7 x 2 (
3
}
+ (2) dx ) 5 x 8 (
5
}

(1) Hint. Use the substitution 7 x 2 u + = . Since dx 2 du = , the integral transforms
into C u
8
1
du u
2
1
4 3
+ =
}
.
Answer. C ) 7 x 2 (
8
1
4
+ +
(2) Hint. Use the substitution 5 x 8 u = . Since dx 8 du = , the integral transforms
into C u
48
1
du u
8
1
6 5
+ =
}
.
Answer. C ) 5 x 8 (
48
1
6
+
5.3 Third Category. This Category includes integrals of the form
dx ) b x a ( I
n m
}
+ =
In this case we have to use the binomial expansion

=

= +
n
0 k
k k n m n m
b ) x a ( ) b x a (
and then integrate term by term:
= = + =
}

}
=

dx b ) x a ( dx ) b x a ( I
n
0 k
k k n m n m

Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
135

}
=

=

= = =
n
0 k
) k n ( m k k n
n
0 k
k k n m
dx x b a dx b ) x a (

=
+

= +
+
=
n
0 k
1 ) k n ( m
k k n
C
1 ) k n ( m
x
b a

=
+

+
+
=
n
0 k
1 ) k n ( m
k k n
C x
1 ) k n ( m
b a

Exercise 3. Evaluate the integrals
(1) dx ) 1 x 5 ( I
3 2
}
= (2) dx ) 5 x 2 ( I
4 3
}
+ =
(1) Hint. Expanding we get 1 x 15 x 75 x 125 ) 1 x 5 (
2 4 6 3 2
+ = . The integral
then is transformed into a sum of integrals and each one is evaluated separately.
Answer. C x x 5 x 15 x
7
125
3 5 7
+ +
(2) Hint. Expanding we get
625 x 1000 x 600 x 160 x 16 ) 5 x 2 (
3 6 9 12 4 3
+ + + + = +
The integral then is transformed into a sum of integrals and each one is evaluated
separately.
Answer. C x 625 x 250 x
7
600
x 16 x
13
16
4 7 10 13
+ + + + +
5.4 Fourth Category.
Integrals of the form
}
' = dx ) x ( P ) x ( P I and
}
' = dx ) x ( P )] x ( P [ J
m

In this case we make use of the substitution ) x ( P u = , dx ) x ( P du ' = .
Therefore we have
C )) x ( P (
2
1
C
u
du u dx ) x ( P ) x ( P I
2
2
2
+ = + = = ' =
} }

and
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
136

} }
= +
+
= = ' =
+
C
1 m
u
du u dx ) x ( P )] x ( P [ J
1 m
m m

C )] x ( P [
1 m
1
1 m
+
+
=
+

Exercise 4. Evaluate the integrals
(1)
}
+ + = dx ) 5 x 4 x 9 ( ) 7 x 5 x 2 x 3 ( I
2 2 3

(2)
}
+ + + = dx ) 6 x 2 x 12 ( ) 2 x 6 x x 4 ( I
2 4 2 3

(1) Hint. Use the substitution 7 x 5 x 2 x 3 u
2 3
+ = . Since
dx ) 5 x 4 x 9 ( du
2
+ = , the integral transforms into C
2
u
du u
2
+ =
}

Answer. C ) 7 x 5 x 2 x 3 (
2
1
2 2 3
+ +
(2) Hint. Use the substitution 2 x 6 x x 4 u
2 3
+ + = . Since
dx ) 6 x 2 x 12 ( du
2
+ = , the integral transforms into C
5
u
du u
5
4
+ =
}

Answer. C ) 2 x 6 x x 4 (
5
1
5 2 3
+ + +
5.5 Fifth Category
Integrals of the form
}
dx ) x ( P ) x ( P ) x ( P
k 2 1


}
dx )] x ( P [
m


}
dx )] x ( P [ )] x ( P [ )] x ( P [
k 2 1
m
k
m
2
m
1

can be evaluated by first performing the indicated operations, collecting all terms
together, and then integrating term by term.
Exercise 5. Evaluate the integral dx ) 1 x 2 ( ) 3 x 2 x (
3 2 2
+ +
}

Hint. Expanding we get
Chapter 5-Integrals of polynomial functions
137
9 x 42 x 46 x 16 x x 38 x 20 x 8 ) 1 x 2 ( ) 3 x 2 x (
2 3 4 5 6 7 3 2 2
+ + + + + = + +
The integral then is transformed into a sum of integrals and each one is evaluated
separately.
Answer. C x 9 x 21 x
3
46
x 4 x
5
1
x
3
19
x
7
20
x
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
+ + + + + +



6

Integrals of
Rational Functions


Learning Objectives

In this Chapter the student will learn how to integrate
rational functions.
A rational function is any function of the form

) x ( Q
) x ( P
) x ( f =
where ) x ( P and ) x ( Q are integral polynomials of degrees m
and n respectively:

m 1 m
2 m
2
1 m
1
m
0
A x A x A x A x A ) x ( P + + + + + =




n 1 n
2 n
2
1 n
1
n
0
B x B x B x B x B ) x ( Q + + + + + =



The chapter contains a classification of cases into twelve
categories.






Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
139

Contents and Taxonomy
6.1. First Category. Evaluation of integrals of the form

}
+
dx
b x a
A
and
}
+
+
dx
b x a
B x A

6.2. Second Category. Evaluation of integrals of the form
}
+
dx
) b x a (
A
n
and
}
+
+
dx
) b x a (
B x A
n
, 2 n >
6.3. Third Category. Evaluation of integrals of the form

}
+ +
dx
c x b x a
1
2

6.4. Fourth Category. Evaluation of integrals of the form
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2
}
+ +
+

6.5. Fifth Category. Evaluation of integrals of the form

}
+ +
= dx
) c x b x a (
1
I
n 2
n
, 2 n >
6.6. Sixth Category Evaluation of integrals of the form
dx
) c x b x a (
B x A
J
n 2
n }
+ +
+
= , 2 n >
6.7. Seventh Category Evaluation of integrals of the form

}
+
dx
) a x (
1
n 2 2
, 2 n >
6.8. Eighth Category Evaluation of integrals of the form
dx
) a x (
B x A
n 2 2
}
+
+
, 2 n >
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
140
6.9. Ninth Category. Evaluation of integrals of the form

}
dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P

where ) x ( P and ) x ( Q are integral polynomials of any degree.
6.10. Tenth Category. The Ostrogradsky Method.
6.11. Eleventh Category. The Hermite Reduction
6.12. The Rothstein-Trager Method





















Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
141

6.1 First Category. This Category includes integrals of the form

}
+
dx
b x a
A
and
}
+
+
dx
b x a
B x A

Case I. The integral
}
+
= dx
b x a
A
I can be evaluated using the substitution
b x a u + = , dx a du = ( dx du
a
1
= )
C | b x a | ln
a
A
C | u | ln
a
A
u
du
a
A
dx
b x a
A
I + + = + = =
+
=
} }

Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+
= dx
3 x 4
4
I
Solution. Under the substitution 3 x 4 u + = , since dx 4 du = , we find
C | 3 x 4 | ln C | u | ln
u
du
dx
3 x 4
4
I + + = + = =
+
=
} }

Maple support:
> f:=4/(4*x+3);
:= f
4
+ 4 x 3

> int(f,x);
( ) ln + 4 x 3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
4
+ 4 x 3
x ( ) ln + 4 x 3
Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
+
= dx
1 x 3
2
I
Solution. Under the substitution 1 x 3 u + = , since dx 3 du = and dx du
3
1
= , we
have
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
142
= =
+
=
+
=
} } }
du
3
1
u
1
2 dx
1 x 3
1
2 dx
1 x 3
2
I
C | 1 x 3 | ln
3
2
C | u | ln
3
2
du
u
1
3
2
+ + = + = =
}

Maple support:
> f:=2/(3*x+1);
:= f
2
+ 3 x 1

> int(f,x);
2
3
( ) ln + 3 x 1

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
2
+ 3 x 1
x
2
3
( ) ln + 3 x 1

Note1. The integral
}
+
dx
b x a
a
has the form C | ) x ( f | ln dx
) x ( f
) x ( f
+ =
'
}
with
b x a ) x ( f + = . Therefore we can write immediately that
C | b x a | ln dx
b x a
a
+ + =
+
}

Note2. The integral
}
+
dx
b x a
A
can be evaluated, using the following series of
transformations and the previous Note:
=
+
=
+
=
+
} } }
dx
b x a
a
a
1
A dx
b x a
1
A dx
b x a
A

C | b x a | ln
a
A
+ + =
Case II. The integral
}
+
+
= dx
b x a
B x A
J can be evaluated using the identity

b x a
1
a
A b
B
a
A
b x a
B x A
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
+
(1)
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
143
The previous identity can be proved very easily, by performing the division
b x a
B x A
+
+
, according to the following scheme.

B x A +
a
bA
x A
a
A
a
bA
B
b x a +

We remind the reader that we have the known identity of the Euclidian division
+ = , from which we get

+ = . Therefore, using the setup of the


Euclidian division, where B x A + = , b x a + = ,
a
A
= and
a
bA
B = , we
obtain identity (1).
Using now identity (1), we may evaluate the integral. We have

} } |
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
+
= dx
b x a
1
a
ba
B
a
A
dx
b x a
B x A
J
=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
} }
dx
b x a
1
a
ba
B dx
a
A

C | b x a | ln
a
ba
B
a
1
x
a
A
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+

= dx
5 x 3
1 x 2
I
Solution. Performing the division
5 x 3
1 x 2
+

we find
5 x 3
1
3
13
3
2
5 x 3
1 x 2
+
=
+

.
Therefore we have
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
144
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+

=
} }
dx
5 x 3
1
3
13
3
2
dx
5 x 3
1 x 2
I
=
+
=
+
=
} } } }
dx
5 x 3
3
9
13
dx
3
2
dx
5 x 3
1
3
13
dx
3
2

C | 5 x 3 | ln
9
13
x
3
2
+ + =
Maple support:
> f:=(2*x-1)/(3*x+5);
:= f
2 x 1
+ 3 x 5

> int(f,x);

2 x
3
13
9
( ) ln + 3 x 5

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
2 x 1
+ 3 x 5
x
2 x
3
13
9
( ) ln + 3 x 5
Note 1. The integral
}
+
dx
b x a
x
can be evaluated through the following series of
transformations
=
+
+
=
+
=
+
} } }
dx
b x a
b ) b x a (
a
1
dx
b x a
x a
a
1
dx
b x a
x

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
+
=
} }
dx
b x a
b
1
a
1
dx
b x a
b
b x a
b x a
a
1

=
+
=
+
=
} } }
dx
b x a
a
a
b
x
a
1
dx
b x a
b
a
1
dx
a
1
2

C | b x a | ln
a
b
x
a
1
2
+ + =
6.2 Second Category
Integrals of the form
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
145
}
+
dx
) b x a (
A
n
and
}
+
+
dx
) b x a (
B x A
n
, 2 n >
Case I. For the integral
}
+
= dx
) b x a (
A
I
n

we use the substitution b x a u + = . We then have dx a du = and therefore
du
a
1
dx = . The integral then becomes
= = =
+
=
} } }
du
u
1
a
A
du
a
1
u
A
dx
) b x a (
A
I
n n n

C
1 n
u
a
A
du u
a
A
1 n
n
+
+
= =
+

}

C
) b x a (
1
) 1 n ( a
A
C
u
1
) 1 n ( a
A
1 n 1 n
+
+

= +

=


Case II. For the integral

}
+
+
= dx
) b x a (
B x A
J
n

since

|
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
a
Ab
B ) b x a (
a
A
B x A
we have
=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
+
+
=
} }
dx
) b x a (
a
Ab
B ) b x a (
a
A
dx
) b x a (
B x A
J
n n

=
+

+
+
+
=
} }
dx
) b x a (
a
Ab
B
dx
) b x a (
) b x a (
a
A
n n

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
146
=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
} }
dx
) b x a (
1
a
Ab
B dx
) b x a (
) b x a (
a
A
n n


} }
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=

dx
) b x a (
1
a
Ab
B dx
) b x a (
1
a
A
n 1 n

Therefore we have derived the following formula

} } }
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
+
+

dx
) b x a (
1
a
Ab
B dx
) b x a (
1
a
A
dx
) b x a (
B x A
n 1 n n

The last two integrals are calculated either using the first integral of this Category
or the integrals of the First Category.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+
= dx
) 2 x 5 (
3
I
3

Solution. Using the substitution 2 x 5 u + = , since dx 5 du = ( dx du
5
1
= )
the integral becomes
= +
+
= = =
+

} } }
C
1 3
u
5
3
du u
5
3
du
u
1
5
3
du
5
1
u
3
1 3
3
3 3

C
u
1
10
3
2
+ =
Going back to the original variable, we derive
C
) 2 x 5 (
1
10
3
dx
) 2 x 5 (
3
I
2 3
+
+
=
+
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=3/(5*x+2)^3;
:= f
3
( ) + 5 x 2
3

> int(f,x);

3
10 ( ) + 5 x 2
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
147
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
3
( ) + 5 x 2
3
x
3
10 ( ) + 5 x 2
2

Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
+
+
= dx
) 3 x 2 (
7 x 5
I
3

Solution. We find easily that
2
1
) 3 x 2 (
2
5
7 x 5 + = + . Therefore
=
+
+
=
+
+
} }
dx
) 3 x 2 (
2
1
) 3 x 2 (
2
5
dx
) 3 x 2 (
7 x 5
3 3

=
+

+
+
=
} }
dx
) 3 x 2 (
2
1
dx
) 3 x 2 (
) 3 x 2 (
2
5
3 3


} }
+

+
= dx
) 3 x 2 (
1
2
1
dx
) 3 x 2 (
1
2
5
3 2

Under the substitution 3 x 2 u + = , since dx 2 du = , we get
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
C
u 2
1
4
1
u
1
4
5
du
u
1
2
1
2
1
du
u
1
2
1
2
5
I
2 3 2

C
) 3 x 2 (
1
8
1
3 x 2
1
4
5
C
u
1
8
1
u
1
4
5
2 2
+
+
+
+
= + + =
Second Method.
The substitution 3 x 2 u + = , gives us
2
3 u
x

= . Since du
2
1
dx = , we find
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
+

=
} } }
du
u
1
u
5
4
1
du
u
1 u 5
4
1
du
2
1
u
7
2
3 u
5
I
3 2 3 3

= +
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
C
u 2
1
4
1
u
1
4
5
du
u
1
4
1
du
u
1
4
5
2 3 2

C
u
1
8
1
u
1
4
5
2
+ + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
148
Going back to the original variable, we find that
C
) 3 x 2 (
1
8
1
3 x 2
1
4
5
I
2
+
+
+
+
=
as before.
Maple support:
> f:=(5*x+7)/(2*x+3)^3;
:= f
+ 5 x 7
( ) + 2 x 3
3

> int(f,x);

1
8 ( ) + 2 x 3
2
5
4 ( ) + 2 x 3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
+ 5 x 7
( ) + 2 x 3
3
x
1
8 ( ) + 2 x 3
2
5
4 ( ) + 2 x 3


6.3 Third Category.
In this category we shall consider the following type of integrals:

}
+ +
dx
c x b x a
1
2

We distinguish the following three cases:
0 D > , 0 D = and 0 D <
where c a 4 b D
2
is the discriminant of the trinomial c x b x a
2
+ + .
6.3.1 Case I. Positive Discriminant.
Suppose 0 D > . In this case the trinomial admits two distinct real roots
1
and
2

given by the formula

a 2
D b

2 , 1

=
The trinomial then takes the form
) x ( ) x ( a c x b x a
2 1
2
= + +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
149
Therefore the integral becomes
dx
) x ( ) x ( a
1
dx
c x b x a
1
I
2 1
2
} }

=
+ +
=
which can further be written as
dx
) x ( ) x (
1
a
1
I
2 1
}

=
We transform the integrand
) x ( ) x (
1
2 1


into the form
2 1
x
B
x
A

:

2 1 2 1
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x (
1

=

(1)
where A and B are constants to be determined.
The analysis in the form of (1) is called partial fraction decomposition. It also
applies to any rational function, as it is going to be explained later on.
The constants A and B are calculated as follows:
We multiply (1) by ) x ( ) x (
2 1
and then it takes the form
) x ( B ) x ( A 1
1 2
+ =
which can be written as

1 2
B x B A x A 1 + =
or collecting the x-terms together,

1 2
B A x ) B A ( 1 + = (2)
Relation (2) holds identically for every x, provided that
0 B A = + and 1 B A
1 2
=
The previous two simultaneous equations can be solved with respect to A and B
and determine the constants:
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
150

2 1

1
A

= and
2 1

1
B

=
Therefore (1) becomes

2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
x
1

1
x
1

1
) x ( ) x (
1


=


which can further be written as

|
|
.
|

\
|


=

2 1 2 1 2 1
x
1
x
1

1
) x ( ) x (
1

We are now in a position to evaluate the integral:
dx
) x ( ) x (
1
a
1
I
2 1
}

=
dx
x
1
x
1

1
a
1
2 1 2 1
} |
|
.
|

\
|


=

|
|
.
|

\
|


=
} }
dx
x
1
dx
x
1
) ( a
1
2 1 2 1

C ] | x | ln | x | ln [
) ( a
1
2 1
2 1
+

=
C
x
x
ln
) ( a
1
2
1
2 1
+

=
The previous procedure may serve as a guide to the calculations and not as a final
to use formula.
Second method of evaluation integrals
}
+ + c x b x a
dx
2
when 0 D > .
If 0 D > , the trinomial can be written as

|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2
2
2
a 4
D
a 2
b
x a c x b x a
Using the substitution u
a 2
D
a 2
b
x = + , the integral transforms into
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
151
1 u
1 u
ln
D
1
1 u
du
D
2
) 1 u (
a 4
D
du
a 2
D
2
2 +

} }

Since
D
b x a 2
u
+
= , we obtain the following result:
C
1
D
b x a 2
1
D
b x a 2
ln
D
1
c x b x a
dx
2
+
+
+

+
=
+ +
}

or in a more simplified form:
C
D b x a 2
D b x a 2
ln
D
1
c x b x a
dx
2
+
+ +
+
=
+ +
}
, 0 D >
Using on the other hand the following formula (10 and 13)
x tanh
x 1
dx
1
2

=

}

where x tanh
1
is the inverse hyperbolic tangent function, we can express the
integral into the form
= + =

=
+ +

} }
C u tanh
D
2
1 u
du
D
2
c x b x a
dx
1
2 2

C
D
b x a 2
tanh
D
2
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=


The above algorithm is used by Maple (see below, Example 4).
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
6 x 5 x
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial is
0 1 24 25 6 1 4 ) 5 ( D
2
> = = =
The roots are 2
1
= and 3
2
= . Therefore ) 3 x )( 2 x ( 6 x 5 x
2
= + .
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
152
We consider the partial fraction decomposition

3 x
B
2 x
A
6 x 5 x
1
2

+

=
+
or
3 x
B
2 x
A
) 3 x )( 2 x (
1

=


From the last identity, after multiplying by ) 3 x ( ) 2 x ( we get
) 2 x ( B ) 3 x ( A 1 + =
which can be written as
B 2 A 3 x ) B A ( 1 + =
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of the variable x, we get the system
0 B A = + and 1 B 2 A 3 =
From these equations we determine the values of A and B:
1 A = and 1 B=
Therefore

3 x
1
2 x
1
) 3 x )( 2 x (
1

=


The integral then becomes

} } }
=

=
+
=
3 x
dx
2 x
dx
dx
6 x 5 x
1
I
2

C
2 x
3 x
ln C | 3 x | ln | 2 x | ln +

= + + =
Using Maple, we have
> f:=1/(x^2-5*x+6);
:= f
1
+ x
2
5 x 6

> convert(f,parfrac,x);

1
x 3
1
x 2

> int(f,x);
( ) ln x 3 ( ) ln x 2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
153
The second command performs the partial fraction decomposition. It is obvious
that the integration command evaluates directly the integral, without taking into
account the partial fraction decomposition.
Using Mathematica, we have
I n[ 1] : = f 1 x
2
5 x 6
Out [ 1] =
1
6 5 x x
2

The previous command defines the function under integration. The next command
performs the partial fraction decomposition
I n[ 2] : = Apart f, x
Out [ 2] =
1
3 x
1
2 x

and the following command performs the integration
I n[ 3] : = Integrate f, x
Out [ 3] = Log 2 3 x Log 2 2 x

The reader has already noticed the difference in the results provided by the two
computer algebra systems.
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x 3 x 2
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial is
0 1 8 9 1 2 4 ) 3 ( D
2
> = = =
The roots are
2
1

1
= and 1
2
= . Therefore
) 1 x ( ) 1 x 2 ( ) 1 x (
2
1
x 2 1 x 3 x 2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= + .
We consider the partial fraction decomposition

1 x
B
1 x 2
A
) 1 x )( 1 x 2 (
1

=


From the last identity, after multiplying by ) 1 x ( ) 1 x 2 ( we get
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
154
) 1 x 2 ( B ) 1 x ( A 1 + =
which can be written as
B A x ) B 2 A ( 1 + =
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of the variable x, we get the system
0 B 2 A = + and 1 B A =
From these equations we determine the values of A and B:
2 A = and 1 B=
Therefore

1 x
1
1 x 2
2
) 1 x )( 1 x 2 (
1

=


The integral then is
=

=
+
=
} } }
dx
1 x
1
dx
1 x 2
2
dx
1 x 3 x 2
1
I
2

C
1 x 2
1 x
ln C | 1 x | ln | 1 x 2 | ln +

= + + =
Maple support:
> f:=1/(2*x^2-3*x+1);
:= f
1
+ 2 x
2
3 x 1

> convert(f,parfrac,x);
+
2
2 x 1
1
x 1

> int(f,x);
+ ( ) ln 2 x 1 ( ) ln x 1

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 2 x
2
3 x 1
x + ( ) ln 2 x 1 ( ) ln x 1
Mathematica support:
I n[ 4] : = f 1 2 x
2
3 x 1
Out [ 4] =
1
1 3 x 2 x
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
155
I n[ 5] : = Apart f, x
Out [ 5] =
1
1 x
2
1 2 x

I n[ 6] : = Integrate f, x
Out [ 6] = Log 4 1 x Log 2 1 2 x

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
2 x 5 x 2
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial is
0 9 16 25 2 2 4 ) 5 ( D
2
> = = =
The roots are
2
1

1
= and 2
2
= . Therefore
) 2 x ( ) 1 x 2 ( ) 2 x (
2
1
x 2 2 x 5 x 2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= +
We consider the partial fraction decomposition

2 x
B
1 x 2
A
) 2 x )( 1 x 2 (
1

=


From the last identity, after multiplying by ) 2 x )( 1 x 2 ( we get
) 1 x 2 ( B ) 2 x ( A 1 + =
which can be written as
B A 2 x ) B 2 A ( 1 + =
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of the variable x, we get the system
0 B 2 A = + and 1 B A 2 =
From these equations we determine the values of A and B:

3
2
A = and
3
1
B =
Therefore

2 x
1
3
1
1 x 2
1
3
2
2 x
3
1
1 x 2
3
2
) 2 x )( 1 x 2 (
1

=


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
156
The integral then is
=

=
+
=
} } }
dx
2 x
1
3
1
dx
1 x 2
2
3
1
dx
2 x 5 x 2
1
I
2

C
1 x 2
2 x
ln
3
1
C | 2 x | ln
3
1
| 1 x 2 | ln
3
1
+

= + + =
Maple support:
> f:=1/(2*x^2-5*x+2);
:= f
1
+ 2 x
2
5 x 2

> convert(f,parfrac,x);

1
3 ( ) x 2
2
3 ( ) 2 x 1

> int(f,x);
+
1
3
( ) ln 2 x 1
1
3
( ) ln x 2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 2 x
2
5 x 2
x +
1
3
( ) ln 2 x 1
1
3
( ) ln x 2
Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
2 x 8 x 5
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial is
0 4 60 64 2 5 4 ) 8 ( D
2
> = = =
The roots are
5
3

1
= and 1
2
= . Therefore
) 1 x ( ) 3 x 5 ( ) 1 x (
5
3
x 5 2 x 8 x 5
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= +
We consider the partial fraction decomposition

1 x
B
3 x 5
A
) 1 x )( 3 x 5 (
1

=


From the last identity, after multiplying by ) 1 x )( 3 x 5 ( we get
) 3 x 5 ( B ) 1 x ( A 1 + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
157
which can be written as
B 3 A x ) B 5 A ( 1 + =
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of the variable x, we get the system
0 B 5 A = + and 1 B 3 A =
From these equations we determine the values of A and B:

2
5
A = and
2
1
B =
Therefore

1 x
1
2
1
3 x 5
1
2
5
1 x
2
1
3 x 5
2
5
) 1 x )( 3 x 5 (
1

=


The integral then is
=

=
+
=
} } }
dx
1 x
1
2
1
dx
3 x 5
5
2
1
dx
3 x 8 x 5
1
I
2

C
3 x 5
1 x
ln
2
1
C | 1 x | ln
2
1
| 3 x 5 | ln
2
1
+

= + + =
Maple support:
> f:=1/(5*x^2-8*x+2);
:= f
1
+ 5 x
2
8 x 2

> convert(f,parfrac,x);
1
+ 5 x
2
8 x 2

> int(f,x);

1
6
6
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctanh
( ) 10 x 8 6
12

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 5 x
2
8 x 2
x
1
6
6
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctanh
( ) 10 x 8 6
12

Note. Maple has not been able to perform the partial fraction decomposition the
way we have done before by hand. On the other hand, the final answer is not given
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
158
in terms of logarithm(s), but rather in terms of the () h arctan function (the inverse
of the hyperbolic tangent function). In the above result, Maple is using obviously
one of the formulas (see section 10 and/or section 13):
C x tanh
x 1
dx
1
2
+ =


}
or C
a
x
tanh
a
1
x a
dx
1
2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
=


}

Maple converts obviously the trinomial into a difference of squares

|
.
|

\
|
= +
25
6
5
4
x 5 3 x 8 x 5
2
2

and the uses the substitution u
5
6
5
4
x = , converting the integral into

} } }

=

=

=
+
u tanh
6
6
1 u
du
6
6
) 1 u (
25
6
5
du
5
6
dx
3 x 8 x 5
1
1
2
2
2

and then substituting u by the original variable x:
6
4 x 5
u

= .
Mathematica support:
I n[ 1] : = f 1 5 x
2
8 x 3
Out [ 1] =
1
3 8 x 5 x
2

I n[ 2] : = Apart f, x
Out [ 2] =
1
2 1 x
5
2 3 5 x

I n[ 3] : = Integrate f, x
Out [ 3] =
1
2
Log 5 1 x
1
2
Log 3 5 x

We see that Mathematica does the job the way we have performed the operations
by hand.
Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx
5 x 5 x
1
I
2
}
+
=
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
159
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial is
0 5 20 25 5 1 4 ) 5 ( D
2
> = = =
The roots are
2
5 5

1
+
= and
2
5 5

2

= . Therefore
) x ( ) x ( 5 x 5 x
2 1
2
= +
Therefore the integral becomes
dx
) x ( ) x (
1
dx
5 x 5 x
1
I
2 1
2
} }

=
+
=
Using partial fraction decomposition, we have

|
|
.
|

\
|


=

2 1 2 1 2 1
x
1
x
1

1
) x ( ) x (
1

We are now in a position to evaluate the integral:
=

=
}
dx
) x ( ) x (
1
I
2 1

=
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
}
dx
x
1
x
1

1
2 1 2 1

C } | x | ln | x | ln {

1
2 1
2 1
+

=
C
x
x
ln

1
2
1
2 1
+

=
Substituting the values
2
5 5

1
+
= and
2
5 5

2

= we obtain the value of the
integral:
=
+
=
}
dx
5 x 5 x
1
I
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
160
C
5 5 x 2
5 5 x 2
ln
5
5
C
2
5 5
x
2
5 5
x
ln
5
1
+
+

= +

=
Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2-5*x+5);
:= f
1
+ x
2
5 x 5

> convert(f,parfrac,x);
1
+ x
2
5 x 5

> int(f,x);

2
5
5
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctanh
( ) 2 x 5 5
5

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ x
2
5 x 5
x
2
5
5
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctanh
( ) 2 x 5 5
5

The answer is given again in terms of the inverse hyperbolic tangent.
Mathematica support:
I n[ 1] : = f 1 x
2
5 x 5
Out [ 1] =
1
5 5 x x
2

I n[ 2] : = Apart f, x
Out [ 2] =
1
5 5 x x
2

I n[ 3] : = Integrate f, x
Out [ 3] =
Log 5 5 2 x Log 5 5 2 x
5

Mathematica expresses the final answer in terms of logarithms.
Example 6. Evaluate the integral dx
3 x 7 x 3
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial is
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
161
0 13 36 49 3 3 4 ) 7 ( D
2
> = = =
The roots are
6
13 7

1
+
= and
6
13 7

2

= . Therefore
) x ( ) x ( 3 3 x 7 x 3
2 1
2
= +
Therefore the integral becomes
dx
) x ( ) x (
1
3
1
dx
3 x 7 x 3
1
I
2 1
2
} }

=
+
=
Using partial fraction decomposition, we have

|
|
.
|

\
|


=

2 1 2 1 2 1
x
1
x
1

1
) x ( ) x (
1

We are now in a position to evaluate the integral:
=

=
}
dx
) x ( ) x (
1
3
1
I
2 1

=
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
}
dx
x
1
x
1
) ( 3
1
2 1 2 1

C } | x | ln | x | ln {
) ( 3
1
2 1
2 1
+

=
C
x
x
ln
) ( 3
1
2
1
2 1
+



=
Substituting the values
6
13 7

1
+
= and
6
13 7

2

= , we obtain the value of
the integral:
=
+
=
}
dx
3 x 7 x 3
1
I
2

C
13 7 x 6
13 7 x 6
ln
13
13
C
6
13 7
x
6
13 7
x
ln
13
1
+
+

= +

=
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
162
Maple support:
> f:=1/(3*x^2-7*x+3);
:= f
1
+ 3 x
2
7 x 3

> convert(f,parfrac,x);
1
+ 3 x
2
7 x 3

> int(f,x);

2
13
13
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctanh
( ) 6 x 7 13
13

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 3 x
2
7 x 3
x
2
13
13
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctanh
( ) 6 x 7 13
13

Mathematica support:
I n[ 1] : = f 1 3 x
2
7 x 3
Out [ 1] =
1
3 7 x 3 x
2

I n[ 2] : = Apart f, x
Out [ 2] =
1
3 7 x 3 x
2

I n[ 3] : = Integrate f, x
Out [ 3] =
Log 7 13 6 x Log 7 13 6 x
13

Example 7. Evaluate the integral dx
2 x 7 x 4
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial is
0 17 32 49 2 4 4 ) 7 ( D
2
> = = =
The roots are
8
17 7

1
+
= and
8
17 7

2

= . Therefore
) x ( ) x ( 4 2 x 7 x 4
2 1
2
= +
Therefore the integral becomes
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
163
dx
) x ( ) x (
1
4
1
dx
2 x 7 x 4
1
I
2 1
2
} }

=
+
=
Using partial fraction decomposition, we have

|
|
.
|

\
|


=

2 1 2 1 2 1
x
1
x
1

1
) x ( ) x (
1

We are now in a position to evaluate the integral:
=

=
}
dx
) x ( ) x (
1
4
1
I
2 1

=
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
}
dx
x
1
x
1
) ( 4
1
2 1 2 1

C } | x | ln | x | ln {
) ( 4
1
2 1
2 1
+

=
C
x
x
ln
) ( 4
1
2
1
2 1
+

=
Substituting the values
8
17 7

1
+
= and
8
17 7

2

=
we obtain the value of the integral:
=
+
=
}
dx
2 x 7 x 4
1
I
2

C
17 7 x 8
17 7 x 8
ln
17
17
C
8
17 7
x
8
17 7
x
ln
17
1
+
+

= +

=
Maple support:
> f:=1/(4*x^2-7*x+2);
:= f
1
+ 4 x
2
7 x 2

> convert(f,parfrac,x);
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
164
1
+ 4 x
2
7 x 2

> int(f,x);

2
17
17
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctanh
( ) 8 x 7 17
17

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 4 x
2
7 x 2
x
2
17
17
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctanh
( ) 8 x 7 17
17

Mathematica support:
I n[ 1] : = f 1 4 x
2
7 x 2
Out [ 1] =
1
2 7 x 4 x
2

I n[ 2] : = Apart f, x
Out [ 2] =
1
2 7 x 4 x
2

I n[ 3] : = Integrate f, x
Out [ 3] =
Log 7 17 8 x Log 7 17 8 x
17

6.3.1a Special Cases.
Case 1. The integral
}
+
dx
x b x a
1
2

For this integral, since ) b x a ( x x b x a
2
+ = + , we have the partial fraction
decomposition

b x a
B
x
A
x b x a
1
2
+
+ =
+

Multiplying through by x b x a
2
+ we get the identity
x B ) b x a ( A 1 + + =
For 0 x = we have b A 1= . Therefore
b
1
A =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
165
For
a
b
x = we have
|
.
|

\
|
=
a
b
B 1 . Therefore
b
a
B =
We thus obtain the partial fraction decomposition

b x a
1
b
a
x
1
b
1
x b x a
1
2
+
=
+

We then evaluate the integral
=
+
=
+
} } }
dx
b x a
a
b
1
dx
x
1
b
1
dx
x b x a
1
2

C
b x a
x
ln
b
1
C | b ax | ln
b
1
| x | ln
b
1
+
+
= + + =
Example 8. Evaluate the integral
}
+ x 3 x 2
dx
2

Solution. Since ) 3 x 2 ( x x 3 x 2
2
+ = + , we have the partial fraction decomposition
3 x 2
B
x
A
x 3 x 2
1
2
+
+ =
+

Multiplying through by x 3 x 2
2
+ we get the identity
x B ) 3 x 2 ( A 1 + + =
For 0 x = we have 3 A 1 = . Therefore
3
1
A =
For
2
3
x = we have
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
3
B 1 . Therefore
3
2
B =
We thus obtain the partial fraction decomposition
3 x 2
1
3
2
x
1
3
1
x 3 x 2
1
2
+
=
+

Therefore
=
+
=
+
} } }
dx
3 x 2
2
3
1
x
dx
3
1
x 3 x 2
dx
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
166
= + + = C | 3 x 2 | ln
3
1
| x | ln
3
1

C
3 x 2
x
ln
3
1
+
+
=
Case 2. The integral
}

dx
a x
1
2 2

Since ) a x )( a x ( a x
2 2
+ = , we have the partial fraction decomposition
a x
B
a x
A
a x
1
2 2
+
+


Multiplying by ) a x )( a x ( + we obtain
) a x ( B ) a x ( A 1 + + =
For a x = we get ) a 2 ( A 1= . Therefore
a 2
1
A =
For a x = we get ) a 2 ( B 1 = . Therefore
a 2
1
B =
The partial fraction decomposition thus takes the form

a x
1
a 2
1
a x
1
a 2
1
a x
1
2 2
+


The integral can now be evaluated. We obtain
=
+

} } }
dx
a x
1
a 2
1
dx
a x
1
a 2
1
dx
a x
1
2 2

= + + = C | a x | ln
a 2
1
| a x | ln
a 2
1

C
a x
a x
ln
a 2
1
+
+

=
Note. For 1 a = we have C
1 x
1 x
ln
2
1
1 x
dx
2
+
+

}

Example 9. Evaluate the integral
}
9 x
dx
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
167
Solution. Since ) 3 x )( 3 x ( 9 x
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction decomposition
3 x
B
3 x
A
9 x
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) 3 x )( 3 x ( + we obtain
) 3 x ( B ) 3 x ( A 1 + + =
For 3 x = we get 6 A 1 = . Therefore
6
1
A =
For 3 x = we get ) 6 ( B 1 = . Therefore
6
1
B =
The partial fraction decomposition thus takes the form

3 x
1
6
1
3 x
1
6
1
9 x
1
2
+


The integral can now be evaluated. We obtain
=
+

} } }
dx
3 x
1
6
1
dx
3 x
1
6
1
dx
9 x
1
2

= + + = C | 3 x | ln
6
1
| 3 x | ln
6
1

C
3 x
3 x
ln
6
1
+
+

=
Case 3. The integral
}

dx
1 x a
1
2 2

Since ) 1 x a )( 1 x a ( 1 x a
2 2
+ = , we have the partial fraction decomposition
1 x a
B
1 x a
A
1 x a
1
2 2
+
+


Multiplying by ) 1 x a )( 1 x a ( + we obtain
) 1 x a ( B ) 1 x a ( A 1 + + =
For
a
1
x = we get 2 A 1 = . Therefore
2
1
A =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
168
For
a
1
x = we get ) 2 ( B 1 = . Therefore
2
1
B =
The partial fraction decomposition thus takes the form

1 x a
1
2
1
1 x a
1
2
1
1 x a
1
2 2
+


The integral can now be evaluated. We obtain
=
+

} } }
dx
1 x a
1
2
1
dx
1 x a
1
2
1
dx
1 x a
1
2 2

=
+

=
} }
dx
1 x a
a
a 2
1
dx
1 x a
a
a 2
1

= + + = C | 1 x a | ln
a 2
1
| 1 x a | ln
a 2
1

C
1 x a
1 x a
ln
a 2
1
+
+

=
Example 10. Evaluate the integral
}

dx
1 x 4
1
2

Solution. Since ) 1 x 2 )( 1 x 2 ( 1 x 4
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction
decomposition
1 x 2
B
1 x 2
A
1 x 4
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) 1 x a )( 1 x a ( + we obtain
) 1 x 2 ( B ) 1 x 2 ( A 1 + + =
For
2
1
x = we get 2 A 1 = . Therefore
2
1
A =
For
2
1
x = we get ) 2 ( B 1 = . Therefore
2
1
B =
The partial fraction decomposition thus takes the form
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
169

1 x 2
1
2
1
1 x 2
1
2
1
1 x 4
1
2
+


The integral can now be evaluated. We obtain
=
+

} } }
dx
1 x 2
1
2
1
dx
1 x 2
1
2
1
dx
1 x 4
1
2

=
+

=
} }
dx
1 x 2
2
4
1
dx
1 x 2
2
4
1

= + + = C | 1 x 2 | ln
4
1
| 1 x 2 | ln
4
1

C
1 x 2
1 x 2
ln
4
1
+
+

=
Case 4. The integral
}

dx
p x a
1
2 2 2
, ( 0 a > , 0 p > )
Since ) p x a )( p x a ( p x a
2 2 2
+ = , we have the partial fraction expansion

p x a
B
p x a
A
p x a
1
2 2 2
+
+


Multiplying by ) p x a )( p x a ( + we get the identity
) p x a ( B ) p x a ( A 1 + + =
which is equivalent to
) B A ( p x ) B A ( a 1 + + =
Since the above identity should be true for any value of x, we should have
0 B A = + and 1 ) B A ( p =
The two previous equations provide the values of A and B:

p 2
1
A = and
p 2
1
B =
Therefore we have the partial fraction expansion

p x a
1
p 2
1
p x a
1
p 2
1
p x a
1
2 2 2
+


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
170
We can evaluate now the integral
=
+

} } }
dx
p x a
1
p 2
1
dx
p x a
1
p 2
1
dx
p x a
1
2 2 2

=
+

=
} }
dx
p x a
a
pa 2
1
dx
p x a
a
pa 2
1

= + + = C | p x a | ln
pa 2
1
| p x a | ln
pa 2
1

C
p x a
p x a
ln
a p 2
1
+
+

=
Example 11. Evaluate the integral
}

dx
16 x 9
1
2

Solution. Since ) 4 x 3 )( 4 x 3 ( 16 x 9
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction
expansion

4 x 3
B
4 x 3
A
16 x 9
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) 4 x 3 )( 4 x 3 ( + we get the identity
) 4 x 3 ( B ) 4 x 3 ( A 1 + + =
which is equivalent to
) B A ( 4 x ) B A ( 3 1 + + =
Since the above identity should be true for any value of x, we should have
0 B A = + and 1 ) B A ( 4 =
The two previous equations provide the values of A and B:

8
1
A = and
8
1
B =
Therefore we have the partial fraction expansion

4 x 3
1
8
1
4 x 3
1
8
1
16 x 9
1
2
+


We can evaluate now the integral
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
171
=
+

} } }
dx
4 x 3
1
8
1
dx
4 x 3
1
8
1
dx
16 x 9
1
2

=
+

=
} }
dx
4 x 3
3
24
1
dx
4 x 3
3
24
1

= + + = C | 4 x 3 | ln
24
1
| 4 x 3 | ln
24
1

C
4 x 3
4 x 3
ln
24
1
+
+

=
Case 5. The integral
}

dx
a x
1
2
, 0 a >
Since ) a x ( ) a x ( a x
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction expansion
a x
B
a x
A
a x
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) a x ( ) a x ( + , we obtain the identity
) a x ( B ) a x ( A 1 + + =
From the above identity
For a x = we find ) a 2 ( A 1 = . Therefore
a 2
1
A =
For a x = we find ) a 2 ( B 1 = . Therefore
a 2
1
B =
Therefore we get the partial fraction

a x
1
a 2
1
a x
1
a 2
1
5 x
1
2
+


The integral thus becomes
=
+

} } }
dx
a x
1
a 2
1
dx
a x
1
a 2
1
dx
a x
1
2

= + + = C | a x | ln
a 2
1
| a x | ln
a 2
1

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
172
C
a x
a x
ln
a 2
1
+
+

=
Example 12. Evaluate the integral
}

dx
5 x
1
2

Solution. Since ) 5 x ( ) 5 x ( 5 x
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction analysis
5 x
B
5 x
A
5 x
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) 5 x ( ) 5 x ( + , we obtain the identity
) 5 x ( B ) 5 x ( A 1 + + =
From the above identity
For 5 x = we find ) 5 2 ( A 1 = . Therefore
5 2
1
A =
For 5 x = we find ) 5 2 ( B 1 = . Therefore
5 2
1
B =
Therefore we get the partial fraction

5 x
1
5 2
1
5 x
1
5 2
1
5 x
1
2
+


The integral thus becomes
=
+

} } }
dx
5 x
1
5 2
1
dx
5 x
1
5 2
1
dx
5 x
1
2

= + + = C | 5 x | ln
5 2
1
| 5 x | ln
5 2
1

C
5 x
5 x
ln
5 2
1
+
+

=
Case 6. The integral
}

dx
1 x a
1
2
, ( 0 a > )
Since ) 1 x a ( ) 1 x a ( 1 x a
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction analysis
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
173
1 x a
B
1 x a
A
1 x a
1
2
+
+


Multiplying through by ) 1 x a ( ) 1 x a ( + we obtain the identity
) 1 x a ( B ) 1 x a ( A 1 + + =
From the previous identity we get
For
a
1
x = , 2 A 1 = and then
2
1
A =
For
a
1
x = , ) 2 ( B 1 = and then
2
1
B =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

1 x a
1
2
1
1 x a
1
2
1
1 x a
1
2
+


The value of the integral becomes
=
+

} } }
dx
1 x a
1
2
1
dx
1 x a
1
2
1
dx
1 x a
1
2

=
+

=
} }
dx
1 x a
a
a 2
1
dx
1 x a
a
a 2
1

= + + = C | 1 x a | ln
a 2
1
| 1 x a | ln
a 2
1

C
1 x a
1 x a
ln
a 2
1
+
+

=
Example 13. Evaluate the integral
}

dx
1 x 3
1
2

Solution. Since ) 1 x 3 ( ) 1 x 3 ( 1 x 3
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction
analysis
1 x 3
B
1 x 3
A
1 x 3
1
2
+
+


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
174
Multiplying through by ) 1 x 3 ( ) 1 x 3 ( + we obtain the identity
) 1 x 3 ( B ) 1 x 3 ( A 1 + + =
From the previous identity we get
For
3
1
x = , 2 A 1 = and then
2
1
A =
For
3
1
x = , ) 2 ( B 1 = and then
2
1
B =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

1 x 3
1
2
1
1 x 3
1
2
1
1 x 3
1
2
+


The value of the integral becomes
=
+

} } }
dx
1 x 3
1
2
1
dx
1 x 3
1
2
1
dx
1 x 3
1
2

=
+

=
} }
dx
1 x 3
3
3 2
1
dx
1 x 3
3
3 2
1

= + + = C | 1 x 3 | ln
3 2
1
| 1 x 3 | ln
3 2
1

C
1 x 3
1 x 3
ln
3 2
1
+
+

=
Case 7. The integral
}

dx
p x a
1
2
( 0 a > , 0 p > )
Since ) p x a ( ) p x a ( p x a
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction expansion

p x a
B
p x a
A
p x a
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) p x a ( ) p x a ( + , we obtain the identity
) p x a ( B ) p x a ( A 1 + + =
which is equivalent to
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
175
) B A ( p x ) B A ( a 1 + + =
Since the previous identity is true for every x, we should have the two equations
0 B A = + and ) B A ( p 1 =
from which we obtain the values of A and B:

p 2
1
A = and
p 2
1
B =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

p x a
1
p 2
1
p x a
1
p 2
1
p x a
1
2
+


We are now in a position to evaluate the integral:
=
+

} } }
dx
p x a
1
p 2
1
dx
p x a
1
p 2
1
dx
p x a
1
2

=
+

=
} }
dx
p x a
a
pa 2
1
dx
p x a
a
pa 2
1

= + + = C | p x a | ln
pa 2
1
| p x a | ln
pa 2
1

C
p x a
p x a
ln
a p 2
1
+
+

=
Example 14. Evaluate the integral
}

dx
7 x 2
1
2

Solution. The denominator can be factorized, since
) 7 x 2 ( ) 7 x 2 ( 7 x 2
2
+ = ,
We thus have the partial fraction expansion

7 x 2
B
7 x 2
A
7 x 2
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) 7 x 2 ( ) 7 x 2 ( + , we obtain the identity
) 7 x 2 ( B ) 7 x 2 ( A 1 + + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
176
which is equivalent to
) B A ( 7 x ) B A ( 2 1 + + =
Since the previous identity is true for every x, we should have the two equations
0 B A = + and ) B A ( 7 1 =
from which we obtain the values of A and B:

7 2
1
A = and
7 2
1
B =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

7 x 2
1
7 2
1
7 x 2
1
7 2
1
7 x 2
1
2
+


We are now in a position to evaluate the integral:
=
+

} } }
dx
7 x 2
1
7 2
1
dx
7 x 2
1
7 2
1
dx
7 x 2
1
2

=
+

=
} }
dx
7 x 2
2
14 2
1
dx
7 x 2
2
14 2
1

= + + = C | 7 x 2 | ln
14 2
1
| 7 x 2 | ln
14 2
1

C
14 x 2
14 x 2
ln
14 2
1
C
7 x 2
7 x 2
ln
14 2
1
+
+

= +
+

=
Example 15. Evaluate the integral
}

dx
5 x 12
1
2

Solution. Since ) 5 x 3 2 ( ) 5 x 3 2 ( 5 x 12
2
+ = , we have the partial
fraction expansion

5 x 3 2
B
5 x 3 2
A
5 x 12
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) 5 x 3 2 ( ) 5 x 3 2 ( + , we obtain the identity
) 5 x 3 2 ( B ) 5 x 3 2 ( A 1 + + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
177
which is equivalent to
) B A ( 5 x ) B A ( 3 2 1 + + =
Since the previous identity is true for every x, we should have the two equations
0 B A = + and ) B A ( 5 1 =
from which we obtain the values of A and B:

5 2
1
A = and
5 2
1
B =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

5 x 3 2
1
5 2
1
5 x 3 2
1
5 2
1
5 x 12
1
2
+


We are now in a position to evaluate the integral:
=
+

} } }
dx
5 x 3 2
1
5 2
1
dx
5 x 3 2
1
5 2
1
dx
5 x 12
1
2

=
+

=
} }
dx
5 x 3 2
3 2
3 2
1
5 2
1
dx
5 x 3 2
3 2
3 2
1
5 2
1

= + + = C | 5 x 3 2 | ln
15 4
1
| 5 x 3 2 | ln
15 4
1

C
15 x 6
15 x 6
ln
15 4
1
C
5 x 3 2
5 x 3 2
ln
15 4
1
+
+

= +
+

=
Example 16. Evaluate the integral
}
9 x 5
dx
2

Solution. Since ) 3 x 5 ( ) 3 x 5 ( 9 x 5
2
+ = , we have the partial fraction
expansion

3 x 5
B
3 x 5
A
9 x 5
1
2
+
+


Multiplying by ) 3 x 5 ( ) 3 x 5 ( + , we obtain the identity
) 3 x 5 ( B ) 3 x 5 ( A 1 + + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
178
which is equivalent to
) B A ( 3 x ) B A ( 5 1 + + =
Since the previous identity is true for every x, we should have the two equations
0 B A = + and ) B A ( 3 1 =
from which we obtain the values of A and B:

6
1
A = and
6
1
B =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

3 x 5
1
6
1
3 x 5
1
6
1
9 x 5
1
2
+


We are now in a position to evaluate the integral:
=
+

} } }
dx
3 x 5
1
6
1
dx
3 x 5
1
6
1
dx
9 x 5
1
2

=
+

=
} }
dx
3 x 5
5
5 6
1
dx
3 x 5
5
5 6
1

= + + = C | 3 x 5 | ln
5 6
1
| 3 x 5 | ln
5 6
1

C
5 3 x 5
5 3 x 5
ln
5 6
1
C
3 x 5
3 x 5
ln
5 6
1
+
+

= +
+

=
6.3.2 Case II. Zero Discriminant. Suppose 0 ac 4 b D
2
= . In this case the
trinomial has a double real root given by
a 2
b
= and takes the form

2 2
) x ( a c x b x a = + +
Therefore the integral becomes
dx
) x ( a
1
dx
c x b x a
1
I
2 2
} }

=
+ +
=
Introducing the substitution
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
179
x u = , dx du =
the integral becomes
C
x
1
a
1
C
u
1
a
1
du
u a
1
I
2
+

= +
|
.
|

\
|
= =
}

The previous procedure may serve as a guide to the calculations and not as a final
to use formula.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
9 x 6 x
dx
I
2

Solution. The discriminant ac 4 b D
2
of the trinomial 9 x 6 x
2
+
( 9 c , 6 b , 1 a = = = ) is 0 36 36 9 1 4 ) 6 ( D
2
= = = .
Therefore it admits a double root 3
1 2
6
=

= and then

2 2
) 3 x ( 9 x 6 x = +
which can also be recognized by the usual identity
2 2 2
) b a ( b ab 2 a = + .
We thus have

} }

=
+
=
2 2
) 3 x (
dx
9 x 6 x
dx
I
Using the substitution 3 x u = , dx du = , we find
C
u
1
u
du
) 3 x (
dx
9 x 6 x
dx
I
2 2 2
+ = =

=
+
=
} } }

C
3 x
1
+

=
Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2-6*x+9);
:= f
1
+ x
2
6 x 9

> convert(f,parfrac,x);
1
( ) x 3
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
180
> int(f,x);

1
x 3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ x
2
6 x 9
x
1
x 3

Mathematica support:
I n[ 1] : = f 1 x
2
6 x 9
Out [ 1] =
1
9 6 x x
2

I n[ 2] : = Apart f, x
Out [ 2] =
1
3 x
2

I n[ 3] : = Integrate f, x
Out [ 3] =
1
3 x

Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
1 x 4 x 4
dx
I
2

Solution. The discriminant ac 4 b D
2
of the trinomial 1 x 4 x 4
2
+
( 1 c , 4 b , 4 a = = = ) is 0 16 16 1 4 4 ) 4 ( D
2
= =
Therefore it admits a double root
2
1
4 2
4
=

= and takes on the form



2
2
2
) 1 x 2 (
2
1
x 4 1 x 4 x 4 =
|
.
|

\
|
= +
which can also be recognized by the usual identity
2 2 2
) b a ( b ab 2 a = + .
We thus have

} }

=
+
=
2 2
) 1 x 2 (
dx
1 x 4 x 4
dx
I
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
181
Using the substitution 1 x 2 u = , dx 2 du = (i.e. dx du
2
1
= ), we find
= =

=
+
=
} } }
2 2 2
u
du
2
1
) 1 x 2 (
dx
1 x 4 x 4
dx
I
C
) 1 x 2 ( 2
1
C
1 x 2
1
2
1
C
u
1
2
1
+

= +

= +
|
.
|

\
|
=
Maple support:
> f:=1/(4*x^2-4*x+1);
:= f
1
+ 4 x
2
4 x 1

> convert(f,parfrac,x);
1
( ) 2 x 1
2

> int(f,x);

1
2 ( ) 2 x 1

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 4 x
2
4 x 1
x
1
2 ( ) 2 x 1


6.3.3 Case III. Negative Discriminant
Suppose 0 ac 4 b D
2
< . In this case the trinomial does not have real roots and
can take the form

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2
2
2
a 2
D
a 2
b
x a c x b x a
Using the substitution
u
a 2
D
a 2
b
x

= + , du
a 2
D
dx

= ,
D
b ax 2
u

+
=
we get
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
182
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2
2
2
a 2
D
a 2
b
x a c x b x a
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2 2
a 2
D
u
a 2
D
a
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
2
2
a 2
D
u
a 2
D
a
) 1 u (
a 2
D
a
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+ +
=
} }
du
) 1 u (
a 2
D
a
a 2
D
dx
c x b x a
1
I
2
2 2

=
+

=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
} }
du
1 u
1
D
2
du
) 1 u (
a 2
D
a
1
2
2

C
D
b ax 2
arctan
D
2
C u arctan
D
2
+ |
.
|

\
|

= +

=
The previous procedure may serve as a guide to the calculations and not as a ready
to used formula.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x x
1
I
2
}
+ +
=
Solution. We have
2
2
2
2
3
2
1
x 1 x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + + .
Under the substitution t
2
3
2
1
x = + we have
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
183
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2 2 2
2
2
2
3
t
2
3
2
3
2
1
x 1 x x
) 1 t (
4
3
4
3
t
4
3
2 2
+ = + =
and
dt
2
3
dx =
The integral in terms of the new variable t becomes
C t arctan
3
3 2
1 t
dt
3
3 2
) 1 t (
4
3
dt
2
3
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Since
3
1 x 2
t
+
= , going back to the original variable, we get
C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
dx
1 x x
1
I
2
+ |
.
|

\
| +
=
+ +
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2+x+1);
:= f
1
+ + x
2
x 1

> int(f,x);
2
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 1 3
3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ + x
2
x 1
x
2
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 1 3
3


Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x x
1
I
2
}
+
=
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
184
Solution. We have
2
2
2
2
3
2
1
x 1 x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= + .
Under the substitution t
2
3
2
1
x = we have
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
2
3
t
2
3
2
3
2
1
x 1 x x
) 1 t (
4
3
4
3
t
4
3
2 2
+ = + =
and
dt
2
3
dx =
The integral in terms of the new variable t, becomes
C t arctan
3
3 2
1 t
dt
3
3 2
) 1 t (
4
3
dt
2
3
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Since
3
1 x 2
t

= , going back to the original variable, we get
C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
dx
1 x x
1
I
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2-x+1);
:= f
1
+ x
2
x 1

> int(f,x);
2
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 1 3
3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ x
2
x 1
x
2
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 1 3
3

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
185

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x 2 x
1
I
2
}
+ +
=
Solution. We have
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
x 1 x 2 x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + + .
Under the substitution t
2
2
2
2
x = + we have
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
t
2
2
2
2
2
2
x 1 x 2 x
) 1 t (
2
1
2
1
t
2
1
2 2
+ = + =
and
dt
2
2
dx =
The integral in terms of the new variable t becomes
C t arctan 2
1 t
dt
2
) 1 t (
2
1
dt
2
2
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Since
2
2 x 2
t
+
= , going back to the original variable, we get
C
2
2 x 2
arctan 2 dx
1 x 2 x
1
I
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ +
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2+sqrt(2)*x+1);
:= f
1
+ + x
2
2 x 1

> int(f,x);
2
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 2 2
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
186
> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ + x
2
2 x 1
x 2
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 2 2
2


Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x 2 x
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. We have
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
x 1 x 2 x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= + .
Under the substitution t
2
2
2
2
x = we have
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
t
2
2
2
2
2
2
x 1 x 2 x
) 1 t (
2
1
2
1
t
2
1
2 2
+ = + =
and
dt
2
2
dx =
The integral in terms of the new variable t becomes
C t arctan 2
1 t
dt
2
) 1 t (
2
1
dt
2
2
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Since
2
2 x 2
t

= , going back to the original variable, we get
C
2
2 x 2
arctan 2 dx
1 x 2 x
1
I
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2-sqrt(2)*x+1);
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
187
:= f
1
+ x
2
2 x 1

> int(f,x);
2
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 2 2
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ x
2
2 x 1
x 2
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 2 2
2

Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx
7 x 4 x
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. We have

2 2 2
) 3 ( ) 2 x ( 7 x 4 x + = +
Using the substitution t 3 2 x = , we get
= + = + = +
2 2 2 2 2
) 3 ( ) t 3 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 x ( 7 x 4 x
) 1 t ( 3 3 t 3
2 2
+ = + =
We also have dt 3 dx = . Therefore the integral becomes
C t arctan
3
3
1 t
dt
3
3
) 1 t ( 3
dt 3
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we get
C
3
2 x
arctan
3
3
dx
7 x 4 x
1
I
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2-4*x+7);
:= f
1
+ x
2
4 x 7

> int(f,x);
1
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 4 3
6

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
188
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ x
2
4 x 7
x
1
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 4 3
6


Example 6. Evaluate the integral dx
4 x 3 x
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. We have

2
2
2
2
7
2
3
x 4 x 3 x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
Using the substitution t
2
7
2
3
x = , we have
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
2
7
t
2
7
2
7
2
3
x 4 x 3 x
) 1 t (
4
7
4
7
t
4
7
2 2
+ = + =
We also have dt
2
7
dx = . Therefore the integral becomes
C t arctan
7
7 2
1 t
dt
7
7 2
) 1 t (
4
7
dt
2
7
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we get
C
7
3 x 2
arctan
7
7 2
dx
4 x 3 x
1
I
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2-3*x+4);
:= f
1
+ x
2
3 x 4

> int(f,x);
2
7
7
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 3 7
7

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
189
> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ x
2
3 x 4
x
2
7
7
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 3 7
7



Example 7. Evaluate the integral dx
5 x x 2
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. We have

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
2
2
2 2
4
39
4
1
x 2
2
5
2
x
x 2 5 x x 2
Under the substitution t
4
39
4
1
x = , we have
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
4
39
t
4
39
2
4
39
4
1
x 2 5 x x 2
) 1 t (
8
39
16
39
t
16
39
2
2 2
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
We also have dt
4
39
dx = . Therefore the integral becomes
C t arctan
39
39 2
1 t
dt
39
39 2
) 1 t (
8
39
dt
4
39
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we get
C
39
1 x 4
arctan
39
39 2
dx
5 x x 2
1
I
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(2*x^2-x+5);
:= f
1
+ 2 x
2
x 5

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
190
> int(f,x);
2
39
39
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 4 x 1 39
39

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 2 x
2
x 5
x
2
39
39
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 4 x 1 39
39



Example 8. Evaluate the integral dx
5 x 3 x 2
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. We have

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
2
2
2 2
4
31
4
3
x 2
2
5
2
x 3
x 2 5 x 3 x 2
Under the substitution t
4
31
4
3
x = , we have
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
4
31
t
4
31
2
4
31
4
3
x 2 5 x x 2
) 1 t (
8
31
16
31
t
16
31
2
2 2
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
We also have dt
4
31
dx = . Therefore the integral becomes
C t arctan
31
31 2
1 t
dt
31
31 2
) 1 t (
8
31
dt
4
31
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we get
C
31
3 x 4
arctan
31
31 2
dx
5 x 3 x 2
1
I
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Maple support:
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
191
> f:=1/(2*x^2-3*x+5);
:= f
1
+ 2 x
2
3 x 5

> int(f,x);
2
31
31
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 4 x 3 31
31

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 2 x
2
3 x 5
x
2
31
31
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 4 x 3 31
31


Example 9. Evaluate the integral dx
3 x 2 x 4
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. We have

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
2
2
2 2
4
11
4
1
x 4
4
3
2
x
x 4 3 x 2 x 4
Under the substitution t
4
11
4
1
x = , we have
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
4
11
t
4
11
4
4
11
4
1
x 4 3 x 2 x 4
) 1 t (
4
11
16
11
t
16
11
4
2 2
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
We also have dt
4
11
dx = . Therefore the integral becomes
C t arctan
11
11
1 t
dt
11
11
) 1 t (
4
11
dt
4
11
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we get
C
11
1 x 4
arctan
11
11
dx
3 x 2 x 4
1
I
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
192
Maple support:
> f:=1/(4*x^2-2*x+3);
:= f
1
+ 4 x
2
2 x 3

> int(f,x);
1
11
11
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 8 x 2 11
22

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 4 x
2
2 x 3
x
1
11
11
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 8 x 2 11
22


Example 10. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x 2 x 3
1
I
2
}
+
=
Solution. We have

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
2
2
2 2
3
2
3
1
x 3
3
1
3
x 2
x 3 1 x 2 x 3
Under the substitution t
3
2
3
1
x = , we have
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
3
2
t
3
2
3
3
2
3
1
x 3 1 x 2 x 3
) 1 t (
3
2
9
2
t
9
2
3
2 2
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
We also have dt
3
2
dx = . Therefore the integral becomes
C t arctan
2
2
1 t
dt
2
2
) 1 t (
3
2
dt
3
2
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we get
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
193
C
2
1 x 3
arctan
2
2
dx
1 x 2 x 3
1
I
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(3*x^2-2*x+1);
:= f
1
+ 3 x
2
2 x 1

> int(f,x);
1
2
2
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 6 x 2 2
4

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 3 x
2
2 x 1
x
1
2
2
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 6 x 2 2
4



6.3.3a Special Cases.
Case 1. The integral
}
+
dx
a x
1
2 2
, 0 a >
In this case we use the substitution u a x = . We then have
) 1 u ( a a u a a ) u a ( a x
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+ = + = + = +
and
du a dx =
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+
=
+
=
+
} } }
du
1 u
1
a
1
du a
) 1 u ( a
1
dx
a x
1
2 2 2 2 2

C u arctan
a
1
+ =
Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C
a
x
arctan
a
1
dx
a x
1
2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
}

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
194
Example 11. Evaluate the integral
}
+ 9 x
dx
2

Solution. Using the substitution u 3 x = , we have
) 1 u ( 9 9 u 9 9 ) u 3 ( 9 x
2 2 2 2
+ = + = + = +
and
du 3 dx =
The integral then takes the form
C u arctan
3
1
1 u
du
3
1
) 1 u ( 9
du 3
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral:
C
3
x
arctan
3
1
9 x
dx
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2+9);
:= f
1
+ x
2
9

> int(f,x);
1
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x
3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ x
2
9
x
1
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x
3


Case 2. The integral
}
+
dx
1 x a
1
2 2

In this case we use the substitution u x a = , i.e.
a
u
x = .
The integrand then becomes
1 u 1 ) x a ( 1 x a
2 2 2 2
+ = + = +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
195
We also have
du
a
1
dx =
Therefore
=
+
=
+
=
+
} } }
du
1 u
1
a
1
du
a
1
1 u
1
dx
1 x a
1
2 2 2 2

C ) ax arctan(
a
1
C u arctan
a
1
+ = + =
Example 12. Evaluate the integral
}
+
dx
1 x 4
1
2

Solution. We use the substitution u x 2 = , i.e.
2
u
x = .
The integrand then becomes
1 u 1 ) x 2 ( 1 x 4
2 2 2
+ = + = +
We also have
du
2
1
dx =
Therefore
=
+
=
+
=
+
} } }
du
1 u
1
2
1
du
2
1
1 u
1
dx
1 x 4
1
2 2 2

C ) x 2 arctan(
2
1
C u arctan
2
1
+ = + =
Maple support:
> f:=1/(4*x^2+1);
:= f
1
+ 4 x
2
1

> int(f,x);
1
2
( ) arctan 2 x

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
196
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 4 x
2
1
x
1
2
( ) arctan 2 x

Case 3. The integral
}
+
dx
p x a
1
2 2 2
, ( 0 a > , 0 p > )
For this integral we use the substitution
u p x a =
Therefore
) 1 u ( p p u p p x a
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+ = + = +
and
du
a
p
dx =
The integral thus becomes
=
+
=
+
=
} }
du
1 u
1
pa
1
du
a
p
) 1 u ( p
1
I
2 2 2

C
p
x a
arctan
pa
1
C u arctan
pa
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= + =
Example 13. Evaluate the integral
}
+
dx
16 x 9
1
2

Solution. Using the substitution u 4 x 3 = , i.e.
3
u 4
x = , we have
= + = + = + 16 ) u 4 ( 16 ) x 3 ( 16 x 9
2 2 2

) 1 u ( 16 16 u 16
2 2
+ = + =
and
du
3
4
dx =
The integral then takes the form
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
197
C u arctan
12
1
du
1 u
1
12
1
du
3
4
) 1 u ( 16
1
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C
4
x 3
arctan
12
1
dx
16 x 9
1
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(9*x^2+16);
:= f
1
+ 9 x
2
16

> int(f,x);
1
12
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
3 x
4

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 9 x
2
16
x
1
12
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
3 x
4


Case 4. The integral
}
+
dx
a x
1
2
, 0 a >
In this case we use the substitution u a x = . Therefore we obtain
) 1 u ( a a u a a ) u a ( a x
2 2 2 2
+ = + = + = +
and
du a dx =
The integral thus becomes
C u arctan
a
a
du
1 u
1
a
a
du a
) 1 u ( a
1
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C
a
x
arctan
a
a
dx
a x
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
}


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
198
Example 14. Evaluate the integral
}
+
dx
5 x
1
2

Solution. Under the substitution u 5 x = , we obtain
) 1 u ( 5 5 u 5 5 ) u 5 ( 5 x
2 2 2 2
+ = + = + = +
and
du 5 dx =
The integral thus becomes
C u arctan
5
5
du
1 u
1
5
5
du 5
) 1 u ( 5
1
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C
5
x
arctan
5
5
dx
5 x
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(x^2+5);
:= f
1
+ x
2
5

> int(f,x);
1
5
5
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x 5
5

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ x
2
5
x
1
5
5
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x 5
5


Case 5. The integral
}
+
dx
1 x a
1
2
, ( 0 a > )
In this case we use the substitution u x a = , i.e.
a
u
x = .
Therefore we have
1 u 1 ) x a ( 1 x a
2 2 2
+ = + = +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
199
and
du
a
1
dx =
The integral thus becomes

} } }
=
+
=
+
=
+
du
1 u
1
a
1
du
a
1
1 u
1
dx
1 x a
1
2 2 2

C u arctan
a
1
+ =
Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C ) x a arctan(
a
1
dx
1 x a
1
2
+ =
+
}

Example 15. Evaluate the integral
}
+
dx
1 x 3
1
2

Solution. Using the substitution u x 3 = , i.e.
3
u
x = , we have
1 u 1 ) x 3 ( 1 x 3
2 2 2
+ = + = +
and
du
3
1
dx =
The integral thus becomes

} } }
=
+
=
+
=
+
du
1 u
1
3
1
du
3
1
1 u
1
dx
1 x 3
1
2 2 2

C u arctan
3
1
+ =
Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C ) x 3 arctan(
3
1
dx
1 x 3
1
2
+ =
+
}

Maple support:
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
200
> f:=1/(3*x^2+1);
:= f
1
+ 3 x
2
1

> int(f,x);
1
3
3 ( ) arctan x 3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 3 x
2
1
x
1
3
3 ( ) arctan x 3

Case 6. The integral
}
+
dx
p x a
1
2
( 0 a > , 0 p > )
For this integral we use the substitution
u p x a =
Therefore
) 1 u ( p p u p p x a
2 2 2
+ = + = +
and
du
a
p
dx =
The integral thus becomes
=
+
=
+
} }
du
1 u
1
pa
1
du
a
p
) 1 u ( p
1
2 2

C u arctan
pa
1
+ =
Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C x
p
a
arctan
pa
1
dx
p x a
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
}


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
201
Example 16. Evaluate the integral
}
+
dx
7 x 2
1
2

Solution. Using the substitution u 7 x 2 = , i.e. u
2
7
x = , we obtain
= + = + = + 7 ) u 7 ( 7 ) x 2 ( 7 x 2
2 2 2

) 1 u ( 7 7 u 7
2 2
+ = + =
and
du
2
7
dx =
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+
=
+
} }
du
1 u
1
2
7
7
1
du
) 1 u ( 7
1
2 2

C u arctan
14
1
+ =
Going back to the original variable x, we obtain the value of the integral:
C x
7
2
arctan
14
1
dx
7 x 2
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(2*x^2+7);
:= f
1
+ 2 x
2
7

> int(f,x);
1
14
14
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x 14
7

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 2 x
2
7
x
1
14
14
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x 14
7


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
202
Example 17. Evaluate the integral
}
+
dx
5 x 12
1
2

Solution. Using the substitution u 5 x 12 = , i.e. u
12
5
x = , we get
= + = + = + 5 ) u 5 ( 5 ) x 12 ( 5 x 12
2 2 2

) 1 u ( 5 5 u 5
2 2
+ = + =
and
du
12
5
dx =
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+
=
+
} }
du
1 u
1
12
5
5
1
du
12
5
) 1 u ( 5
1
2 2

C u arctan
15 2
1
+ =
Going back to the original variable x, we obtain the value of the integral
C x
5
15 2
arctan
15 2
1
dx
5 x 12
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(12*x^2+5);
:= f
1
+ 12 x
2
5

> int(f,x);
1
30
15
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
2 x 15
5

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 12 x
2
5
x
1
30
15
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
2 x 15
5



Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
203
Example 18. Evaluate the integral
}
+ 9 x 5
dx
2

Solution. Using the substitution u 3 x 5 = , i.e. u
5
3
x = , we obtain
= + = + = + 9 ) u 3 ( 9 ) x 5 ( 9 x 5
2 2 2

) 1 u ( 9 9 u 9
2 2
+ = + =
and
du
5
3
dx =
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+
=
+
} }
du
1 u
1
5 3
1
du
5
3
) 1 u ( 9
1
2 2

C u arctan
5 3
1
+ =
Going back to the original variable, we obtain the value of the integral
C x
3
5
arctan
5 3
1
9 x 5
dx
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
}

Maple support:
> f:=1/(5*x^2+9);
:= f
1
+ 5 x
2
9

> int(f,x);
1
15
5
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x 5
3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
1
+ 5 x
2
9
x
1
15
5
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
x 5
3



Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
204
Conclusions. The value of the integral
}
+ +
dx
c x b x a
1
2
depends on
the sign of the discriminant c a 4 b D
2
of the trinomial
c x b x a
2
+ + .

We distinguish the following three cases:

I) If 0 D > then C
x
x
ln
) ( a
1
c x b x a
dx
2
1
2 1
2
+

=
+ +
}

where
2 1
, are the two real roots of the trinomial:

a 2
D b

2 , 1

=
II) If 0 D = then C
x
1
a
1
c x b x a
dx
2
+

=
+ +
}

where is the double root of the trinomial:
a 2
b
=
III) If 0 D < then C
D
b ax 2
arctan
D
2
c bx ax
dx
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+ +
}



Algorithm for the
Evaluation of the Integral
}
+ + c x b x a
dx
2

In evaluating the integral
}
+ + c x b x a
dx
2

we first calculate the discriminant c a 4 b D
2
of the trinomial c x b x a
2
+ + .
(I) If 0 D > , then we follow the next steps
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
205
Step 1. Calculate the two real roots of the trinomial:

a 2
D b

2 , 1

=
Step 2. Factorize the trinomial
) x ( ) x ( a c x b x a
2 1
2
= + +


Step 3. Perform the partial fraction decomposition

2 1 2 1
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x (
1

=

and determine the constants A and B:

2 1

1
A

= and
2 1

1
B

=
Step 4. Write the integral as

)
`


=
+ +
} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx
) ( a
1
c x b x a
dx



Step 5. Perform the integration
=
+ +
}
c x b x a
dx
2

C ] | x | ln | x | ln [
) ( a
1
2 1
2 1
+

=
C
x
x
ln
) ( a
1
2
1
2 1
+

=
(II) If 0 D = , then we follow the next steps
Step 1. Calculate the double root of the trinomial:

a 2
b
=
Step 2. Write the trinomial as a perfect square:
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
206

2 2
) x ( a c x b x a = + +
Step 3. Express the integral as
} }

=
+ +
2 2
) x (
dx
a
1
c x b x a
dx

Step 4. Use the substitution x u = and transform the integral to

}
2
u
du
a
1

Step 5. Perform the integration
C
u
1
a
1
u
du
a
1
2
+ =
}

Step 6. Go back to the original variable x:
C
x
1
a
1
c x b x a
dx
2
+

=
+ +
}





(III) If 0 D < , then we follow the next steps
Step 1. Transform the trinomial into a sum of squares:

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2
2
2
a 2
D
a 2
b
x a c x b x a

Step 2. Use the substitution

u
a 2
D
a 2
b
x

= +
,
du
a 2
D
dx

=

Step 3. Transform the trinomial into

) 1 u (
a 2
D
a c x b x a
2
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

= + +

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
207
Step 4. Write the integral as

} }
+

=
+

|
|
.
|

\
|

1 u
du
D
2
du
1 u
a 2
D
a 2
D
a
1
2 2 2

Step 5. Perform the integration:
C u arctan
D
2
1 u
du
D
2
2
+

=
+

}

Step 6. Go back to the original variable, using the relation
D
b ax 2
u

+
= :
C
D
b x a 2
arctan
D
2
c x b x a
dx
2
+ |
.
|

\
|

=
+ +
}


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
208

6.4 Fourth Category.
In this category we shall consider the following type of integrals:
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2
}
+ +
+

In integrals of this form we consider three distinct cases:
0 D > , 0 D = and 0 D <
where c a 4 b D
2
is the discriminant of the trinomial c x b x a
2
+ + .
6.4.1. Case I. Positive Discriminant. Suppose 0 D > . In this case the trinomial
admits two distinct real roots
1
and
2
given by the formula

a 2
D b

2 , 1

=
The trinomial then takes the form
) x ( ) x ( a c x b x a
2 1
2
= + +
For the integral dx
c x b x a
B x A
2
}
+ +
+
we have similarly the partial fraction
decomposition

2 1 2 1
x
L
x
K
) x ( ) x (
B Ax

=

+

The above identity is equivalent to
) x ( L ) x ( K B Ax
1 2
+ = +
For
1
x = we find ) ( K B A
2 1 1
= + and then
2 1
1

B A
K

+
=
For
2
x = we find ) ( L B A
1 2 2
= + and then
2 1
2

B A
L

+
=
Therefore
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
209

2 2 1
2
1 2 1
1
2 1
x
1

B A
x
1

B A
) x ( ) x (
B x A

+
=

+

The integral then can be evaluated as follows
=

+
=
+ +
+
} }
dx
) x ( ) x (
B x A
a
1
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 1
2


} }

+


+
= dx
x
1
) ( a
B A
dx
x
1
) ( a
B A
2 2 1
2
1 2 1
1

C | x | ln
) ( a
B A
| x | ln
) ( a
B A
2
2 1
2
1
2 1
1
+

+
=
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x 3 x 2
4 x 3
I
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. Since ) 1 x )( 1 x 2 ( 1 x 3 x 2
2
= + , we have the partial fraction
decomposition

1 x
B
1 x 2
A
1 x 3 x 2
4 x 3
2

+

=
+
+

from which we get
) 1 x 2 ( B ) 1 x ( A 4 x 3 + = +
For 1 x = we get 7 B ) 1 1 2 ( B 4 1 3 = = +
For
2
1
x = we get 11 A 1
2
1
A 4
2
1
3 =
|
.
|

\
|
= +
Therefore

1 x
7
1 x 2
11
1 x 3 x 2
4 x 3
2

+

=
+
+

The integral is then calculated to be
=

=
+
+
=
} } }
dx
1 x
1
7 dx
1 x 2
2
2
11
dx
1 x 3 x 2
4 x 3
I
2

C | 1 x | ln 7 | 1 x 2 | ln
2
11
+ + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
210
Maple support:
> f:=(3*x+4)/(2*x^2-3*x+1);
:= f
+ 3 x 4
+ 2 x
2
3 x 1

> int(f,x);
7 ( ) ln x 1
11
2
( ) ln 2 x 1

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
+ 3 x 4
+ 2 x
2
3 x 1
x 7 ( ) ln x 1
11
2
( ) ln 2 x 1

6.4.2. Case II. Zero Discriminant. Suppose 0 ac 4 b D
2
= . In this case the
trinomial has a double real root given by
a 2
b
= and takes the form

2 2
) x ( a c x b x a = + +
For the integral
dx
) x (
B Ax
a
1
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 2
} }

+
=
+ +
+

we have the partial fraction decomposition

2 2
) x (
L
x
K
) x (
B Ax

+

from which we get
L ) x ( K B Ax + = +
For x = we find B A L L B A + = = +
For 0 x = we find A K L ) ( K B = + =
Therefore

2 2
) x (
B A
x
A
) x (
B Ax

+
+

+

The integral then becomes
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
211
=

+
+

=
+ +
+
} } }
dx
) x (
B A
a
1
dx
x
A
a
1
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 2

=

+
+

=
} }
dx
) x (
1
a
B A
dx
x
1
a
A
2

= +
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+ = C
x
1
a
B A
| x | ln
a
A

C
x
1
a
B A
| x | ln
a
A
+

+
=
Second Method. Using the substitution
x u = ( u x + = )
we have
=
+ +
=

+
=
+ +
+
} } }
du
u
B ) u ( A
a
1
dx
) x (
B Ax
a
1
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 2 2

=
+
+ =
+ +
=
} } }
du
u
B A
a
1
du
u
u A
a
1
du
u
) B A ( u A
a
1
2 2 2

C
u
1
a
B A
| u | ln
a
A
du
u
1
a
B A
du
u
1
a
A
2
+
|
.
|

\
|

+
+ =
+
+ =
} }

C
x
1
a
B A
| x | ln
a
A
+

+
=
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+
+
= dx
4 x 4 x
1 x 3
I
2

Solution. Since

2 2
) 2 x ( 4 x 4 x = +
we have the partial fraction decomposition

2 2
) 2 x (
B
2 x
A
4 x 4 x
1 x 3

=
+
+

which can be written as
B ) 2 x ( A 1 x 3 + = +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
212
- For 2 x = we get 7 B B 1 2 3 = = +
- For 0 x = we get 3 A 7 ) 2 ( A 1 = + =
Therefore

2 2
) 2 x (
7
2 x
3
4 x 4 x
1 x 3

=
+
+

The integral then becomes
=

=
+
+
=
} } }
dx
) 2 x (
7
dx
2 x
3
dx
4 x 4 x
1 x 3
I
2 2

= +
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

=
} }
C
2 x
1
7 | 2 x | ln 3 dx
) 2 x (
1
7 dx
2 x
1
3
2

C
2 x
7
| 2 x | ln 3 +

=
Second Method. Using the substitution 2 x u = ( 2 u x + = ) we have
=
+ +
=

+
=
+
+
=
} } }
du
u
1 ) 2 u ( 3
dx
) 2 x (
1 x 3
dx
4 x 4 x
1 x 3
I
2 2 2

= + = + =
+
=
} } } } }
du
u
1
7 du
u
1
3 du
u
7
du
u
u 3
du
u
7 u 3
2 2 2 2

C
2 x
7
| 2 x | ln 3 C
u
1
7 | u | ln 3 +

= +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Maple support:
> f:=(3*x+1)/(x^2-4*x+4);
:= f
+ 3 x 1
+ x
2
4 x 4

> int(f,x);
+
7
x 2
3 ( ) ln x 2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
+ 3 x 1
+ x
2
4 x 4
x +
7
x 2
3 ( ) ln x 2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
213

Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x 6 x 9
3 x 5
I
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. Since
2 2
) 1 x 3 ( 1 x 6 x 9 = + , we have the partial fraction
decomposition

2 2
) 1 x 3 (
B
1 x 3
A
1 x 6 x 9
3 x 5

=
+
+

which can be written as
B ) 1 x 3 ( A 3 x 5 + = +
For
3
1
x = we find
3
14
B B 3
3
1
5 = = +
For 0 x = we find
3
5
A B A 3 = + =
Therefore

2 2
) 1 x 3 (
1
3
14
1 x 3
1
3
5
1 x 6 x 9
3 x 5

=
+
+

The integral then becomes

} } }

+

=
+
+
=
2 2
) 1 x 3 (
dx
3
14
1 x 3
dx
3
5
dx
1 x 6 x 9
3 x 5
I
Under the substitution 1 x 3 u = , dx 3 du = ( du
3
1
dx = ) the above integrals
transform into
= + = +
} } } }
2 2
u
du
9
14
u
du
9
5
u
du
3
1
3
14
u
du
3
1
3
5

C
u
1
9
14
| u | ln
9
5
C
u
1
9
14
| u | ln
9
5
+ = +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
214
Going back to the original variable, since
3
1 u
x
+
= , we obtain the value of the
integral:
C
1 x 3
1
9
14
| 1 x 3 | ln
9
5
dx
1 x 6 x 9
3 x 5
I
2
+

=
+
+
=
}

Maple support:
> f:=(5*x+3)/(9*x^2-6*x+1);
:= f
+ 5 x 3
+ 9 x
2
6 x 1

> int(f,x);
+
14
9 ( ) 3 x 1
5
9
( ) ln 3 x 1

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
+ 5 x 3
+ 9 x
2
6 x 1
x +
14
9 ( ) 3 x 1
5
9
( ) ln 3 x 1

6.4.3. Case III. Negative Discriminant. Suppose that 0 D < .
First Method.
For the integral dx
c x b x a
B x A
2
}
+ +
+
we first prove the identity

|
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
a 2
Ab
B ) b ax 2 (
a 2
A
B Ax
We have
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
A
B
x a 2
a 2
1
A
A
B
x A B Ax
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
A
B
a 2
b
A ) b ax 2 (
a 2
1
A
A
B
a 2
b
) b ax 2 (
a 2
1
A

|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = B
a 2
Ab
) b ax 2 (
a 2
A

Therefore the integral becomes
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
215
=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
+ +
+
} }
dx
c x b x a
a 2
Ab
B ) b ax 2 (
a 2
A
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 2

=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
=
} }
dx
c x b x a
1
a 2
Ab
B dx
c x b x a
b ax 2
a 2
A
2 2

I
a 2
Ab
B | c x b x a | ln
a 2
A
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
where I is the integral
dx
c x b x a
1
I
2
}
+ +
=
which is known how to be evaluated.
Example 1. Evaluate the integrals
(i) dx
1 x x
x
I
2
}
+ +
=
(ii) dx
1 x x
1 x
J
2
}
+ +

=
Solution.
(i) We have
=
+ +
+
=
+ +
=
+ + 1 x x
1 1 x 2
2
1
1 x x
x 2
2
1
1 x x
x
2 2 2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

+ +
+
=
1 x x
1
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
2 2


1 x x
1
2
1
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
2 2
+ +

+ +
+
=
Therefore
=
+ +

+ +
+
=
+ +
=
} } }
dx
1 x x
1
2
1
dx
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
dx
1 x x
x
I
2 2 2

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3
| 1 x x | ln
2
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+ + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
216
where we have used that (6.3.3 Example 1)
|
.
|

\
| +
=
+ +
}
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
dx
1 x x
1
2

(ii) Since
2
3
) 1 x 2 (
2
1
1 x + = , we have

1 x x
1
2
3
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
1 x x
1 x
2 2 2
+ +

+ +
+
=
+ +


Therefore
=
+ +

+ +
+
=
+ +

=
} } }
dx
1 x x
1
2
3
dx
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
dx
1 x x
1 x
J
2 2 2

= + |
.
|

\
| +
+ + = C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
2
3
| 1 x x | ln
2
1
2

C
3
1 x 2
arctan 3 | 1 x x | ln
2
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+ + =
Maple support:
> f:=x/(x^2+x+1);
:= f
x
+ + x
2
x 1

> int(f,x);

1
2
( ) ln + + x
2
x 1
1
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 1 3
3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
x
+ + x
2
x 1
x
1
2
( ) ln + + x
2
x 1
1
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 1 3
3

> g:=(x-1)/(x^2+x+1);
:= g
x 1
+ + x
2
x 1

> int(g,x);

1
2
( ) ln + + x
2
x 1 3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 1 3
3

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
217
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
x 1
+ + x
2
x 1
x
1
2
( ) ln + + x
2
x 1 3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 1 3
3



Example 2. Evaluate the integrals
(i) dx
1 x x
x
I
2
}
+
=
(ii) dx
1 x x
1 x
J
2
}
+
+
=
Solution.
(i) We have
=
+ +
+
=
+
=
+ 1 x x
1 1 x 2
2
1
1 x x
x 2
2
1
1 x x
x
2 2 2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
+ +

=
1 x x
1
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
2 2


1 x x
1
2
1
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
2 2
+ +
+
+ +

=
Therefore
=
+
+
+

=
+
=
} } }
dx
1 x x
1
2
1
dx
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
dx
1 x x
x
I
2 2 2

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3
| 1 x x | ln
2
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + =
where we have used that (6.3.3 Example 2)
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
}
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
dx
1 x x
1
2

(ii) Since
2
3
) 1 x 2 (
2
1
1 x + = + , we have

1 x x
1
2
3
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
1 x x
1 x
2 2 2
+ +
+
+

=
+
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
218
Therefore
=
+
+
+

=
+
+
=
} } }
dx
1 x x
1
2
3
dx
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
dx
1 x x
1 x
J
2 2 2

= + |
.
|

\
|
+ + = C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
2
3
| 1 x x | ln
2
1
2

C
3
1 x 2
arctan 3 | 1 x x | ln
2
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + =
Maple support:
> f:=x/(x^2-x+1);
:= f
x
+ x
2
x 1

> int(f,x);
+
1
2
( ) ln + x
2
x 1
1
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 1 3
3

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
x
+ x
2
x 1
x +
1
2
( ) ln + x
2
x 1
1
3
3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 1 3
3

> g:=(x+1)/(x^2-x+1);
:= g
+ x 1
+ x
2
x 1

> int(g,x);
+
1
2
( ) ln + x
2
x 1 3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 1 3
3

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
+ x 1
+ x
2
x 1
x +
1
2
( ) ln + x
2
x 1 3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 1 3
3


Example 3. Evaluate the integrals
(i) dx
1 x 2 x
x
I
2
}
+ +
= (ii) dx
1 x 2 x
2 x
J
2
}
+ +
+
=
Solution.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
219
(i) We have
=
+ +
+
=
+ +
=
+ + 1 x 2 x
2 2 x 2
2
1
1 x 2 x
x 2
2
1
1 x 2 x
x
2 2 2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

+ +
+
=
1 x 2 x
2
1 x 2 x
2 x 2
2
1
2 2


1 x 2 x
1
2
2
1 x 2 x
2 x 2
2
1
2 2
+ +

+ +
+
=
Therefore
=
+ +
=
}
dx
1 x 2 x
x
I
2

=
+ +

+ +
+
=
} }
dx
1 x 2 x
1
2
2
dx
1 x 2 x
2 x 2
2
1
2 2

= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + = C
2
2 x 2
arctan 2
2
2
| 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2

C
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + =
where we have used that (6.3.3 Example 3)

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ +
}
2
2 x 2
arctan 2 dx
1 x 2 x
1
2
(1)
(ii) We have
=
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
1 x 2 x
) 2 x ( 2
2
1
1 x 2 x
2 x
2 2


(
(

+ +
+
+ +
+
=
(
(

+ +
+ +
=
1 x 2 x
2
1 x 2 x
) 2 x 2 (
2
1
1 x 2 x
2 ) 2 x 2 (
2
1
2 2 2

Therefore the integral becomes
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
220
=
+ +
+
=
}
dx
1 x 2 x
2 x
J
2

=
+ +
+
+ +
+
=
} }
dx
1 x 2 x
1
2
2
dx
1 x 2 x
2 x 2
2
1
2 2

C
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + + =
where we have used again relation (1).
Maple support:
> f:=x/(x^2+sqrt(2)*x+1);
:= f
x
+ + x
2
2 x 1

> int(f,x);

1
2
( ) ln + + x
2
2 x 1
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 2 2
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
x
+ + x
2
2 x 1
x
1
2
( ) ln + + x
2
2 x 1
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 2 2
2

> g:=(x+sqrt(2))/(x^2+sqrt(2)*x+1);
:= g
+ x 2
+ + x
2
2 x 1

> int(g,x);
+
1
2
( ) ln + + x
2
2 x 1
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 2 2
2

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
(
+ x 2
+ + x
2
2 x 1
x +
1
2
( ) ln + + x
2
2 x 1
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) + 2 x 2 2
2


Example 4. Evaluate the integrals
(i) dx
1 x 2 x
x
I
2
}
+
=
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
221
(ii) dx
1 x 2 x
2 x
J
2
}
+

=
Solution.
(i) We have
=
+ +
+
=
+
=
+ 1 x 2 x
2 2 x 2
2
1
1 x 2 x
x 2
2
1
1 x 2 x
x
2 2 2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+

=
1 x 2 x
2
1 x 2 x
2 x 2
2
1
2 2


1 x 2 x
1
2
2
1 x 2 x
2 x 2
2
1
2 2
+
+
+

=
Therefore
=
+
=
}
dx
1 x 2 x
x
I
2

=
+
+
+

=
} }
dx
1 x 2 x
1
2
2
dx
1 x 2 x
2 x 2
2
1
2 2

= +
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + = C
2
2 x 2
arctan 2
2
2
| 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2

C
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + =
where we have used that (6.3.3 Example 4)

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
}
2
2 x 2
arctan 2 dx
1 x 2 x
1
2
(1)
(ii) We have
=
+

=
+

1 x 2 x
) 2 x ( 2
2
1
1 x 2 x
2 x
2 2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
222

(
(

+ +

+

=
(
(

+

=
1 x 2 x
2
1 x 2 x
) 2 x 2 (
2
1
1 x 2 x
2 ) 2 x 2 (
2
1
2 2 2

Therefore the integral becomes
=
+

=
}
dx
1 x 2 x
2 x
J
2

=
+
+
+

=
} }
dx
1 x 2 x
1
2
2
dx
1 x 2 x
2 x 2
2
1
2 2

C
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + =
where we have used again relation (1).
Maple support:
> f:=x/(x^2-sqrt(2)*x+1);
:= f
x
+ x
2
2 x 1

> int(f,x);
+
1
2
( ) ln + x
2
2 x 1
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 2 2
2

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
x
+ x
2
2 x 1
x +
1
2
( ) ln + x
2
2 x 1
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 2 2
2

> g:=(x-sqrt(2))/(x^2-sqrt(2)*x+1);
:= g
x 2
+ x
2
2 x 1

> int(g,x);

1
2
( ) ln + x
2
2 x 1
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 2 2
2

> Int(g,x)=int(g,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
(
x 2
+ x
2
2 x 1
x
1
2
( ) ln + x
2
2 x 1
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 2 2
2


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
223
Second Method. We use the same substitution
u
a 2
D
a 2
b
x

= + , i.e. u
a 2
D
a 2
b
x

+ =
and
du
a 2
D
dx

= ,
D
b x a 2
u

+
=
for both numerator and denominator.
Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx
7 x 4 x
5 x 4
I
2
}
+

=
Solution. We have

2 2 2
) 3 ( ) 2 x ( 7 x 4 x + = +
Using the substitution t 3 2 x = , we get
) 1 t ( 3 ) 3 ( ) t 3 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 x ( 7 x 4 x
2 2 2 2 2 2
+ = + = + = +
3 t 3 4 5 ) 2 t 3 ( 4 5 x 4 + = + =
and
dt 3 dx =
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+
+
+
=
+
+
} } }
dt 3
) 1 t ( 3
3
dt 3
) 1 t ( 3
t 3 4
dt 3
) 1 t ( 3
3 t 3 4
2 2 2

C t arctan 3 ) 1 t ln( 2 dt
1 t
1
3 dt
1 t
t 2
2
2
2 2
+ + + =
+
+
+
=
} }

Going back to the original variable, since
3
2 x
t

= , we obtain the value of the
integral:
C
3
2 x
arctan 3 1
3
2 x
ln 2 dx
7 x 4 x
5 x 4
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+

+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+

=
}

or
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
224
C
3
2 x
arctan 3
3
7 x 4 x
ln 2 dx
7 x 4 x
5 x 4
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+

=
}

or
C
3
2 x
arctan 3 ) 7 x 4 x ( ln 2 dx
7 x 4 x
5 x 4
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+

=
}

Maple support:
> f:=(4*x-5)/(x^2-4*x+7);
:= f
4 x 5
+ x
2
4 x 7

> int(f,x);
+ 2 ( ) ln + x
2
4 x 7 3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 4 3
6

> Int(f,x)=int(f,x);
= d
(
]
(
(
(
(
4 x 5
+ x
2
4 x 7
x + 2 ( ) ln + x
2
4 x 7 3
|
\

|
.
|
|
arctan
( ) 2 x 4 3
6


Example 6. Evaluate the integral dx
4 x 3 x
8 x 5
I
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We have

2
2
2
2
7
2
3
x 4 x 3 x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
Using the substitution t
2
7
2
3
x = , we have
) 1 t (
4
7
2
7
t
2
7
2
7
2
3
x 4 x 3 x
2
2 2 2
2
2
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
31
t
2
7 5
8
2
3
t
2
7
5 8 x 5 + = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
dt
2
7
dx =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
225
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+
+
+
=
+
+
} } }
dt
2
7
) 1 t (
4
7
2
31
dt
2
7
) 1 t (
4
7
t
2
7 5
dt
2
7
) 1 t (
4
7
2
31
t
2
7 5
2 2 2

C t arctan
7
7 31
) 1 t ln(
2
5
dt
1 t
1
7
7 31
dt
1 t
t 2
2
5
2
2 2
+ + + =
+
+
+
=
} }

Going back to the original variable, since
7
3 x 2
t

= , we obtain the value of the
integral:
C
7
3 x 2
arctan
7
7 31
1
7
3 x 2
ln
2
5
dx
4 x 3 x
8 x 5
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+

+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
+
=
}

or
C
7
3 x 2
arctan
7
7 31
7
16 x 12 x 4
ln
2
5
dx
4 x 3 x
8 x 5
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
+
=
}

or
C
7
3 x 2
arctan
7
7 31
) 4 x 3 x ln(
2
5
dx
4 x 3 x
8 x 5
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+
+
=
}


Example 7. Evaluate the integral dx
5 x x 2
2 x 3
I
2
}
+

=
Solution. We have
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
16
1
2
5
4
1
x 2
2
5
x
2
1
x 2 5 x x 2
2
2 2

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2 2
4
39
4
1
x 2
16
39
4
1
x 2
Under the substitution
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
226
t
4
39
4
1
x =
we have
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
4
39
t
4
39
2
4
39
4
1
x 2 5 x x 2
) 1 t (
8
39
) 1 t (
16
39
2
2 2
+ =
(

+ =
4
5
t
4
39 3
2
4
1
t
4
39
3 2 x 3 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
and
dt
4
39
dx =
Therefore the integral becomes
=
+

+
=
+

} } }
dt
4
39
) 1 t (
8
39
4
5
dt
4
39
) 1 t (
8
39
t
4
39 3
dt
4
39
) 1 t (
8
39
4
5
t
4
39 3
2 2 2

C t arctan
78
39 5
) 1 t ln(
4
3
dt
1 t
1
78
39 5
dt
1 t
t 2
4
3
2
2 2
+ + =
+

+
=
} }

Going back to the original variable, since
39
1 x 4
t

= , we obtain the value of the
integral:
C
39
1 x 4
arctan
78
39 5
1
39
1 x 4
ln
4
3
dx
5 x x 2
2 x 3
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+

=
}

or
C
39
1 x 4
arctan
78
39 5
39
40 x 8 x 16
ln
4
3
dx
5 x x 2
2 x 3
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+

=
}

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
227
or
C
39
1 x 4
arctan
78
39 5
) 5 x x 2 ln(
4
3
dx
5 x x 2
2 x 3
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
+

=
}

Example 8. Evaluate the integral dx
5 x 3 x 2
11 x 7
I
2
}
+

=
Solution. We have
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
16
9
2
5
4
3
x 2
2
5
x
2
3
x 2 5 x 3 x 2
2
2 2

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2 2
4
31
4
3
x 2
16
31
4
3
x 2
Under the substitution
t
4
31
4
3
x =
we find
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
4
31
t
4
31
2
4
31
4
3
x 2 5 x 3 x 2
) 1 t (
8
31
) 1 t (
16
31
2
2 2
+ =
(

+ =

4
23
t
4
31 7
11
4
3
t
4
31
7 11 x 7 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
and
dt
4
31
dx =
Therefore the integral transforms into
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
228
=
+

+
=
+

} } }
dt
4
31
) 1 t (
8
31
4
23
dt
4
31
) 1 t (
8
31
t
4
31 7
dt
4
31
) 1 t (
8
31
4
23
t
4
31 7
2 2 2

C t arctan
62
31 23
) 1 t ln(
4
7
dt
1 t
1
62
31 23
dt
1 t
t 2
4
7
2
2 2
+ + =
+

+
=
} }

Going back to the original variable, since
31
3 x 4
t

= , we obtain the value of the
integral:
C
31
3 x 4
arctan
62
31 23
1
31
3 x 4
ln
4
7
dx
5 x 3 x 2
11 x 7
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+

=
}

or
C
31
3 x 4
arctan
62
31 23
31
40 x 24 x 16
ln
4
7
dx
5 x 3 x 2
11 x 7
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+

=
}

or
C
31
3 x 4
arctan
62
31 23
) 5 x 3 x 2 ln(
4
7
dx
5 x 3 x 2
11 x 7
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
+

=
}

Example 9. Evaluate the integral dx
3 x 2 x 4
8 x 13
I
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We have
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
16
1
4
3
4
1
x 4
4
3
x
2
1
x 4 3 x 2 x 4
2
2 2

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2 2
4
11
4
1
x 4
16
11
4
1
x 4
Under the substitution t
4
11
4
1
x = , we find
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
229
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
4
11
t
4
11
4
4
11
4
1
x 4 3 x 2 x 4
) 1 t (
4
11
) 1 t (
16
11
4
2 2
+ =
(

+ =

4
45
t
4
11 13
8
4
1
t
4
11
13 8 x 13 + = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
and
dt
4
11
dx =
Therefore the integral transforms into
=
+
+
+
=
+
+
} } }
dt
4
11
) 1 t (
8
11
4
45
dt
4
11
) 1 t (
8
11
t
4
11 13
dt
4
11
) 1 t (
8
11
4
45
t
4
11 13
2 2 2

C t arctan
22
11 45
) 1 t ln(
4
13
dt
1 t
1
22
11 45
dt
1 t
t 2
4
13
2
2 2
+ + + =
+
+
+
=
} }

Going back to the original variable, since
11
1 x 4
t

= , we obtain the value of the
integral:
C
11
1 x 4
arctan
22
11 45
1
11
1 x 4
ln
4
13
dx
3 x 2 x 4
8 x 13
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
+
=
}

or
C
11
1 x 4
arctan
22
11 45
11
12 x 8 x 16
ln
4
13
dx
3 x 2 x 4
8 x 13
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
+
=
}

or
C
11
1 x 4
arctan
22
11 45
) 3 x 2 x 4 ln(
4
13
dx
3 x 2 x 4
8 x 13
I
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + =
+
+
=
}

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
230
Example 10. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x 2 x 3
7 x 11
I
2
}
+

=
Solution. We have
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
9
1
3
1
3
1
x 3
3
1
x
3
2
x 3 1 x 2 x 3
2
2 2

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2 2
3
2
3
1
x 3
9
2
3
1
x 3
Under the substitution
t
3
2
3
1
x =
we find
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
3
2
t
3
2
3
3
2
3
1
x 3 1 x 2 x 3
) 1 t (
3
2
) 1 t (
9
2
3
2 2
+ =
(

+ =

3
10
t
3
2 11
7
3
1
t
3
2
11 7 x 11 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
and
dt
3
2
dx =
Therefore the integral transforms into
=
+

+
=
+

} } }
dt
3
2
) 1 t (
3
2
3
10
dt
3
2
) 1 t (
3
2
t
3
2 11
dt
3
2
) 1 t (
3
2
3
10
t
3
2 11
2 2 2

C t arctan
6
2 10
) 1 t ln(
6
11
dt
1 t
1
6
2 10
dt
1 t
t 2
6
11
2
2 2
+ + =
+

+
=
} }

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
231
Going back to the original variable, since
2
1 x 3
t

= , we obtain the value of the
integral:
C
2
1 x 3
arctan
6
2 10
1
2
1 x 3
ln
6
11
dx
1 x 2 x 3
7 x 11
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|

+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+

=
}

or
C
2
1 x 3
arctan
6
2 10
2
3 x 6 x 9
ln
6
11
dx
1 x 2 x 3
7 x 11
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+

=
}

or
C
2
1 x 3
arctan
6
2 10
) 1 x 2 x 3 ln(
6
11
dx
1 x 2 x 3
7 x 11
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ =
+

=
}

Example 11. Evaluate the integral dx
2 x x
3 x 4
I
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We have
= +
|
.
|

\
|
= +
|
.
|

\
|
= +
4
7
2
1
x
4
1
2
2
1
x 2 x x
2 2
2


2
2
2
7
2
1
x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
Under the substitution
t
2
7
2
1
x =
we find
) 1 t (
4
7
2
7
t
2
7
2
7
2
1
x 2 x x
2
2 2 2
2
2
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
5 t 7 2 3
2
1
t
2
7
4 3 x 4 + = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
and
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
232
dt
2
7
dx =
Therefore the integral transforms into
=
+
+
+
=
+
+
} } }
dt
2
7
) 1 t (
4
7
5
dt
2
7
) 1 t (
4
7
t 7 2
dt
2
7
) 1 t (
4
7
5 t 7 2
2 2 2

C t arctan
7
7 10
) 1 t ln( 2 dt
1 t
1
7
7 10
dt
1 t
t 2
2
2
2 2
+ + + =
+
+
+
=
} }

Going back to the original variable, since
7
1 x 2
t

= , we obtain the value of the
integral:
C
7
1 x 2
arctan
7
7 10
1
7
1 x 2
ln 2 dx
2 x x
3 x 4
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+

+ |
.
|

\
|
=
+
+
=
}

or
C
7
1 x 2
arctan
7
7 10
7
8 x 4 x 4
ln 2 dx
2 x x
3 x 4
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
+
=
}

or
C
7
1 x 2
arctan
7
7 10
) 2 x x ln( 2 dx
2 x x
3 x 4
I
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+
+
=
}










Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
233












Conclusions. The value of the integral
}
+ +
+
dx
c bx ax
B Ax
2
depends on
the sign of the discriminant c a 4 b D
2
of the trinomial
c x b x a
2
+ +

I)

+
=
+ +
+
>
}
| x | ln
) ( a
B A
dx
c bx ax
B Ax
0 D
1
2 1
1
2

C | x | ln
) ( a
B A
2
2 1
2
+

+

where
2 1
, are the two real roots of the trinomial:

a 2
D b

2 , 1

=
II) C
x
1
a
B A
| x | ln
a
A
dx
c bx ax
B Ax
0 D
2
+

+
=
+ +
+
=
}

where is the double root of the trinomial:
a 2
b
=
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
234
III)
}
+ + + =
+ +
+
< | c bx ax | ln
a 2
A
dx
c bx ax
B Ax
0 D
2
2

C
D
b x a 2
arctan
D
2
a 2
Ab
B +
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+
IV) Special Case: a 2 A = and b B= .

C | c x b x a | ln dx
c x b x a
b x a 2
2
2
+ + + =
+ +
+
}


6.5 Fifth Category.
In this category we shall consider the following type of integral:

}
+ +
= dx
) c x b x a (
1
I
n 2
n
, 2 n >
We shall consider two cases: 0 D = and 0 D = .
Case I. If 0 D = , using the identity

a 4
D
a 2
b
x a c bx ax
2
2

|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
we have

2
2
a 2
b
x a ) c bx ax (
a 4
D
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + =
Therefore we get
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
} }
dx
) c x b x a (
a 4
D
D
a 4
dx
) c x b x a (
1
I
n 2 n 2
n

=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
=
}
dx
) c x b x a (
a 2
b
x a ) c x b x a (
D
a 4
n 2
2
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
235
=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+ +
+ +
=
} }
dx
) c x b x a (
a 2
b
x a
D
a 4
dx
) c x b x a (
) c x b x a (
D
a 4
n 2
2
n 2
2

=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+ +
=
} }

dx
) c x b x a (
a 2
b
x a 4
D
1
dx
) c x b x a (
1
D
a 4
n 2
2
2
1 n 2

=
+ +
+
+ =
}
dx
) c x b x a (
) b x a 2 (
D
1
I
D
a 4
n 2
2
1 n

or
J
D
1
I
D
a 4
I
1 n n
+ =

(1)
where

}
+ +
+
= dx
) c x b x a (
) b x a 2 (
J
n 2
2
(2)
The integral J can be evaluated using integration by parts. In fact we have

} }
+ +
+
+ =
+ +
+
= dx
) c x b x a (
b x a 2
) b x a 2 ( dx
) c x b x a (
) b x a 2 (
J
n 2 n 2
2

Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f ) x ( g'
n 2
) c bx x a (
b ax 2
+ +
+


b ax 2 +
1 n 2
) c bx ax (
1
) 1 n (
1

+ +



a 2


we find
+
+ +
+

=
+ +
+
=

}
1 n 2 n 2
2
) c x b x a (
b ax 2
) 1 n (
1
dx
) c x b x a (
) b x a 2 (
J
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
236

}

+ +

+ dx
) c x b x a (
a 2
) 1 n (
1
1 n 2

or

1 n
1 n 2 n 2
2
I
1 n
a 2
) c x b x a (
b ax 2
) 1 n (
1
dx
) c x b x a (
) b x a 2 (
J


+
+ +
+

=
+ +
+
=
}
(3)
Using (1) and (3) we get

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+ +
+

+ =

1 n
1 n 2
1 n n
I
1 n
a 2
) c x b x a (
b ax 2
) 1 n (
1
D
1
I
D
a 4
I
which is equivalent to

1 n
1 n 2
n
I
D ) 1 n (
a ) 3 n 2 ( 2
) c x b x a (
b x a 2
D ) 1 n (
1
I

+ +
+

= , 2 n >
This is the reduction formula for the integral
n
I , where

}
+ +
= dx
) c x b x a (
1
I
n 2
n

Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
2 2
) 2 x 3 x (
x d
I
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial 2 x 3 x
2
+ is 1 D= .
We have

4
1
2
3
x 2 x 3 x
2
2

|
.
|

\
|
= +
from which, multiplying by 4, we get
1 ) 3 x 2 ( ) 2 x 3 x ( 4
2 2
= +
and then
) 2 x 3 x ( 4 ) 3 x 2 ( 1
2 2
+ =
Because of the previous identity, the integral becomes
=
+
+
=
+
=
} }
x d
) 2 x 3 x (
) 2 x 3 x ( 4 ) 3 x 2 (
) 2 x 3 x (
x d
I
2 2
2 2
2 2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
237
=
+
+

+

=
} }
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
) 2 x 3 x (
4 dx
) 2 x 3 x (
) 3 x 2 (
2 2
2
2 2
2

=
+

+

=
} }
dx
2 x 3 x
1
4 dx
) 2 x 3 x (
) 3 x 2 (
2 2 2
2


2 1
I 4 I =
Since
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
3 x 2
) 3 x 2 ( dx
) 2 x 3 x (
) 3 x 2 (
I
2 2 2 2
2
1 } }
+

=
+

=
using the formula (integration by parts)

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f ) x ( g'
2 2
) 2 x 3 x (
3 x 2
+



3 x 2


2 x 3 x
1
2
+


2


we find
dx
2 x 3 x
1
2
2 x 3 x
3 x 2
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
) 3 x 2 (
I
2 2 2 2
2
1 } }
+
+
+

=
+

=

2
2
I 2
2 x 3 x
3 x 2
+
+

=
Therefore

2
2
I 2
2 x 3 x
3 x 2
I
+

=
For the integral dx
2 x 3 x
1
I
2
2 }
+
= , using partial fraction decomposition,

2 x
1
1 x
1
) 2 x )( 1 x (
1
2 x 3 x
1
2

+

=

=
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
238
we have
=

=
+
=
} } }
dx
2 x
1
dx
1 x
1
dx
2 x 3 x
1
I
2
2

C
1 x
2 x
ln C | 2 x | ln | 1 x | ln +

= + + =
Therefore
C
1 x
2 x
ln 2
2 x 3 x
3 x 2
) 2 x 3 x (
x d
I
2 2 2
+

+

=
+
=
}

Note. We can use the reduction formula

1 n
1 n 2
n
I
D ) 1 n (
a ) 3 n 2 ( 2
) c x b x a (
b x a 2
D ) 1 n (
1
I

+ +
+

=
for 2 n = , 1 a = , 3 b = , 2 c = and 1 D= . We thus find

1
2
2
I 2
2 x 3 x
3 x 2
I I
+

=
where
1
I can be evaluated as before.
Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
3 2
) 1 x x 2 (
x d
I
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial 1 x x 2
2
+ is 7 D = .
We use the reduction formula

1 n
1 n 2
n
I
D ) 1 n (
a ) 3 n 2 ( 2
) c x b x a (
b x a 2
D ) 1 n (
1
I

+ +
+

=
for 3 n = , 2 n = , and 2 a = , 1 b = , 1 c = . We find that
For 3 n = ,
2
2 2
3
I
7
6
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
14
1
I +
+

=
For 2 n = ,
1
2
2
I
7
4
1 x x 2
1 x 4
7
1
I +
+

=
Therefore
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
239
= +
+

=
2
2 2
3
I
7
6
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
14
1
I I
=

+
+

+
+

=
1
2 2 2
I
7
4
1 x x 2
1 x 4
7
1
7
6
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
14
1


1
2 2 2
I
49
24
1 x x 2
1 x 4
49
6
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
14
1
+
+

+
+

=
The integral
}
+
=
1 x x 2
x d
I
2
1
can be evaluated using the identity

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
2
2
4
7
4
1
x 2 1 x x 2
and the substitution
u
4
7
4
1
x =
We thus have
) 1 u (
8
7
) 1 u (
4
7
2 1 x x 2
2 2
2
2
+ = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= +
and
du
4
7
dx =
Therefore
1
I becomes
C u arctan
7
7 2
1 u
du
7
7 2
) 1 u (
8
7
du
4
7
2
2
+ =
+
=
+
} }

Going back to the original variables, we get
C
7
1 x 4
arctan
7
7 2
1 x x 2
x d
I
2
1
+

=
+
=
}

We thus obtain
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
240
=
+
=
}
3 2
) 1 x x 2 (
x d
I
C
7
1 x 4
arctan
343
7 48
1 x x 2
1 x 4
49
6
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
14
1
2 2 2
+

+
+

+
+

=
Case II. If 0 D = , then

2 2
) x ( a c bx ax = + + where
a 2
b
=
Therefore

} }

=
+ +
n 2 n n 2
) x ( a
dx
) c x b x a (
dx

Using the substitution = x u , the integral becomes
= =

=
+ +
} } }
n 2 n n 2 n n 2
u
du
a
1
) x ( a
dx
) c x b x a (
dx

C
) x (
1
a ) 1 n 2 (
1
C
u
1
a ) 1 n 2 (
1
1 n 2 n 1 n 2 n
+

= +

=


Example 3. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
3 2
) 9 x 6 x (
x d
I
Solution. The discriminant of the trinomial 9 x 6 x
2
+ is 0 D = .
The double root of the trinomial is 3 = . Therefore we have

2 2
) 3 x ( 9 x 6 x = +
The integral then becomes

} }

=
+
=
6 3 2
) 3 x (
x d
) 9 x 6 x (
x d
I
Under the substitution 3 x u = , we obtain
= =

=
+
=
} } }
6 6 3 2
u
u d
) 3 x (
x d
) 9 x 6 x (
x d
I
C
) 3 x (
1
5
1
C
u
1
5
1
5 5
+

= + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
241

6.6 Sixth Category
In this case we consider the integral
dx
) c x b x a (
B x A
J
n 2
n }
+ +
+
= , 2 n >
Since

|
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
a 2
b A
B ) b x a 2 (
a 2
A
B Ax
the integral becomes
=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
+ +
+
=
} }
dx
) c x b x a (
a 2
b A
B ) b x a 2 (
a 2
A
dx
) c x b x a (
B x A
J
n 2 n 2
n

=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
=
} }
dx
) c x b x a (
1
a 2
b A
B dx
) c x b x a (
b x a 2
a 2
A
n 2 n 2

or

n
1 n 2
n
I
a 2
b A
B
) c x b x a (
1
) 1 n ( a 2
A
J
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +

=

, 2 n >
where
dx
) c x b x a (
1
I
n 2
n }
+ +
=
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
) 2 x 3 x (
2 x 3
I
2 2
}
+
+
=
Solution. Since
2
13
) 3 x 2 (
2
3
2 x 3 + = + , the integral becomes
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
} }
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
2
13
) 3 x 2 (
2
3
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
2 x 3
I
2 2 2 2

dx
) 2 x 3 x (
1
2
13
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
3 x 2
2
3
2 2 2 2
} }
+
+
+

=
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
242
We now have

2 x 3 x
1
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
3 x 2
2 2 2
+
=
+

}

using the substitution 2 x 3 x u
2
+ = and Example 1, 6.5
C
1 x
2 x
ln 2
2 x 3 x
3 x 2
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
1
2 2 2
+

+

=
+
}

Therefore

+
=
+
+
=
}
2 x 3 x
1
2
3
dx
) 2 x 3 x (
2 x 3
I
2 2 2

C
1 x
2 x
ln 2
2 x 3 x
3 x 2
2
13
2
+

+
+


Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
) 1 x x 2 (
3 x
I
3 2
}
+
+
=
Solution. Since

4
13
) 1 x 4 (
4
1
3 x + = +
the integral becomes
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
} }
dx
) 1 x x 2 (
4
13
) 1 x 4 (
4
1
dx
) 1 x x 2 (
3 x
I
3 2 3 2

dx
) 1 x x 2 (
1
4
13
dx
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
4
1
3 2 3 2
} }
+
+
+

=
We now have

2 2 3 2
) 1 x x 2 (
1
2
1
dx
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
+
=
+

}

(using the substitution 1 x x 2 u
2
+ = )
and
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
243
=
+
}
dx
) 1 x x 2 (
1
3 2


7
1 x 4
arctan
343
7 48
1 x x 2
1 x 4
49
6
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
14
1
2 2 2

+
+

+
+

=
(6.5, Example 2)
Therefore
+
+
=
+
+
=
}
2 2 3 2
) 1 x x 2 (
1
8
1
dx
) 1 x x 2 (
3 x
I
C
7
1 x 4
arctan
343
7 48
1 x x 2
1 x 4
49
6
) 1 x x 2 (
1 x 4
14
1
4
13
2 2 2
+


+
+

+
+

+












Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
244
6.7 Seventh Category
In this category we shall consider the following type of integral:

}
+
dx
) a x (
1
n 2 2
2 n >
We put
}
+
= dx
) a x (
1
I
n 2 2
n
.
We have
=
+
+
=
+
=
} }
dx
) a x (
x ) a x (
a
1
dx
) a x (
a
a
1
I
n 2 2
2 2 2
2 n 2 2
2
2
n

=
+

+
+
=
} }
dx
) a x (
x
a
1
dx
) a x (
) a x (
a
1
n 2 2
2
2 n 2 2
2 2
2

=
+

+
=
} }

dx
) a x (
x
a
1
dx
) a x (
1
a
1
n 2 2
2
2 1 n 2 2 2

J
a
1
I
a
1
2
1 n
2
=


where

}
+
= dx
) a x (
x
J
n 2 2
2

The previous integral can be calculated using integration by parts. In fact using the
obvious relation

}
+
= dx
) a x (
x
x J
n 2 2

and the table

) x ( f ' ) x ( g

) x ( f ) x ( g'
n 2 2
) a x (
x
+


x
1 n 2 2
) a x (
1
) 1 n ( 2
1



1
we find
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
245

+

=
+
=

}
1 n 2 2 n 2 2
2
) a x (
x
) 1 n ( 2
1
dx
) a x (
x
J
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+


}

dx
) a x (
1
) 1 n ( 2
1
1 n 2 2

=
+

+
+

=
}

dx
) a x (
1
) 1 n ( 2
1
) a x (
x
) 1 n ( 2
1
1 n 2 2 1 n 2 2


1 n
1 n 2 2
I
) 1 n ( 2
1
) a x (
x
) 1 n ( 2
1


+
+

=
Therefore
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+

1 n
1 n 2 2 2
1 n
2
n
I
) 1 n ( 2
1
) a x (
x
) 1 n ( 2
1
a
1
I
a
1
I
=

+
+ =

1 n
2 1 n 2 2 2
1 n
2
I
a ) 1 n ( 2
1
) a x (
x
a ) 1 n ( 2
1
I
a
1

=
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

1 n 2 2 2
1 n
2
) a x (
x
a ) 1 n ( 2
1
I
) 1 n ( 2
1
1
a
1


1 n 2 2 2
1 n
2
) a x (
x
a ) 1 n ( 2
1
I
a ) 1 n ( 2
3 n 2

+
+

=
We thus have derived the reduction formula

1 n 2 2 2
1 n
2
n
) a x (
x
a ) 1 n ( 2
1
I
a ) 1 n ( 2
3 n 2
I

+
+

=

}
+
= dx
) a x (
1
I
n 2 2
n

Note. In completing the previous Table, the transition from f ' to f is being made
by integration:
=
+
=
+
= ' =
} } }
dx
) a x (
x 2
2
1
dx
) a x (
x
dx ) x ( f ) x ( f
n 2 2 n 2 2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
246
=
+
= = =
+

} }
1 n
u
2
1
du u
2
1
u
du
2
1
1 n
n
n


1 n 2 2 1 n
) a x (
1
) 1 n ( 2
1
u
1
) 1 n ( 2
1

+

=
where we have used the substitution
2 2
a x u + = ( dx x 2 du = ).
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+
= dx
) 4 x (
1
I
3 2

Solution. Using the formula

1 n 2 2 2
1 n
2
n
) a x (
x
a ) 1 n ( 2
1
I
a ) 1 n ( 2
3 n 2
I

+
+

=
successively for 3 n = and 2 n = , where
}
+
= dx
) 4 x (
1
I I
3 2
3

we have ( 4 a
2
= )
i) 3 n = ,
2 2
2 3
) 4 x (
x
16
1
I
16
3
I
+
+ =
ii) 2 n = ,
4 x
x
8
1
I
8
1
I
2
1 2
+
+ =
where
}
+
= dx
4 x
1
I
2
1
.
Using the substitution u 2 x = we find that
1
I becomes
u arctan
2
1
du
1 u
1
2
1
du
) 1 u ( 4
2
2 2
=
+
=
+
} }

Therefore

|
.
|

\
|
=
2
x
arctan
2
1
I
1

Collecting everything together, we have
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
247
=
+
+ =
2 2
2 3
) 4 x (
x
16
1
I
16
3
I I
=
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
2 2 2
1
) 4 x (
x
16
1
4 x
x
8
1
I
8
1
16
3


2 2 2
) 4 x (
x
16
1
4 x
x
128
3
2
x
arctan
256
1
+
+
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
6.8 Eighth Category
The integral
dx
) a x (
B x A
J
n 2 2
n }
+
+
= , 2 n >
can be calculated very easily, since
=
+
+
+
=
+
+
=
} } }
dx
) a x (
B
dx
) a x (
x A
dx
) a x (
B x A
J
n 2 2 n 2 2 n 2 2
n

=
+
+
+
=
} }
dx
) a x (
1
B dx
) a x (
x 2
2
A
n 2 2 n 2 2


n
1 n 2 2
I B
) a x (
1
1 n
1
2
A
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=



n
1 n 2 2
I B
) a x (
1
) 1 n ( 2
A
+
+

=


where dx
) a x (
1
I
n 2 2
n }
+
= , considered previously.
Therefore we have derived the formula

n
1 n 2 2
n
I B
) a x (
1
) 1 n ( 2
A
J +
+

=


Analogous procedures can be applied to the integrals of the form

}

dx
) a x (
1
n 2 2
and dx
) a x (
B x A
n 2 2 }

+


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
248
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+
+
= dx
) 4 x (
5 x 3
J
3 2

Solution. We have
=
+
+
+
=
+
+
=
} } }
dx
) 4 x (
5
dx
) 4 x (
x 3
dx
) 4 x (
5 x 3
J
3 2 3 2 3 2


} }
+
+
+
= dx
) 4 x (
1
5 dx
) 4 x (
x 2
2
3
3 2 3 2

The first of the above integrals can be evaluated using the substitution
4 x u
2
+ = . We thus find
2 2 3 2
) 4 x (
1
2
1
dx
) 4 x (
x 2
+
=
+
}
.
The second integral has been evaluated in the previous Example (6.7, Example 1)
Putting everything together, we find
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2 2
) 4 x (
1
2
1
2
3
J
C
) 4 x (
x
16
1
4 x
x
128
3
2
x
arctan
256
1
5
2 2 2
+
)
`

+
+
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
or
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
2 2 2 2 2
) 4 x (
x
16
5
4 x
x
128
15
) 4 x (
1
4
3
J
C
2
x
arctan
256
5
+
|
.
|

\
|
+

6.9 Ninth Category.
In this case we shall consider the following type of integrals:

}
dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P

where ) x ( P and ) x ( Q are integral polynomials.
We consider the following two cases:
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
249
Case 1. The numerator has greater or equal degree compared to that of the
denominator:
) x ( Q deg ) x ( P deg >
In this case we perform the Euclidean division
) x ( Q
) x ( P
and then go to Case 2. We
have however to remind that if ) x ( is the quotient and ) x ( Y the remainder of
the division
) x ( Q
) x ( P
, then we have the following identity
) x ( Y ) x ( ) x ( Q ) x ( P + = , ) x ( Q deg ) x ( Y deg <
Therefore

) x ( Q
) x ( Y
) x (
) x ( Q
) x ( P
+ = , ) x ( Q deg ) x ( Y deg <
Case 2. The numerator has lower degree than the denominator:
) x ( Q deg ) x ( P deg <
The denominator in this case is factorized in prime factors and then the fraction is
being written as a sum of partial fractions. The procedure is called partial fraction
decomposition and can be performed very easily.
We should remind the reader that any polynomial could be factorized in a product
containing only first degree polynomials and second degree polynomials (with
negative discriminant).

Examples:
I) ) 3 x )( 2 x ( 6 x x
2
+ =
II) ) 1 x ( ) 2 x ( 4 x 3 x
2 2 3
+ = +
III) = + 12 x 44 x 59 x 32 x 2 x 4 x
2 3 4 5 6

) 3 x ( ) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
2 3
+ + =
IV) ) 1 x )( 1 x ( 1 x x x
2 2 3
+ + = + + +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
250
V) ) 3 x x )( 2 x ( 6 x x x
2 2 3
+ + = + + +
VI)
2 2 2 3 4 5
) 1 x )( 2 x ( 2 x x 4 x 2 x 2 x + + = + + + + +
VII) = + + + + + + 3 x 2 x 2 x 7 x 4 x 4 x 5 x 2 x 2 x
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


3 2 3
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x ( + + + =
Therefore any polynomial can be factorized. The factorized form will only contain
factors of the form
m
) b x a ( + and factors of the form
n 2
) c x b x a ( + + where
0 D < ( ac 4 b D
2
) and m, n positive integers ( 1 m> , 1 n > ). It never contains
factors of any other form. The factors of this kind of factorization are called
irreducible factors.
It is sometimes rather hard a polynomial to be factorized. There are however some
very powerful packages, which can do the job for you.
In a partial fraction decomposition
- If the denominator contains a single factor of the form b x a + then the
partial fraction will contain a term of the form
b x a
A
+
where A is a
constant to be determined.
- If the denominator contains a single factor of the form
m
) b x a ( + then the
partial fraction will contain all the terms of the form
m
m
2
2 1
) b x a (
A
) b x a (
A
b x a
A
+
+ +
+
+
+

where
m 2 1
A , , A , A are constants to be determined
- If the denominator contains a single factor of the form c x b x a
2
+ +
( 0 D < ) then the partial fraction will contain a term of the form
c x b x a
B Ax
2
+ +
+
where A and B are constants to be determined.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
251
- If the denominator contains a single factor of the form
n 2
) c x b x a ( + +
( 0 D < ) then the partial fraction will contain all the terms of the form
n 2
n n
2 2
2 2
2
1 1
) c x b x a (
B x A
) c x b x a (
B x A
c x b x a
B x A
+ +
+
+ +
+ +
+
+
+ +
+

where
n 2 1
A , , A , A and
n 2 1
B , , B , B are constants to be determined

We list below some examples of partial fraction decompositions.

6.9.1 Examples of Partial Fraction Decomposition
We come now to the point of determining the constants appearing in the partial
fractions. The Examples are listed in increasing complexity. In the most
complicated cases we use Computer Algebra Systems (Symbolic Languages).
Example 1. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
) 3 x )( 2 x (
5 x 2
+


Solution. The partial fraction expansion reads

3 x
B
2 x
A
) 3 x )( 2 x (
5 x 2

+
+
=
+

(1)
We have now to determine the constants A and B in the partial fraction
decomposition.

Multiplying the previous equation by ) 3 x )( 2 x ( + we get
) 2 x ( B ) 3 x ( A 5 x 2 + + = (2)
which is equivalent to
B 2 x B A 3 x A 5 x 2 + + =
and this to
B 2 A 3 x ) B A ( 5 x 2 + + = (3)
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
252
Since the previous equation is an identity with respect to x (it is true for every x),
we should have

+ =
+ =
B 2 A 3 5
B A 2
(4)
Solving the simultaneous equations we find
5
9
A = and
5
1
B = . Therefore relation
(1) becomes

3 x
1
5
1
2 x
1
5
9
) 3 x )( 2 x (
5 x 2

+
+
=
+


Second Method. Since (2) is true for every x, we put successively 3 x = and
2 x = . This has the advantage of calculating immediately the constants A and B.
In fact
For 3 x = we find
5
1
B 5 B 1 ) 2 3 ( B 5 3 2 = = + =
For 2 x = we find
5
9
A ) 5 ( A 9 ) 3 2 ( A 5 ) 2 ( 2 = = =
Third Method. The cover-up method.
Suppose that ) x ( Q contains a linear factor a x . This factor then contributes a
term of the form
a x
A

in the partial fraction decomposition of


) x ( Q
) x ( P
.
Let ) x ( p denote the expression obtained by omitting the a x term from
) x ( Q
) x ( P
.
Then the constant A is ) a ( p A = .
Therefore in our case in order to determine A we put p
3 x
5 x 2
) x (

= and
therefore
5
9
5
9
3 2
5 ) 2 ( 2
) 2 ( p A =

=


= = . In order to determine B, we consider
2 x
5 x 2
) x ( q
+

= and therefore
5
1
2 3
5 3 2
) 3 ( q B =
+

= = .

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
253
Symbolic Language Assistance.

[1] Maple Assistance.

[2] Mathematica Assistance

[3] Macsyma Assistance

[4] Axiom

[5] Reduce Assistance

[6] Derive Assistance

[7] Scientific Word Assistance


[8] MATLAB Assistance


Example 2. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
5 x 3
2
+
+

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads

1 x
C
) 2 x (
B
2 x
A
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
5 x 3
2 2

+
+
+
+
=
+
+
(1)
We have now to determine the constants A, B and C in the partial fraction
decomposition.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
254
Multiplying the previous equation by ) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
2
+ we get the equation

2
) 2 x ( C ) 1 x ( B ) 1 x )( 2 x ( A 5 x 3 + + + + = + (2)
which is equivalent to
) 4 x 4 x ( C ) 1 x ( B ) 2 x 2 x x ( A 5 x 3
2 2
+ + + + + = +
which may also be written as
C 4 B A 2 x ) C 4 B A ( x ) C A ( 5 x 3
2
+ + + + + = + (3)
Since the above equation is valid for every x, we get the simultaneous equations

+ =
+ + =
+ =
C 4 B A 2 5
C 4 B A 3
C A 0
(4)
The previous system can easily be solved. Adding for example the second to the
third equation we get C 8 A 8 + = . This last equation then is being added to the
first of (4) gives C 9 8 = from which we get
9
8
C = . Using this value of C to the
first of (4) we obtain
9
8
A = . The values of A and C are then plagued to the
second of (4) and we get the value of B:
3
1
B =
Using these values to (1) we get the partial fraction decomposition

1 x
1
9
8
) 2 x (
1
3
1
2 x
1
9
8
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
5 x 3
2 2

+
+
+
+
=
+
+

Second Method. Since (2) is true for every x, we may substitute any value of x
into that equation.
For 1 x = we have
9
8
C 9 C 8 = =
For 2 x = , we have
3
1
B ) 3 ( B 1 = =
For 0 x = , we have + + = 4 C ) 1 ( B ) 2 ( A 5
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
255

9
8
A
9
8
4
3
1
A 2 5 = + =
Example 3. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
) 3 x ( ) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
74 x 80 x 35 x 48 x 42 x 11
2 3
2 3 4 5
+ +
+ + + + +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+ + + + +
3 2 2 3
2 3 4 5
) 1 x (
C
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 3 x ( ) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
74 x 80 x 35 x 48 x 42 x 11


3 x
F
) 2 x (
E
2 x
D
2

+
+
+
+
+
Multiplying the above identity by ) 3 x ( ) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
2 3
+ + we obtain
= + + + + + 74 x 80 x 35 x 48 x 42 x 11
2 3 4 5

+ + + + + + = ) 3 x ( ) 2 x )( 1 x ( B ) 3 x ( ) 2 x ( ) 1 x ( A
2 2 2

+ + + + + + ) 3 x )( 2 x ( ) 1 x ( D ) 3 x ( ) 2 x ( C
3 2


2 3 3
) 2 x ( ) 1 x ( F ) 3 x ( ) 1 x ( E + + + + +
From the previous identity we find:
For 1 x = , 3 C ) 4 ( C 12 = =
For 2 x = , 2 E ) 5 )( 1 ( E 10 = =
For 3 x = , 5 F ) 25 )( 64 ( F 8000 = =
For 0 x = , + + + + = ) 3 )( 2 )( 1 ( D ) 3 )( 4 ( C ) 3 )( 4 )( 1 ( B ) 3 )( 4 )( 1 ( A 74
+ + ) 4 )( 1 ( F ) 3 )( 1 ( E
) 4 ( F ) 3 ( E ) 6 ( D ) 12 ( C ) 12 ( B ) 12 ( A 74 + + + + + =
20 6 D 6 36 ) B A ( 12 74 + + + + =
1 D
2
1
B A = + +
For 2 x = , + + + + = ) 1 )( 4 )( 27 ( D ) 1 )( 16 ( C ) 1 )( 16 )( 3 ( B ) 1 )( 16 )( 9 ( A 1782
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
256
+ + ) 16 )( 27 ( F ) 1 )( 27 ( E
) 432 ( F ) 27 ( E ) 108 ( D ) 16 ( C ) 48 ( B ) 144 ( A 1782 + + + + + =
2160 54 D 108 48 B 48 A 144 1782 + + + =
40 D 9 B 4 A 12 = + +
For 1 x = , + + + + = ) 2 )( 3 )( 8 ( D ) 2 )( 9 ( C ) 2 )( 9 )( 2 ( B ) 2 )( 9 )( 4 ( A 290
+ + ) 9 )( 8 ( F ) 2 )( 8 ( E
) 72 ( F ) 16 ( E ) 48 ( D ) 18 ( C ) 36 ( B ) 72 ( A 290 + + + + + =
360 32 D 48 54 B 36 A 72 290 + + + =
13 D 4 B 3 A 6 = + +
Solving the system of equations
1 D
2
1
B A = + + , 40 D 9 B 4 A 12 = + + , 13 D 4 B 3 A 6 = + +
we find 2 A = , 5 B = and 4 D =
Therefore we have the following partial fraction decomposition
=
+ +
+ + + + +
) 3 x ( ) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
74 x 80 x 35 x 48 x 42 x 11
2 3
2 3 4 5


3 x
5
) 2 x (
2
2 x
4
) 1 x (
3
) 1 x (
5
1 x
2
2 3 2

+
+

+
+
+

+
=


Example 4. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
) 1 x )( 1 x (
1 x x 3
2
2
+ +
+

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads

1 x
C x B
1 x
A
) 1 x )( 1 x (
1 x x 3
2 2
2
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+

Multiplying by ) 1 x )( 1 x (
2
+ + the previous identity we find
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
257
) 1 x )( C x B ( ) 1 x ( A 1 x x 3
2 2
+ + + + = +
For 1 x = , we find
2
5
A 2 A 5 = =
For 0 x = , we find
2
3
C C
2
5
1 C A 1 = + = + =
For 1 x = , we find
2
1
B
2
3
C B A 2 ) C B ( 2 A 3 = = + + + + =
Therefore we have the following partial fraction decomposition
1 x
2
3
x
2
1
1 x
2
5
) 1 x )( 1 x (
1 x x 3
2 2
2
+

+
+
=
+ +
+

or

1 x
3 x
2
1
1 x
1
2
5
) 1 x )( 1 x (
1 x x 3
2 2
2
+

+
+
=
+ +
+

Example 5. Convert into partial fractions the rational function

) 3 x x ( ) 2 x (
5 x 3 x 4
2
2
+ +
+

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
3 x x
C Bx
2 x
A
) 3 x x ( ) 2 x (
5 x 3 x 4
2 2
2
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+

Multiplying by ) 3 x x )( 2 x (
2
+ + the previous identity, we obtain
) 2 x ( ) C x B ( ) 3 x x ( A 5 x 3 x 4
2 2
+ + + + = +
For 2 x = , we find 3 A 9 A 27 = =
For 0 x = , we find 2 C C 2 9 5 2 C 3 A 5 = + = + =
For 1 x = , we find 1 B ) C B ( 5 A 12 = + + =
Therefore we have the following partial fraction decomposition
3 x x
2 x
2 x
3
) 3 x x )( 2 x (
5 x 3 x 4
2 2
2
+

+
+
=
+ +
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
258
Example 6. . Convert into partial fractions the rational function

2 2
2 3 4
) 1 x )( 2 x (
21 x 11 x 17 x x
+ +
+ + + +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
2 2 2 2 2
2 3 4
) 1 x (
E x D
1 x
C x B
2 x
A
) 1 x )( 2 x (
21 x 11 x 17 x x
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+ + + +

Multiplying the previous identity by
2 2
) 1 x )( 2 x ( + + , we obtain
= + + + + 21 x 11 x 17 x x
2 3 4

) 2 x )( E x D ( ) 1 x )( 2 x )( C x B ( ) 1 x ( A
2 2 2
+ + + + + + + + =
For 2 x = , we find 3 A 25 A 75 = =
For 0 x = , we find 9 E C 2 E 2 C A 21 = + + + =
For 1 x = , we find + + + + = ) E D ( 2 ) C B ( 4 A 27
6 D C B 2 = +
For 1 x = , we find + + + + = 3 ) E D ( 6 ) C B ( 4 A 51
4 D C B 2 = + +
For 2 x = , we find + + + + = 4 ) E D 2 ( 20 ) C B 2 ( 25 A 135
3 D C 2 B 5 = + +
Solving the system
9 E C = + , 6 D C B 2 = + , 4 D C B 2 = + + , 3 D C 2 B 5 = + +
we find 2 B = , 5 C = , 3 D = and 4 E = .
Therefore we have the following partial fraction decomposition
2 2 2 2 2
2 3 4
) 1 x (
4 x 3
1 x
5 x 2
2 x
3
) 1 x )( 2 x (
21 x 11 x 17 x x
+
+
+
+

+
=
+ +
+ + + +

Example 7. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
25 x 45 x 6 x 8
2 2
2 3
+ + +
+

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
259

1 x x
E Dx
3 x
C
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
25 x 45 x 6 x 8
2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ + +
+

Multiplying the previous identity by ) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
2 2
+ + + , we obtain
+ + + + + + + = + ) 1 x x )( 3 x ( B ) 1 x x )( 3 x )( 1 x ( A 25 x 45 x 6 x 8
2 2 2 3

) 3 x ( ) 1 x )( E x D ( ) 1 x x ( ) 1 x ( C
2 2 2
+ + + + + + +
For 1 x = , we find 3 B 6 B 18 = =
For 3 x = , we find 1 C 52 C 52 = =
For 0 x = , we find + + + = 3 E C 3 B 3 A 25
+ + = E 3 1 9 A 3 25
11 E A = +
For 2 x = , we find + + + + = ) E D 2 ( 7 C 7 B ) 7 ( A 25
+ + + = ) E D 2 ( 7 21 A 7 25
11 E D 2 A 7 = +
For 1 x = , we find + + + + = 16 ) E D ( 4 C 4 B 8 A 56
+ + + = ) E D ( 16 4 12 A 8 56
8 E 2 D 2 A = + +
Solving the system
11 E A = + , 11 E D 2 A 7 = + , 8 E 2 D 2 A = + +
we find
4 A = , 5 D = , 7 E =
Therefore we have the following partial fraction decomposition

1 x x
7 x 5
3 x
1
) 1 x (
3
1 x
4
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
25 x 45 x 6 x 8
2 2 2 2
2 3
+

+
+

+
+
+
=
+ + +
+

Example 8. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
2 2 2
2 3 4 5 6
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
10 x 17 x 2 x 42 x 2 x 11 x 10
+ + +
+ + +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
260
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ + +
+ + +
3 x
C
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
10 x 17 x 2 x 42 x 2 x 11 x 10
2 2 2 2
2 3 4 5 6


2 2 2
) 1 x x (
G x F
1 x x
E x D
+
+
+
+
+
+
Multiplying by
2 2 2
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x ( + + + , we obtain the identity
= + + + 10 x 17 x 2 x 42 x 2 x 11 x 10
2 3 4 5 6

+ + + + + + + =
2 2 2 2
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( B ) 1 x x )( 3 x )( 1 x ( A
2 2 2
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x ( C + + +
) 3 x ( ) 1 x )( G x F ( ) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x )( E x D (
2 2 2
+ + + + + + + + +
For 1 x = , we find 2 B 18 B 36 = =
For 3 x = , we find 5 C 676 C 3380 = =
For 0 x = , we find + + + + = 3 G 3 E C 3 B 3 A 10
+ + + = G 3 E 3 5 6 A 3 10
3 G E A = + +
For 2 x = , we find
+ + + + + + = ) G F 2 ( 7 ) E D 2 ( 49 C 49 B ) 49 ( A 48
+ + + + + = ) G F 2 ( ) E D 2 ( 7 245 98 A 49 48
195 G F 2 E 7 D 14 A 49 = + +
For 2 x = , we find
+ + + + + + = 45 ) G F 2 ( 135 ) E D 2 ( 81 C 45 B 135 A 1260
+ + + + + = ) G F 2 ( 45 ) E D 2 ( 135 405 90 A 135 1260
21 G F 2 E 3 D 6 A 3 = + + + +
For 1 x = , we find
+ + + + + + = 16 ) G F ( 16 ) E D ( 4 C 4 B 8 A 36
+ + + + + = ) G F ( 16 ) E D ( 16 20 8 A 8 36
3 G 2 F 2 E 2 D 2 A = + + + +

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
261
For 3 x = , we find
+ + + + + + = 96 ) G F 3 ( 672 ) E D 3 ( 784 C 294 B 1176 A 10892
+ + + + + = ) G F 3 ( 96 ) E D 3 ( 672 3920 588 A 1176 10892
315 G 4 F 12 E 28 D 84 A 49 = + + + +
Solving the system of equations
3 G E A = + + , 195 G F 2 E 7 D 14 A 49 = + +
21 G F 2 E 3 D 6 A 3 = + + + + , 3 G 2 F 2 E 2 D 2 A = + + + +
315 G 4 F 12 E 28 D 84 A 49 = + + + +
we find the following values
3 A = , 2 D= , 1 E = , 4 F= , 5 G =
Therefore we have the following partial fraction decomposition
+
+

+
=
+ + +
+ + +
2 2 2 2
2 3 4 5 6
) 1 x (
2
1 x
3
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
10 x 17 x 2 x 42 x 2 x 11 x 10


2 2 2
) 1 x x (
5 x 4
1 x x
1 x 2
3 x
5
+

+
+

+
+
+
Note. From the partial fraction decomposition it is evident that we have to
integrate terms like
[1]
b x a
A
+
and
2
) b x a (
A
+
, 2 n >
[2]
c x b x a
A
2
+ +
,
c x b x a
B x A
2
+ +
+
, and
[3]
n 2
) c x b x a (
A
+ +
,
n 2
) c x b x a (
B x A
+ +
+
, 2 n >
We have already considered integrals containing terms like these.




Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
262

6.9.1a. More examples on partial fraction decomposition
Example 1. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
2 2 2
2 3
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
12 x 7 x 3 x 5
+ +
+ +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads

2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3
) 1 x (
F x E
1 x
D x C
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
12 x 7 x 3 x 5
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+ +

Multiplying through by
2 2 2
) 1 x ( ) 1 x ( + + we obtain from the previous identity

+ + + + + = + +
2 2 2 2 2 3
) 1 x ( B ) 1 x )( 1 x ( A 12 x 7 x 3 x 5

2 2 2
) 1 x )( F Ex ( ) 1 x ( ) 1 x )( D Cx ( + + + + + + +
which may be written as
+ + + + + + = + +
4 5 2 3
x ) D C 2 B A ( x ) C A ( 12 x 7 x 3 x 5
+ + + + + + + + + + +
2 3
x ) F E 2 D 2 C 2 B 2 A 2 ( x ) E D 2 C 2 A 2 (
F D B A x ) F 2 E D 2 C A ( + + + + + + + + +
Equating the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
0 C A = +
0 D C 2 B A = + + +
5 E D 2 C 2 A 2 = + + +
3 F E 2 D 2 C 2 B 2 A 2 = + + + + +
7 F 2 E D 2 C A = + + + +
12 F D B A = + + +
The above system has the unique solution

2
11
A = ,
4
3
B = ,
2
11
C = ,
4
25
D = ,
2
15
E = , 1 F=
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
263
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3
) 1 x (
1 x
2
15
1 x
4
25
x
2
11
) 1 x (
4
3
1 x
2
11
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
12 x 7 x 3 x 5
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
=
+ +
+ +

or
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3
) 1 x (
2 x 15
2
1
1 x
25 x 22
4
1
) 1 x (
1
4
3
1 x
1
2
11
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
12 x 7 x 3 x 5
+

+
=
+ +
+ +

Example 2. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
3 2 2
2 3 4 5
) 1 x ( ) 2 x )( 1 x (
17 x 2 x 11 x 15 x 7 x 8
+ +
+ + +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
+

+
+
=
+ +
+ + +
2 3 2 2
2 3 4 5
) 2 x (
C
2 x
B
1 x
A
) 1 x ( ) 2 x )( 1 x (
17 x 2 x 11 x 15 x 7 x 8


3 2 2 2 2
) 1 x (
K x H
) 1 x (
G x F
1 x
E x D
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Multiplying through by
3 2 2
) 1 x ( ) 2 x )( 1 x ( + + , we obtain
+ + = + + +
3 2 2 2 3 4 5
) 1 x ( ) 2 x ( A 17 x 2 x 11 x 15 x 7 x 8
+ + + + + + +
3 2 3 2
) 1 x )( 1 x ( C ) 1 x )( 2 x )( 1 x ( B
+ + + + + + + + + ) 1 x ( ) 2 x )( 1 x )( G x F ( ) 1 x ( ) 2 x )( 1 x )( E Dx (
2 2 2 2 2

2
) 2 x )( 1 x )( K x H ( + + +
which can be written as
+ + + = + + +
8 2 3 4 5
x ) D B A ( 17 x 2 x 11 x 15 x 7 x 8
+ + + + + + + + +
6 7
x ) F E 3 D 2 C B A 7 ( x ) E D 3 C B A 4 (
+ + + + +
5
x ) G F 3 E 2 D 2 C 3 B 3 A 12 (
+ + + + + +
4
x ) H G 3 F E 2 D C 3 B 3 A 15 (
+ + + + + + + +
3
x ) K H 3 G F E D 5 C 3 B 3 A 12 (
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
264
+ + + + + + + + + + x ) H 4 F 4 D 4 C B A 4 ( x ) K 3 G E 5 C 3 A 13 (
2

K 4 G 4 E 4 C B 2 A 4 + + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
0 D B A = + +
0 E D 3 C B A 4 = + +
0 F E 3 D 2 C B A 7 = + + + +
8 G F 3 E 2 D 2 C 3 B 3 A 12 = + + +
7 H G 3 F E 2 D C 3 B 3 A 15 = + + + +
15 K H 3 G F E D 5 C 3 B 3 A 12 = + + + + + +
11 K 3 G E 5 C 3 A 13 = + + +
2 H 4 F 4 D 4 C B A 4 = + + + +
17 K 4 G 4 E 4 C B 2 A 4 = + + + +
The above system has the unique solution

36
13
A = ,
5625
1571
B = ,
375
241
C = ,
2500
1601
D = ,
2500
1113
E =

250
113
F = ,
250
429
G = ,
25
7
H = ,
25
76
K =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
+

+
+

=
+ +
+ + +
2 3 2 2
2 3 4 5
) 2 x (
375
241
2 x
5625
1571
1 x
36
13
) 1 x ( ) 2 x )( 1 x (
17 x 2 x 11 x 15 x 7 x 8


3 2 2 2 2
) 1 x (
25
76
x
25
7
) 1 x (
250
429
x
250
113
1 x
2500
1113
x
2500
1601
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
or
+

+
=
+ +
+ + +
2 x
1
5625
1571
1 x
1
36
13
) 1 x ( ) 2 x )( 1 x (
17 x 2 x 11 x 15 x 7 x 8
3 2 2
2 3 4 5


+

+
2 2 2 2
) 1 x (
429 x 113
250
1
1 x
1113 x 1601
2500
1
) 2 x (
1
375
241

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
265

3 2
) 1 x (
76 x 7
25
1
+


Example 3. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
11 x 12 x 7 x 5
2 2
2 3
+ +
+ +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
1 x x
D Cx
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
11 x 12 x 7 x 5
2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+ +

Multiplying through by ) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
2 2
+ + we obtain from the previous identity

+ + + + + = + + ) 1 x x ( B ) 1 x x )( 1 x ( A 11 x 12 x 7 x 5
2 2 2 3


2
) 1 x )( D Cx ( + + +
which may be written as
+ + + + + = + +
2 3 2 3
x ) D C 2 B ( x ) C A ( 11 x 12 x 7 x 5
D B A x ) D 2 C B ( + + + + + +
Equating the coefficients of similar powers of x, we obtain the system
5 C A = +
7 D C 2 B = + +
12 D 2 C B = + +
11 D B A = + +
The above system has a unique solution

3
8
A = , 7 B = ,
3
23
C = ,
3
4
D =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
1 x x
3
4
x
3
23
) 1 x (
7
1 x
3
8
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
11 x 12 x 7 x 5
2 2 2 2
2 3
+

+
+

+
+

=
+ +
+ +

or
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
266

1 x x
4 x 23
3
1
) 1 x (
7
1 x
1
3
8
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
11 x 12 x 7 x 5
2 2 2 2
2 3
+

+
+

+
=
+ +
+ +

Example 4. Convert into partial fractions the rational function
2 2 2
2 3 4
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
11 x 12 x 7 x 5 x 7
+ +
+ +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+ +
2 2 2 2
2 3 4
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
11 x 12 x 7 x 5 x 7


2 2 2
) 1 x x (
F Ex
1 x x
D Cx
+
+
+
+
+
+

Multiplying through by
2 2 2
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x ( + + we obtain from the previous identity

+ + + + + = + +
2 2 2 2 2 3 4
) 1 x x ( B ) 1 x x )( 1 x ( A 11 x 12 x 7 x 5 x 7

2 2 2
) 1 x )( F Ex ( ) 1 x x ( ) 1 x )( D Cx ( + + + + + + +
which may be written as
+ + + + + + = + +
4 5 2 3 4
x ) D C B A ( x ) C A ( 11 x 12 x 7 x 5 x 7
+ + + + + + + + +
2 3
x ) F E 2 C B 3 A ( x ) E D B 2 A (
F D B A x ) F 2 E D C B 2 A ( + + + + + + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
0 C A = +
7 D C B A = + + +
5 E D B 2 A = + +
7 F E 2 C B 3 A = + + + +
12 F 2 E D C B 2 A = + + + +
11 F D B A = + + +
The above system has a unique solution
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
267

9
53
A = ,
9
4
B = ,
9
53
C = ,
3
13
D = ,
3
13
E = ,
3
1
F =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
+
+

+
+

=
+ +
+ +
2 2 2 2
2 3 4
) 1 x (
9
4
1 x
9
53
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
11 x 12 x 7 x 5 x 7


2 2 2
) 1 x x (
3
1
x
3
13
1 x x
3
13
x
9
53
+

+
+

+
or
+
+

+
=
+ +
+ +
2 2 2 2
2 3 4
) 1 x (
1
9
4
1 x
1
9
53
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
11 x 12 x 7 x 5 x 7


2 2 2
) 1 x x (
1 x 13
3
1
1 x x
39 x 53
9
1
+

+
+

+
Example 5. Convert into partial fractions the rational function

3 2 2
2 3 4 5
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 12 x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7
+ +
+ + +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+ + +
2 3 2 2
2 3 4 5
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 12 x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7


3 2 2 2 2
) 1 x x (
H Gx
) 1 x x (
F Ex
1 x x
D Cx
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Multiplying through by
3 2 2
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x ( + + we obtain

+ + + + + = + + +
3 2 3 2 2 3 4 5
) 1 x x ( B ) 1 x x )( 1 x ( A 13 x 12 x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7
+ + + + + + + + + ) 1 x x ( ) 1 x )( F Ex ( ) 1 x x ( ) 1 x )( D Cx (
2 2 2 2 2

2
) 1 x )( H Gx ( + + +
which can be written as
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
268
+ + + + + = + + +
6 7 2 3 4 5
x ) D B A 2 ( x ) C A ( 13 x 12 x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7
+ + + + + + + +
4 5
x ) F E C 2 B 6 A ( x ) E B 3 A 3 (
+ + + + + + + + + +
2 3
x ) H G 2 E B 6 A 3 ( x ) G F D 2 B 7 A (
H F D B A x ) H 2 G E F C B 3 A 2 ( + + + + + + + + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
0 C A = +
0 D B A 2 = + +
7 E B 3 A 3 = +
8 F E C 2 B 6 A = + + + +
3 G F D 2 B 7 A = + + +
7 H G 2 E B 6 A 3 = + + + +
12 H 2 G E F C B 3 A 2 = + + + + +
13 H F D B A = + + + +
The above system has a unique solution

27
50
A = ,
27
14
B = ,
27
50
C = ,
27
86
D =
11 E = ,
9
49
F = ,
3
10
G = , 2 H =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
+
+

+
+

=
+ +
+ + +
2 3 2 2
2 3 4 5
) 1 x (
27
14
1 x
27
50
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 12 x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7


3 2 2 2 2
) 1 x x (
2 x
3
10
) 1 x x (
9
49
x 11
1 x x
27
86
x
27
50
+

+
+

+
+

+
or
+
+

+
=
+ +
+ + +
2 3 2 2
2 3 4 5
) 1 x (
1
27
14
1 x
1
27
50
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 12 x 7 x 3 x 8 x 7

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
269

3 2 2 2 2
) 1 x x (
3 x 5
3
2
) 1 x x (
49 x 99
9
1
1 x x
43 x 25
27
2
+

+
+

+
+

+
Example 6. Convert into partial fractions the rational function

3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
9 x 44 x 55 x 89 x 102 x 43 x 3 x 12 x 3
+ + +
+ + + +

Solution. The partial fraction decomposition reads
=
+ + +
+ + + +
3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
9 x 44 x 55 x 89 x 102 x 43 x 3 x 12 x 3

3 2 2 2 2 2
) 1 x x (
K Hx
) 1 x x (
G Fx
1 x x
E Dx
3 x
C
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
Multiplying by
3 2 2
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x ( + + + , we obtain
= + + + + 9 x 44 x 55 x 89 x 102 x 43 x 3 x 12 x 3
2 3 4 5 6 7 8

+ + + + + + + =
3 2 3 2
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( B ) 1 x x )( 3 x )( 1 x ( A
+ + + + + + + + +
2 2 2 3 2 2
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x )( E x D ( ) 1 x x ( ) 1 x ( C
) 3 x ( ) 1 x )( K Hx ( ) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x )( G Fx (
2 2 2
+ + + + + + + + +
The previous expression can be written as
= + + + + 9 x 44 x 55 x 89 x 102 x 43 x 3 x 12 x 3
2 3 4 5 6 7 8

+ + + + + + + + + + + =
6 7 8
x ) F E 3 C A 3 ( x ) E D 3 C B A ( x ) D C A (
+ + + + + +
5
x ) G F 4 D 2 C 2 B 3 A 8 (
+ + + + + + + +
4
x ) H G 4 F 3 E 2 D 6 C 2 B 11 A 4 (
+ + + + + + + +
3
x ) K H 5 G 3 F E 6 C 2 B 15 (
+ + + + + + + + +
2
x ) K 5 H 7 G F 4 D C B 15 A 7 (
+ + + + + + + + x ) K 7 H 3 G 4 F 3 E D 3 C B 8 A 5 (
0 K 3 G 3 E 3 C B 3 A 3 = + + + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
270
3 D C A = + + ,
12 E D 3 C B A = + + + ,
3 F E 3 C A 3 = + + +
43 G F 4 D 2 C 2 B 3 A 8 = + + + + ,
102 H G 4 F 3 E 2 D 6 C 2 B 11 A 4 = + + + + + +
89 K H 5 G 3 F E 6 C 2 B 15 = + + + + + +
55 K 5 H 7 G F 4 D C B 15 A 7 = + + + + + + +
44 K 7 H 3 G 4 F 3 E D 3 C B 8 A 5 = + + + + + +
9 K 3 G 3 E 3 C B 3 A 3 = + + + + +
Solving the system, we find the following values of the constants:
2 A= , 6 B = , 3 C = , 2 D = , 1 E =
3 F = , 5 G = , 1 H = , 4 K =
Therefore we have the following partial fraction decomposition
=
+ + +
+ + + +
3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
) 1 x x )( 3 x ( ) 1 x (
9 x 44 x 55 x 89 x 102 x 43 x 3 x 12 x 3

3 2 2 2 2 2
) 1 x x (
4 x
) 1 x x (
5 x 3
1 x x
1 x 2
3 x
3
) 1 x (
6
1 x
2
+

+

+
+

+
+
+

+
=
6.9.2 Another Method of Partial Fraction Decomposition

This method applies to the case of multiple roots and makes use the non-
terminating division.

Example 1. Convert into partial fractions the rational expression

2 3
2
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
1 x x
+
+ +

Solution. We consider the substitution
1 x t = , i.e. 1 t x + =
The function then takes the form
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
271

) 9 t 6 t ( t
3 t 3 t
) 3 t ( t
1 ) 1 t ( ) 1 t (
2 3
2
2 3
2
+ +
+ +
=
+
+ + + +

which is equivalent to

2
2
3
t t 6 9
t 3 t 9 9
t 3
1
+ +
+ +

Performing the non-terminating division ) t t 6 9 ( ) t 3 t 9 9 (
2 2
+ + + + , we have
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = + +
3
t
3
t
1 ) t t 6 9 ( t 3 t 9 9
3
2 2

or

2
3
2
2
t t 6 9
3
t
3
t
1
t t 6 9
t 3 t 9 9
+ +

+ + =
+ +
+ +


which is equivalent to

2
3
2
2
t t 6 9
1
3
t
3
t
1
) 3 t (
) 3 t 3 t ( 3
+ +
+ =
+
+ +

Multiplying the previous identity by
3
t 3
1
, we obtain the identity

2 2 3 2 3
2
) 3 t (
1
9
1
t
1
9
1
t
1
3
1
) 3 t ( t
3 t 3 t
+
+ =
+
+ +

Going back to the original variable x, ( 1 x t = ) we get

2 2 3 2 3
2
) 2 x (
1
9
1
) 1 x (
1
9
1
) 1 x (
1
3
1
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
1 x x
+

=
+
+ +


Example 2. Convert into partial fractions the rational expression

) 4 x ( ) 1 x (
x 36 x 30 x 5 x
2 3
2 3 4
+


Solution. We consider the substitution
1 x t + = , i.e. 1 t x =
The function then takes the form
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
272

) 3 t 2 t ( t
12 t 5 t 9 t 9 t
] 4 ) 1 t [( t
) 1 t ( 36 ) 1 t ( 30 ) 1 t ( 5 ) 1 t (
2 3
2 3 4
2 3
2 3 4

+ +
=



Performing the non-terminating division
) 3 t 2 t ( ) 12 t 5 t 9 t 9 t (
2 2 3 4
+ +
we have
3 t 2 t
t 8
t t 4
3 t 2 t
12 t 5 t 9 t 9 t
2
3
2
2
2 3 4

+ + =

+ +

From the last identity, multiplying by
3
t
1
, we obtain
3 t 2 t
8
t
1
t
1
t
4
) 3 t 2 t ( t
12 t 5 t 9 t 9 t
2 2 3 2 3
2 3 4

+ + =

+ +

Going back to the original variable x ( 1 x t + = ), we get the identity

4 x
8
1 x
1
) 1 x (
1
) 1 x (
4
) 4 x ( ) 1 x (
x 36 x 30 x 5 x
2 2 3 2 3
2 3 4

+
+
+
+
+
=
+


Since, as usual

2 x
2
2 x
2
4 x
8
2
+


we obtain finally

2 x
2
2 x
2
1 x
1
) 1 x (
1
) 1 x (
4
) 4 x ( ) 1 x (
x 36 x 30 x 5 x
2 3 2 3
2 3 4
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
=
+



4 3 2
t t 9 t 9 t 5 12 + +
2
t 4 t 8 12 +
2
t t 4 + +
4 3 2
t t 9 t 5 t 3 +
3 2
t t 2 t 3 +
4 3 2
t t 10 t 3 +
4 3 2
t t 2 t 3 +
3
t 8
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
273

6.9.3 Examples of integration of rational functions using
partial fraction decomposition
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
6 x 5 x 2 x
5 x 6 x 3
I
2 3
2
}

+
=
Solution. We have that
) 3 x )( 2 x )( 1 x ( 6 x 5 x 2 x
2 3
+ =
We thus have the partial fraction decomposition

3 x
C
2 x
B
1 x
A
) 3 x )( 2 x )( 1 x (
5 x 6 x 3
2

+
+
+

=
+
+

Multiplying through by ) 3 x )( 2 x )( 1 x ( + , we obtain the identity
) 2 x )( 1 x ( C ) 3 x )( 1 x ( B ) 3 x )( 2 x ( A 5 x 6 x 3
2
+ + + + = +
For 2 x = ,
15
29
B 15 B 29 = =
For 3 x = ,
5
7
C 10 C 14 = =
For 1 x = ,
3
1
A ) 6 ( A 2 = =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

3 x
5
7
2 x
15
29
1 x
3
1
) 3 x )( 2 x )( 1 x (
5 x 6 x 3
2

+
+
+

=
+
+

or

3 x
1
5
7
2 x
1
15
29
1 x
1
3
1
) 3 x )( 2 x )( 1 x (
5 x 6 x 3
2

+
+
+

=
+
+

We now can evaluate the integral:
=

+
+
+

=

+
=
} } } }
3 x
dx
5
7
2 x
dx
15
29
1 x
dx
3
1
dx
6 x 5 x 2 x
5 x 6 x 3
I
2 3
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
274
C | 3 x | ln
5
7
| 1 x | ln
15
29
| 1 x | ln
3
1
+ + + + =
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
x x 2 x
1 x x 2
I
2 3
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We have

2 2 2 3
) 1 x ( x ) 1 x 2 x ( x x x 2 x = + = +
We thus have the partial fraction decomposition

2 2
2
) 1 x (
C
1 x
B
x
A
) 1 x ( x
1 x x 2

+ =

+

Multiplying through by
2
) 1 x ( x we obtain the identity
x C ) 1 x ( x B ) 1 x ( A 1 x x 2
2 2
+ + = +
For 0 x = , 1 A ) 1 ( A 1
2
= =
For 1 x = , 2 C C 2 = =
For 2 x = , 3 B 2 C 2 B A 9 = + + =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

2 2
2
) 1 x (
2
1 x
3
x
1
) 1 x ( x
1 x x 2

+ =

+

We now can evaluate the integral:
=

+ =
+
+
=
} } } } 2 2 3
2
) 1 x (
dx
2
1 x
dx
x
dx
dx
x x 2 x
1 x x 2
I
= +
|
.
|

\
|

+ + = C
1 x
1
2 | 1 x | ln | x | ln
C
1 x
2
x
1 x
ln +

=
Note. The integral
}

2
) 1 x (
dx
was evaluated using the substitution 1 x u =
( dx du = ):
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
275

1 x
1
u
1
u
du
) 1 x (
dx
2 2

= = =

} }

Example 3. Evaluate the integral
}
+
+
= dx
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
5 x x 3
I
2
2

Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition
2 x
C
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
5 x x 3
2 2
2
+
+

=
+
+

Multiplying through by ) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
2
+ we obtain the identity

2 2
) 1 x ( C ) 2 x ( B ) 2 x )( 1 x ( A 5 x x 3 + + + + = +
For 1 x = ,
3
7
B 3 B 7 = =
For 2 x = ,
9
19
C ) 3 ( C 19
2
= =
For 0 x = ,
9
8
A ) 1 ( C 2 B ) 2 ( A 5
2
= + + =
Therefore we have the decomposition
2 x
9
19
) 1 x (
3
7
1 x
9
8
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
5 x x 3
2 2
2
+
+

=
+
+

or

2 x
1
9
19
) 1 x (
1
3
7
1 x
1
9
8
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
5 x x 3
2 2
2
+
+

=
+
+

We now can evaluate the integral:
=
+
+

=
+
+
=
} } } }
2 x
dx
9
19
) 1 x (
dx
3
7
1 x
dx
9
8
dx
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
5 x x 3
I
2 2
2

C | 2 x | ln
9
19
1 x
1
3
7
| 1 x | ln
9
8
+ + +
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
276
Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx
) 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
1 x 3 x
I
2
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition

2 x 3
C
) 1 x 2 (
B
1 x 2
A
) 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
1 x 3 x
2 2
2
+
+

=
+
+

Multiplying through by ) 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
2
+ , we obtain the identity

2 2
) 1 x 2 ( C ) 2 x 3 ( B ) 2 x 3 )( 1 x 2 ( A 1 x 3 x + + + + = +
which can be written as
C B 2 A 2 x ) C 4 B 3 A ( x ) C 4 A 6 ( 1 x 3 x
2 2
+ + + + + = +
Equating the coefficients of equal powers of x, we obtain the system
1 C 4 A 6 = + , 3 C 4 B 3 A = + , 1 C B 2 A 2 = + +
The above system has the unique solution

98
25
A = ,
14
1
B = ,
49
31
C =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
2 x 3
1
49
31
) 1 x 2 (
1
14
1
1 x 2
1
98
25
) 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
1 x 3 x
2 2
2
+
+

=
+
+

We now can evaluate the integral:
} } } }
+
+

=
+
+
=
2 x 3
dx
49
31
) 1 x 2 (
dx
14
1
1 x 2
dx
98
25
dx
) 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
1 x 3 x
I
2 2
2

=
+
+

=
} } }
2 x 3
dx
49
31
) 1 x 2 (
dx
14
1
1 x 2
dx
98
25
2

=
+
+


=
} } }
dx
2 x 3
3
49 3
31
dx
) 1 x 2 (
2
14 2
1
dx
1 x 2
2
98 2
25
2

C | 2 x 3 | ln
147
31
1 x 2
1
28
1
| 1 x 2 | ln
196
25
+ + +
|
.
|

\
|

=
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
277
Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx
) 1 x 3 ( ) 3 x 2 (
7 x x 5
I
2
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition

1 x 3
C
) 3 x 2 (
B
3 x 2
A
) 1 x 3 ( ) 3 x 2 (
7 x x 5
2 2
2
+
+

=
+
+

Multiplying through by ) 1 x 3 ( ) 3 x 2 (
2
+ , we obtain the identity

2 2
) 3 x 2 ( C ) 1 x 3 ( B ) 1 x 3 )( 3 x 2 ( A 7 x x 5 + + + + = +
which can be written as
C 9 B A 3 x ) C 12 B 3 A 7 ( x ) C 4 A 6 ( 7 x x 5
2 2
+ + + + + = +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system

5 C 4 A 6 = + , 1 C 12 B 3 A 7 = + , 7 C 9 B A 3 = + +

The previous system has the unique solution

242
107
A = ,
22
67
B = and
121
71
C =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

1 x 3
1
121
71
) 3 x 2 (
1
22
67
3 x 2
1
242
107
) 1 x 3 ( ) 3 x 2 (
7 x x 5
2 2
2
+
+

=
+
+

We now can evaluate the integral:
=
+
+

=
+
+
=
} } } }
1 x 3
dx
121
71
) 3 x 2 (
dx
22
67
3 x 2
dx
242
107
dx
) 1 x 3 ( ) 3 x 2 (
7 x x 5
I
2 2
2

=
+
+

+

=
} } }
dx
1 x 3
3
121 3
71
dx
) 3 x 2 (
2
22 2
67
dx
3 x 2
2
242 2
107
2

C | 1 x 3 | ln
242
71
3 x 2
1
44
67
| 3 x 2 | ln
482
107
+ + +
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
Example 6. Evaluate the integral dx
) 1 x 4 )( 3 x 2 ( ) 4 x 3 (
13 x 7 x 6
I
2 2
3
}
+ +
+
=
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
278
Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+
2 2 2
3
) 4 x 3 (
C
4 x 3
B
3 x 2
A
) 1 x 4 )( 3 x 2 ( ) 4 x 3 (
13 x 7 x 6


2
) 1 x 4 (
E
1 x 4
D

+
Multiplying through by
2 2
) 1 x 4 )( 3 x 2 ( ) 4 x 3 ( + + , we obtain the identity
+ + + + + = +
2 2 2 3
) 1 x 4 )( 4 x 3 )( 3 x 2 ( B ) 1 x 4 ( ) 4 x 3 ( A 13 x 7 x 6
2 2 2
) 4 x 3 )( 3 x 2 ( E ) 1 x 4 ( ) 4 x 3 )( 3 x 2 ( D ) 1 x 4 )( 3 x 2 ( C + + + + + + + +
which can be put into the form
+ + + = +
4 3
x ) D 72 B 96 A 144 ( 13 x 7 x 6
+ + + + + +
3
x ) E 18 D 282 C 32 B 224 A 312 (
+ + + + + +
2
x ) E 75 D 341 C 32 B 62 A 73 (
+ + + + x ) E 104 D 88 C 22 B 79 A 104 (
E 48 D 48 C 3 B 12 A 16 + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
0 D 72 B 96 A 144 = + +
6 E 18 D 282 C 32 B 224 A 312 = + + + +
0 E 75 D 341 C 32 B 62 A 73 = + + + +
7 E 104 D 88 C 22 B 79 A 104 = + +
13 E 48 D 48 C 3 B 12 A 16 = + + +
The above linear system has the unique solution

49
13
A = ,
6859
2295
B = ,
361
219
C = ,
336091
28394
D = ,
2527
363
E =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
+
+

+
=
+ +
+
4 x 3
1
6859
2295
3 x 2
1
49
13
) 1 x 4 )( 3 x 2 ( ) 4 x 3 (
13 x 7 x 6
2 2
3

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
279

2 2
) 1 x 4 (
1
2527
363
1 x 4
1
336091
28394
) 4 x 3 (
1
361
219

+
+
We now can evaluate the integral:
+
+

+
=
+ +
+
=
} } }
4 x 3
dx
6859
2295
3 x 2
dx
49
13
dx
) 1 x 4 )( 3 x 2 ( ) 4 x 3 (
13 x 7 x 6
I
2 2
3

=

+
+
} } }
2 2
) 1 x 4 (
dx
2527
363
1 x 4
dx
336091
28394
) 4 x 3 (
dx
361
219

+
+

+
=
} } }
dx
) 4 x 3 (
3
361 3
219
dx
4 x 3
3
6859 3
2295
dx
3 x 2
2
49 2
13
2

=

} }
dx
) 1 x 4 (
4
2527 4
363
dx
1 x 4
4
336091 4
28394
2

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + + =
4 x 3
1
361
73
| 4 x 3 | ln
6859
765
| 3 x 2 | ln
98
13

C
1 x 4
1
10108
363
| 1 x 4 | ln
672182
14197
+
|
.
|

\
|

+
Example 7. Evaluate the integral dx
x x
1
I
3
}
+
=
Solution. We have
) 1 x ( x x x
2 3
+ = +
We thus have the partial fraction decomposition

1 x
C x B
x
A
) 1 x ( x
1
2 2
+
+
+ =
+

Multiplying through by ) 1 x ( x
2
+ , we obtain the identity
x ) C x B ( ) 1 x ( A 1
2
+ + + =
which can be further transformed into
A x C x ) B A ( 1
2
+ + + =
Equating the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
280
0 B A = + , 0 C = , 1 A=
Therefore 1 A= , 1 B = and 0 C = . We thus get the partial fraction analysis

1 x
x
x
1
x x
1
2 3
+
=
+

We now can evaluate the integral:
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
} } } }
dx
1 x
x 2
2
1
| x | ln dx
1 x
x
x
dx
dx
x x
1
I
2 2 3

C ) 1 x ln(
2
1
| x | ln
2
+ + =
Example 8. Evaluate the integral dx
x x
2 x x
I
3
2
}
+
+
=
Solution. We have
) 1 x ( x x x
2 3
+ = +
We thus have the partial fraction decomposition

1 x
C Bx
x
A
) 1 x ( x
2 x x
2 2
2
+
+
+ =
+
+

Multiplying through by ) 1 x ( x
2
+ , we obtain the identity
x ) C x B ( ) 1 x ( A 2 x x
2 2
+ + + = +
which can be further transformed into
A x C x ) B A ( 2 x x
2 2
+ + + = +

Equating the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
1 B A = + , 1 C = , 2 A=
Therefore 2 A= , 1 B = and 1 C = . We thus get the partial fraction analysis

1 x
1 x
x
2
x x
2 x x
2 3
2
+
+
=
+
+

We now can evaluate the integral:
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
} } }
dx
1 x
1 x
dx
x
2
dx
x x
2 x x
I
2 3
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
281
=
+

+
=
} } }
dx
1 x
1
dx
1 x
x
dx
x
1
2
2 2


= +
+
=
}
C x arctan dx
1 x
x 2
2
1
| x | ln 2
2

C x arctan ) 1 x ln(
2
1
| x | ln 2
2
+ + =
Example 9. Evaluate the integral
}
+1 x
dx
3

Solution. Since ) 1 x x )( 1 x ( 1 x
2 3
+ + = + , we have the partial fraction
decomposition

1 x x
C Bx
1 x
A
) 1 x x )( 1 x (
1
2 2
+
+
+
+
=
+ +

Multiplying the previous identity by ) 1 x x )( 1 x (
2
+ + we obtain
) 1 x )( C Bx ( ) 1 x x ( A 1
2
+ + + + =
We substitute
1 x = :
3
1
A 3 A 1 = =
0 x = : C A 1 + = or
3
2
C C
3
1
1 = + =
1 x = : 2 ) C B ( A 1 + + = or
3
1
B 2
3
2
B
3
1
1 =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
Therefore

1 x x
3
2
x
3
1
1 x
3
1
) 1 x x )( 1 x (
1
2 2
+
+
+
+
=
+ +

or

1 x x
2 x
3
1
1 x
1
3
1
) 1 x x )( 1 x (
1
2 2
+

+
=
+ +

Therefore
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
282

} } }
+

+
=
+
dx
1 x x
2 x
3
1
dx
1 x
1
3
1
dx
1 x
dx
2 3


}
+

+ = dx
1 x x
2 x
3
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
2

We further transform
1 x x
2 x
2
+

to
=
+

=
+

=
+

1 x x
4 x 2
2
1
1 x x
) 2 x ( 2
2
1
1 x x
2 x
2 2 2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
1 x x
3
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
2 2


1 x x
1
2
3
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
2 2
+

=
Therefore we have
=
+

+ =
+
} }
dx
1 x x
2 x
3
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
dx
1 x
dx
2 3

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ =
} }
dx
1 x x
1
2
3
dx
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
3
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
2 2


} }
+
+
+

+ = dx
1 x x
1
2
1
dx
1 x x
1 x 2
6
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
2 2

Since
| 1 x x | ln dx
1 x x
1 x 2
2
2
+ =
+

}

(integral of the form | ) x ( f | ln dx
) x ( f
) x ( f
=
'
}
)
and
|
.
|

\
| +
=
+
}
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
dx
1 x x
1
2
(6.3.3, Example 2)
we have finally
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
283
+ + + =
+
}
| 1 x x | ln
6
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
dx
1 x
dx
2
3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
Example 10. Evaluate the integral
}
1 x
dx
3

Solution. Since ) 1 x x )( 1 x ( 1 x
2 3
+ + = + , we have the partial fraction
decomposition

1 x x
C Bx
1 x
A
) 1 x x )( 1 x (
1
2 2
+ +
+
+

=
+ +

Multiplying the previous identity by ) 1 x x )( 1 x (
2
+ + we obtain
) 1 x )( C Bx ( ) 1 x x ( A 1
2
+ + + + =
We substitute
1 x = :
3
1
A 3 A 1 = =
0 x = : ) 1 ( C A 1 + = or
3
2
C C
3
1
1 = =
1 x = : ) 2 ( ) C B ( A 1 + + = or
3
1
B ) 2 (
3
2
B
3
1
1 =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Therefore

1 x x
3
2
x
3
1
1 x
3
1
) 1 x x )( 1 x (
1
2 2
+ +

+

=
+ +

or

1 x x
2 x
3
1
1 x
1
3
1
) 1 x x )( 1 x (
1
2 2
+ +
+

=
+ +

Therefore
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
284

} } }
+ +
+

dx
1 x x
2 x
3
1
dx
1 x
1
3
1
dx
1 x
dx
2 3


}
+ +
+
= dx
1 x x
2 x
3
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
2

We further transform
1 x x
2 x
2
+ +
+
to
=
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
1 x x
4 x 2
2
1
1 x x
) 2 x ( 2
2
1
1 x x
2 x
2 2 2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
+ +
+
=
1 x x
3
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
2 2


1 x x
1
2
3
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
2 2
+ +
+
+ +
+
=
Therefore we have
=
+ +
+
=

} }
dx
1 x x
2 x
3
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
dx
1 x
dx
2 3

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
+ +
+
=
} }
dx
1 x x
1
2
3
dx
1 x x
1 x 2
2
1
3
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
2 2


} }
+ +

+ +
+
= dx
1 x x
1
2
1
dx
1 x x
1 x 2
6
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
2 2

Since
| 1 x x | ln dx
1 x x
1 x 2
2
2
+ + =
+ +
+
}

(integral of the form | ) x ( f | ln dx
) x ( f
) x ( f
=
'
}
)
and
|
.
|

\
| +
=
+ +
}
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
dx
1 x x
1
2
(6.3.3, Example 1)
we have finally
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
285
+ + =

}
| 1 x x | ln
6
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
dx
1 x
dx
2
3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3
+ |
.
|

\
| +

Example 11. Evaluate the integral
}
+ +
+ +
= dx
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 7 x 8 x 5
I
2 2
2 3

Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition

1 x
D x C
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 7 x 8 x 5
2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+ +

Multiplying through by ) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
2 2
+ + we obtain the identity

2 2 2 2 3
) 1 x )( D x C ( ) 1 x ( B ) 1 x )( 1 x ( A 13 x 7 x 8 x 5 + + + + + + + = + +
which may take the form
+ + + + + + = + +
2 3 2 3
x ) D C 2 B A ( x ) C A ( 13 x 7 x 8 x 5
D B A x ) D 2 C A ( + + + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
5 C A = +
8 D C 2 B A = + + +
7 D 2 C A = + +
13 D B A = + +
The above system has the unique solution

2
31
A = ,
2
7
B = ,
2
21
C = and 1 D=
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
1 x
1 x
2
21
) 1 x (
2
7
1 x
2
31
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 7 x 8 x 5
2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+
+
+

+
+
=
+ +
+ +

or
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
286

1 x
1
1 x
x
2
21
) 1 x (
1
2
7
1 x
1
2
31
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 7 x 8 x 5
2 2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+
+

+
=
+ +
+ +

We now can evaluate the integral

}
+ +
+ +
= dx
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
13 x 7 x 8 x 5
I
2 2
2 3

} } } }
+
+
+

+
=
1 x
dx
dx
1 x
x
2
21
) 1 x (
dx
2
7
1 x
dx
2
31
2 2 2

= + +
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
}
C x arctan dx
1 x
x 2
2 2
21
1 x
1
2
7
| 1 x | ln
2
31
2

C x arctan ) 1 x ln(
4
21
1 x
1
2
7
| 1 x | ln
2
31
2
+ + +
+
+ + =
Example 12. Evaluate the integral
}
+ +
+
= dx
) 3 x x )( 2 x (
5 x 3 x 4
I
2
2

Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition
3 x x
C x B
2 x
A
) 3 x x )( 2 x (
5 x 3 x 4
2 2
2
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+

Multiplying through by ) 3 x x )( 2 x (
2
+ + , we obtain the identity
) 2 x )( C x B ( ) 3 x x ( A 5 x 3 x 4
2 2
+ + + + = +
which can be put into the form
C 2 A 3 x ) C B 2 A ( x ) B A ( 5 x 3 x 4
2 2
+ + + + + + = +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
4 B A = + , 3 C B 2 A = + + , 5 C 2 A 3 = +
The above system has the unique solution
3 A = , 1 B= , 2 C =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
3 x x
2 x
2 x
3
) 3 x x )( 2 x (
5 x 3 x 4
2 2
2
+

+
+
=
+ +
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
287
We now can evaluate the integral
=
+

+
+
=
+ +
+
=
} } }
dx
3 x x
2 x
dx
2 x
3
dx
) 3 x x )( 2 x (
5 x 3 x 4
I
2 2
2

=
+

+
+
=
} }
dx
3 x x
3 ) 1 x 2 (
2
1
2 x
dx
3
2

=
+

+

+ + =
} }
dx
3 x x
3
2
1
dx
3 x x
) 1 x 2 (
2
1
| 2 x | ln 3
2 2

dx
3 x x
1
2
3
) 3 x x ln(
2
1
| 2 x | ln 3
2
2
}
+
+ + + =
For the evaluation of the integral
dx
3 x x
1
I
2
1 }
+
=
we see that since
2
2
2
2
11
2
1
x 3 x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= + , under the substitution
u
2
11
2
1
x =
we get
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2 2
2
2
2
11
u
2
11
2
11
2
1
x 3 x x
) 1 u (
4
11
2
+ =
and
du
2
11
dx =
Therefore the integral
1
I transforms into
u arctan
11
11 2
1 u
du
11
11 2
) 1 u (
4
11
du
2
11
2
2
=
+
=
+
} }

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
288
Going back to the original variable, since
11
1 x 2
u

= , we obtain the value of the
integral
1
I :

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
=
}
11
1 x 2
arctan
11
11 2
dx
3 x x
1
I
2 1

We thus have
=
+ +
+
=
}
dx
) 3 x x )( 2 x (
5 x 3 x 4
I
2
2

C
11
1 x 2
arctan
11
11 2
2
3
) 3 x x ln(
2
1
| 2 x | ln 3
2
+

|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + + =
Example 13. Evaluate the integral
}
+ +
+
= dx
) 1 x )( 2 x (
11 x 6 x 5
I
2 2
2 3

Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition
2 2 2 2 2
2 3
) 1 x (
E x D
1 x
C x B
2 x
A
) 1 x )( 2 x (
11 x 6 x 5
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+

Multiplying through by
2 2
) 1 x )( 2 x ( + + , we obtain the identity
) 2 x )( E Dx ( ) 1 x )( 2 x )( C Bx ( ) 1 x ( A 11 x 6 x 5
2 2 2 2 3
+ + + + + + + + = +
which can be put into the form
+ + + + = +
3 4 2 3
x ) C B 2 ( x ) B A ( 11 x 6 x 5
+ + + + + + + + + x ) E D 2 C B 2 ( x ) D C 2 B A 2 (
2

E 2 C 2 A + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
0 B A = + , 5 C B 2 = + , 6 D C 2 B A 2 = + + +
0 E D 2 C B 2 = + + + , 11 E 2 C 2 A = + +
The above system has the unique solution
25
53
A = ,
25
53
B = ,
25
19
C = ,
5
27
D = ,
5
29
E =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
289
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
2 2 2 2 2
2 3
) 1 x (
29 x 27
5
1
1 x
19 x 53
25
1
2 x
1
25
53
) 1 x )( 2 x (
11 x 6 x 5
+

+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+

We now can evaluate the integral
=
+ +
+
=
}
dx
) 1 x )( 2 x (
11 x 6 x 5
I
2 2
2 3

} } }
=
+

+
+
+
+
= dx
) 1 x (
29 x 27
5
1
dx
1 x
19 x 53
25
1
2 x
dx
25
53
2 2 2

} }
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+ + = dx
) 1 x (
29
) 1 x (
x 27
5
1
dx
1 x
19
1 x
x 53
25
1
| 2 x | ln
25
53
2 2 2 2 2 2

+
+
+

+ + =
} }
dx
1 x
1
19 dx
1 x
x 2
25 2
53
| 2 x | ln
25
53
2 2


} }
+
+
+

dx
) 1 x (
1
5
29
dx
) 1 x (
x 2
5 2
27
2 2 2 2

We now have
) 1 x ln( dx
1 x
x 2
2
2
+ =
+
}

1 x
1
dx
) 1 x (
x 2
2 2 2
+
=
+
}
(using the substitution 1 x u
2
+ = )
1 x
x
2
1
x arctan
2
1
dx
) 1 x (
1
2 2 2
+
+ =
+
}
(using the reduction formula, 6.7)
Therefore the value of the integral is given by
+ + + + =
+ +
+
=
}
| 1 x | ln
50
53
| 2 x | ln
25
53
dx
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
11 x 6 x 5
I
2
2 2
2 3

C
1 x
x
2
1
x arctan
2
1
5
29
1 x
1
10
27
x arctan 19
2 2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
+ +
or
+ + + + =
+ +
+
=
}
| 1 x | ln
50
53
| 2 x | ln
25
53
dx
) 1 x )( 2 x (
11 x 6 x 5
I
2
2 2
2 3

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
290
C
1 x
x
10
29
1 x
1
10
27
x arctan
10
219
2 2
+
+
+
+
+ +
Example 14. Evaluate the integral
}
+
+ +
= dx
) 5 x 3 x 2 ( ) 2 x 3 (
7 x 5 x 2 x 3
I
2 2
2 3

Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition
5 x 3 x 2
D Cx
) 2 x 3 (
B
2 x 3
A
) 5 x 3 x 2 ( ) 2 x 3 (
7 x 5 x 2 x 3
2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+
+

=
+
+ +

Multiplying through by ) 5 x 3 x 2 ( ) 2 x 3 (
2 2
+ , we obtain the identity
+ + = + + ) 5 x 3 x 2 )( 2 x 3 ( A 7 x 5 x 2 x 3
2 2 3

2 2
) 2 x 3 )( D x C ( ) 5 x 3 x 2 ( B + + + +
which can take the form
+ + + + + = + +
2 3 2 3
x ) D 9 C 12 B 2 A 13 ( x ) C 9 A 6 ( 7 x 5 x 2 x 3
D 4 B 5 A 10 x ) D 12 C 4 B 3 A 21 ( + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
3 C 9 A 6 = + , 2 D 9 C 12 B 2 A 13 = + + ,
5 D 12 C 4 B 3 A 21 = + , 7 D 4 B 5 A 10 = + +
The above system admits the solution

175
32
A = ,
5
7
B= ,
175
37
C= ,
175
80
D =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

5 x 3 x 2
80 x 37
175
1
) 2 x 3 (
1
5
7
2 x 3
1
175
32
) 5 x 3 x 2 ( ) 2 x 3 (
7 x 5 x 2 x 3
2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+
+

=
+
+ +

We then have the following decomposition of the integral
} } }
+

=
+
+ +
=
2 2 2
2 3
) 2 x 3 (
dx
5
7
2 x 3
dx
175
32
dx
) 5 x 3 x 2 ( ) 2 x 3 (
7 x 5 x 2 x 3
I

}
+
+
+ dx
5 x 3 x 2
80 x 37
175
1
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
291
We now have to evaluate the various integrals appearing on the right hand side of
the above result. We have
| 2 x 3 | ln
3
1
dx
2 x 3
3
3
1
2 x 3
dx
I
1
=

=
} }


2 x 3
1
3
1
) 2 x 3 (
dx 3
3
1
) 2 x 3 (
dx
I
2 2
2

=
} }

=
+
+
=
+
+
=
} }
dx
5 x 3 x 2
4
431
) 3 x 4 (
4
37
dx
5 x 3 x 2
80 x 37
I
2 2
3


} }
=
+
+
+

=
5 x 3 x 2
dx
4
431
dx
5 x 3 x 2
3 x 4
4
37
2 2


4
2
I
4
431
) 5 x 3 x 2 ln(
4
37
+ + =
where
}
+
=
5 x 3 x 2
dx
I
2
4
. The last integral
4
I , since

+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
16
31
4
3
x 2 5 x 3 x 2
2
2
, under the substitution u
4
31
4
3
x = , takes on
the form u arctan
31
31 2
1 u
du
31
31 2
) 1 u (
16
31
2
du
4
31
I
2
2
4
=
+
=
+
=
} }
.
Since
31
3 x 4
u

= , we get the following value for the integral
|
.
|

\
|
=
31
3 x 4
arctan
31
31 2
I
4
. The value of the original integral is then given by
= + + =
+
+ +
=
} 3 2 1
2 2
2 3
I
175
1
I
5
7
I
175
32
dx
) 5 x 3 x 2 ( ) 2 x 3 (
7 x 5 x 2 x 3
I
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
4
2
I
4
431
) 5 x 3 x 2 ln(
4
37
175
1
2 x 3
1
3
1
5
7
| 2 x 3 | ln
3
1
175
32

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
292
+ + +

= ) 5 x 3 x 2 ln(
700
37
2 x 3
1
15
7
| 2 x 3 | ln
525
32
2



C
31
3 x 4
arctan
21700
31 862
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
Example 15. Evaluate the integral
}
+ +
+ +
= dx
) 3 x 2 x 4 ( ) 3 x 5 ( ) 1 x 2 (
6 x 15 x 5 x 3 x 8
I
2 2
2 3 4

Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition
+

+
+
=
+ +
+ +
3 x 5
B
1 x 2
A
) 3 x 2 x 4 ( ) 3 x 5 )( 1 x 2 (
6 x 15 x 5 x 3 x 8
2 2
2 3 4


3 x 2 x 4
E x D
) 3 x 5 (
C
2 2
+
+
+

+
Multiplying through by ) 3 x 2 x 4 ( ) 3 x 5 )( 1 x 2 (
2 2
+ + we derive the identity
+ + = + + ) 3 x 2 x 4 ( ) 3 x 5 ( A 6 x 15 x 5 x 3 x 8
2 2 2 3 4

+ + + + + + + ) 3 x 2 x 4 )( 1 x 2 ( C ) 3 x 2 x 4 )( 3 x 5 )( 1 x 2 ( B
2 2

2
) 3 x 5 )( 1 x 2 )( E Dx ( + + +
which can take the form
+ + + = + +
4 2 3 4
x ) D 50 B 40 A 100 ( 6 x 15 x 5 x 3 x 8
+ + + +
3
x ) E 50 D 35 C 8 B 24 A 170 (
+ + + + + + + x ) E 12 D 9 C 4 B 3 A 108 ( x ) E 35 D 12 B 20 A 171 (
2

E 9 C 3 B 9 A 27 + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
8 D 50 B 40 A 100 = + + , 3 E 50 D 35 C 8 B 24 A 170 = + +
5 E 35 D 12 B 20 A 171 = + , 15 E 12 D 9 C 4 B 3 A 108 = + + +
6 E 9 C 3 B 9 A 27 = + +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
293
The above system admits the following solution

1210
91
A = ,
1323135
574352
B= ,
1485
1081
C = ,
21870
806
D = ,
21870
5459
E =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition
+

+
+
=
+ +
+ +
3 x 5
1
1323135
574352
1 x 2
1
1210
91
) 3 x 2 x 4 ( ) 3 x 5 )( 1 x 2 (
6 x 15 x 5 x 3 x 8
2 2
2 3 4


3 x 2 x 4
5459 x 806
21870
1
) 3 x 5 (
1
1485
1081
2 2
+
+

+
We then have the following decomposition of the integral
+

+
+
=
+ +
+ +
=
} } }
3 x 5
dx
1323135
574352
1 x 2
dx
1210
91
dx
) 3 x 2 x 4 ( ) 3 x 5 )( 1 x 2 (
6 x 15 x 5 x 3 x 8
I
2 2
2 3 4

dx
3 x 2 x 4
5459 x 806
21870
1
) 3 x 5 (
dx
1485
1081
2 2
} }
+
+

+
We now have to calculate the various integrals appearing in the right hand side of
the previous result. We have
| 1 x 2 | ln
2
1
1 x 2
dx 2
2
1
1 x 2
dx
I
1
+ =
+
=
+
=
} }

| 3 x 5 | ln
5
1
3 x 5
dx 5
5
1
3 x 5
dx
I
2
=

=
} }


3 x 5
1
5
1
) 3 x 5 (
dx 5
5
1
) 3 x 5 (
dx
I
2 2
3

=
} }

=
+
+
=
+
+
=
} }
dx
3 x 2 x 4
2
11321
) 2 x 8 (
4
403
dx
3 x 2 x 4
5459 x 806
I
2 2
4


} }
+
+
+

=
3 x 2 x 4
dx
2
11321
dx
3 x 2 x 4
2 x 8
4
403
2 2


5
2
I
2
11321
) 3 x 2 x 4 ln(
4
403
+ + =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
294
The integral
}
+
=
3 x 2 x 4
dx
I
2
5
, since

+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
16
11
4
1
x 4 3 x 2 x 4
2
2
, under
the substitution u
4
11
4
1
x = , takes on the form
u arctan
11
11
1 u
du
11
11
) 1 u (
16
11
4
du
4
11
3 x 2 x 4
dx
I
2
2
2
5
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
} } }

Since
11
1 x 4
u

= , we obtain
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}
11
1 x 4
arctan
11
11
3 x 2 x 4
dx
I
2
5
.
Therefore we derive the following value of the original integral:
+ + =
+ +
+ +
=
} 2 1
2 2
2 3 4
I
1323135
574352
I
1210
91
dx
) 3 x 2 x 4 ( ) 3 x 5 )( 1 x 2 (
6 x 15 x 5 x 3 x 8
I
4 3
I
21870
1
I
1485
1081
+

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
3 x 5
1
5
1
1485
1081
3 x 5 | ln
5
1
1323135
574352
| 1 x 2 | ln
2
1
1210
91

C
11
1 x 4
arctan
11
11
2
11321
) 3 x 2 x 4 ln(
4
403
21870
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
Example 16. Evaluate the integral
}
+
+ + +
= dx
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
8 x 7 x 13 x x 6 x 11 x 8
I
2 2 3
2 3 4 5 6

Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition
+

=
+
+ + +
2 2 2 3
2 3 4 5 6
) 1 x 2 (
B
1 x 2
A
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
8 x 7 x 13 x x 6 x 11 x 8


2 2 2 3
) 1 x 2 x 3 (
G x F
1 x 2 x 3
E x D
) 1 x 2 (
C
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
Multiplying through by
2 2 3
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 ( + we obtain the identity
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
295
+ + = + + +
2 2 2 2 3 4 5 6
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 ( A 8 x 7 x 13 x x 6 x 11 x 8
+ + + + +
2 2 2 2
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( C ) 1 x 2 x 3 )( 1 x 2 ( B
3 2 3
) 1 x 2 )( G x F ( ) 1 x 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 ( ) E x D ( + + + + +
which can be put into the form
+ + = + + +
6 2 3 4 5 6
x ) D 24 A 36 ( 8 x 7 x 13 x x 6 x 11 x 8
+ + + +
5
x ) E 24 D 52 B 18 A 84 (
+ + + + +
4
x ) F 8 E 52 D 50 C 9 B 33 A 97 (
+ + + + +
3
x ) G 8 F 12 E 50 D 27 C 12 B 32 A 68 (
+ + + + +
2
x ) G 12 F 6 E 27 D 8 C 10 B 18 A 30 (

G E C B A x ) G 6 F E 8 D C 4 B 6 A 8 ( + + + + + +

Equating the coefficients of similar powers of x, we obtain the system
8 D 24 A 36 = + , 11 E 24 D 52 B 18 A 84 = + +
6 F 8 E 52 D 50 C 9 B 33 A 97 = + + + ,
1 G 8 F 12 E 50 D 27 C 12 B 32 A 68 = + + + ,
13 G 12 F 6 E 27 D 8 C 10 B 18 A 30 = + + + ,

7 G 6 F E 8 D C 4 B 6 A 8 = + + +
,
8 G E C B A = +
The above system admits the unique solution

27
280
A = ,
6
77
B = ,
6
83
C= ,
27
429
D = ,
27
197
E = ,
9
55
F = , 1 G =
Therefore we get the partial fraction decomposition
+

=
+
+ + +
2 2 2 3
2 3 4 5 6
) 1 x 2 (
1
6
77
1 x 2
1
27
280
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
8 x 7 x 13 x x 6 x 11 x 8


2 2 2 3
) 1 x 2 x 3 (
9 x 55
9
1
1 x 2 x 3
197 x 429
27
1
) 1 x 2 (
1
6
83
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
We then have the following decomposition of the integral
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
296
+

=
+
+ + +
} } }
2 2 2 3
2 3 4 5 6
) 1 x 2 (
dx
6
77
1 x 2
dx
27
280
dx
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
8 x 7 x 13 x x 6 x 11 x 8


} } }
+
+
+
+
+
+

+ dx
) 1 x 2 x 3 (
9 x 55
9
1
dx
1 x 2 x 3
197 x 429
27
1
) 1 x 2 (
dx
6
83
2 2 2 3

5 4 3 2 1
I
9
1
I
27
1
I
6
83
I
6
77
I
27
280
+ + + =
where
| 1 x 2 | ln
2
1
1 x 2
dx 2
2
1
1 x 2
dx
I
1
=

=
} }


1 x 2
1
2
1
) 1 x 2 (
dx 2
2
1
) 1 x 2 (
dx
I
2 2
2

=
} }


2 3 3
3
) 1 x 2 (
1
4
1
) 1 x 2 (
dx 2
2
1
) 1 x 2 (
dx
I

=
} }

dx
1 x 2 x 3
197 x 429
I
2
4 }
+
+
=

}
+
+
= dx
) 1 x 2 x 3 (
9 x 55
I
2 2
5

Before evaluating the integral
4
I , we evaluate the integral
}
+
=
1 x 2 x 3
dx
J
2
1

Since

+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
9
2
3
1
x 3 1 x 2 x 3
2
2
, under the substitution u
3
2
3
1
x = , takes
on the form
|
.
|

\
|
= =
+
=
+
=
} }
2
1 x 3
arctan
2
2
u arctan
2
2
1 u
du
2
2
) 1 u (
9
2
3
du
3
2
J
2
2
1
.
We now can turn in
4
I . We have
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
} }
dx
1 x 2 x 3
340 ) 2 x 6 (
2
143
dx
1 x 2 x 3
197 x 429
I
2 2
4

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
297
=
+
+
+

=
} }
1 x 2 x 3
dx
340 dx
1 x 2 x 3
2 x 6
2
143
2 2


1
2
J 340 ) 1 x 2 x 3 ln(
2
143
+ + =
We evaluate next the integral

}
+
=
2 2
2
) 1 x 2 x 3 (
dx
J
using the reduction formula proved in 6.5:
1 n
1 n 2
n
J
D ) 1 n (
a ) 3 n 2 ( 2
) c x b x a (
b x a 2
D ) 1 n (
1
J

+ +
+

= , 2 n >
(we have changed notation from
n
I to
n
J ).
We find from the previous formula for 3 a = , 2 b = , 1 c = , 8 D = and 2 n = :

1
2
2
J
4
3
) 1 x 2 x 3 (
2 x 6
8
1
J +
+

=
For the integral
5
I we use the reduction formula proved in 6.6:

n
1 n 2
n
J
a 2
b A
B
) c x b x a (
1
) 1 n ( a 2
A
K
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +

=

, 2 n >
where
dx
) c x b x a (
B x A
K
n 2
n }
+ +
+
= and dx
) c x b x a (
1
J
n 2
n }
+ +
=
(notice that we have changed notation). For 55 A = , 9 B= , 3 a = , 2 b = , 1 c = ,
2 n = we find

2
2
2 5
J
3
82
1 x 2 x 3
1
6
55
K I +
+
= =
Collecting everything together, we obtain
=
+
+ + +
}
dx
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
8 x 7 x 13 x x 6 x 11 x 8
2 2 3
2 3 4 5 6

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
298
= + + + =
5 4 3 2 1
I
9
1
I
27
1
I
6
83
I
6
77
I
27
280

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|


|
.
|

\
|
=
2
) 1 x 2 (
1
4
1
6
83
1 x 2
1
2
1
6
77
| 1 x 2 | ln
2
1
27
280

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
2
2
1
2
J
3
82
1 x 2 x 3
1
6
55
9
1
J 340 ) 1 x 2 x 3 ln(
2
143
27
1

+

+ =
2
) 1 x 2 (
1
24
83
1 x 2
1
12
77
| 1 x 2 | ln
27
140

+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+
+ +
2
1 x 3
arctan
54
2 803
1 x 2 x 3
1
54
55
) 1 x 2 x 3 ln(
54
143
2
2

= +
+

+ C
1 x 2 x 3
1 x 3
54
41
2

+
+

+ =
) 1 x 2 x 3 ( 18
32 x 41
) 1 x 2 ( 24
237 x 308
| 1 x 2 | ln
27
140
2 2

C
2
1 x 3
arctan
54
2 803
) 1 x 2 x 3 ln(
54
143
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + +
Example 17. Evaluate the integral dx
) 1 x ( x
4 x 3
I
3 2 2
4
}
+
+
=
Solution. We have the partial fraction decomposition

3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2
4
) 1 x (
H x G
) 1 x (
F x E
1 x
D x C
x
B
x
A
) 1 x ( x
4 x 3
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ + =
+
+

which can be written as (multiplying through by the denominator of the fraction of
the l.h.s.)
+ + + + + + + = +
2 2 2 3 2 3 2 4
) 1 x ( x ) D Cx ( ) 1 x ( B ) 1 x ( x A 4 x 3

2 2 2
x ) H x G ( ) 1 x ( x ) F x E ( + + + + +
The previous identity is equivalent to
+ + + + + + + = +
5 6 7 4
x ) E C 2 A 3 ( x ) D B ( x ) C A ( 4 x 3
+ + + + + + + +
3 4
x ) G E C A 3 ( x ) F D 2 B 3 (
B x A x ) H F D B 3 (
2
+ + + + + +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
299
Equating the similar powers of x, we obtain the system
0 C A = + , 0 D B = + , 0 E C 2 A 3 = + + ,
3 F D 2 B 3 = + + , 0 G E C A 3 = + + +
0 H F D B 3 = + + + , 0 A = , 4 B=
The solution of the above system is
0 A = , 4 B= , 0 C = , 4 D = , 0 E = , 1 F = , 0 G = , 7 H =
Therefore we have the partial fraction decomposition

3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2
4
) 1 x (
7
) 1 x (
1
1 x
4
x
4
) 1 x ( x
4 x 3
+

+
=
+
+

For thus have for the integral

+
=
+
+
=
} } }
dx
1 x
1
4 dx
x
1
4 dx
) 1 x ( x
4 x 3
I
2 2 3 2 2
4

dx
) 1 x (
1
7 dx
) 1 x (
1
3 2 2 2
} }
+

+


3 2
I 7 I x arctan 4
x
4
=
where
n
I is the integral

}
+
=
n 2
n
) 1 x (
dx
I
This integral admits the reduction formula (6.7)

1 n
1 n 2
n
I
2 n 2
3 n 2
) 1 x (
x
2 n 2
1
I

+
+

= , ( 2 n > )
For 2 n = we get x arctan
2
1
1 x
x
2
1
I
2
1
1 x
x
2
1
I
2
1
2
2
+
+
= +
+
=
For 3 n = we get
2
2 2
3
I
4
3
) 1 x (
x
4
1
I +
+
=
or
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
300

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
= x arctan
2
1
1 x
x
2
1
4
3
) 1 x (
x
4
1
I
2 2 2
3

Therefore
= =
3 2
I 7 I x arctan 4
x
4
I

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
= x arctan
2
1
1 x
x
2
1
x arctan 4
x
4
2

C x arctan
2
1
1 x
x
2
1
4
3
) 1 x (
x
4
1
7
2 2 2
+
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+

or finally
C x arctan
8
57
) 1 x (
x
4
7
1 x
x
8
25
x
4
I
2 2 2
+
+

+
=
Maple support:
> f:=(3*x^4+4)/x^2/(x^2+1)^3;
:= f
+ 3 x
4
4
x
2
( ) + x
2
1
3

> int(f,x);

57
8
( ) arctan x
4
x
7 x
4 ( ) + x
2
1
2
25 x
8 ( ) + x
2
1

Mathematica support:

I n [ 1 ] : =
3 x
4
x
2
x
2
1 ^3
x
O u t [ 1 ] = 3
x
4 1 x
2
2
x
8 1 x
2
ArcTan x
8


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
301
6.9.4. Additional Examples of Integration of Rational
Functions

Example 1.
(i) Evaluate the integral dx
1 x
dx
4
}
+

(ii) Find a reduction formula for the integral
dx
) 1 x (
dx
I
n 4
n }
+
=
Solution.
(i) The denominator can be factorized into a product of two quadratic trinomials:
= + = + + = +
2 2 2 2 2 4 4
) x 2 ( ) 1 x ( x 2 ) 1 x 2 x ( 1 x
) x 2 1 x ( ) x 2 1 x (
2 2
+ + + =
or
) 1 x 2 x ( ) 1 x 2 x ( 1 x
2 2 4
+ + + = +
Both the trinomials have negative discriminant. Therefore we have the following
partial fraction decomposition

1 x 2 x
D x C
1 x 2 x
B x A
1 x
1
2 2 4
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
+

which can be expressed as
) 1 x 2 x ( ) D x C ( ) 1 x 2 x ( ) B x A ( 1
2 2
+ + + + + + =
Performing the operations and rearranging the second member, we find
+ + + + + + =
2 3
x ) D C 2 B A 2 ( x ) C A ( 1
D B x ) D 2 C B 2 A ( + + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of the variable x, we obtain the
system
0 C A = +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
302
0 D C 2 B A 2 = + + +
0 D 2 C B 2 A = + +
1 D B = +
Solving the above system we get
4
2
A = ,
2
1
B = ,
4
2
C = ,
2
1
D =
Therefore we have

1 x 2 x
2
1
x
4
2
1 x 2 x
2
1
x
4
2
1 x
1
2 2 4
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
+

or

1 x 2 x
2 x
4
2
1 x 2 x
2 x
4
2
1 x
1
2 2 4
+


+ +
+
=
+

We have already calculated the integrals
=
+ +
+
}
dx
1 x 2 x
2 x
2


|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + + =
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2
(6.4.3, Example 3(ii))
and
=
+

}
dx
1 x 2 x
2 x
2


|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + =
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2
(6.4.3, Example 4(ii))
(ii) We have
=
+

+
+
=
+
+
=
+
n 4
4
n 4
4
n 4
4 4
n 4
) 1 x (
x
) 1 x (
1 x
) 1 x (
x ) 1 x (
) 1 x (
1


n 4
4
1 n 4
) 1 x (
x
) 1 x (
1
+

+
=


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
303
Therefore
dx
) 1 x (
x
dx
) 1 x (
dx
dx
) 1 x (
1
I
n 4
4
1 n 4 n 4
n } } }
+

+
=
+
=


or

n 1 n n
J I I =

(1)
where
dx
) 1 x (
x
J
n 4
4
n }
+
=
The last integral can be written as
dx
) 1 x (
x
x J
n 4
3
n }
+
=
For the integral
n
J , using the formula (integration by parts)

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f ) x ( g'

n 4
3
) 1 x (
x
+


x
1 n 4
) 1 x (
1
) 1 n ( 4
1



1
we find
+
+

=
+
=

}
1 n 4 n 4
4
n
) 1 x (
x
) 1 n ( 4
1
dx
) 1 x (
x
J
dx
) 1 x (
1
) 1 n ( 4
1
1 n 4
}

+

+
or

1 n
1 n 4
n
I
) 1 n ( 4
1
) 1 x (
x
) 1 n ( 4
1
J


+
+

= (2)
Using (1) and (2) we find
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
304

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+

= =

1 n
1 n 4
1 n n 1 n n
I
) 1 n ( 4
1
) 1 x (
x
) 1 n ( 4
1
I J I I
or

1 n
1 n 4
n
I
) 1 n ( 4
1
1
) 1 x (
x
) 1 n ( 4
1
I

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+

=
which is equivalent to

1 n
1 n 4
n
I
) 1 n ( 4
5 n 4
) 1 x (
x
) 1 n ( 4
1
I

+
+

=
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x
x
4
2
}
+

Solution. Since ) 1 x 2 x ( ) 1 x 2 x ( 1 x
2 2 4
+ + + = + according to the previous
example, we have the following partial fraction decomposition

1 x 2 x
D x C
1 x 2 x
B x A
1 x
x
2 2 4
2
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
+

which can be expressed as
) 1 x 2 x ( ) D x C ( ) 1 x 2 x ( ) B x A ( x
2 2 2
+ + + + + + =
Performing the operations and rearranging the second member, we find
+ + + + + + =
2 3 2
x ) D C 2 B A 2 ( x ) C A ( x
D B x ) D 2 C B 2 A ( + + + + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of the variable x, we obtain the
system
0 C A = +
1 D C 2 B A 2 = + + +
0 D 2 C B 2 A = + +
0 D B = +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
305
Solving the above system we get
2 2
1
A = , 0 B= ,
2 2
1
C = , 0 D =
Therefore we have

1 x 2 x
x
2 2
1
1 x 2 x
x
2 2
1
1 x
x
2 2 4
2
+
+
+ +
=
+

We have already found (6.4.3, Example 3)

=
+ +
}
dx
1 x 2 x
x
2

C
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + =
and (6.4.3, Example 4)

=
+
}
dx
1 x 2 x
x
2

C
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + =
Therefore the value of the integral is given by
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + =
+
}
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2 2
1
dx
1 x
x
2
4
2

C
2
2 x 2
arctan | 1 x 2 x | ln
2
1
2 2
1
2
+

|
|
.
|

\
|

+ +
or

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
=
+
}
2
2 x 2
arctan
2 2
1
1 x 2 x
1 x 2 x
ln
2 4
1
dx
1 x
x
2
2
4
2

C
2
2 x 2
arctan
2 2
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|


Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x x
1
2 4
}
+ +

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
306
Solution. We factorize the denominator:
= + = + + = + +
2 2 2 2 2 4 2 4
x ) 1 x ( x ) 1 x 2 x ( 1 x x
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x x ( ) x 1 x ( ) x 1 x (
2 2 2 2
+ + + = + + + =
where both the trinomials have negative discriminant. Therefore we have the
partial fraction decomposition

1 x x
D Cx
1 x x
B Ax
1 x x
1
2 2 2 4
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
+ +

which can be written as
) 1 x x )( D Cx ( ) 1 x x )( B Ax ( 1
2 2
+ + + + + + =
Performing the operations and rearranging the second member, we find
D B x ) D C B A ( x ) D C B A ( x ) C A ( 1
2 3
+ + + + + + + + + =
Equating the equal powers of the variable x, we obtain the following system
0 C A = +
0 D C B A = + +
0 D C B A = + +
1 D B = +
The solution of the system is
2
1
A = ,
2
1
B = ,
2
1
C = ,
2
1
D = .
Therefore

1 x x
1 x
2
1
1 x x
1 x
2
1
1 x x
1
2 2 2 4
+
+
+
+ +

=
+ +

We now have (6.4.3, Example 1(ii))

=
+

}
dx
1 x x
1 x
2

C
3
1 x 2
arctan 3 | 1 x x | ln
2
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+ + =
and (6.4.3, Example 2(ii))
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
307

=
+
+
}
dx
1 x x
1 x
2

C
3
1 x 2
arctan 3 | 1 x x | ln
2
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + =
Therefore
=
+ +
}
dx
1 x x
1
2 4

+
)
`

|
.
|

\
| +
+ + =
3
1 x 2
arctan 3 | 1 x x | ln
2
1
2
1
2

C
3
1 x 2
arctan 3 | 1 x x | ln
2
1
2
1
2
+
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
or
=
+ +
}
dx
1 x x
1
2 4

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
2
3
3
1 x 2
arctan
2
3
1 x x
1 x x
ln
4
1
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+
+ +
+
=
6.10 Tenth Category. The Ostrogradsky Method
The Ostrogradsky Method (Ostrogradskys Algorithm) applies to the evaluation
of integrals of rational functions with complicated denominators.
The Ostrogradsky Algorithm consists of the following: We suppose we have to
integrate the rational function
) x ( Q
) x ( P
. We follow the following steps:
Step 1. We find the derivative ) x ( Q' of the denominator ) x ( Q .
Step 2. We calculate the GCD (greatest common divisor) of the polynomials
) x ( Q and ) x ( Q' . Let )} x ( Q ), x ( Q { GCD ) x ( Q
1
' =
Step 3. Let
) x ( Q
) x ( Q
) x ( Q
1
2
=
Step 4. Let ) x ( X and ) x ( Y be polynomials with undetermined
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
308
coefficients of degree less by one unit from the polynomials ) x ( Q
1

and ) x ( Q
2
respectively.
Step 5. We then have the following decomposition

} }
+ = dx
) x ( Q
) x ( Y
) x ( Q
) x ( X
dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P
2 1
(1)
Step 6. Differentiate the previous equation to determine the unknown
coefficients of the polynomials ) x ( X and ) x ( Y
Step 7. We go back to (1) and evaluate the integral
}
dx
) x ( Q
) x ( Y
2

Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}

=
2 3
) 1 x (
dx
I .
Solution. We shall evaluate the above integral using Ostrogradskys method.
We have in our case 1 ) x ( P = and
2 3
) 1 x ( ) x ( Q = . Since ) 1 x ( x 6 ) x ( Q
3 2
= ' ,
we have 1 x )} x ( Q ), x ( Q { GCD ) x ( Q
3
1
= ' = .
We also have 1 x
1 x
) 1 x (
) x ( Q
) x ( Q
) x ( Q
3
3
2 3
1
2
=

= =
Therefore ) x ( X and ) x ( Y are second degree polynomials. Let
c x b x a ) x ( X
2
+ + = and C x B x A ) x ( Y
2
+ + =
Equation
} }
+ = dx
) x ( Q
) x ( Y
) x ( Q
) x ( X
dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P
2 1

becomes
dx
1 x
C x B x A
1 x
c x b x a
) 1 x (
dx
3
2
3
2
2 3
} }

+ +
+

+ +
=

(1)
We differentiate the previous identity with respect to x. We find
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
309
+

' + + ' + +
=

2 3
3 2 3 2
2 3
) 1 x (
) 1 x ( ) c x b x a ( ) 1 x ( ) c x b x a (
) 1 x (
1


1 x
C x B x A
3
2

+ +
+
which is equivalent to
1 x
C x B x A
) 1 x (
x 3 ) c x b x a ( ) 1 x ( ) b x a 2 (
) 1 x (
1
3
2
2 3
2 2 3
2 3

+ +
+

+ + +
=


and multiplying through by
2 3
) 1 x ( , we derive the identity
) 1 x )( C x B x A ( x 3 ) c x b x a ( ) 1 x ( ) b x a 2 ( 1
3 2 2 2 3
+ + + + + + =
The previous identity can be put into the form
+ + =
2 3 4 3 4
x c 3 x b 3 x a 3 b x b ax 2 x a 2 1
C x C Bx x B Ax x A
3 4 2 5
+ + +
Collecting all the similar terms together, we get
C b x ) B a 2 ( x ) A c 3 ( x ) C b 2 ( x ) B a ( x A 1
2 3 4 5
+ + =

From the previous identity, equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x,
we obtain the system
, 0 C b 2 , 0 B a , 0 A = = =
1 C b , 0 B a 2 , 0 A c 3 = = + = +
Solving the system, we get
0 a = ,
3
1
b = , 0 c = , 0 A = , 0 B= ,
3
2
C =
Therefore (1) becomes
dx
1 x
1
3
2
1 x
x
3
1
) 1 x (
dx
3 3 2 3
} }

(2)
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
310
We have now to evaluate the integral dx
1 x
1
3
}

. However this integral has been
evaluated before (6.9.3, Example 10):
+ + =

}
| 1 x x | ln
6
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
dx
1 x
dx
2
3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3
+ |
.
|

\
| +
(3)
Using (2) and (3) we arrive at

+ +

}
| 1 x x | ln
6
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
3
2
1 x
x
3
1
) 1 x (
dx
2
3 2 3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3
+
)
`

|
.
|

\
| +

or, after simplifications,
+ + + +

}
| 1 x x | ln
9
1
| 1 x | ln
9
2
1 x
x
3
1
) 1 x (
dx
2
3 2 3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
9
3 2
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+
Note 1. Using partial fraction decomposition, we find

2 2 2 2 2 3
) 1 x x (
1 x
3
1
1 x x
3 x 2
9
1
1 x
1
9
2
) 1 x (
1
9
1
) 1 x (
1
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+


Integrating the above function, we find
+ + + +


+ +

}
| 1 x x | ln
9
1
| 1 x | ln
9
2
1 x
1
9
1
1 x x
1 x
9
1
) 1 x (
dx
2
2 2 3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
9
3 2
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+
Therefore, since
1 x
x
3
1
1 x
1
9
1
1 x x
1 x
9
1
3 2

=


+ +

, the two results are identical.


The advantage of using Ostrogradskys method consists, among other things, in
isolating the rational part of the integral.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
311
Note 2. We may arrive at (2) without using Ostrogradskys method. In fact we
have
=

+
=

} }
dx
) 1 x (
x ) x 1 (
) 1 x (
dx
2 3
3 3
2 3

=

=
} }
dx
) 1 x (
x
dx
1 x
1
2 3
3
3

J dx
1 x
1
3
+

=
}

where
dx
) 1 x (
x
J
2 3
3
}

=
Since
dx
) 1 x (
x 3
x
3
1
dx
) 1 x (
x
J
2 3
2
2 3
3
} }

=

=
using the formula (integration by parts)

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'
2 3
2
) 1 x (
x 3



x
1 x
1
3



1

we get
)
`

=
}
dx
1 x
1
1 x
x
3
1
J
3 3

Therefore

)
`

} } }
dx
1 x
1
1 x
x
3
1
dx
1 x
1
) 1 x (
dx
3 3 3 2 3

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
312
from which we get
dx
1 x
1
3
1
1 x
x
3
1
dx
1 x
1
) 1 x (
dx
3 3 3 2 3
} } }

+


which is equivalent to
dx
1 x
1
3
2
1 x
x
3
1
) 1 x (
dx
3 3 2 3
} }


Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
2 3
) 1 x (
dx
I .
Solution. Using Ostrogradkys Method we find, along the lines of the previous
example, that
dx
1 x
1
3
2
1 x
x
3
1
) 1 x (
dx
3 3 2 3
} }
+
+
+
=
+
(1)
The integral dx
1 x
1
3
}
+
has been evaluated before (6.9.3, Example 9).
The result is given by
+ + + =
+
}
| 1 x x | ln
6
1
| 1 x | ln
3
1
dx
1 x
dx
2
3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ (2)
Using (1) and (2) we find
+ + + +
+
=
+
}
| 1 x x | ln
9
1
| 1 x | ln
9
2
1 x
x
3
1
) 1 x (
dx
2
3 2 3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
9
3 2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
Important Remark:
If the denominator is factored in irreducible factors,
+ + + =
n 2 1
r
n n
r
2 2
r
1 1
) b x a ( ) b x a ( ) b x a ( ) x ( Q

m 2 1
s
m m
2
m
s
2 2
2
2
s
1 1
2
1
) C x B x A ( ) C x B x A ( ) C x B x A ( + + + + + +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
313
then we can prove that
+ + + =
1 r
n n
1 r
2 2
1 r
1 1 1
n 2 1
) b x a ( ) b x a ( ) b x a ( ) x ( Q

1 s
m m
2
m
1 s
2 2
2
2
1 s
1 1
2
1
m 2 1
) C x B x A ( ) C x B x A ( ) C x B x A (

+ + + + + +
and
+ + + = ) b x a ( ) b x a )( b x a ( ) x ( Q
n n 2 2 1 1 2

) C x B x A ( ) C x B x A )( C x B x A (
m m
2
m 2 2
2
2 1 1
2
1
+ + + + + +
Example 3. Evaluate the integral
}
+
+ +
=
2 2 3
2 3 4
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
x x 2 x 2 x
I .
Solution. Using Ostrogradkys Method we find, along the lines of the previous
remark, that
+
+
+ + +
=
+
+ +
}
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
D x C x B x A
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
x x 2 x 2 x
2 2
2 3
2 2 3
2 3 4

dx
) x 1 )( x 1 (
c x b x a
2
2
}
+
+ +
+ (1)
Differentiation of the previous identity we find

) x 1 )( x 1 (
c bx ax
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
D Cx Bx Ax
dx
d
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
x x 2 x 2 x
2
2
2 2
2 3
2 2 3
2 3 4
+
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
=
+
+ +
(2)
We have the following result
2 2 3 2 2
2 3
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
) x ( P
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
D Cx Bx Ax
dx
d
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +

Where
+ + + + + =
3 4 5
x ) C 3 A ( x ) B 2 A ( x A ) x ( P
D 2 C x ) D 2 C B 2 ( x ) D 4 C A 3 (
2
+ + + + + +
Therefore, taking into account the previous result and multiplying by

2 2 3
) x 1 ( ) x 1 ( +
we obtain from identity (2)
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
314
+ + + + + = + +
3 4 5 2 3 4
x ) C 3 A ( x ) B 2 A ( x A x x 2 x 2 x
+ + + + + + + D 2 C x ) D 2 C B 2 ( x ) D 4 C A 3 (
2

) x 1 ( ) x 1 ( ) c x b x a (
2 2 2
+ + + +
The previous identity can be written as
+ + + + + = + +
3 4 5 2 3 4
x ) C 3 A ( x ) B 2 A ( x A x x 2 x 2 x
+ + + + + + + D 2 C x ) D 2 C B 2 ( x ) D 4 C A 3 (
2

+ + + + + + + +
3 4 5 6
x ) c 2 b 2 a 2 ( x ) c b 2 a 2 ( x ) b a 2 ( x a
c x ) c 2 b ( x ) c 2 b 2 a (
2
+ + + +
Equating the coefficients of similar powers of the variable x, we obtain the system
of equations
a 0 = , b a 2 A 0 + = , c b 2 a 2 B 2 A 1 + + + =
c 2 b 2 a 2 C 3 A 2 + + = , c 2 b 2 a D 4 C A 3 2 + + + =
c 2 b D 2 C B 2 1 + + = , c D 2 C 0 + + =
Solving the system we find

2
1
A = ,
2
1
B = ,
2
3
C = , 1 D =
0 a = ,
2
1
b = ,
2
1
c =
Therefore
+
+
+
=
+
+ +
}
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
1 x
2
3
x
2
1
x
2
1
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
x x 2 x 2 x
2 2
2 3
2 2 3
2 3 4

dx
) x 1 )( x 1 (
2
1
x
2
1
2
}
+
+
+
or
+
+
+
=
+
+ +
}
) x 1 ( ) x 1 ( 2
2 x 3 x x
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
x x 2 x 2 x
2 2
2 3
2 2 3
2 3 4

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
315
dx
) x 1 )( x 1 (
1 x
2
1
2
}
+
+
+
or
+
+
+
=
+
+ +
}
) x 1 ( ) x 1 ( 2
2 x 3 x x
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
x x 2 x 2 x
2 2
2 3
2 2 3
2 3 4

dx
x 1
1
2
1
2
}
+
+
The final result thus reads
C x arctan
2
1
) x 1 ( ) x 1 ( 2
2 x 3 x x
) x 1 ( ) x 1 (
x x 2 x 2 x
2 2
2 3
2 2 3
2 3 4
+ +
+
+
=
+
+ +
}


6.11. The Hermite and Hermite-Horowitz Reduction Method.
6.11.1. The Hermite reduction.
The Hermite reduction makes use of a new concept, which is called Squarefree
Factorization. Roughly speaking, the squarefree factorization pulls out only
multiple factors. For example, the squarefree factorization of the polynomial
108 x 108 x 207 x 239 x 81 x 153 x 27 x 21 x 9 x
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
+ + + +
is given by

2 2 2 3
) 1 x )( 4 x ( ) 3 x ( +
On the contrary, the factorization into irreducible factors is given by

2 2 3
) 1 x ( ) 1 x )( 2 x )( 2 x ( ) 3 x ( + + +
There is also the squarefree partial fraction decomposition. For example, the
squarefree partial fraction decomposition of the fraction

1 x 2 x
2 x
2 4
2
+


is given by
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
316

2 2 2
) 1 x (
1
1 x
1


while the usual partial fraction decomposition is given by

) 1 x ( 4
3
) 1 x ( 4
1
) 1 x ( 4
3
) 1 x ( 4
1
2 2
+


Mathematica is a Computer Algebra System, which supports both squarefree
factorization and squarefree partial fraction decomposition.
The corresponding commands are the following:
FactorSquareFree[expr] or FactorSquareFree[expr,var]
and
ApartSquareFree[expr] or ApartSquareFree[expr,var]

Example 1. Evaluate the integral
dx
4 x 20 x 41 x 44 x 26 x 8 x
123 x 8 x 155 x 362 x 381 x 244 x 78 x 10
2 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 5 6 7
}
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +

Solution. We denote by ) x ( A and ) x ( B the numerator and denominator
respectively:
123 x 8 x 155 x 362 x 381 x 244 x 78 x 10 ) x ( A
2 3 4 5 6 7
+ + + + + + =
4 x 20 x 41 x 44 x 26 x 8 x ) x ( B
2 3 4 5 6
+ + + + + + =
Since )) x ( B deg( )) x ( A deg( > , performing Euclidean division, we find

4 x 20 x 41 x 44 x 26 x 8 x
131 x 8 x 37 x 40 x 7
2 x 10
) x ( B
) x ( A
2 3 4 5 6
2 3 4
+ + + + + +
+ + +
+ =
The squarefree factorization of the denominator is

4 2
) 1 x ( ) 2 x ( ) x ( B + + =
Therefore the integral under evaluation becomes
dx
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
131 x 8 x 37 x 40 x 7
dx ) 2 x 10 ( dx
) x ( B
) x ( A
4 2
2 3 4
} } }
+ +
+ + +
+ =
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
317
dx
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
131 x 8 x 37 x 40 x 7
x 2 x 5
4 2
2 3 4
2
}
+ +
+ + +
+ =
Partial fraction decomposition of the rational function of the last integral, gives us

2 2 3 4 4 2
2 3 4
) 2 x (
137
) 1 x (
130
) 1 x (
192
) 1 x (
129
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
131 x 8 x 37 x 40 x 7
+

+
+
+

+
=
+ +
+ + +

In this case the squarefree partial fraction decomposition is exactly the same as the
usual one. We thus find
+
+

+
+ =
} } }
dx
) 1 x (
192
dx
) 1 x (
129
x 2 x 5 dx
) x ( B
) x ( A
3 4
2

dx
) 2 x (
137
dx
) 1 x (
130
2 2
} }
+

+
+
Performing the integrations, we obtain
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
}
2 3
2
) 1 x (
1
2
1
192
) 1 x (
1
3
1
129 x 2 x 5 dx
) x ( B
) x ( A


|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
2 x
1
137
1 x
1
130
We thus get the result of the evaluation:
3
2 3
2
) 1 x )( 2 x (
17 x 6 x 13 x 7
x 2 x 5 dx
) x ( B
) x ( A
+ +
+
+ =
}

6.11.2. The Hermite-Horowitz reduction.
According to the Hermite-Horowitz reduction, we make use of the reduction
formula

} }
+ = dx
) x ( B
) x ( A
) x ( D
) x ( C
dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P

where ) x ( Q deg ) x ( P deg < and the denominator ) x ( Q is a square-free and monic
polynomial.
In the above formula, the polynomial ) x ( D is defined by
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
318
)} x ( Q ), x ( Q { GCD ) x ( D ' =
while the polynomial ) x ( B is defined by

) x ( D
) x ( Q
) x ( B =
If ) x ( D deg m= and ) x ( B deg n = , then the polynomials ) x ( C and ) x ( A have
degree by one unit less:
1 m ) x ( C deg = and 1 n ) x ( A deg =
The polynomials ) x ( C and ) x ( A , have undetermined coefficients. They can be
evaluated by differentiation of the reduction formula and equation of the
coefficients of similar powers of the variable x.
The above procedure is essentially similar to the Ostrogrsdsky algorithm explained
in the previous section.
Example. Evaluate the integral dx
x x 2 x
4 x 6 x 7 x 2 x 11
3 5 7
3 4 5
}
+ +
+ +

Solution. The denominator is monic and can be factorized thus

2 2 3 3 5 7
) 1 x ( x x x 2 x + = + +
Let
4 x 6 x 7 x 2 x 11 ) x ( P
3 4 5
+ + =
and

2 2 3 3 5 7
) 1 x ( x x x 2 x ) x ( Q + = + + =
We then have
) 1 x ( x )} x ( Q ), x ( Q { GCD ) x ( D
2 2
+ = ' =
and
) 1 x ( x
) x ( D
) x ( Q
) x ( B
2
+ = =
Therefore we obtain the following representation
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
319
dx
) 1 x ( x
c bx ax
) 1 x ( x
D Cx Bx Ax
dx
x x 2 x
4 x 6 x 7 x 2 x 11
2
2
2 2
2 3
3 5 7
3 4 5
} }
+
+ +
+
+
+ + +
=
+ +
+ +
(1)
where we have taken into account that
3 1 4 ) x ( C deg = = and 2 1 3 ) x ( A deg = =
Upon differentiation of (1) with respect to x, we obtain

) 1 x ( x
c bx ax
) 1 x ( x
D Cx Bx Ax
dx
d
x x 2 x
4 x 6 x 7 x 2 x 11
2
2
2 2
2 3
3 5 7
3 4 5
+
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + +
=
+ +
+ +

which is equivalent to
=
+
+ +
2 2 3
3 4 5
) 1 x ( x
4 x 6 x 7 x 2 x 11


) 1 x ( x
c bx ax
) 1 x ( x
D 2 Cx Dx 4 x ) C 3 A ( Bx 2 Ax
2
2
2 2 3
2 3 4 5
+
+ +
+
+
+
=
Multiplying both members of the previous identity by
2 2 3
) 1 x ( x + and
rearranging, we obtain
+ + + + = + +
4 5 6 3 4 5
x ) B 2 c a ( x ) A b ( ax 4 x 6 x 7 x 2 x 11
D 2 Cx x ) D 4 c ( x ) C 3 A b (
2 3
+ + +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we obtain the following
system of simultaneous equations

4 D 2
6 C
0 D 4 c
7 C 3 A b
2 B 2 c a
11 A b
0 a
=
=
=
= +
= +
=
=

The previous system admits the following unique solution
11 A = , 5 B= , 6 C = , 2 D= , 0 a = , 0 b = , 8 c =
Therefore we obtain the following

} }
+
+
+
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
) 1 x ( x
dx
8
) 1 x ( x
2 x 6 x 5 x 11
dx
x x 2 x
4 x 6 x 7 x 2 x 11
2 2 2
2 3
3 5 7
3 4 5

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
320
or even

} }
+
+
+
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
3 2 4
2 3
3 5 7
3 4 5
x x
dx
8
x x
2 x 6 x 5 x 11
dx
x x 2 x
4 x 6 x 7 x 2 x 11

The last integral can easily be evaluated using partial fractions and can be
expressed as a difference of two logarithms:
) 1 x ln(
2
1
| x | ln
x x
dx
2
3
+ =
+
}

However this integral is going to be evaluated by the Rothstein-Trager algorithm,
explained in the next section.
6.12 The Rothstein-Trager Method
The Rothstein-Trager method is used to calculate the logarithmic part of the
integral and makes use of the Resultant of two polynomials (which is the
determinant of the Sylvester Matrix) and is based on the following Theorem:
Theorem.
Suppose that ) x ( K
-
be a differential field over some constant field
-
K .
Let ) x ( A and ) x ( B be two polynomials ( ] x [ K B , A
-
e ) such that
1 ) B , A ( GCD = , ) x ( B is monic and square free and )) x ( B deg( )) x ( A deg( < .
We then have

}
=
=
n
1 k
k k
) N ln( C dx
) x ( B
) x ( A

where
-
k
C are the distinct roots of the polynomial
)} x ( B ), x ( B z ) x ( A { s Re ) z ( R
x
' =
and
-
k
N are the polynomials
)} x ( B ), x ( B C ) x ( A { GCD N
k k
' =
Let us try a simple Example first.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
321
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+
3
x x
dx

Solution. In our case we have 1 ) x ( A = and
3
x x ) x ( B + = . The conditions of the
above Theorem are clearly satisfied. We first calculate the resultant of the two
polynomials. We have
= ' = )} x ( B ), x ( B z ) x ( A { s Re ) z ( R
x

= + + = } x x ), x 3 1 ( z 1 { s Re
3 2
x

= + = } x x , x z 3 ) z 1 ( { s Re
3 2
x

1 z 3 z 4
0 0 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
z 1 0 z 3 0 0
0 z 1 0 z 3 0
0 0 z 1 0 z 3
3
+ + =


=
Since
2
2
1
z ) 1 z ( 4 ) z ( R
|
.
|

\
|
+ = , we have the two distinct roots:
1 C
1
= and
2
1
C
2
=
We now proceed to find
1
N and
2
N . We obtain
x } ) x 1 ( x , x 3 { GCD } x x ), x 3 1 ( 1 { GCD N
2 2 3 2
1
= + = + + =
and

2 2 2 3 2
2
x 1 } ) x 1 ( x ), x 1 (
2
3
{ GCD } x x ), x 3 1 (
2
1
1 { GCD N + = + + = + + + =
Using the formula of the Theorem, we obtain
) x 1 ln(
2
1
| x | ln ) N ln( C ) N ln( C
x x
dx
2
2 2 1 1
3
+ = + =
+
}


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
322
Note. There is a method, called the Lazard-Rioboo-Trager Method which
improves the Rothstein-Trager algorithm. However this method is sufficiently
technical to be explained here.


The Sylvester Matrix.
The Sylvester Matrix of two polynomials

=
=
m
0 k
k
k
x a ) x ( A and

=
=
n
0 k
k
k
x b ) x ( B
is a ) n m ( ) n m ( + + matrix M defined by
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0 1 n
0 1 1 n n
0 1 1 n n
0 m
0 1 1 m m
0 1 1 m m
b b b
b b b b
b b b b
a a
a a a a
a a a a
M








All the elements of the above matrix not appearing explicitly are zero.
The determinant of the Sylvester matrix is called the resultant of the two
polynomials ) x ( A and ) x ( B :
) M det( )) x ( B ), x ( A ( res =
Example 1. The Sylvester Matrix of the polynomials
1 x 6 x 5 x 2 ) x ( A
2 3
+ = and 4 x 2 x 3 ) x ( B
2
+ =
is the 5 5 matrix M given by
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
323

(
(
(
(
(
(



=
4 2 3 0 0
0 4 2 3 0
0 0 4 2 3
1 6 5 2 0
0 1 6 5 2
M
The resultant of the polynomials is
499 ) M det( )) x ( B ), x ( A ( res = =
Maple support:
> with(LinearAlgebra):
> A:=2*x^3-5*x^2+6*x-1;
:= A + 2 x
3
5 x
2
6 x 1

> B:=3*x^2-2*x+4;
:= B + 3 x
2
2 x 4

> M:=SylvesterMatrix(A,B,x);

:= M

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
((
2 -5 6 -1 0
0 2 -5 6 -1
3 -2 4 0 0
0 3 -2 4 0
0 0 3 -2 4

> Determinant(M);
499

> resultant(A,B,x);
499

Example 2. The Sylvester Matrix of the polynomials
1 x y 3 x y 5 x y 2 ) x ( A
3 2 3 2
+ = and y 3 x y 2 x y 5 ) x ( B
2 2 3
=
considered as polynomials of x, is the 5 5 matrix M given by

(
(
(
(
(
(






=
y 3 y 2 y 5 0 0
0 y 3 y 2 y 5 0
0 0 y 3 y 2 y 5
1 y 3 y 5 y 2 0
0 1 y 3 y 5 y 2
M
2 3
2 3
2 3
3 2
3 2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
324
The resultant of the polynomials is
= = ) M det( )) y , x ( B ), y , x ( A ( res
x


7 8 10 9 11 13
y 837 y 645 y 162 y 125 y 150 y 675 + + + =
Maple support:
> with(LinearAlgebra):
> A:=2*y^2*x^3-5*y*x^2-3*y^3*x+1;
:= A + 2 y
2
x
3
5 y x
2
3 y
3
x 1

> B:=5*y^3*x^2-2*y^2*x-3*y;
:= B 5 y
3
x
2
2 y
2
x 3 y

> M:=SylvesterMatrix(A,B,x);

:= M

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
2 y
2
5 y 3 y
3
1 0
0 2 y
2
5 y 3 y
3
1
5 y
3
2 y
2
3 y 0 0
0 5 y
3
2 y
2
3 y 0
0 0 5 y
3
2 y
2
3 y

> Determinant(M);
+ + 837 y
7
654 y
8
162 y
10
675 y
13
150 y
11
125 y
9

> resultant(A,B,x);
y
3
( ) + + + 675 y
10
150 y
8
162 y
7
125 y
6
654 y
5
837 y
4







Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
325

6.13

Exercises on Integrals of
Rational Functions


6.13 Exercises on Integrals of Rational Functions




The integral
}
+
dx
b x a
A
can be evaluated using the substitution
b x a u + = , dx a du = ( dx du
a
1
= ) .
Therefore
C | b x a | ln
a
A
C | u | ln
a
A
u
du
a
A
dx
b x a
A
+ + = + = =
+
} }

Exercise 1. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+
dx
7 x 3
3
2)
}
+
dx
1 x 2
1
3)
}

dx
3 x 4
2

(1) Hint. Let 7 x 3 u + = . Since dx 3 du = , the integral transforms into
C | u | ln
u
du
+ =
}
. Answer. C | 7 x 3 | ln + + .
Exercises 1 and 2 are integrals of the form
}
+
dx
b x a
A

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
326
(2) Hint. Let 1 x 2 u + = . Since dx 2 du = , i.e. dx du
2
1
= , the integral transforms
into C | u | ln
2
1
u
du
2
1
+ =
}
. Answer. C | 1 x 2 | ln
2
1
+ + .
(3) Hint. Let 3 x 4 u = . Since dx 4 du = , i.e. dx 2 du
2
1
= , the integral transforms
into C | u | ln
2
1
u
du
2
1
+ =
}
. Answer. C | 3 x 4 | ln
2
1
+ .
Exercise 2. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}

dx
2 x 3
5
2)
}
+
dx
5 x 2
2
3)
}

dx
8 x 3
6

(1) Hint. Let 2 x 3 u = . Since dx 3 du = , i.e. dx du
3
1
= , the integral transforms
into C | u | ln
3
5
u
du
3
5
+ =
}
. Answer. C | 2 x 3 | ln
3
5
+ .
(2) Hint. Let 8 x 3 u = . Since dx 3 du = , the integral transforms
into C | u | ln 2
u
du
2 + =
}
. Answer. C | 8 x 3 | ln 2 + .





The integral
}
+
+
dx
b x a
B x A
can be evaluated using the identity

b x a
1
a
A b
B
a
A
b x a
B x A
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
+

or

b x a
a
a
B a b A
a
A
b x a
B x A
2
+

=
+
+

Using this identity, we get
Exercises 3 and 4 are integrals of the form
}
+
+
dx
b x a
B Ax

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
327

} } |
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
+
dx
b x a
1
a
A b
B
a
A
dx
b x a
B x A

=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
} }
dx
b x a
1
a
A b
B dx
a
A

C | b x a | ln
a
A b
B
a
1
x
a
A
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
C | b x a | ln
a
B a b A
x
a
A
2
+ +

=
We remind the reader that the above identity can easily be proved performing the
division of the first degree polynomials, using the following setup:

B x A +
a
bA
x A
a
A
a
bA
B
b x a +

Using the Euclidean identity u + t o = A and dividing through by o , we derive
the identity
o
u
+ t =
o
A
(1). From the above scheme, it is evident that under the
substitution B x A + = A , b x a + = o ,
a
A
= t and
a
bA
B = u into (1), we get the
identity
b x a
1
a
A b
B
a
A
b x a
B x A
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
+
, which can also be written as

b x a
a
a
B a b A
a
A
b x a
B x A
2
+

=
+
+

The reader should perform the Euclidean division instead of taking this identity as
it is.


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
328
Exercise 3. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}

+
dx
7 x 6
3 x 5
2)
}
+

dx
11 x 2
5 x 6
3)
}
+

dx
5 x 3
3 x

(1) Hint. Using the identity
7 x 6
6
36
53
6
5
7 x 6
3 x 5

+ =

+
we obtain

} } }

+ =

+
dx
7 x 6
6
36
53
dx
6
5
dx
7 x 6
3 x 5

Answer. C | 7 x 6 | ln
36
53
x
6
5
+ +
(2) Hint. Using the identity
11 x 2
2
19 3
11 x 2
5 x 6
+
=
+

, we obtain

} } }
+
=
+

dx
11 x 2
2
19 dx 3 dx
11 x 2
5 x 6

Answer. C | 11 x 2 | ln 19 x 3 + +
(3) Hint. Using the identity
5 x 3
3
9
14
3
1
5 x 3
3 x
+
=
+

, we obtain

} } }
+
=
+

dx
5 x 3
3
9
14
dx
3
1
dx
5 x 3
3 x

Answer. C | 5 x 3 | ln
9
14
x
3
1
+ +
Exercise 4. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}

+
dx
11 x 5
13 x 2
2)
}
+

dx
7 x 4
2 x 3
3)
}

dx
5 x 9
5 x 7

(1) Hint. Using the identity
11 x 5
5
25
87
5
2
11 x 5
13 x 2

+ =

+
, we obtain

} } }

+ =

+
dx
11 x 5
5
25
87
dx
5
2
dx
11 x 5
13 x 2

Answer. C | 11 x 5 | ln
25
87
x
5
2
+ +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
329
(2) Hint. Using the identity
7 x 4
4
16
21
4
3
7 x 4
2 x 3
+
=
+

, we obtain

} } }
+
=
+

dx
7 x 4
4
16
21
dx
4
3
dx
7 x 4
2 x 3

Answer. C | 7 x 4 | ln
16
21
x
4
3
+ +
(3) Hint. Using the identity
5 x 9
9
81
10
9
7
5 x 9
5 x 7

, we obtain

} } }

=

dx
5 x 9
9
81
10
dx
9
7
dx
5 x 9
5 x 7

Answer. C | 5 x 9 | ln
81
10
x
9
7
+





For the integral
}
+
dx
) b x a (
A
n

we use the substitution b x a u + = . We then have dx a du = and therefore
du
a
1
dx = . The integral then becomes
= = =
+
} } }
du
u
1
a
A
du
a
1
u
A
dx
) b x a (
A
n n n

C
1 n
u
a
A
du u
a
A
1 n
n
+
+
= =
+

}

C
) b x a (
1
) 1 n ( a
A
C
u
1
) 1 n ( a
A
1 n 1 n
+
+

= +

=


Exercises 5 and 6 are integrals of the form
}
+
dx
) b x a (
A
n
or
}
+
+
dx
) b x a (
B x A
n
, 2 n >
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
330
For the integral
}
+
+
dx
) b x a (
B x A
n
, since
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
a
b A
B ) b x a (
a
A
B x A ,
we have
=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
+
+
} }
dx
) b x a (
a
Ab
B ) b x a (
a
A
dx
) b x a (
B x A
n n

=
+

+
+
+
=
} }
dx
) b x a (
a
Ab
B
dx
) b x a (
) b x a (
a
A
n n

=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
} }
dx
) b x a (
1
a
Ab
B dx
) b x a (
) b x a (
a
A
n n


} }
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=

dx
) b x a (
1
a
b A
B dx
) b x a (
1
a
A
n 1 n

Therefore we have derived the following formula

} } }
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
+
+

dx
) b x a (
1
a
Ab
B dx
) b x a (
1
a
A
dx
) b x a (
B x A
n 1 n n

The last two integrals are calculated using the substitution b x a u + = .
Exercise 5. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}

dx
) 3 x 2 (
2
3
2)
}
+
dx
) 3 x 2 (
x
2
3)
}
+
+
dx
) 5 x 3 (
1 x 5
4

(1) Hint. Using the substitution 3 x 2 u = , since dx 2 du = , the integral
transforms into C
u
1
2
1
u
du
2 3
+ =
}

Answer. C
) 3 x 2 (
1
2
1
2
+


(2) Hint. Using the identity
2
3
) 3 x 2 (
2
1
x + = , the integral takes the form
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
331
} } } }
+

+
=
+
+
=
+
2 2 2
) 3 x 2 (
dx
2
3
3 x 2
dx
2
1
dx
) 3 x 2 (
2
3
) 3 x 2 (
2
1
dx
) 3 x 2 (
x

The last two integrals are evaluated using the substitution 3 x 2 u + = .
Answer. C | 3 x 2 | ln
4
1
3 x 2
1
4
3
+ + +
+

(3) Hint. Using the identity
3
22
) 5 x 3 (
3
5
1 x 5 + = + , the integral takes the form

} } } }
+

+
=
+
+
=
+
+
4 3 4 4
) 5 x 3 (
dx
3
22
) 5 x 3 (
dx
3
5
dx
) 5 x 3 (
3
22
) 5 x 3 (
3
5
dx
) 5 x 3 (
1 x 5

Both the last two integrals are evaluated using the substitution 5 x 3 u + = .
Answer. C
) 5 x 3 (
1
27
22
) 5 x 3 (
1
18
5
3 2
+
+
+
+

Exercise 6. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}

dx
) 2 x 3 (
7 x 3
3
2)
}
+
+
dx
) 4 x 3 (
8 x 4
4
3)
}

dx
) 11 x 2 (
9 x 7
5

(1) Hint. We have the identity 5 ) 2 x 3 ( 7 x 3 = . The integral takes the form

} } } }

3 2 3 3
) 2 x 3 (
dx
5 dx
) 2 x 3 (
dx
dx
) 2 x 3 (
5 ) 2 x 3 (
dx
) 2 x 3 (
7 x 3

Both the two last integrals are evaluated using the substitution 2 x 3 u = .
Answer. C
) 2 x 3 (
1
6
5
2 x 3
1
3
1
2
+


(2) Hint. We have the identity
3
8
) 4 x 3 (
3
4
8 x 4 + + = + . The integral takes the form

} } } }
+
+
+
=
+
+ +
=
+
+
3 3 4 4
) 4 x 3 (
dx
3
8
) 4 x 3 (
dx
3
4
dx
) 4 x 3 (
3
8
) 4 x 3 (
3
4
dx
) 4 x 3 (
8 x 4

Both the two last integrals are evaluated using the substitution 4 x 3 u + = .
Answer. C
) 4 x 3 (
1
27
8
) 4 x 3 (
1
9
2
3 2
+
+

+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
332
(3) Hint. We have the identity
2
95
) 11 x 2 (
2
7
9 x 7 = . The integral takes the
form
=

} }
dx
) 11 x 2 (
2
95
) 11 x 2 (
2
7
dx
) 11 x 2 (
9 x 7
5 5


} }

=
5 4
) 11 x 2 (
dx
2
95
) 11 x 2 (
dx
2
7

Both the two last integrals are evaluated using the substitution 11 x 2 u = .
Answer. C
) 11 x 2 (
1
16
59
) 11 x 2 (
1
12
7
4 3
+









In evaluating the integral
}
+ + c x b x a
dx
2

we first calculate the discriminant c a 4 b D
2
of the trinomial c x b x a
2
+ + .
If 0 D > , then we follow the next steps
Step 1. Calculate the two real roots of the trinomial:

a 2
D b

2 , 1

=
Step 2. Factorize the trinomial
) x ( ) x ( a c x b x a
2 1
2
= + +


Step 3. Perform the partial fraction decomposition

2 1 2 1
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x (
1

=

Exercises 7-20 contain integrals of the form
}
+ + c x b x a
dx
2
.
In Exercises 7-14 the trinomial admits two distinct real roots ( 0 D > ).
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
333
and determine the constants A and B:

2 1

1
A

= and
2 1

1
B

=
Step 4. Write the integral as

)
`


=
+ +
} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx
) ( a
1
c x b x a
dx

Step 5. Perform the integration
=
+ +
}
c x b x a
dx
2

C ] | x | ln | x | ln [
) ( a
1
2 1
2 1
+

=
C
x
x
ln
) ( a
1
2
1
2 1
+

=
Exercise 7. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
15 x 2 x
dx
2
2)
}
35 x 2 x
dx
2
3)
}
3 x 5 x 2
dx
2

(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 15 c , 2 b , 1 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 64 ) 15 ( 1 4 ) 2 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are 5
1
= and 3
2
= .
Since ) 3 x )( 5 x ( 15 x 2 x
2
+ = , using partial fractions,
3 x
B
5 x
A
) 3 x )( 5 x (
1
15 x 2 x
1
2
+
+

=
+
=


we find
8
1
A = and
8
1
B = . Therefore
} } }
+

=

3 x
dx
8
1
5 x
dx
8
1
15 x 2 x
dx
2

Answer. C
3 x
5 x
ln
8
1
+
+


(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 35 c , 2 b , 1 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 144 ) 35 ( 1 4 ) 2 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are 7
1
= and 5
2
= .
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
334
Since ) 5 x )( 7 x ( 35 x 2 x
2
+ = , using partial fractions,
5 x
B
7 x
A
) 5 x )( 7 x (
1
15 x 2 x
1
2
+
+

=
+
=


we find
12
1
A = and
12
1
B = .
Therefore
} } }
+

=

3 x
dx
12
1
5 x
dx
12
1
35 x 2 x
dx
2
Answer. C
5 x
7 x
ln
12
1
+
+


(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 3 c , 5 b , 2 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 49 ) 3 ( 2 4 ) 5 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are 3
1
= and
2
1
2
= .
Since ) 1 x 2 )( 3 x ( 3 x 5 x 2
2
+ = , using partial fractions,
1 x 2
B
3 x
A
) 1 x 2 )( 3 x (
1
3 x 5 x 2
1
2
+
+

=
+
=


we find
7
1
A = and
7
2
B = .
Therefore dx
1 x 2
2
7
1
3 x
dx
7
1
3 x 5 x 2
dx
2
} } }
+

=


Answer. C
1 x 2
3 x
ln
7
1
+
+


Exercise 8. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 6 x x 2
dx
2
2)
}
+ 3 x 7 x 6
dx
2
3)
}
1 x 2 x
dx
2

(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 6 c , 1 b , 2 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 49 ) 6 ( 2 4 ) 1 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
2
3
1
= and 2
2
= .
Since ) 2 x )( 3 x 2 ( ) 2 x (
2
3
x 2 6 x x 2
2
+ = +
|
.
|

\
|
= + , using partial fractions,
2 x
B
3 x 2
A
) 2 x )( 3 x 2 (
1
6 x x 2
1
2
+
+

=
+
=
+
, we find
7
2
A = and
7
1
B = .
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
335
Therefore dx
2 x
1
7
1
3 x 2
dx 2
7
1
6 x x 2
dx
2
} } }
+

=
+

Answer. C
2 x
3 x 2
ln
7
1
+
+


(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 3 c , 7 b , 6 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 121 ) 3 ( 6 4 ) 7 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
3
1
1
= and
2
3
2
= .
Since ) 3 x 2 )( 1 x 3 (
2
3
x
3
1
x 6 3 x 7 x 6
2
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= + , using partial fractions,
3 x 2
B
1 x 3
A
) 3 x 2 )( 1 x 3 (
1
3 x 7 x 6
1
2
+
+

=
+
=
+
, we find
4
1
A = and
6
1
B = .
Therefore dx
3 x 2
2
12
1
dx
1 x 3
3
12
1
3 x 7 x 6
dx
2
} } }
+

=
+

Answer. C
3 x 2
1 x 3
ln
12
1
+
+


(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 2 b , 1 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 8 ) 1 ( 1 4 ) 2 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are 2 1
1
+ = and
2 1
2
= . Since ) x )( x ( 1 x 2 x
2 1
2
= , using partial fractions,
2 1 2 1
2
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x (
1
1 x 2 x
1

+

=

=

, we find
2 1
1
A

= and
2 1
1
B

= . Therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|


=

} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx 1
1 x 2 x
dx

Answer. C
x
x
ln
1
2
1
2 1
+



or C
2 1 x
2 1 x
ln
2 2
1
+
+

.
Exercise 9. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 3 x 11 x 6
dx
2
2)
}
+ 1 x 4 x
dx
2
3)
}
1 x 2 x 2
dx
2


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
336
(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 3 c , 11 b , 6 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 49 3 6 4 ) 11 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
2
3
1
= and
3
1
2
= .
Since ) 1 x 3 )( 3 x 2 (
3
1
x
2
3
x 6 3 x 11 x 6
2
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
= + , using partial fractions,
1 x 3
B
3 x 2
A
) 1 x 3 )( 3 x 2 (
1
3 x 11 x 6
1
2

+

=

=
+
, we find
7
2
A = and
7
3
B = .
Therefore dx
1 x 3
3
7
1
dx
3 x 2
2
7
1
3 x 11 x 6
dx
2
} } }

=
+

Answer. C
1 x 3
3 x 2
ln
7
1
+


(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 4 b , 1 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 12 1 1 4 ) 4 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are 3 2
1
+ = and 3 2
2
= .
Since ) x )( x ( 1 x 4 x
2 1
2
= + , using partial fractions,
2 1 2 1
2
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x (
1
1 x 4 x
1

+

=

=
+
, we find
2 1
1
A

= and
2 1
1
B

= . Therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
+
} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx 1
1 x 4 x
dx

Answer. C
x
x
ln
1
2
1
2 1
+



or C
3 2 x
3 2 x
ln
3 2
1
+
+

.
(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 2 b , 2 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 12 ) 1 ( 2 4 ) 2 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
2
3
2
1
1
+ = and
2
3
2
1
2
= . Since ) x )( x ( 2 1 x 2 x 2
2 1
2
= , using partial fractions,
2 1 2 1
2
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x ( 2
1
1 x 2 x 2
1

+

=

=

, we find
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
337
) ( 2
1
A
2 1

= and
) ( 2
1
B
2 1

= .
Therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|


=

} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx
) ( 2
1
1 x 2 x 2
dx

Answer. C
x
x
ln
) ( 2
1
2
1
2 1
+



or C
3 1 x 2
3 1 x 2
ln
3
1
+
+

.
Exercise 10. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
1 x 6 x 9
dx
2
2)
}
+ + 2 x 7 x 6
dx
2
3)
}
+ + 2 x 7 x 3
dx
2

(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 6 b , 9 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 72 ) 1 ( 9 4 ) 6 ( D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
3
2
3
1
1
+ = and
3
2
3
1
2
= . Since ) x )( x ( 9 1 x 6 x 9
2 1
2
= , using partial fractions,
2 1 2 1
2
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x ( 9
1
1 x 6 x 9
1

+

=

=

, we find
) ( 9
1
A
2 1

= and
) ( 9
1
B
2 1

= .
Therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|


=

} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx
) ( 9
1
1 x 6 x 9
dx

Answer. C
x
x
ln
) ( 9
1
2
1
2 1
+



or C
2 1 x 3
2 1 x 3
ln
2 6
1
+
+

.
(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 2 c , 7 b , 6 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 1 2 6 4 7 D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
2
1
1
= and
3
2
2
= . Since
) 2 x 3 )( 1 x 2 ( ) x )( x ( 6 2 x 7 x 6
2 1
2
+ + = = + + , using partial fractions,
2 x 3
B
1 x 2
A
) 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
1
2 x 7 x 6
1
2
+
+
+
=
+ +
=
+ +
, we find 2 A= and 3 B = .
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
338
Therefore
} } }
+

+
=
+ +
dx
2 x 3
3
dx
1 x 2
2
2 x 7 x 6
dx
2

Answer. C
2 x 3
1 x 2
ln +
+
+

(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 2 c , 7 b , 3 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 25 2 3 4 7 D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
2
1
1
= and
3
2
2
= . Since
) 2 x 3 )( 1 x 2 ( ) x )( x ( 6 2 x 7 x 6
2 1
2
+ + = = + + , using partial fractions,
2 x 3
B
1 x 2
A
) 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
1
2 x 7 x 6
1
2
+
+
+
=
+ +
=
+ +
, we find 2 A= and 3 B = .
Therefore
} } }
+

+
=
+ +
dx
2 x 3
3
dx
1 x 2
2
2 x 7 x 6
dx
2

Answer. C
2 x 3
1 x 2
ln +
+
+

Exercise 11. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 1 x 12 x 9
dx
2
2)
}
+ + 1 x 20 x 25
dx
2
3)
}
+ 1 x x 12
dx
2

(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 12 b , 9 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 180 ) 1 ( 9 4 12 D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
3
5
3
2
1
+ = and
3
5
3
2
2
= . Since ) x )( x ( 9 1 x 12 x 9
2 1
2
= + , using partial fractions,
2 1 2 1
2
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x ( 9
1
1 x 12 x 9
1

+

=

=
+
, we find
) ( 9
1
A
2 1

= and
) ( 9
1
B
2 1

= .
Therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
+
} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx
) ( 9
1
1 x 12 x 9
dx

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
339
Answer. C
x
x
ln
) ( 9
1
2
1
2 1
+



or C
5 2 x 3
5 2 x 3
ln
5 6
1
+
+

.
(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 20 b , 25 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 300 1 25 4 20 D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
5
3
5
2
1
+ = and
5
3
5
2
2
+ = . Since ) x )( x ( 25 1 x 20 x 25
2 1
2
= + + , using partial fractions,
2 1 2 1
2
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x ( 25
1
1 x 20 x 25
1

+

=

=
+ +
, we find
) ( 25
1
A
2 1

= and
) ( 25
1
B
2 1

= .
Therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
+ +
} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx
) ( 25
1
1 x 20 x 25
dx

Answer. C
x
x
ln
) ( 25
1
2
1
2 1
+



or C
3 2 x 5
3 2 x 5
ln
3 10
1
+
+ +
+
.
(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 1 b , 12 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 49 ) 1 ( 12 4 1 D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
4
1
1
= and
3
1
2
= .
Since ) 1 x 3 )( 1 x 4 ( ) x )( x ( 12 1 x x 12
2 1
2
+ = = + , using partial fractions,
1 x 3
B
1 x 4
A
) 1 x 3 ( ) 1 x 4 (
1
1 x x 12
1
2
+
+

=
+
=
+
, we find
7
4
A = and
7
3
B = .
Therefore
} } }
+

=
+
dx
1 x 3
3
7
1
dx
1 x 4
4
7
1
1 x x 12
dx
2

Answer. C
1 x 3
1 x 4
ln
7
1
+
+


Exercise 12. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 4 x 5 x 6
dx
2
2)
}
+ 6 x 7 x 5
dx
2
3)
}
+ 1 x 2 x 4
dx
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
340
(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 4 c , 5 b , 6 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 121 ) 4 ( 6 4 5 D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
2
1
1
= and
3
4
2
= . Since
) 4 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 ( ) x )( x ( 6 4 x 5 x 6
2 1
2
+ = = + , using partial fractions,
4 x 3
B
1 x 2
A
) 4 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 (
1
4 x 5 x 6
1
2
+
+

=
+
=
+
, we find
11
2
A = and
11
3
B = .
Therefore
} } }
+

=
+
dx
4 x 3
3
11
1
dx
1 x 2
2
11
1
4 x 5 x 6
dx
2

Answer. C
4 x 3
1 x 2
ln
11
1
+
+


(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 6 c , 7 b , 5 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 169 ) 6 ( 5 4 7 D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
5
3
1
= and 2
2
= . Since
) 2 x ( ) 3 x 5 ( ) x )( x ( 5 6 x 7 x 5
2 1
2
+ = = + , using partial fractions,
2 x
B
3 x 5
A
) 2 x ( ) 3 x 5 (
1
6 x 7 x 5
1
2
+
+

=
+
=
+
, we find
13
5
A = and
13
1
B = .
Therefore
} } }
+

=
+
dx
2 x
1
11
1
dx
3 x 5
5
13
1
6 x 7 x 5
dx
2

Answer. C
2 x
3 x 5
ln
13
1
+
+


(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 2 b , 4 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 20 ) 1 ( 4 4 2 D
2
> = = . The two real roots are
4
5
4
1
1
+ = and
5
3
5
2
2
+ = . Since ) x )( x ( 4 1 x 2 x 4
2 1
2
= + , using partial fractions,
2 1 2 1
2
x
B
x
A
) x ( ) x ( 4
1
1 x 2 x 4
1

+

=

=
+
, we find
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
341
) ( 4
1
A
2 1

= and
) ( 4
1
B
2 1

= .
Therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
+
} } }
2 1 2 1
2
x
dx
x
dx
) ( 4
1
1 x 2 x 4
dx

Answer. C
x
x
ln
) ( 4
1
2
1
2 1
+



or C
5 1 x 4
5 1 x 4
ln
5 2
1
+
+
+

Exercise 13. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ x 4 x
dx
2
2)
}
25 x 16
dx
2
3)
}
3 x 4
dx
2

(1) Hint. Since ) 4 x ( x x 4 x
2
+ = + , using partial fractions,

4 x
B
x
A
) 4 x ( x
1
x 4 x
1
2
+
+ =
+
=
+

we find
4
1
A = and
4
1
B = . We thus have
4 x
1
4
1
x
1
4
1
x 4 x
1
2
+
=
+
.
Therefore
)
`

+
=
+
} } }
4 x
dx
x
dx
4
1
x 4 x
dx
2
. Answer. C
4 x
x
ln
4
1
+
+

(2) Hint. Since ) 5 x 4 ( ) 5 x 4 ( 25 x 16
2
+ = , using partial fractions,
5 x 4
B
5 x 4
A
) 5 x 4 ( ) 5 x 4 (
1
25 x 16
1
2
+
+

=
+
=

we find
10
1
A = and
10
1
B = .
We thus have
)
`

5 x 4
1
5 x 4
1
10
1
25 x 16
1
2
. Therefore
)
`

} } }
5 x 4
dx
5 x 4
dx
10
1
25 x 16
dx
2
. Answer. C
5 x 4
5 x 4
ln
10
1
+
+


(3) Hint. Since ) 3 x 2 ( ) 3 x 2 ( 3 x 4
2
+ = , using partial fractions

3 x 2
B
3 x 2
A
) 3 x 2 ( ) 3 x 2 (
1
3 x 4
1
2
+
+

=
+
=

,
we find
6
3
A = and
6
3
B = .
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
342
We thus have
3 x 2
1
6
3
3 x 2
1
6
3
3 x 4
1
2
+

.
Therefore
)
`

} } }
dx
3 x 2
2
dx
3 x 2
2
12
3
3 x 4
dx
2
.
Answer. C
3 x 2
3 x 2
ln
12
3
+
+


Exercise 14. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
x 2 x
dx
2
2)
}
16 x 9
dx
2
3)
}
9 x 2
dx
2

(1) Hint. Since ) 2 x ( x x 2 x
2
= , using partial fractions,
x
B
2 x
A
) 2 x ( x
1
x 2 x
1
2
+

, we find
2
1
A = and
2
1
B = .
We thus have
x
1
2
1
2 x
1
2
1
x 2 x
1
2

. Therefore
)
`

} } }
x
dx
2 x
dx
2
1
x 2 x
dx
2
. Answer. C
x
2 x
ln
2
1
+


(2) Hint. Since ) 4 x 3 ( ) 4 x 3 ( 16 x 9
2
+ = , using partial fractions,
4 x 3
B
4 x 3
A
) 4 x 3 ( ) 4 x 3 (
1
16 x 9
1
2
+
+

=
+
=

we find
8
1
A = and
8
1
B = .
We thus have
)
`

4 x 3
1
4 x 3
1
8
1
16 x 9
1
2
. Therefore
)
`

} } }
4 x 3
dx
4 x 3
dx
8
1
16 x 9
dx
2
. Answer. C
4 x 3
4 x 3
ln
24
1
+
+


(3) Hint. Since ) 2 3 x 2 ( ) 2 3 x 2 (
2
1
) 18 x 4 (
2
1
9 x 2
2 2
+ = = , using partial
fractions
2 3 x 2
B
2 3 x 2
A
) 2 3 x 2 ( ) 2 3 x 2 (
2
9 x 2
1
2
+
+

=
+
=

,
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
343
we find
6
2
A = and
6
2
B = . We thus have
2 3 x 2
1
6
2
2 3 x 2
1
6
2
9 x 2
1
2
+

. Therefore
)
`

} } }
dx
2 3 x 2
2
dx
2 3 x 2
2
12
2
9 x 2
dx
2
.
Answer. C
2 3 x 2
2 3 x 2
ln
12
2
+
+






In evaluating the integral
}
+ + c x b x a
dx
2

we first calculate the discriminant c a 4 b D
2
of the trinomial c x b x a
2
+ + .
If 0 D = , we follow the next steps
Step 1. Calculate the double root of the trinomial:

a 2
b
=
Step 2. Write the trinomial as a perfect square:

2 2
) x ( a c x b x a = + +
Step 3. Express the integral as
} }

=
+ +
2 2
) x (
dx
a
1
c x b x a
dx

Step 4. Use the substitution x u = and transform the integral to

}
2
u
du
a
1

Step 5. Perform the integration
In Exercises 15-16 the trinomial admits a double root ( 0 D = )
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
344
C
u
1
a
1
u
du
a
1
2
+ =
}

Step 6. Go back to the original variable x:
C
x
1
a
1
c x b x a
dx
2
+

=
+ +
}

Exercise 15. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 1 x 2 x
dx
2
2)
}
+ 1 x 6 x 9
dx
2
3)
}
+ + 1 x 4 x 4
dx
2

(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 2 b , 1 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 1 1 4 ) 2 ( D
2
= = . The double root is then 1 = . We thus have
2 2
) 1 x ( 1 x 2 x = + . Therefore
} }

=
+
2 2
) 1 x (
dx
1 x 2 x
dx
. Under the
substitution 1 x u = , the integral becomes C
u
1
u
du
2
+ =
}
.
Answer. C
1 x
1
+


(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 6 b , 9 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 1 9 4 ) 6 ( D
2
= = . The double root is then
3
1
= . We thus have
2
2
2
) 1 x 3 (
3
1
x 9 1 x 6 x 9 =
|
.
|

\
|
= + . Therefore
} }

=
+
2 2
) 1 x 3 (
dx
1 x 6 x 9
dx
.
Under the substitution 1 x 3 u = , the integral becomes C
u 3
1
u
du
3
1
2
+ =
}
.
Answer. C
) 1 x 3 ( 3
1
+


(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 4 b , 4 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 1 4 4 4 D
2
= = . The double root is then
2
1
= . We thus have
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
345
2
2
2
) 1 x 2 (
2
1
x 4 1 x 4 x 4 + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + + . Therefore
} }
+
=
+ +
2 2
) 1 x 2 (
dx
1 x 4 x 4
dx
.
Under the substitution 1 x 2 u + = , the integral becomes C
u 2
1
u
du
2
1
2
+ =
}
.
Answer. C
) 1 x 2 ( 2
1
+
+

Exercise 16. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 4 x 12 x 9
dx
2
2)
}
+ + 25 x 20 x 4
dx
2
3)
}
+ 9 x 30 x 25
dx
2

(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 4 c , 12 b , 9 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 4 9 4 ) 12 ( D
2
= = . The double root is then
3
2
= . We thus have
2
2
2
) 2 x 3 (
3
2
x 9 4 x 12 x 9 =
|
.
|

\
|
= + . Therefore
} }

=
+
2 2
) 2 x 3 (
dx
4 x 12 x 9
dx
.
Under the substitution 2 x 3 u = , the integral becomes C
u 3
1
u
du
3
1
2
+ =
}
.
Answer. C
) 2 x 3 ( 3
1
+


(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 25 c , 20 b , 4 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 25 4 4 20 D
2
= = . The double root is then
2
5
= . We thus have
2
2
2
) 5 x 2 (
2
5
x 4 25 x 20 x 4 + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + + . Therefore
} }
+
=
+ +
2 2
) 5 x 2 (
dx
25 x 20 x 4
dx
. Under the substitution 5 x 2 u + = , the integral
becomes C
u 2
1
u
du
2
1
2
+ =
}
. Answer. C
) 5 x 2 ( 2
1
+
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
346
(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 9 c , 30 b , 25 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 9 25 4 ) 30 ( D
2
= = . The double root is then
5
3
= . We thus have
2
2
2
) 3 x 5 (
5
3
x 25 9 x 30 x 25 =
|
.
|

\
|
= + . Therefore
} }

=
+
2 2
) 3 x 5 (
dx
9 x 30 x 25
dx
. Under the substitution 3 x 5 u = , the integral
becomes C
u 5
1
u
du
5
1
2
+ =
}
. Answer. C
) 3 x 5 ( 5
1
+







In evaluating the integral
}
+ + c x b x a
dx
2

we first calculate the discriminant c a 4 b D
2
of the trinomial c x b x a
2
+ + .
If 0 D < , we follow the next steps
Step 1. Transform the trinomial into a sum of squares:

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2
2
2
a 2
D
a 2
b
x a c x b x a

Step 2. Use the substitution

u
a 2
D
a 2
b
x

= +
,
du
a 2
D
dx

=

Step 3. Transform the trinomial into
In Exercises 17-20 the trinomial admits two complex conjugate roots
( 0 D< )
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
347

) 1 u (
a 2
D
a c x b x a
2
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

= + +

Step 4. Write the integral as

} }
+

=
+

|
|
.
|

\
|

1 u
du
D
2
du
1 u
a 2
D
a 2
D
a
1
2 2 2

Step 5. Perform the integration:
C u arctan
D
2
1 u
du
D
2
2
+

=
+

}

Step 6. Go back to the original variable, using the relation
D
b ax 2
u

+
= :
C
D
b x a 2
arctan
D
2
c x b x a
dx
2
+ |
.
|

\
|

=
+ +
}

Exercise 17. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 2 x 2 x
dx
2
2)
}
+ 2 x x
dx
2
3)
}
+ 34 x 20 x 4
dx
2

(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 2 c , 2 b , 1 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 4 2 1 4 ) 2 ( D
2
< = = . The trinomial is then expressed as a sum of two
squares: 1 ) 1 x ( 2 x 2 x
2 2
+ = + . Therefore
} }
+
=
+ 1 ) 1 x (
dx
2 x 2 x
dx
2 2
.
Under the substitution 1 x u = the integral becomes C u arctan
1 u
du
2
+ =
+
}
.
Answer. C ) 1 x arctan( +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
348
(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 2 c , 1 b , 1 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 7 2 1 4 ) 1 ( D
2
< = = . The trinomial is then expressed as a sum of two
squares:
2
2
2
2
7
2
1
x 2 x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= + . Therefore
} }
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
2
2
2
2
7
2
1
x
dx
2 x x
dx
. Under the substitution u
2
7
2
1
x = , the
integral becomes C u arctan
7
7 2
du
) 1 u (
4
7
2
7
2
+ =
+
}
.
Answer. C u
7
1 x 2
arctan
7
7 2
+ |
.
|

\
|

(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 34 c , 20 b , 4 a = = = ) is calculated to
be 0 144 34 4 4 ) 20 ( D
2
< = = . The trinomial is then expressed as a sum of
two squares:
2 2 2
3 ) 5 x 2 ( 34 x 20 x 4 + = + . Therefore
} }
+
=
+
2 2 2
3 ) 5 x 2 (
dx
34 x 20 x 4
dx
. Under the substitution u 3 5 x 2 = , the
integral becomes C u arctan
6
1
du
) 1 u ( 9
2
3
2
+ =
+
}
.
Answer. C u
3
5 x 2
arctan
6
1
+
|
.
|

\
|


Exercise 18. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 1 x 2 x 3
dx
2
2)
}
+ 2 x 3 x 2
dx
2
3)
}
+ 2 x 5 x 6
dx
2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
349
(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 1 c , 2 b , 3 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 8 1 3 4 ) 2 ( D
2
< = = . The trinomial is then expressed as a sum of two
squares:

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
2
2
3
2
3
1
x 3 1 x 2 x 3 . Therefore
} }
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
2
2
2
3
2
3
1
x
dx
3
1
1 x 2 x 3
dx
. Under the substitution u
3
2
3
1
x = , the
integral becomes C u arctan
2
2
du
) 1 u (
9
2
3
2
3
1
2
+ =
+
}
.
Answer. C u
2
1 x 3
arctan
2
2
+ |
.
|

\
|

(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 2 c , 3 b , 2 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 7 2 2 4 ) 3 ( D
2
< = = . The trinomial is then expressed as a sum of two
squares:

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
2
2
4
7
4
3
x 2 2 x 3 x 2 . Therefore
} }
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
2
2
2
4
7
4
3
x
dx
2
1
1 x 2 x 3
dx
. Under the substitution u
4
7
4
3
x = , the
integral becomes C u arctan
7
7 2
du
) 1 u (
16
7
4
7
2
1
2
+ =
+
}
.
Answer. C u
7
3 x 4
arctan
7
7 2
+ |
.
|

\
|

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
350
(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial ( 2 c , 5 b , 6 a = = = ) is calculated to be
0 23 2 6 4 ) 5 ( D
2
< = = . The trinomial is then expressed as a sum of two
squares:

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
2
2
12
23
12
5
x 6 2 x 5 x 6 . Therefore
} }
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
2
2
2
12
23
12
5
x
dx
6
1
2 x 5 x 6
dx
. Under the substitution
u
12
23
12
5
x = , the integral becomes C u arctan
23
23 2
du
) 1 u (
144
23
12
23
6
1
2
+ =
+
}
.
Answer. C u
23
5 x 12
arctan
23
23 2
+ |
.
|

\
|









Exercise 19. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 36 x
dx
2
2)
}
+121 x 4
dx
2
3)
}
+ 25 x 6
dx
2

(1) Hint. Under the substitution u 6 x = , the integral becomes
C u arctan
6
1
1 u
du
6
1
) 1 u ( 36
du 6
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }
. Answer. C
6
x
arctan
6
1
+
|
.
|

\
|

In Exercises 19 and 20, there is no need to consider the discriminant of the
trinomial. These integrals have the generic form
}
+ b x a
dx
2
, 0 b , 0 a > >
and they are evaluated using the substitution u
a
b
x = .
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
351
(2) Hint. Under the substitution u
2
11
x = , the integral becomes
C u arctan
22
1
1 u
du
22
1
) 1 u ( 121
du
2
11
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }
. Answer. C
11
x 2
arctan
22
1
+
|
.
|

\
|

(3) Hint. Under the substitution u
6
5
x = , the integral becomes
C u arctan
6 5
1
1 u
du
6 5
1
) 1 u ( 25
du
6
5
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }
.
Answer. C x
5
6
arctan
6 5
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

Exercise 20. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ 3 x
dx
2
2)
}
+ 5 x 3
dx
2
3)
}
+8 x 6
dx
2

(1) Hint. Under the substitution u 3 x = , the integral takes the form

C u arctan
3
3
1 u
du
3
3
) 1 u ( 3
du 3
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }
. Answer. C
3
x
arctan
3
3
+ |
.
|

\
|


(2) Hint. Under the substitution u
3
5
x = , the integral takes the form
C u arctan
15
1
1 u
du
15
1
) 1 u ( 5
du
3
5
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }
. Answer. C x
5
3
arctan
15
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

(3) Hint. Under the substitution u
6
8
x = , the integral takes the form
C u arctan
3 4
1
1 u
du
3 4
1
) 1 u ( 8
du
6
8
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
} }
. Answer. C x
2
3
arctan
3 4
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|




Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
352





- In Exercise 21 the discriminant of the trinomial is positive. In this case we
work as follows:
Positive Discriminant. Suppose 0 D > . In this case the trinomial admits two
distinct real roots
1
and
2
given by the formula
a 2
D b

2 , 1

=
The trinomial then takes the form ) x ( ) x ( a c x b x a
2 1
2
= + +
For the integral dx
c x b x a
B x A
2
}
+ +
+
we have similarly the partial fraction
decomposition
2 1 2 1
x
L
x
K
) x ( ) x (
B Ax

=

+

The above identity is equivalent to ) x ( L ) x ( K B Ax
1 2
+ = +
For
1
x = we find ) ( K B A
2 1 1
= + and then
2 1
1

B A
K

+
=
For
2
x = we find ) ( L B A
1 2 2
= + and then
2 1
2

B A
L

+
=
Therefore

2 2 1
2
1 2 1
1
2 1
x
1

B A
x
1

B A
) x ( ) x (
B x A

+
=

+

The integral then can be evaluated as follows
=

+
=
+ +
+
} }
dx
) x ( ) x (
B x A
a
1
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 1
2


} }

+


+
= dx
x
1
) ( a
B A
dx
x
1
) ( a
B A
2 2 1
2
1 2 1
1

Exercises 21-23 are integrals of the form dx
c x b x a
B Ax
2
}
+ +
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
353
C | x | ln
) ( a
B A
| x | ln
) ( a
B A
2
2 1
2
1
2 1
1
+

+
=
Exercise 21. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
15 x 2 x
3 x 2
2
}

+
2) dx
35 x 2 x
7 x 3
2
}



3) dx
3 x 5 x 2
1 x 5
2
}

4) dx
1 x 4 x 2
5 x 6
2
}

+

(1) Hint. The trinomial 15 x 2 x
2
has positive discriminant ( 0 64 D > = ) and
admits two real roots 5
1
= and 3
2
= . Therefore ) 3 x )( 5 x ( 15 x 2 x
2
+ =
Using partial fractions,
3 x
B
5 x
A
15 x 2 x
3 x 2
2
+
+

=

+
, we find
8
13
A = and
8
3
B= .
We thus have
} } }
+
+

=

+
3 x
dx
8
3
5 x
dx
8
13
dx
15 x 2 x
3 x 2
2

Answer. C | 3 x | ln
8
3
| 5 x | ln
8
13
+ + +
(2) Hint. The trinomial 35 x 2 x
2
has positive discriminant ( 0 144 D > = ) and
admits two real roots 5
1
= and 7
2
= . Therefore ) 7 x )( 5 x ( 35 x 2 x
2
+ =
Using partial fractions,
7 x
B
5 x
A
35 x 2 x
7 x 3
2

+
+
=


, we find
6
11
A = and
6
7
B= .
We thus have
} } }

+
+
=


7 x
dx
6
7
5 x
dx
6
11
dx
35 x 2 x
7 x 3
2

Answer. C | 7 x | ln
6
7
| 5 x | ln
6
11
+ + +
(3) Hint. The trinomial 3 x 5 x 2
2
has positive discriminant ( 0 49 D > = ) and
admits two real roots 3
1
= and
2
1
2
= . Therefore
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
354
) 1 x 2 )( 3 x ( 3 x 5 x 2
2
+ = . Using partial fractions,
1 x 2
B
3 x
A
3 x 5 x 2
1 x 5
2
+
+

, we find 2 A= and 1 B= .
We thus have
} } }
+
+

1 x 2
dx
3 x
dx
2 dx
3 x 5 x 2
1 x 5
2

Answer. C | 1 x 2 | ln
2
1
| 3 x | ln 2 + + +
(4) Hint. The trinomial 1 x 4 x 2
2
has positive discriminant ( 0 24 D > = ) and
admits two real roots
2
6
1
1
+ = and
2
6
1
2
= . Therefore
) x )( x ( 2 1 x 4 x 2
2 1
2
= . Using partial fractions,
2 1 2 1
x
B
x
A
) x )( x ( 2
5 x 6

+

=

+
, we find
) ( 2
5 6
A
2 1
1

+
= and
) ( 2
5 6
B
2 1
2

+
= . We thus have
} } }

+


+
=

+
2 2 1
2
1 2 1
1
2
x
dx
) ( 2
5 6
x
dx
) ( 2
5 6
dx
1 x 4 x 2
5 x 6
.
Answer. C
2
6
1 x ln
6 2
6 3 11
2
6
1 x ln
6 2
6 3 11
+

+
+

- In Exercise 22 the discriminant of the trinomial is zero. In this case we
work as follows:
Zero Discriminant. Suppose 0 ac 4 b D
2
= . In this case the trinomial has a
double real root given by
a 2
b
= and takes the form

2 2
) x ( a c x b x a = + +
For the integral
dx
) x (
B Ax
a
1
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 2
} }

+
=
+ +
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
355
we have the partial fraction decomposition

2 2
) x (
L
x
K
) x (
B Ax

+

from which we get
L ) x ( K B Ax + = +
For x = we find B A L L B A + = = +
For 0 x = we find A K L ) ( K B = + =
Therefore

2 2
) x (
B A
x
A
) x (
B Ax

+
+

+

The integral then becomes
=

+
+

=
+ +
+
} } }
dx
) x (
B A
a
1
dx
x
A
a
1
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 2

=

+
+

=
} }
dx
) x (
1
a
B A
dx
x
1
a
A
2

= +
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+ = C
x
1
a
B A
| x | ln
a
A

C
x
1
a
B A
| x | ln
a
A
+

+
=
Exercise 22. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
1 x 2 x
2 x 3
2
}
+
+
2) dx
1 x 6 x 9
4 x
2
}
+


3) dx
1 x 4 x 4
12 x 6
2
}
+ +
+
4) dx
16 x 24 x 9
9 x 5
2
}
+ +



(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial 1 x 2 x
2
+ is zero. The double root is
1 = . Therefore
2 2
) 1 x ( 1 x 2 x = + . Using partial fractions,
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
356
2 2
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
1 x 2 x
2 x 3

=
+
+
, we find 3 A = and 5 B= .
We thus have
} } }

+

=
+
+
2 2
) 1 x (
dx
5
1 x
dx
3 dx
1 x 2 x
2 x 3
.
Answer. C
1 x
5
| 1 x | ln 3 +


(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial 1 x 6 x 9
2
+ is zero. The double root is
3
1
= . Therefore
2
2
2
) 1 x 3 (
3
1
x 9 1 x 6 x 9 =
|
.
|

\
|
= + . Using partial fractions,
2 2
) 1 x 3 (
B
1 x 3
A
1 x 6 x 9
4 x

=
+

, we find
3
1
A = and
3
11
B = .
We thus have
} } }

=
+

2 2
) 1 x 3 (
dx
3
11
1 x 3
dx
3
1
dx
1 x 6 x 9
4 x
.
Answer. C
1 x 3
1
9
11
| 1 x 3 | ln
9
1
+


(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial 1 x 4 x 4
2
+ + is zero. The double root is
2
1
= . Therefore
2
2
2
) 1 x 2 (
2
1
x 4 1 x 4 x 4 + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + + . Using partial fractions,
2 2
) 1 x 2 (
B
1 x 2
A
1 x 4 x 4
12 x 6
+
+
+
=
+ +
+
, we find 3 A = and 9 B = .
We thus have
} } }
+
+
+
=
+ +
+
2 2
) 1 x 2 (
dx
9
1 x 2
dx
3 dx
1 x 4 x 4
12 x 6
.
Answer. C
1 x 2
1
2
9
| 1 x 2 | ln
2
3
+
+
+
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
357
(4) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial 16 x 24 x 9
2
+ + is zero. The double root
is
3
4
= . Therefore
2
2
2
) 4 x 3 (
3
4
x 9 16 x 24 x 9 + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + + . Using partial
fractions,
2 2
) 4 x 3 (
B
4 x 3
A
16 x 24 x 9
9 x 5
+
+
+
=
+ +

, we find
3
5
A = and
3
47
B = .
We thus have
} } }
+

+
=
+ +

2 2
) 4 x 3 (
dx
3
47
4 x 3
dx
3
5
dx
16 x 24 x 9
9 x 5
.
Answer. C
4 x 3
1
9
47
| 4 x 3 | ln
9
5
+
+
+ +
- In Exercise 23 the discriminant of the trinomial is negative. In this case we
work as follows:
Negative Discriminant. Suppose that 0 D < .
For the integral dx
c x b x a
B x A
2
}
+ +
+
we first prove the identity

|
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
a 2
Ab
B ) b ax 2 (
a 2
A
B Ax
We have
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
A
B
x a 2
a 2
1
A
A
B
x A B Ax
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
A
B
a 2
b
A ) b ax 2 (
a 2
1
A
A
B
a 2
b
) b ax 2 (
a 2
1
A

|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = B
a 2
Ab
) b ax 2 (
a 2
A

Therefore the integral becomes
=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
+ +
+
} }
dx
c x b x a
a 2
Ab
B ) b ax 2 (
a 2
A
dx
c x b x a
B x A
2 2

=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
=
} }
dx
c x b x a
1
a 2
Ab
B dx
c x b x a
b ax 2
a 2
A
2 2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
358
I
a 2
Ab
B | c x b x a | ln
a 2
A
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
where I is the integral
dx
c x b x a
1
I
2
}
+ +
=
which is known how to be evaluated.
Exercise 23. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
1 x 2 x 2
7 x 5
2
}
+

2) dx
3 x 3 x
11 x 2
2
}
+
+

3) dx
2 x 4 x 3
5 x 3
2
}
+
+
4) dx
2 x 3 x 2
7 x 4
2
}
+
+

(1) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial 1 x 2 x 2
2
+ is negative ( 0 4 D < = ).
Using the identity
2
9
) 2 x 4 (
4
5
7 x 5 = , we have =
+

}
dx
1 x 2 x 2
7 x 5
2

=
+

=
+

=
} } }
1 x 2 x 2
dx
2
9
dx
1 x 2 x 2
2 x 4
4
5
dx
1 x 2 x 2
2
9
) 2 x 4 (
4
5
2 2 2


1
2
I
2
9
| 1 x 2 x 2 | ln
4
5
+ = , where
}
+
=
1 x 2 x 2
dx
I
2
1
.
Since
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
x 2 1 x 2 x 2 , under the substitution
u
2
1
2
1
x = , the integral
1
I takes on the form u arctan
1 u
du
I
2
1
=
+
=
}
.
Answer. C ) 1 x 2 arctan(
2
9
| 1 x 2 x 2 | ln
4
5
2
+ +
(2) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial 3 x 3 x
2
+ is negative ( 0 3 D < = ).
Using the identity 14 ) 3 x 2 ( 11 x 2 + = + , we have =
+
+
}
dx
3 x 3 x
11 x 2
2

=
+
+
+

=
+
+
=
} } }
3 x 3 x
dx
14 dx
3 x 3 x
3 x 2
dx
3 x 3 x
14 ) 3 x 2 (
2 2 2


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
359
1
2
I 14 | 3 x 3 x | ln + + = , where
}
+
=
3 x 3 x
dx
I
2
1
.
Since
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
x 3 x 3 x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= + , under the substitution
u
2
3
2
3
x = , the integral
1
I takes on the form u arctan
3
3 2
) 1 u (
4
3
du
2
3
I
2
1
=
+
=
}
.
Answer. C
3
3 x 2
arctan
3
3 28
| 3 x 3 x | ln
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ +
(3) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial 2 x 4 x 3
2
+ is negative ( 0 8 D < = ).
Using the identity 7 ) 4 x 6 (
2
1
5 x 3 + = + , we have =
+
+
}
dx
2 x 4 x 3
5 x 3
2

=
+
+
+

=
+
+
=
} } }
2 x 4 x 3
dx
7 dx
2 x 4 x 3
4 x 6
2
1
dx
2 x 4 x 3
7 ) 4 x 6 (
2
1
2 2 2


1
2
I 7 | 2 x 4 x 3 | ln
2
1
+ + = , where
}
+
=
2 x 4 x 3
dx
I
2
1
.
Since
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
x 3 2 x 4 x 3 , under the substitution
u
3
2
3
2
x = , the integral
1
I takes on the form u arctan
2
2
) 1 u (
9
2
3
du
3
2
I
2
1
=
+
=
}
.
Answer. C
2
2 x 3
arctan
2
2 7
| 2 x 4 x 3 | ln
2
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ +
(4) Hint. The discriminant of the trinomial 2 x 3 x 2
2
+ is negative ( 0 7 D < = ).
Using the identity 10 ) 3 x 4 ( 7 x 4 + = + , we have =
+
+
}
dx
2 x 3 x 2
7 x 4
2

=
+
+
+

=
+
+
=
} } }
2 x 3 x 2
dx
10 dx
2 x 3 x 2
3 x 4
dx
2 x 3 x 2
10 ) 3 x 4 (
2 2 2


Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
360
1
2
I 10 | 2 x 3 x 2 | ln + + = , where
}
+
=
2 x 3 x 2
dx
I
2
1
.
Since
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
2
2
4
7
4
3
x 2 2 x 3 x 2 , under the substitution
u
4
7
4
3
x = , the integral
1
I takes on the form
u arctan
7
7 2
) 1 u (
16
7
2
du
4
7
I
2
1
=
+
=
}
.
Answer. C
7
3 x 4
arctan
7
7 20
| 2 x 3 x 2 | ln
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ +





Integrals of the form

}
+ +
= dx
) c x b x a (
1
I
n 2
n
, 2 n >
are evaluated using the reduction formula

1 n
1 n 2
n
I
D ) 1 n (
a ) 3 n 2 ( 2
) c x b x a (
b x a 2
D ) 1 n (
1
I

+ +
+

= , 2 n >
if 0 D = . The proof is given in Section 6.5. The reader should ether prove the
reduction formula or apply the general procedure according to the Example 1 of
Section 6.5.
If 0 D = then the trinomial is a complete square:
2 2
) x ( a c x b x a = + +
where is the double root of the trinomial:
a 2
b
= . The integral then becomes

} }

=
+ +
= dx
) x (
1
a
1
dx
) c x b x a (
1
I
n 2 n n 2
n

Exercises 24-25 are integrals of the form
}
+ +
n 2
) c x b x a (
dx

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
361
which is evaluated using the substitution = x u .
Exercise 24. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+
2 2
) 6 x x 2 (
dx
2)
}

3 2
) 1 x 2 x (
dx
3)
}
+
4 2
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
dx

(1) Hint. For 2 n = and 6 c , 1 b , 2 a = = = ( 0 49 D = = ), we have

1
2 2 2
2
I
49
4
6 x x 2
1 x 4
49
1
) 6 x x 2 (
dx
I
+
+
=
+
=
}

where
2 x
3 x 2
ln
7
1
6 x x 2
dx
I
2
1
+

=
+
=
}
(using partial fractions, the roots of the
trinomial being 2 and 2 / 3 ).
Answer. C
2 x
3 x 2
ln
343
4
6 x x 2
1 x 4
49
1
2
+
+


+
+

(2) Hint. For 3 n = and 1 c , 2 b , 1 a = = = ( 0 8 D = = ), we have

2
2 2 3 2
3
I
8
3
) 1 x 2 x (
1 x
8
1
) 1 x 2 x (
dx
I


=

=
}

For 2 n = ,
1
2 2 2
2
I
4
1
1 x 2 x
1 x
4
1
) 1 x 2 x (
dx
I

=

=
}

where
2 1 x
2 1 x
ln
2 2
1
1 x 2 x
dx
I
2
1
+

=

=
}
(using partial fractions, the roots of
the trinomial being 2 1 ).
Answer. C
2 1 x
2 1 x
ln
2 64
3
1 x 2 x
1 x
32
3
) 1 x 2 x (
1 x
8
1
2 2 2
+
+

+

+



(3) Hint. We have 4 c , 5 b , 6 a = = = and 0 121 D = = .
For 4 n = , we get
3
3 2 4 2
4
I
121
20
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
363
1
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
dx
I
+
+
=
+
=
}

For 3 n = , we get
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
362
2
2 2 3 2
3
I
121
18
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
242
1
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
dx
I
+
+
=
+
=
}

For 2 n = , we get
1
2 2 2
2
I
121
12
4 x 5 x 6
5 x 12
121
1
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
dx
I
+
+
=
+
=
}

and finally, taking into account that ) 3 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 ( 4 x 5 x 6
2
+ = + and using
partial fractions,
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+
4 x 3
3
1 x 2
2
11
1
4 x 5 x 6
1
2
, we obtain
4 x 3
1 x 2
ln
11
1
4 x 5 x 6
dx
I
2
1
+

=
+
=
}
. Therefore
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+

+
+
=
2
2 2 3 2
4
I
121
18
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
242
1
121
20
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
363
1
I
= +
+
+
+
+
+
=
2
2 2 3 2
I
14641
360
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
14641
10
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
363
1

+
+
+
+
+
+
=
2 2 3 2
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
14641
10
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
363
1

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
+
1
2
I
121
12
4 x 5 x 6
5 x 12
121
1
14641
360

Answer.
+
+
+
+
+

2 2 3 2
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
14641
10
) 4 x 5 x 6 (
5 x 12
363
1

C
4 x 3
1 x 2
ln
19487171
4320
4 x 5 x 6
5 x 12
1771561
360
2
+
+


+
+

Exercise 25. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+
2 2
) 3 x 2 x 2 (
dx
2)
}
+
3 2
) 2 x x (
dx
3)
}
+
4 2
) 2 x 2 x (
dx

(1) Hint. For 2 n = and 3 c , 2 b , 2 a = = = ( 0 20 D = = ), we have

1
2 2 2
2
I
5
1
3 x 2 x 2
1 x 2
10
1
) 3 x 2 x 2 (
dx
I +
+

=
+
=
}

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
363
where
}
+
=
3 x 2 x 2
dx
I
2
1
. Since

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
2
2
2
5
2
1
x 2 3 x 2 x 2 , under the
substitution u
2
5
2
1
x = , the integral
1
I takes on the form
u arctan
5
5
) 1 u (
4
5
2
du
2
5
I
2
1
=
+
=
}
, or |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}
5
1 x 2
arctan
5
5
3 x 2 x 2
dx
I
2
1
.
Answer. C
5
1 x 2
arctan
25
5
3 x 2 x 2
1 x 2
10
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+


(2) Hint. We have 2 c , 1 b , 1 a = = = ( 0 7 D = = ).
For 3 n = we obtain
2
2 2 3 2
3
I
7
3
) 2 x x (
1 x 2
14
1
) 2 x x (
dx
I +
+

=
+
=
}

For 2 n = we obtain


1
2 2 2
2
I
7
2
2 x x
1 x 2
7
1
) 2 x x (
dx
I +
+

=
+
=
}

Since
2
2
2
2
7
2
1
x 2 x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= + , under the substitution u
2
7
2
1
x = , the
integral
1
I takes on the form u arctan
7
7 2
) 1 u (
4
7
du
2
7
I
2
1
=
+
=
}
, or
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}
7
1 x 2
arctan
7
7 2
2 x x
dx
I
2
1
. Therefore
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

+
+

=
1
2 2 2
3
I
7
2
2 x x
1 x 2
7
1
7
3
) 2 x x (
1 x 2
14
1
I
Answer. C
7
1 x 2
arctan
343
7 12
2 x x
1 x 2
49
3
) 2 x x (
1 x 2
14
1
2 2 2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+

+
+


(3) Hint. We have 2 c , 2 b , 1 a = = = ( 0 4 D = = ).
For 4 n = we obtain
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
364
3
3 2 4 2
4
I
6
5
) 2 x 2 x (
1 x
6
1
) 2 x 2 x (
dx
I +
+

=
+
=
}


For 3 n = we obtain
2
2 2
3
I
4
3
) 2 x 2 x (
1 x
4
1
I +
+

=

For 2 n = we obtain
1
2
2
I
2
1
2 x 2 x
1 x
2
1
I +
+

=
Since 1 ) 1 x ( 2 x 2 x
2 2
+ = + , under the substitution 1 x u = , we have
) 1 x arctan( u arctan
1 u
du
2 x 2 x
dx
I
2 2
1
= =
+
=
+
=
} }

Therefore
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

+
+

=
+
=
} 2
2 2 3 2 4 2
4
I
4
3
) 2 x 2 x (
1 x
4
1
6
5
) 2 x 2 x (
1 x
6
1
) 2 x 2 x (
dx
I

|
.
|

\
|
+
+

+
+

+
+

=
1
2 2 2 3 2
I
2
1
2 x 2 x
1 x
2
1
24
15
) 2 x 2 x (
1 x
24
5
) 2 x 2 x (
1 x
6
1

Answer. +
+

+
+

2 2 3 2
) 2 x 2 x (
1 x
24
5
) 2 x 2 x (
1 x
6
1

C ) 1 x arctan(
48
15
2 x 2 x
1 x
48
15
2
+ +
+

+





The integral
dx
) c x b x a (
B x A
J
n 2
n }
+ +
+
= , 2 n >
using the identity

|
.
|

\
|
+ + = +
a 2
b A
B ) b x a 2 (
a 2
A
B Ax
is transformed into
Exercise 26 are integrals of the form dx
) c x b x a (
B Ax
n 2
}
+ +
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
365
=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
+ +
+
=
} }
dx
) c x b x a (
a 2
b A
B ) b x a 2 (
a 2
A
dx
) c x b x a (
B x A
J
n 2 n 2
n

=
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
=
} }
dx
) c x b x a (
1
a 2
b A
B dx
) c x b x a (
b x a 2
a 2
A
n 2 n 2

or

n
1 n 2
n
I
a 2
b A
B
) c x b x a (
1
) 1 n ( a 2
A
J
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +

=

, 2 n >
where
dx
) c x b x a (
1
I
n 2
n }
+ +
= , evaluated by the reduction formula used in
Exercises 24 and 25.
Exercise 26. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 6 x 5 x (
8 x 5
2 2
}
+
+
2) dx
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
4 x 3
3 2
}
+
+
3) dx
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
13 x
3 2
}
+
+

(1) Hint. We have 8 B , 5 A = = and 6 c , 5 b , 1 a = = = ( 0 1 D = = ).
For 2 n = , we obtain
2
2 2 2
2
I
2
41
6 x 5 x
1
2
5
dx
) 6 x 5 x (
8 x 5
J +
+
=
+
+
=
}

For 2 n = , we also get
1
2
2
I 2
6 x 5 x
5 x 2
I
+

= . We then have
2 x
3 x
ln
6 x 5 x
dx
I
2
1

=
+
=
}
. Therefore
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

+
+
=
+
+
=
} 1
2 2 2 2
2
I 2
6 x 5 x
5 x 2
2
41
6 x 5 x
1
2
5
dx
) 6 x 5 x (
8 x 5
J
Answer. C
2 x
3 x
ln 41
6 x 5 x
5 x 2
2
41
6 x 5 x
1
2
5
2 2
+


+


+


(2) Hint. We have 4 B , 3 A = = and 1 c , 3 b , 2 a = = = ( 0 1 D = = ).
For 3 n = we have
3
2 3 2
3
I
4
25
1 x 3 x 2
1
8
3
dx
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
4 x 3
J +
+
=
+
+
=
}

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
366
For 3 n = we have
2
2 2 3 2
3
I 6
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
3 x 4
2
1
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
dx
I
+

=
+
=
}

For 2 n = we have
1
2 2 2
2
I 2
1 x 3 x 2
3 x 4
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
dx
I
+

=
+
=
}

where
1 x 2
1 x
ln
1 x 3 x 2
dx
I
2
1

=
+
=
}
. Therefore
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

+
+
=
+
+
=
} 2
2 2 2 3 2
3
I 6
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
3 x 4
2
1
4
25
1 x 3 x 2
1
8
3
dx
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
4 x 3
J
|
|
.
|

\
|


+


+
=
1
2 2 2 2
I 2
1 x 3 x 2
3 x 4
2
75
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
3 x 4
8
25
1 x 3 x 2
1
8
3

Answer.
C
1 x 2
1 x
ln 75
1 x 3 x 2
3 x 4
2
75
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
3 x 4
8
25
1 x 3 x 2
1
8
3
2 2 2 2
+

+
+

+
+


+


(3) Hint. We have 13 B , 1 A = = and 5 c , 2 b , 3 a = = = ( 0 56 D = = ).
For 3 n = we have
3
2 3 2
3
I
3
40
5 x 2 x 3
1
12
1
dx
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
13 x
J +
+
=
+
+
=
}

For 3 n = we have
2
2 2 3 2
3
I
56
9
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
1 x 3
56
1
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
dx
I +
+

=
+
=
}

For 2 n = we have
1
2 2 2
2
I
28
3
5 x 2 x 3
1 x 3
28
1
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
dx
I +
+

=
+
=
}

Since

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= +
2
2
2
3
14
3
1
x 3 5 x 2 x 3 , under the substitution
u
3
14
3
1
x = , we obtain u arctan
14
14
) 1 u (
9
14
3
du
3
14
I
2
1
=
+
=
}
or
|
.
|

\
|
=
14
1 x 3
arctan
14
14
I
1
. Therefore
+
+
=
+
+
=
}
5 x 2 x 3
1
12
1
dx
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
13 x
J
2 3 2
3

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

+
2
2 2
I
56
9
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
1 x 3
56
1
3
40

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
367
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

+
+

+
+
=
1
2 2 2 2
I
28
3
5 x 2 x 3
1 x 3
28
1
7
15
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
1 x 3
21
5
5 x 2 x 3
1
12
1

Answer.
+
+

+
+

+
+

5 x 2 x 3
1 x 3
420
15
) 5 x 2 x 3 (
1 x 3
21
5
5 x 2 x 3
1
12
1
2 2 2 2


|
.
|

\
|
+
14
1 x 3
arctan
2744
14 45





The theory of evaluating this type of integrals was developed in 6.7 and 6.8
respectively.
For integrals of the form
}
+
= dx
) a x (
1
I
n 2 2
n
we use the reduction formula
1 n 2 2 2
1 n
2
n
) a x (
x
a ) 1 n ( 2
1
I
a ) 1 n ( 2
3 n 2
I

+
+

=
For integrals of the form
}
+
+
= dx
) a x (
B Ax
J
n 2 2
n
we use the reduction formula
n
1 n 2 2 n 2 2
n
I B
) a x (
1
) 1 n ( 2
A
dx
) a x (
B Ax
J +
+

=
+
+
=

}

Exercise 27. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+
2 2
) 25 x (
dx
2)
}
+
3 2
) 36 x (
dx

3)
}
+
4 2
) 24 x (
dx
4) dx
) 8 x (
3 x 5
3 2
}
+
+

(1) Hint. For 2 n = and 25 a
2
= ( 0 a > ) we find

25 x
x
50
1
I
50
1
) 25 x (
dx
I
2
1
2 2
2
+
+ =
+
=
}

Exercise 27 are integrals of the form dx
) a x (
1
n 2 2
}
+
and dx
) a x (
B Ax
n 2 2
}
+
+

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
368
We also have

|
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}
5
x
arctan
5
1
25 x
dx
I
2
1

Answer. C
25 x
x
50
1
5
x
arctan
250
1
2
+
+
+
|
.
|

\
|


(2) Hint. For 3 n = and 36 a
2
= ( 0 a > ) we find

2 2
2
3 2
3
) 36 x (
x
144
1
I
48
1
) 36 x (
dx
I
+
+ =
+
=
}

For 3 n = we find

36 x
x
72
1
I
72
1
) 36 x (
dx
I
2
1
2 2
2
+
+ =
+
=
}

We also have

|
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}
6
x
arctan
6
1
36 x
dx
I
2
1

Therefore
2 2 2
1
3 2
3
) 36 x (
x
144
1
36 x
x
72
1
I
72
1
48
1
) 36 x (
dx
I
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
+
=
}

Answer. C
) 36 x (
x
144
1
36 x
x
3456
1
6
x
arctan
20736
1
2 2 2
+
+
+
+
+
|
.
|

\
|

(3) Hint. For 4 n = and 24 a
2
= ( 0 a > ) we find
3 2
3
4 2
4
) 24 x (
x
144
1
I
144
5
) 24 x (
dx
I
+
+ =
+
=
}

For 3 n = we find
2 2
2
3 2
3
) 24 x (
x
96
1
I
32
1
) 24 x (
dx
I
+
+ =
+
=
}

For 2 n = we find
24 x
x
48
1
I
48
1
) 24 x (
dx
I
2
1
2 2
2
+
+ =
+
=
}

We also have |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}
6 2
x
arctan
6 2
1
24 x
dx
I
2
1
. Therefore
=
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
+
=
}
3 2 2 2
2
4 2
4
) 24 x (
x
144
1
) 24 x (
x
96
1
I
32
1
144
5
) 24 x (
dx
I

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
369
3 2 2 2 2
1
) 24 x (
x
144
1
) 24 x (
x
13824
5
24 x
x
48
1
I
48
1
4608
5
+
+
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
Answer. +
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
24 x
x
221184
5
6 2
x
arctan
6 442368
5
2

C
) 24 x (
x
144
1
) 24 x (
x
13824
5
3 2 2 2
+
+
+
+
+
(4) Hint. For 3 n = , 3 B , 5 A = = and 8 a
2
= ( 0 a > ) we find
3
2 2 3 2
3
I 3
) 8 x (
1
4
5
dx
) 8 x (
3 x 5
J +
+
=
+
+
=
}

For 3 n = we find

2 2
2
3 2
3
) 8 x (
x
32
1
I
32
3
) 8 x (
dx
I
+
+ =
+
=
}

For 2 n = we find

8 x
x
16
1
I
16
1
) 8 x (
dx
I
2
1
2 2
2
+
+ =
+
=
}

We also have |
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}
2 2
x
arctan
2 2
1
8 x
dx
I
2
1
. Therefore
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
=
+
+
=
}
2 2
2
2 2 3 2
3
) 8 x (
x
32
1
I
32
3
3
) 8 x (
1
4
5
dx
) 8 x (
3 x 5
J
2 2 2
1
2 2
) 8 x (
x
32
3
8 x
x
16
1
I
16
1
32
9
) 8 x (
1
4
5
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
+
=
Answer.
2 2 2 2 2
) 8 x (
x
32
3
8 x
x
512
9
2 2
x
arctan
2 1024
9
) 8 x (
1
4
5
+
+
+
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+







Exercise 28. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 3 x 2 )( 1 x ( x
13 x 6
2
}
+ +

2) dx
) 1 x )( 2 x )( 2 x 3 (
5 x x
2
}
+
+

Exercises 28 and 29 are integrals of the form dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P
}
, where
) x ( Q and ) x ( P are integral polynomials with ) x ( Q deg ) x ( P deg < .
The denominator ) x ( Q has distinct real roots.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
370
3) dx
x 6 x 5 x
10 x 4
2 3
}
+ +
+
4) dx
6 x 11 x 6 x
8 x 3 x 5
2 3
2
}
+
+

(1) Hint. Using partial fractions,
3 x 2
C
1 x
B
x
A
) 3 x 2 )( 1 x ( x
13 x 6
2
+
+
+
+ =
+ +

,
we find
3
13
A = , 7 B= and
3
2
C = . Therefore the integral becomes
dx
3 x 2
2
3
1
1 x
dx
7
x
dx
3
13
} } }
+
+
+
+ .
Answer. C | 3 x 2 | ln
3
1
| 1 x | ln 7 | x | ln
3
13
+ + + + +
(2) Hint. Using partial fractions,
1 x
C
2 x
B
2 x 3
A
) 1 x )( 2 x )( 2 x 3 (
5 x x
2

+
+
+

=
+
+

we find
8
43
A = ,
24
11
B = and
3
5
C = . Therefore the integral is equal to the sum
} } }

+
+
+

1 x
dx
3
5
2 x
dx
24
11
2 x 3
dx
8
43
.
Answer. C | 1 x | ln
3
5
| 2 x | ln
24
11
| 2 x 3 | ln
24
43
+ + + +
(3) Hint. Since ) 3 x )( 2 x ( x x 6 x 5 x
2 3
+ + = + + , using partial fractions
3 x
C
2 x
B
x
A
x 6 x 5 x
10 x 4
2 3
+
+
+
+ =
+ +
+
, we find
3
5
A = , 1 B = ,
3
2
C = .
Therefore the integral takes on the form of a sum of the integrals
} } }
+

3 x
dx
3
2
2 x
dx
x
dx
3
5
. Answer. C | 3 x | ln
3
2
| 2 x | ln | x | ln
3
5
+ + +
(4) Hint. Since ) 3 x )( 2 x )( 1 x ( 6 x 11 x 6 x
2 3
= + , using partial fractions
3 x
C
2 x
B
1 x
A
6 x 11 x 6 x
8 x 3 x 5
2 3
2

=
+
+
, we find 5 A = , 22 B = , 22 C = .
Therefore the integral takes on the form of a sum of the integrals
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
371
} } }

+

3 x
dx
22
2 x
dx
22
1 x
dx
5 .
Answer. C | 3 x | ln 22 | 2 x | ln 22 | 1 x | ln 5 + +
Exercise 29. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 2 x 3 x ( x
5 x 3
2
}
+
+
2) dx
) 1 x 3 x 2 ( ) 3 x (
x 7 x 4
2
2
}
+ +
+

3) dx
) 4 x 5 x ( ) 2 x (
3 x 13 x 2
2
2
}
+ +
+
4) dx
) 2 x 7 x 6 ( ) 1 x 3 (
12 x x
2
2
}
+ +
+

(1) Hint. Since ) 2 x )( 1 x ( 2 x 3 x
2
= + , using partial fractions
2 x
C
1 x
B
x
A
) 2 x 3 x ( x
5 x 3
2

+

+ =
+
+
, we find
2
5
A = , 8 B = ,
2
11
C = .
Therefore the integral takes on the form
} } }

+

2 x
dx
2
11
1 x
dx
8
x
dx
2
5

Answer. C | 2 x | ln
2
11
| 1 x | ln 8 | x | ln
2
5
+ +
(2) Hint. Since ) 1 x )( 1 x 2 ( 1 x 3 x 2
2
= + , using partial fractions
1 x
C
1 x 2
B
3 x
A
) 1 x 3 x 2 ( ) 3 x (
x 7 x 4
2
2

+
+
=
+ +
+
, we find
28
55
A = ,
7
18
B = ,
4
11
C = .
Therefore the integral takes on the form
} } }

+

+ 1 x
dx
4
11
1 x 2
dx 2
7
9
3 x
dx
28
15

Answer. C | 1 x | ln
4
11
| 1 x 2 | ln
7
9
| 3 x | ln
28
15
+ + +
(3) Hint. Since ) 4 x )( 1 x ( 4 x 5 x
2
= + , using partial fractions
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
372
4 x
C
1 x
B
2 x
A
) 4 x 5 x ( ) 2 x (
3 x 13 x 2
2
2

+
+
=
+ +
+
, we find
18
13
A = ,
9
14
B = ,
18
113
C= . Therefore the integral takes on the form
} } }

+

4 x
dx
18
113
1 x
dx
9
14
2 x
dx
18
13
.
Answer. C | 4 x | ln
18
113
| 1 x | ln
9
14
| 2 x | ln
18
13
+ + +
(4) Hint. Since ) 2 x 3 )( 1 x 2 ( 2 x 7 x 6
2
= + , using partial fractions
2 x 3
C
1 x 2
B
1 x 3
A
) 2 x 7 x 6 ( ) 1 x 3 (
12 x x
2
2

+
+
= +
+ +
+
, we find
45
112
A = ,
5
47
B = ,
9
106
C= . Therefore the integral takes on the form
} } }

+

+ 2 x 3
dx
9
106
1 x 2
dx
5
47
1 x 3
dx
45
112
.
Answer. C | 4 x | ln
27
106
| 1 x 2 | ln
10
47
| 1 x 3 | ln
135
112
+ + +






Exercise 30. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
x 2 x
1 x 4 x 2
2 3
2
}

+
2) dx
x x
4 x 7 x 6
2 4
2 3
}

+

3) dx
) 1 x (
2 x 3 x 13 x 2
2 2
2 3
}

+ +
4) dx
) 1 x 2 ( ) 1 x 3 (
6 x 2 x 5
3 2
2
}
+
+

Exercises 30 and 31 are integrals of the form dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P
}
, where
) x ( Q and ) x ( P are integral polynomials with ) x ( Q deg ) x ( P deg < .
The denominator ) x ( Q has real roots, some of them multiple.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
373
(1) Hint. We have ) 2 x ( x x 2 x
2 2 3
= . We thus have the partial fraction
decomposition
2 x
C
x
B
x
A
x 2 x
1 x 4 x 2
2 2 3
2

+ + =

+
. We find
4
7
A = ,
2
1
B = ,
4
15
C =
Therefore the integral becomes
} } }

+ +
2 x
dx
4
15
x
dx
2
1
x
dx
4
7
2

Answer. C | 2 x | ln
4
15
x 2
1
| x | ln
4
7
+ +
(2) Hint. We have ) 1 x )( 1 x ( x x x
2 2 4
+ = . We thus have the partial fraction
decomposition
1 x
D
1 x
C
x
B
x
A
x x
4 x 7 x 6
2 2 4
2 3
+
+

+ + =

+
. We find
0 A = , 4 B = ,
2
3
C = ,
2
9
D = . Therefore the integral becomes
} } }
+
+

+
1 x
dx
2
9
1 x
dx
2
3
x
dx
4
2

Answer. C | 1 x | ln
2
9
| 1 x | ln
2
3
x
4
+ + + +
(3) Hint. We have
2 2 2 2
) 1 x ( ) 1 x ( ) 1 x ( + = . We thus have the partial fraction
decomposition
2 2 2 2
2 3
) 1 x (
D
1 x
C
) 1 x (
B
1 x
A
) 1 x (
2 x 3 x 13 x 2
+
+
+
+

+ +
.
We find
4
15
A = ,
2
7
B = ,
4
7
C = , 4 D= . Therefore the integral becomes
} } } }
+
+
+

2 2
) 1 x (
dx
4
1 x
dx
4
7
) 1 x (
dx
2
7
1 x
dx
4
15

Answer. C
1 x
4
| 1 x | ln
4
7
1 x
1
2
7
| 1 x | ln
4
15
+
+
+


(4) Hint. We have the partial fraction decomposition
3 2 2 3 2
2
) 1 x 2 (
E
) 1 x 2 (
D
1 x 2
C
) 1 x 3 (
B
1 x 3
A
) 1 x 2 ( ) 1 x 3 (
6 x 2 x 5

+
+
+
+
=
+
+
.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
374
We find
125
186
A = ,
25
39
B = ,
125
124
C= ,
25
24
D = , 1 E = . Therefore the integral
becomes
+

+
+

} } } }
2 2
) 1 x 2 (
dx
25
24
1 x 2
dx
125
124
) 1 x 3 (
dx
25
39
1 x 3
dx
125
186


}

+
3
) 1 x 2 (
dx

Answer.
C
) 1 x 2 (
1
4
1
1 x 2
1
25
12
| 1 x 2 | ln
125
62
1 x 3
1
25
13
| 1 x 3 | ln
125
62
2
+

+ +
+
+ +
Exercise 31. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 3 x ( ) 1 x (
4 x x
3
2 3
}
+
+
2) dx
) 2 x )( 1 x ( x
4 x x 8 x 7
3 2
2 3 4
}
+
+

3) dx
) x 2 x ( ) 1 x 2 (
9 x 3 x 7 x
3 4 2
2 3
}

+
4) dx
) 3 x 2 ( ) 1 x 2 ( 8
119 x 46 x 36 x 72
2 2
2 3
}
+
+

(1) Hint. Using partial fractions,

3 x
1
32
11
) 1 x (
1
2
1
) 1 x (
1
8
11
1 x
1
32
21
) 3 x ( ) 1 x (
4 x x
3 2 3
2 3

+
+

+

+
=
+
+

the integral takes on the form

Answer. C | 3 x | ln
32
11
) 1 x (
1
4
1
1 x
1
8
11
| 1 x | ln
32
21
2
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
(2) Hint. Using partial fractions, =
+
+
3 2
2 3 4
) 2 x ( ) 1 x ( x
4 x x 8 x 7


3 2 2
) 2 x (
1
3
44
) 2 x (
1
9
67
2 x
1
108
43
1 x
1
27
4
x
1
2
1
x
1
4
1
+

+
+
+
+

+ =
the integral takes on the form

Answer.
C
) 2 x (
1
3
22
2 x
1
9
67
| 2 x | ln
108
43
| 1 x | ln
27
4
x
1
2
1
| x | ln
4
1
2
+
+
+
+
+ +
(3) Hint. Since ) 2 x ( x x 2 x
3 3 4
= , using partial fractions
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
375

=

+
=

+
) 2 x ( x ) 1 x 2 (
9 x 3 x 7 x
) x 2 x ( ) 1 x 2 (
9 x 3 x 7 x
3 2
2 3
3 4 2
2 3


2 3 2
) 1 x 2 (
1
3
94
1 x 2
1
9
974
x
1
2
9
x
1
4
75
x
1
8
431
2 x
1
72
17

=
the integral takes on the form

Answer.
C
1 x 2
1
3
47
| 1 x 2 | ln
9
487
x
1
4
9
x
1
4
75
| x | ln
8
431
| 2 x | ln
72
17
2
+

+ + + +
(4) Hint. Using partial fractions, =
+
+
2 2
2 3
) 3 x 2 ( ) 1 x 2 ( 8
119 x 46 x 36 x 72


2 2
) 3 x 2 (
4
3 x 2
1
2
1
) 1 x 2 (
1
4
3
1 x 2
1
8
5
+

+
+

=

the integral takes on the form
Answer. C | 1 x 2 | ln
16
5
1 x 2
1
8
3
| 3 x 2 | ln
4
1
3 x 2
2
+ +

+ + +
+









Exercise 32. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 2 x )( 1 x (
4 x x
2 2
2
}
+ +
+
2) dx
) 1 x x ( ) 1 x (
8 x 7 x 6
2 2
2
}
+ +
+

3) dx
) 1 x ( ) 3 x 2 (
7 x 2 x x
2 2
2 3
}
+ +
+
4) dx
) 9 x 2 ( ) 1 x (
2 x x 6 x 5
2 2
2 3
}
+ +
+

Exercises 32 and 33 are integrals of the form dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P
}
, where
) x ( Q and ) x ( P are integral polynomials with ) x ( Q deg ) x ( P deg < .
The denominator ) x ( Q has complex, non-repeated roots.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
376
(1) Hint. Using partial fractions,
1 x
3 x
2 x
2 x
) 2 x )( 1 x (
4 x x
2 2 2 2
2
+

=
+ +
+

Answer. C x arctan 3 ) 1 x ln(
2
1
2
x
arctan 2 ) 2 x ln(
2
1
2 2
+ + + |
.
|

\
|
+
(2) Hint. Using partial fractions,
1 x x
1 x 2
1 x
7 x 2
) 1 x x )( 1 x (
8 x 7 x 6
2 2 2 2
2
+

+
+
=
+ +
+

Answer. C ) 1 x x ln( x arctan 7 ) 1 x ln(
2 2
+ + + +
(3) Hint. Using partial fractions,
3 x 2
11 x
1 x
6 x
) 3 x 2 )( 1 x (
7 x 2 x x
2 2 2 2
2 3
+

=
+ +
+

Answer. C x
3
6
arctan
6
6 11
) 3 x 2 ln(
4
1
x arctan 6 ) 1 x ln(
2
1
2 2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
(4) Hint. Using partial fractions,
1 x
1 x
7
4
9 x 2
50 x 43
7
1
) 9 x 2 )( 1 x (
2 x x 6 x 5
2 2 2 2
2 3
+

=
+ +
+

Answer.
C x
3
2
arctan
21
2 25
) 9 x 2 ln(
28
43
x arctan
7
4
) 1 x ln(
7
2
2 2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
Exercise 33. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 2 x 2 x ( ) 2 x (
3 x 5 x 2
2 2
2 3
}
+ +
+
2) dx
) 1 x 3 ( ) 3 x 3 x (
1 x 4 x 2 x 5
2 2
2 3
}
+ +
+ +

3) dx
) 4 x )( 1 x 2 (
8 x 6 x 5
2 2
2
}
+ +
+
4) dx
) x 2 x 3 x 2 ( ) 5 x 3 (
1 x 3 x 11
2 3 2
2
}
+ +
+

(1) Hint. Using partial fractions,
2 x 2 x
2 x 5
4
1
2 x
8 x 13
4
1
) 2 x 2 x )( 2 x (
3 x 5 x 2
2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+

+
+
=
+ +
+

Answer.
C
2
x
arctan 2 ) 2 x ln(
8
13
) 1 x arctan(
4
7
) 2 x 2 x ln(
8
5
2 2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
377
(2) Hint. Using partial fractions,
1 x 3
59 x 127
91
1
3 x 3 x
86 x 194
91
1
) 3 x 3 x )( 1 x 3 (
1 x 4 x 2 x 5
2 2 2 2
2 3
+


+

=
+ +
+ +

Answer. + + + + + ) 3 x 3 x ln(
91
97
) x 3 arctan(
273
3 59
) 1 x 3 ln(
546
127
2 2


C
3
3 x 2
arctan
273
3 410
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
(3) Hint. Using partial fractions,
1 x 2
11 x 12
7
1
4 x
2 x
7
6
) 4 x )( 1 x 2 (
8 x 6 x 5
2 2 2 2
2
+


+
+
=
+ +
+


Answer. C
2
x
arctan
7
6
) 4 x ln(
7
3
) x 2 arctan(
14
2 11
) 1 x 2 ln(
7
3
2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + +
(4) Hint. Using partial fractions,
5 x 3
2790 x 291
755
1
2 x 3 x 2
537 x 138
302
1
x
1
10
1
) x 2 x 3 x 2 )( 5 x 3 (
1 x 3 x 11
2 2 2 3 2
2
+
+

+
+
+ =
+ +
+

Answer.
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + ) 5 x 3 ln(
1510
97
7
3 x 4
arctan
302
7 183
) 2 x 3 x 2 ln(
604
69
2 2

C | x | ln
10
1
x
5
15
arctan
755
15 186
+
|
|
.
|

\
|









Exercises 34 and 35 are integrals of the form dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P
}
, where
) x ( Q and ) x ( P are integral polynomials with ) x ( Q deg ) x ( P deg < .
The denominator ) x ( Q has complex repeated roots.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
378

Exercise 34. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 1 x (
2 x x
2 2
2
}
+
+
2) dx
) 1 x x (
1 x 3 x 2
2 2
2
}
+
+

3) dx
) 1 x ( ) 1 x 2 (
1 x 2 x x
2 2 2
2 3
}
+ +
+
4) dx
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
1 x x 2 x x
3 2
2 3 4
}
+
+ +

(1) Hint. Perform the partial fraction decomposition

2 2 2 2 2
2
) 1 x (
D x C
1 x
B x A
) 1 x (
2 x x
+
+
+
+
+
=
+
+

and determine the coefficients A, B, C and D. You will find
2 2 2 2 2
2
) 1 x (
1 x
1 x
1
) 1 x (
2 x x
+

+
=
+
+

Answer. C x arctan
2
3
) 1 x ( 2
1 x
2
+ +
+
+

(2) Hint. Perform the partial fraction decomposition
2 2 2 2 2
2
) 1 x x (
1 x
1 x x
2
) 1 x x (
1 x 3 x 2
+
+

+
=
+
+

Answer. C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
1 x x
1 x
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+


(3) Hint. Perform the partial fraction decomposition
1 x
x
) 1 x 2 (
1 x 3
1 x 2
x 2
) 1 x ( ) 1 x 2 (
1 x 2 x x
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3
+
+
+

+
+
=
+ +
+

Answer. C ) x 2 arctan(
4
2
) 1 x 2 ( 4
3 x 2
1 x 2
1 x
ln
2
1
2 2
2
+
+
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

(4) Hint. Perform the partial fraction decomposition

) 2 x ( 25
3
) 1 x ( 25
6 x 3
) 1 x ( 5
9 x 2
) 1 x (
2
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
1 x x 2 x x
2 2 2 3 2 3 2
2 3 4

+
+
+

+
+
+
+
=
+
+ +

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
379
Answer.
C | 2 x | ln
25
3
) 1 x ln(
50
3
x arctan
100
9
) 1 x ( 2
x
) 1 x ( 20
4 x 3
2
2 2 2
+ + +
+


Exercise 35. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 2 x 2 x ( ) 1 x (
) 5 x 3 x 3 x ( 25
2 3 2
2 3 5
}
+ +
+ +

2) dx
) 2 x 3 ( ) 3 x 3 x (
74 x 228 x 129 x 614 x 123 x 399
2 2 2
2 3 4 5
}
+ +
+ +

3) dx
) x 2 x ( ) 1 x x (
4 x 16 x 33 x 27 x 15 x x 2
2 3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6
}
+ +
+ + +

4) dx
) 1 x ( x
1 x 3 x 20 x 14 x 20 x 19 x 4 x 7
3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6 7
}
+
+ + +

(1) Hint. Using partial fractions, we have
3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2
2 3 5
) 1 x (
30 x 40
) 1 x (
103 x 41
) 1 x ( 5
11 x 58
) 2 x 2 x ( 5
127 x 58
) 2 x 2 x ( ) 1 x (
) 5 x 3 x 3 x ( 25
+

+
+
+
+
+

=
+ +
+ +

Answer. + +
+
+

) 1 x arctan(
5
69
x arctan
20
849
) 1 x ( 2
) 4 x 3 ( 5
) 1 x ( 4
82 x 161
2 2 2

C
1 x
2 x 2 x
ln
5
29
2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
(2) Hint. Using partial fractions, we have
=
+ +
+ +
2 2 2
2 3 4 5
) 2 x 3 ( ) 3 x 3 x (
74 x 228 x 129 x 614 x 123 x 399

2 2 2 2
) 2 x 3 (
8 x 12
2 x 3
5 x 7
3 x 3 x
5 x 42
+
+

+
+

=
Answer. + + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
+
) 3 x 3 x ln( 21 x
2
6
arctan
6
6 7
) 2 x 3 ln(
6
7
2 x 3
2 x 2
2 2
2

C
3
3 x 2
arctan
3
3 116
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
380
(3) Hint. Using partial fractions, we have
=
+ +
+ + +
) x 2 x ( ) 1 x x (
4 x 16 x 33 x 27 x 15 x x 2
2 3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6

2 x
4
x
5
x
2
) 1 x x (
1 x
1 x x
2 x 3
2 2 2 2
+
+ +
+

+
+
=
Answer. + |
.
|

\
|
+ + +
+
+
3
1 x 2
arctan
9
3 23
) 1 x x ln(
2
3
) 1 x x ( 3
1 x
2
2

C | x | ln 5
x
2
| 2 x | ln 4 + + +
(4) Hint. Using partial fractions, we have
=
+
+ + +
3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6 7
) 1 x ( x
1 x 3 x 20 x 14 x 20 x 19 x 4 x 7

x
3
x
1
) 1 x (
3 x
) 1 x (
11 x 2
1 x
3 x 4
2 3 2 2 2 2
+
+
+

+
+

=
Answer.
C | x | ln 3
x
1
x arctan
8
77
) 1 x ln( 2
) 1 x ( 4
1 x 3
) 1 x ( 8
8 x 53
2
2 2 2
+ + + + +
+

+
+







In this case we perform the Euclidean division first.
Exercise 36. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
1 x
2 x 3 x 7 x 5
2
2 3
}
+
+
2) dx
2 x 2 x
5 x x 2 x 8
2
2 3
}
+
+

3) dx
x 2 x 6 x 4
5 x x 2 x 8
2 3
2 3
}
+
+
4) dx
1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2
4 x 3 x x 4 x 12
2 3 4
2 3 4
}
+ +
+

(1) Hint. Performing Euclidean division, we find
Exercises 36 and 37 are integrals of the form dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P
}
, where
) x ( Q and ) x ( P are integral polynomials with ) x ( Q deg ) x ( P deg > .
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
381

1 x
5 x 2
7 x 5
1 x
2 x 3 x 7 x 5
2 2
2 3
+

=
+
+

Answer. C x arctan 5 ) 1 x ln( x 7
2
x 5
2
2
+ + +
(2) Hint. We perform the Euclidean division and we find
2 x 2 x
33 x 13
14 x 8
2 x 2 x
5 x x 2 x 8
2 2
2 3
+

+ + =
+
+

Answer. C ) 1 x arctan( 20 ) 2 x 2 x ln(
2
13
x 14 x 4
2 2
+ + + +
(3) Hint. We perform the Euclidean division and we find
x 2 x 6 x 4
5 x 3 x 10
2
x 2 x 6 x 4
5 x x 2 x 8
2 3
2
2 3
2 3
+

+ =
+
+

We also have ) 1 x 2 )( 1 x ( x 2 x 2 x 6 x 4
2 3
= + . Using partial fractions, we get
1 x 2
8
x 2
5
1 x
1
x 2 x 6 x 4
5 x 3 x 10
2 3
2

=
+

.
Answer. C | 1 x 2 | ln 4 | x | ln
2
5
| 1 x | ln x 2 + + +
(4) Hint. We perform the Euclidean division and we find
1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2
10 x 21 x 19 x 14
6
1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2
4 x 3 x x 4 x 12
2 3 4
2 3
2 3 4
2 3 4
+ +
+
+ =
+ +
+

We also have ) 1 x ( ) 1 x 2 ( ) 1 x ( 1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2
2 2 3 4
+ = + + . Using partial
fractions, we have
1 x 2
4
1 x
3
1 x
3 x 2
1 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2
10 x 21 x 19 x 14
2 2 3 4
2 3

+
+

=
+ +
+

Answer. C | 1 x 2 | ln 2 | 1 x | ln 3 x arctan 3 ) 1 x ln( x 6
2
+ + + + +
Exercise 37. Evaluate the integrals
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
382
1) dx
x x x
1 x x 3 x 4 x 7 x 8
2 3
2 3 4 5
}
+
+ + +

2) dx
x 2 x 2 x
7 x 3 x 5 x 2 x 3 x 9 x 12
2 3
2 3 4 5 6
}
+
+ + +

3) dx
2 x x 2 x
9 x 3 x x 6 x 8 x 9
2 3
2 3 4 5
}
+ + +
+ +

4) dx
1 x x 2 x x
7 x 5 x 2 x 3 x x 2 x 7
2 3 4
2 3 4 5 6
}
+ +
+ + +

(1) Hint. We perform the Euclidean division and we find
x x x
1 x 4 x 7
3 x x 8
x x x
1 x x 3 x 4 x 7 x 8
2 3
2
2
2 3
2 3 4 5
+

+ =
+
+ + +

Using partial fractions, we have
1 x x
5 x 8
x
1
x x x
1 x 4 x 7
2 2 3
2
+

=
+


Answer.
C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 2
| 1 x x | ln 4 | x | ln x 3
2
x
3
x 8
2
2 3
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
(2) Hint. We perform the Euclidean division and we find
=
+
+ + +
x 2 x 2 x
7 x 3 x 5 x 2 x 3 x 9 x 12
2 3
2 3 4 5 6

x 2 x 2 x
7 x 25 x 41
14 x 9 x 15 x 12
2 3
2
2 3
+

+ + =
Using partial fractions, we have
) 2 x 2 x ( 2
64 x 89
x 2
7
x 2 x 2 x
7 x 25 x 41
2 2 3
2
+

=
+


Answer.
+ + + + ) 2 x 2 x ln(
4
89
| x | ln
2
7
x 14
2
x 9
x 5 x 3
2
2
3 4

C ) 1 x arctan(
2
25
+
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
383
(3) Hint. We perform the Euclidean division and we find
=
+ + +
+ +
2 x x 2 x
9 x 3 x x 6 x 8 x 9
2 3
2 3 4 5


2 x x 2 x
107 x 6 x 91
49 x 26 x 9
2 3
2
2
+ + +
+
+ =
Using partial fractions, we have
) 2 x ( 5
483
) 1 x ( 5
26 x 28
2 x x 2 x
107 x 6 x 91
2 2 3
2
+

=
+ + +
+

Answer.
C x arctan
5
26
) 1 x ln(
4
15
| 2 x | ln
5
483
x 49 x 13 x 3
2 2 3
+ + + + +
(4) Hint. We perform the Euclidean division and we find
=
+ +
+ + +
1 x x 2 x x
7 x 5 x 2 x 3 x x 2 x 7
2 3 4
2 3 4 5 6

1 x x 2 x x
15 x 8 x 12 x 14
8 x 5 x 7
2 3 4
2 3
2
+ +
+
+ =
Using partial fractions we have
1 x x
21 x 17
1 x
6 x 3
1 x x 2 x x
15 x 8 x 12 x 14
2 2 2 3 4
2 3
+

=
+ +
+

Answer.
+ + + + + ) 1 x x ln(
2
17
x arctan 6 ) 1 x ln(
2
3
x 8
2
x 5
3
x 7
2 2
2 3

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 25
+ |
.
|

\
|
+






Exercises 38-40 are integrals of the form dx
) x ( Q
) x ( P
}
, where
) x ( Q and ) x ( P are integral polynomials. The evaluation will be making
use of the Ostrogradsky Method.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
384




Exercise 38. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 7 x 3 x (
4 x 6 x 3
3 2
2
}
+
+
2) dx
) 3 x x (
5 x 6
3 2
}
+
+

3) dx
) 1 x x (
7 x 5 x
2 2
5 6
}
+
+ +
4) dx
) 1 x x ( x
4 x 8 x 7 x 5
4 2 3
2 4 6
}
+
+ +

(1) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
dx
7 x 3 x
b x a
) 7 x 3 x (
D x C x B Ax
dx
) 7 x 3 x (
4 x 6 x 3
2 2 2
2 3
3 2
2
} }
+
+
+
+
+ + +
=
+
+

Answer. C
19
3 x 2
arctan
6859
19 78
) 7 x 3 x ( 722
648 x 422 x 351 x 78
2 2
2 3
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+
+

(2) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
dx
3 x x
b x a
) 3 x x (
D x C x B Ax
dx
) 3 x x (
5 x 6
2 2 2
2 3
3 2
} }
+
+
+
+
+ + +
=
+
+

Answer.
C
11
1 x 2
arctan
1331
11 96
) 3 x x ( 242
595 x 512 x 144 x 96
2 2
2 3
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
+
+

(3) Hint. Performing the Euclidean division (although this is not necessary using
Ostrogradskys scheme), we get

2 2
2 3
2
2 2
5 6
) 1 x x (
4 x 15 x 20 x 3
11 x 7 x
) 1 x x (
7 x 5 x
+
+
+ + + =
+
+ +

Using Ostrogradsky, we have
dx
1 x x
B x A
1 x x
b x a
dx
) 1 x x (
4 x 15 x 20 x 3
2 2 2 2
2 3
} }
+
+
+
+
+
=
+
+

The Exercises 38-40 are solved using the method of Example 3, 6.10.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
385
Answer.
+ |
.
|

\
|

+
+ + +
3
1 x 2
arctan
3
3 17
) 1 x x ( 6
6 x 108 x 45 x 47 x 19 x 2
2
2 3 4 5

C ) 1 x x ln(
2
3
2
+ + +
(4) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
=
+
+ +
}
dx
) 1 x x ( x
4 x 8 x 7 x 5
4 2 3
2 4 6


}
+
+ +
+
+
+ + + + + + +
=
) 1 x x ( x
c x b x a
) 1 x x ( x
H x G x F x E x D x C x B x A
2
2
3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6 7

Answer.
+
+
+ + + +

3 2 2
2 3 4 5 6 7
) 1 x x ( x 54
108 x 540 x 2385 x 6649 x 8860 x 8631 x 4667 x 1694

C
3
1 x 2
arctan
81
3 1262
) 1 x x ln( 8 | x | ln 16
2
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ +
Exercise 39. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 1 x ( x
7 x 6 x 3 x x 2
2 2 4
2 5 6
}
+
+ +
2) dx
) 1 x 3 ( x
3 x 5 x 4 x x
3 2 2
2 3 4
}
+
+ +

3) dx
) 1 x ( x
3 x x 4
3 3 5
2
}
+
+
4) dx
x 9 x 6 x
5 x 2 x
3 4 5
2
}
+
+

(1) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
+
+
+ + + +
=
+
+ +
}
) 1 x ( x
E x D x C x B x A
dx
) 1 x ( x
7 x 6 x 3 x x 2
2 3
2 3 4
2 2 4
2 5 6

dx
) 1 x ( x
c x b x a
2
2
}
+
+ +
+
Answer.
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
386
C x arctan 14 ) 1 x ln( 6 | x | ln 12
) 1 x ( x 6
14 x 18 x 52 x 39 x 72
2
2 3
2 3 4
+ + + +
+
+ + +

(2) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
+
+
+ + + +
=
+
+ +
}
2 2
2 3 4
3 2 2
2 3 4
) 1 x 3 ( x
E Dx Cx Bx Ax
dx
) 1 x 3 ( x
3 x 5 x 4 x x

dx
) 1 x 3 ( x
c x b x a
2
2
}
+
+ +
+
Answer.
C ) x 3 arctan(
9
3 46
x
1 x 3
ln
2
5
) 1 x 3 ( x 6
18 x 22 x 154 x 45 x 276
2
2
2 2
2 3 4
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+ + + +

(3) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
+
+
=
+
+
}
2 3 4
9
3 3 5
2
) 1 x ( x
) x ( P
dx
) 1 x ( x
3 x x 4

dx
) 1 x x )( 1 x ( x
d x c x b x a
2
2 3
}
+ +
+ + +
+
where ) x ( P
9
is a ninth-degree polynomial. Differentiating the previous identity
and equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we get
+ + + + =
4 5 6 7 8 9
9
x
2
3
x
9
64
x
12
245
x x
9
40
x
3
35
) x ( P

4
3
x
3
1
x 2 x
2
15
2 3
+ +
and 0 a = ,
3
35
b = ,
9
80
c = , 3 d = . We then calculate the integral
+ + + =
+ +
+
}
| 1 x | ln
27
212
) 1 x x ln(
54
131
dx
) 1 x x )( 1 x ( x
3 x
9
80
x
3
35
2
2
2


3
1 x 2
arctan
27
3 25
| x | ln 3

+ +
Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
387
using partial fractions.
Answer. Add the two parts.
(4) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have, since
2 3 3 4 5
) 3 x ( x x 9 x 6 x = +
dx
) 3 x ( x
B x A
) 3 x ( x
c x b x a
dx
x 9 x 6 x
5 x 2 x
2
2
3 4 5
2
} }

+
+

+ +
=
+
+

Answer. C
3 x
x
ln
27
4
) 3 x ( x 18
15 x 3 x 8
2
2
+
|
.
|

\
|



Exercise 40. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
7 x 5 x
2 2 3
2
}
+ +
+
2) dx
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
1 x 3 x 5 x 2
2 3
2 3
}
+
+ +

3) dx
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
) 1 x (
2 3 2
2 2
}
+ +
+

(1) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
dx
) 1 x )( 1 x (
c x b ax
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
D x C x B Ax
dx
) 1 x ( ) 1 x (
7 x 5 x
2
2
2 2
2 3
2 2 3
2
} }
+ +
+ +
+
+ +
+ + +
=
+ +
+

Answer. C
1 x
) 1 x (
ln
8
13
) 1 x ( ) 1 x ( 8
50 x 47 x 72 x 49
2
2
2 2
2 3
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+ +
+ + +

(2) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
dx
) 1 x )( 2 x (
B x A
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
c x b x a
dx
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
1 x 3 x 5 x 2
2
2
2 3
2 3
} }
+
+
+
+
+ +
=
+
+ +

Answer. C
1 x
2 x
ln
27
10
) 1 x ( ) 2 x ( 18
7 x 31 x 16
2
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
+
+

(3) Hint. Using Ostrogradsky, we have
+
+ +
+ + + +
=
+ +
+
}
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
E x D x C x B x A
dx
) 1 x ( ) 2 x (
) 1 x (
2 2
2 3 4
2 3 2
2 2

Chapter 6- Integrals of rational functions
388
dx
) 1 x )( 2 x (
c x b x a
2
2
}
+ +
+ +
+
Answer. C x
2
2
arctan
64
2 3
) 1 x ( ) 2 x ( 96
80 x 14 x 62 x 9 x 9
2 2
2 3 4
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ +
+ + + +


7

Integrals of
Exponential Functions



Learning Objectives

In this Section the student will learn how to evaluate
integrals involving exponential functions.
The classification involves fifteen cases.














Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
390
Contents and Taxonomy
First Category. Integrals of the form

}
dx e x
x n
and
}
dx e ) x ( P
x

where ) x ( P is an nth-degree polynomial
Second Category. Integrals of the form

}
dx ) e ( R
x

where ) x ( R is a rational function.
Third Category. Integrals of the form
dx
a x
e
x p
}

and dx
) a x (
e
n
x p
}

.
Fourth Category. Integrals of the form
dx
) a x (
e ) x ( P
n
x p
}

,
where ) x ( P is a polynomial with 1 n ) x ( P deg = .
Fifth Category. Integrals of the form
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
}
+ +

Sixth Category. Integrals of the form
dx
) c bx x a (
e
n 2
x p
}
+ +

Seventh Category. Integrals of the form

}
dx e ) x ( R
x

where ) x ( R is a rational function.

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
391
7.1 First Category. This Category includes integrals of the form

}
dx e x
x n
and
}
dx e ) x ( P
x

where ) x ( P is an nth-degree polynomial.
7.1.1 Case I. Integrals of the form
}
dx e x
x n

First Method
We put

}
= dx e x I
x n
n

Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
x
e
n
x
x
e

1

1 n
x n


we find

} }
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =

dx ) x n ( e

1
e x

1
dx e x I
1 n x x n x n
n

}
= =

dx x e

n
e x

1
1 n x x n

1 n
x n
I

n
e x

=
We thus have arrived at the recurrent formula

1 n
x n
n
I

n
e x

1
I

=

}
= dx e x I
x n
n

Second Method. We set
C e ) a x a x a x a ( dx e x I
x
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0
x n
n
+ + + + + = =

}

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
392
The coefficients
n 1 n 1 0
a , a , , a , a

can be determined by differentiation of the
above identity and equating the similar powers of x. We consider the following
example.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx e x I
x 2 3

Solution.
First Method.
Considering the integral
}
= dx e x I
x 2 n
n
we find the recurrent formula
1 n
x 2 n
n
I
2
n
e x
2
1
I

= .
For 3 n = we have
2
x 2 3
3
I
2
3
e x
2
1
I =
For 2 n = we have
1
x 2 2
2
I
2
2
e x
2
1
I =
For 1 n = we have
0
x 2
1
I
2
1
e x
2
1
I =
Since
x 2 x 2
0
e
2
1
dx e I = =
}
, we get from the above relations
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
x 2 2 x 2 3
3
I
2
2
e x
2
1
2
3
e x
2
1
I
= + =
1
x 2 2 x 2 3
I
2
3
e x
4
3
e x
2
1

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
0
x 2 x 2 2 x 2 3
I
2
1
e x
2
1
2
3
e x
4
3
e x
2
1

= + =
0
x 2 x 2 2 x 2 3
I
4
3
e x
4
3
e x
4
3
e x
2
1

C e
8
3
e x
4
3
e x
4
3
e x
2
1
x 2 x 2 x 2 2 x 2 3
+ + =
Second Method. Put
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
393
C e ) a x a x a x a ( dx e x
x 2
3 2
2
1
3
0
x 2 3
+ + + + =
}

Differentiating the above equation we have

x 2
3 2
2
1
3
0
x 2
2 1
2
0
x 2 3
e ) a x a x a x a ( 2 e ) a x a 2 x a 3 ( e x + + + + + + =
Canceling the common factor
x 2
e we derive the equation
) a x a x a x a ( 2 ) a x a 2 x a 3 ( x
3 2
2
1
3
0 2 1
2
0
3
+ + + + + + =
which is equivalent to

3 2 2 1
2
1 0
3
0
3
a 2 a x ) a 2 a 2 ( x ) a 2 a 3 ( x a 2 x + + + + + + =
From the previous equation, equating the coefficients of the like exponents of the
variable x, we obtain the simultaneous equations

0
a 2 1= ,
1 0
a 2 a 3 0 + = ,
2 1
a 2 a 2 0 + = ,
3 2
a 2 a 0 + =
Solving the system, we find

2
1
a
0
= ,
4
3
a
1
= ,
4
3
a
2
= and
8
3
a
3
=
Therefore
C e
8
3
x
4
3
x
4
3
x
2
1
dx e x
x 2 2 3 x 2 3
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
}

which is exactly what we have obtained earlier.
7.1.2 Case II. For integrals of the form
}
dx e ) x ( P
x
, where ) x ( P is an nth-
degree polynomial, we either integrate term by term using the reduction formula,
or consider the identity
C e ) a x a x a x a ( dx e ) x ( P
x
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0
x
+ + + + + =

}

and proceed as before. We usually prefer the second method.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx e ) 3 x x 2 (
x 2 2
}
+
Solution. We consider the identity
C e ) a x a x a ( dx e ) 3 x x 2 (
x 2
2 1
2
0
x 2 2
+ + + = +
}

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
394
Differentiation of the above identity we get

x 2
2 1
2
0
x 2
1 0
x 2 2
e ) a x a x a ( 2 e ) a x a 2 ( e ) 3 x x 2 ( + + + + = +
and canceling the factor
x 2
e we get
) a x a x a ( 2 ) a x a 2 ( 3 x x 2
2 1
2
0 1 0
2
+ + + + = +
which can be written as

2 1 0
2
0
2
a 2 x ) a 2 a 2 ( x a 2 3 x x 2 + + + = +
Equating the similar powers of the variable x, we derive the system of equations

0
a 2 2 = ,
1 0
a 2 a 2 1 + = and
2
a 2 3 =
The solution of the previous system is
1 a
0
= ,
2
3
a
1
= ,
2
3
a
2
=
Therefore
C e
2
3
x
2
3
x dx e ) 3 x x 2 (
x 2 2 x 2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
}

Example 2. If ) x ( P is an n-th degree polynomial, show that the integral
dx ) x ( P e
x a
}


can be expressed into the form

x a
1 n
) n (
3 2
x a
e
a
) x ( P
a
) x ( P
a
) x ( P
a
) x ( P
dx ) x ( P e

+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
' '
+
'
+ =
}

Solution. Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f ) x ( g'

x a
e



) x ( P
x a
e
a
1


) x ( P'
we find
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
395
dx ) x ( P e
a
1
) x ( P e
a
1
dx ) x ( P e
x a x a x a
} }
' + =

(1)
We also find, using the same method
dx ) x ( P e
a
1
) x ( P e
a
1
dx ) x ( P e
x a x a x a
} }
' ' + ' = '

(2)
dx ) x ( P e
a
1
) x ( P e
a
1
dx ) x ( P e
x a x a x a
} }
' ' ' + ' ' = ' '

(3)

dx ) x ( P e
a
1
) x ( P e
a
1
dx ) x ( P e
) n ( x a ) 1 n ( x a ) 1 n ( x a
} }

+ = (n)
dx ) x ( P e
a
1
) x ( P e
a
1
dx ) x ( P e
) 1 n ( x a ) n ( x a ) n ( x a
} }
+
+ =
or, since for an n-th degree polynomial we have 0 ) x ( P
) 1 n (
=
+
,
) x ( P e
a
1
dx ) x ( P e
) n ( x a ) n ( x a
=
}
(n+1)
Multiplying equation (2) by
a
1
, equation (3) by
2
a
1
, equation (4) by
3
a
1
, .,
equation (n+1) by
n
a
1
and adding the resulting equations, we get

x a
1 n
) n (
3 2
x a
e
a
) x ( P
a
) x ( P
a
) x ( P
a
) x ( P
dx ) x ( P e

+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
' '
+
'
+ =
}

7.2 Second Category. This Category includes integrals of the form

}
dx ) e ( R
x

where ) x ( R is a rational function.
In this case we apply the transformation
x
e t = . From this relation we get
x t ln = and dt
t
1

1
dx = . Therefore the integral transforms to
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
396

}
dt
t
) t ( R

1

which is an integral of a rational function and can be evaluated using the methods
of Section 6.
Example1. Evaluate the integral dx
1 e
2 e
I
x
x
}
+
+
=
Solution. Using the transformation
x
e t = , we have t ln x = and dt
t
1
dx = .
Therefore the integral becomes
dt
t ) 1 t (
2 t
dt
t
1
1 t
2 t
I
} }
+
+
=
+
+
=
Using partial fraction decomposition

1 t
1
t
2
t ) 1 t (
2 t
+
=
+
+

we get
= + + =
+
=
} }
C | 1 t | ln | t | ln 2 dt
1 t
1
dt
t
2
I
C ) 1 e ln( x 2 C ) 1 e ln( ) e ln( 2
x x x
+ + = + + =
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
e 2 1
1
I
x
}
+
=
Solution.
First Method. Using the transformation
x
e t = , we have t ln x = and dt
t
1
dx = .
Therefore the integral becomes
dt
t ) t 2 1 (
1
dt
t
1
t 2 1
1
I
} }
+
=
+
=
Using partial fraction decomposition

1 t 2
2
t
1
t ) t 2 1 (
1
+
=
+

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
397
we get
= + + =
+
=
} }
C | 1 t 2 | ln | t | ln dt
1 t 2
2
dt
t
1
I
C ) 1 e 2 ln( x C ) 1 e 2 ln( ) e ln(
x x x
+ + = + + =
Second Method. We have
dx
2 e
e
dx
e 2 1
1
I
x
x
x
} }
+
=
+
=



Using the substitution 2 e u
x
+ =

, we have dx e du
x
= . Therefore
= + = =
+
=
} }
C | u | ln
u
du
dx
e 2 1
1
I
x

C | 2 e | ln
x
+ + =


We can check that the results of the two methods are identical.
Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
e e
1
I
x x
}

+
=
Solution.
First Method. Using the transformation
x
e t = , we have t ln x = and dt
t
1
dx = .
Therefore the integral becomes
= + =
+
=
+
=
} }
C t arctan dt
1 t
1
dt
t
1
t
1
t
1
I
2

C ) e arctan(
x
+ =
Second Method. We have
dx
1 e
e
dx
e e
1
I
x 2
x
x x
} }
+
=
+
=


Using the substitution
x
e u = we find dx e du
x
= . Therefore
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
398
C ) e arctan( C u arctan
1 u
du
I
x
2
+ = + =
+
=
}

7.3 Third Category. This Category includes integrals of the form
dx
a x
e
x p
}

and dx
) a x (
e
n
x p
}


These integral are not elementary. The first integral is written in equivalent form
as
dx p
) a x ( p
e
e dx
a x
e
) a x ( p
a p
x p
} }

=



Using the substitution ) a x ( p u = , dx p du = , the integral is transformed into
du
u
e
e
u
a p
}

The above integral remind us the exponential integral, defined by

}

=
x t
dt
t
e
) x ( Ei , 0 x >
Therefore, without loss of generality, instead of considering du
u
e
u
}
, we consider
the integral
) u ( Ei dt
t
e
u t

}


Going back to the original variable, since ) a x ( p u = , we get
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}

For the integral dx
) a x (
e
J
n
x p
n }

= we can establish a reduction formula.
Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
399
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'

n
) a x (
1



x p
e
1 n
) a x (
1
1 n
1



x p
e p
we find
dx
) a x (
e
1 n
p
) a x (
e
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
e
J
1 n
x p
1 n
x p
n
x p
n } }

=
or

1 n
1 n
x p
n
x p
n
J
1 n
p
) a x (
e
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
e
J

=
}

This is the reduction formula for the integral dx
) a x (
e
J
n
x p
n }

= .
After successive reductions we end up to the evaluation of the integral
dx
a x
e
x p
}


which, as mentioned earlier, is not elementary, but can be expressed in terms of
the exponential integral ) x ( Ei .
Note 1. Integrals of the form dx
a x
e
x p
}

and dx
) a x (
e
n
x p
}

can also be evaluated
by the substitution

p
t ln
a x = .
We then have
p
t ln
a x + = , t ln a p x p + = ,
t e e e e e
a p t ln a p t ln a p x p
= = =
+

dt
t
1
p
1
dx = .
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
400
Therefore

} } }
= =
t ln
dt
e dt
t
1
p
1
p
t ln
t e
dx
a x
e
a p
a p x p

and

} } }

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

n
a p 1 n
n
a p
n
x p
) t (ln
dt
e p dt
t
1
p
1
p
t ln
t e
dx
) a x (
e

The last integral, denoted by
dx
) x (ln
1
I
n
n }
=
can be evaluated using the reduction formula (Section 8, 8.4)

1 n
1 n
n
I
1 n
1
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
I

=
The integral
}
t ln
dt
is not an elementary integral, i.e. it cannot be expressed in
terms of elementary functions.
Note 2. The function defined by the definite integral

}
=
x
0
t ln
dt
) x ( li
is called the logarithmic integral.
The following relation holds between the logarithmic and exponential integrals:
) x (ln Ei ) x ( li = , 1 x >
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x
e
I
x
}

=
Solution. Using the formula
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}

we established earlier, for 1 p = and 1 a = , we find
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
401
) 1 x ( Ei e dx
1 x
e
I
x
=

=
}

Second method. Using the substitution t ln 1 x = , we have t ln 1 x + = and
dt
t
1
dx = . Therefore
dt
t ln
1
e dt
t
1
t ln
t
e dt
t
1
t ln
e e
dt
t
1
t ln
e
I
t ln t ln 1
} } } }
= =

= =
+

or
) 1 x ( Ei e ) t (ln Ei e ) t ( li e dt
t ln
1
e I = = = =
}

Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx
1 x
e
I
x 2
}
+
=
Solution. Using the formula
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}

we established earlier for 2 p = and 1 a = , we find
)) 1 x ( 2 ( Ei e dx
1 x
e
I
2
x 2
+ =
+
=

}

Second method. Using the substitution
2
t ln
1 x = + , we have
2
t ln
1 x + = ,
t ln 2 x 2 + = and dt
t
1
2
1
dx = . Therefore
= =
+
=
} }
+
dt
t
1
2
1
2
t ln
e
dx
1 x
e
I
t ln 2 x 2

dt
t ln
1
e dt
t
1
t ln
t
e dt
t
1
t ln
e e
2 2
t ln 2
} } }

= =

=
or
)) 1 x ( 2 ( Ei e ) t (ln Ei e ) t ( li e dt
t ln
1
e I
2 2 2 2
+ = = = =

}

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
402
Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
) 2 x (
e
I
3
x 3
}

=
Solution. Using the reduction formula
1 n
1 n
x 3
n
J
1 n
3
) 2 x (
e
1 n
1
J

=
for the integral dx
) 2 x (
e
J I
3
x 3
3 }

= , we find
for 3 n = ,
2
2
x 3
3
J
2
3
) 2 x (
e
2
1
J +

=
for 3 n = ,
1
x 3
2
J 3
2 x
e
J +

=
where )) 2 x ( 3 ( Ei e dx
2 x
e
J
6
x 3
1
=

=
}

Collecting everything together, we find
= +

=
} 2
2
x 3
3
x 3
3
J
2
3
) 2 x (
e
2
1
dx
) 2 x (
e
J I
=

=
1
x 3
2
x 3
J 3
2 x
e
2
3
) 2 x (
e
2
1

=

= )) 2 x ( 3 ( Ei e 3
2 x
e
2
3
) 2 x (
e
2
1
6
x 3
2
x 3

)) 2 x ( 3 ( Ei e
2
9
2 x
e
2
3
) 2 x (
e
2
1
6
x 3
2
x 3
+

=
Second Method. Using the substitution
3
t ln
2 x = , we have
3
t ln
2 x + = ,
t ln 6 x 3 + = and dt
t
1
3
1
dx = . Therefore
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
403
=

=
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
} } }
+
dt
t
1
3
1
27
) t (ln
e e
dt
t
1
3
1
3
t ln
e
dx
) 2 x (
e
I
3
t ln 6
3
t ln 6
3
x 3

dt
) t (ln
1
e 9
3
6
}
=
Using the reduction formula
1 n
1 n
n
I
1 n
1
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
I

= , dx
) x (ln
1
I
n
n }
=
we find

2
2 3
3
I
2
1
) t (ln
t
2
1
dt
) t (ln
1
I + = =
}

where

1
2
2
I
t ln
t
dt
) t (ln
1
I + = =
}

and
)) 2 x ( 3 ( Ei ) t (ln Ei ) t ( li
t ln
dt
I
1
= = = =
}

Therefore

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
} 1 2 3
I
t ln
t
2
1
) t (ln
t
2
1
dt
) t (ln
1

or

1
2 3
I
2
1
t ln
t
2
1
) t (ln
t
2
1
dt
) t (ln
1
+ =
}

We thus find
C I
2
1
t ln
t
2
1
) t (ln
t
2
1
e 9 dx
) 2 x (
e
I
1
2
6
3
x 3
+
)
`

+ =

=
}

or
=

=
}
dx
) 2 x (
e
I
3
x 3

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
404
C )) 2 x ( 3 ( Ei e
2
9
) 2 x ( 3
e
e
2
9
) 2 x ( 9
e
e
2
9
6
) 2 x ( 3
6
2
) 2 x ( 3
6
+ +

=


C )) 2 x ( 3 ( Ei e
2
9
) 2 x ( 3
e
2
3
) 2 x (
e
2
1
6
x 3
2
x 3
+ +

=
7.4 Fourth Category.
Integrals of the form dx
) a x (
e ) x ( P
n
x p
}

, where ) x ( P is a polynomial with
1 n ) x ( P deg = . In this case we put
dx
a x
e
A
) a x (
e ) x ( Q
dx
) a x (
e ) x ( P
x p
1 n
x p
n
x p
} }

+



where ) x ( Q is a polynomial (with undetermined coefficients) with
2 n ) x ( Q deg = . In order to determine the coefficients of the polynomial ) x ( Q ,
we differentiate both members of the above identity and equate the similar powers
of the variable x.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (
I
3
x 2 2
}

+
=
Solution. Using the identity
dx
1 x
e
A e
) 1 x (
b x a
dx
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (
x 2
x 2
2 3
x 2 2
} }

+

+
=

+

Differentiating the previous identity we have

1 x
e
A e
) 1 x (
b x a
dx
d
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (
x 2
x 2
2 3
x 2 2

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=

+

which is equivalent to

1 x
e
A ) e (
dx
d
) 1 x (
b x a
e
) 1 x (
b x a
dx
d
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (
x 2
x 2
2
x 2
2 3
x 2 2

+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=

+

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
405
+

+ +
=

x 2
4
2
3
x 2 2
e
) 1 x (
) 1 x ( 2 ) b ax ( ) 1 x ( ) b x a (
dx
d
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (


1 x
e
A e 2
) 1 x (
b x a
x 2
x 2
2

+

+
+
+

+
=

x 2
4
2
3
x 2 2
e
) 1 x (
) 1 x ( 2 ) b ax ( ) 1 x ( a
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (


1 x
e
A e 2
) 1 x (
b x a
x 2
x 2
2

+

+
+
+

+
=

x 2
3 3
x 2 2
e
) 1 x (
) b ax ( 2 ) 1 x ( a
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (


1 x
e
A e
) 1 x (
b x a
2
x 2
x 2
2

+

+
+
2 2
) 1 x ( A ) 1 x )( b ax ( 2 ) b ax ( 2 ) 1 x ( a 1 x x 2 + + + + = +
Performing the operations and arranging the right member we arrive at the
identity:
A b 4 a x ) A 2 b 2 a 3 ( x ) A a 2 ( 1 x x 2
2 2
+ + + = +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of the variable x , we obtain the
system
2 A a 2 = +
1 A 2 b 2 a 3 = +
1 A b 4 a = +
The system is satisfied if 5 a = , 4 b = and 12 A = . Therefore we have
dx
1 x
e
12 e
) 1 x (
4 x 5
dx
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (
x 2
x 2
2 3
x 2 2
} }

+

+
=

+

The last integral can be evaluated using the formula
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
406
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}

for 2 p = and 1 a = :
)) 1 x ( 2 ( Ei e dx
1 x
e
2
x 2
=

}

Therefore
)) 1 x ( 2 ( Ei e 12 e
) 1 x (
4 x 5
dx
) 1 x (
e ) 1 x x 2 (
2 x 2
2 3
x 2 2
+

+
=

+
}

7.5 Fifth Category. Integrals of the form
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
}
+ +
and dx
c bx x a
e ) B x A (
2
x p
}
+ +
+

In this case we suppose that the discriminant 0 ac 4 b D
2
> .
Case I. If 0 D > , then using partial fraction decomposition, we have

|
|
.
|

\
|


=
+ +
2 1 2 1
2
x
1
x
1
) ( a
1
c bx x a
1

where
1
and
2
are the two real roots of the trinomial.
Therefore the first integral transforms into
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
+ +
} } }
dx
x
e
dx
x
e
) ( a
1
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
1
x p
2 1
2
x p

))} x ( p ( Ei e )) x ( p ( Ei e {
) ( a
1
2
p
1
p
2 1
2 1


=


The second integral, since we have the partial fraction decomposition
2 2 1
2
1 2 1
1
2 1
x
1 B A
x
1 B A
) x ( ) x (
B x A


+
=

+

we obtain
=
+ +
+
}
dx
c bx x a
e ) B x A (
2
x p

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
407
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

+

=
} }
dx
x
e
) B A ( dx
x
e
) B A (
) ( a
1
2
x p
2
1
x p
1
2 1

))} x ( p ( Ei e ) B A ( )) x ( p ( Ei e ) B A {(
) ( a
1
2
p
2 1
p
1
2 1
2 1
+ +

=


Case II. If 0 D = , then
2 2
) x ( a c bx x a = + + , where
a 2
b
= is the double
root of the trinomial. Therefore in this case the integral transforms into
dx
) x (
e
a
1
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
2
x p
} }

=
+ +

Using the reduction formula (Section 7.3)

1 n
1 n
x p
n
x p
n
J
1 n
p
) a x (
e
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
e
J

=
}

for 2 n = , we find
= +

=

=
+ +
} } 1
x p
2
x p
2
x p
J
a
p
x
e
a
1
dx
) x (
e
a
1
dx
c bx x a
e

)) x ( p ( Ei e
a
p
x
e
a
1
a p
x p
+

=
7.6 Sixth Category. Integrals of the form
dx
) c bx x a (
e
I
n 2
x p
n }
+ +
= and
}
+ +
+
= dx
) c x b x a (
e ) B Ax (
J
n 2
x p
n
, 3 n >
In this case we suppose that the discriminant 0 ac 4 b D
2
> .
Case I. We have
=
+ +
=
}
dx
) c x b x a (
e
I
n 2
x p
n


} }
+ +
+
+
+ +
=

dx
) c x b x a (
e ) b x a 2 (
D
1
dx
) c x b x a (
e
D
a 4
n 2
x p 2
1 n 2
x p


n 1 n
M
D
1
I
D
a 4
+ =


Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
408
where

}
+ +
+
= dx
) c x b x a (
e ) b x a 2 (
M
n 2
x p 2
n

Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f
n 2
) c bx x a (
b ax 2
+ +
+


x p
e ) b x a 2 ( +
1 n 2
) c bx ax (
1
) 1 n (
1

+ +


x p
e } a 2 ) b ax 2 ( p { ) x ( g + + = '

we find
=
+ +
+
=
}
dx
) c x b x a (
e ) b x a 2 (
M
n 2
x p 2
n

=
+ +
+ +

+
+ +
+

=
}

dx
) c bx ax (
e } a 2 ) b ax 2 ( p {
) 1 n (
1
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
) 1 n (
1
1 n 2
x p
1 n 2
x p

+
+ +
+

+
+ +
+

=
}

dx
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
) 1 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
) 1 n (
1
1 n 2
x p
1 n 2
x p

=
+ +

+
}

dx
) c bx ax (
e
) 1 n (
a 2
1 n 2
x p

1 n 1 n
1 n 2
x p
K
) 1 n (
p
I
) 1 n (
a 2
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
) 1 n (
1

+
+ +
+

=
where

}

+ +
+
= dx
) c x b x a (
e ) b x a 2 (
K
1 n 2
x p
1 n

Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
409
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'

1 n 2
) c bx x a (
b x a 2

+ +
+


x p
e
2 n 2
) c bx ax (
1
) 2 n (
1

+ +

x p
e p

we find
=
+ +
+
=
}

dx
) c x b x a (
e ) b x a 2 (
K
1 n 2
x p
1 n

}

+ +

+
+ +

= dx
) c x b x a (
e
) 2 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e
) 2 n (
1
2 n 2
x p
2 n 2
x p


2 n
2 n 2
x p
I
) 2 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e
) 2 n (
1


+
+ +

=
Collecting everything together, we find
=
+ +
=
}
dx
) c x b x a (
e
I
n 2
x p
n

+
+ +
+

+ =

1 n 1 n
1 n 2
x p
1 n
K
) 1 n (
p
I
) 1 n (
a 2
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
) 1 n (
1
D
1
I
D
a 4

+

+
+ +
+

+ =

1 n
1 n 2
x p
1 n
I
) 1 n (
a 2
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
) 1 n (
1
D
1
I
D
a 4

+
+ +

2 n
2 n 2
x p
I
) 2 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e
) 2 n (
1
) 1 n (
p
D
1

or finally
=
+ +
=
}
dx
) c x b x a (
e
I
n 2
x p
n

+ +

+ +
+

=
2 n 2
x p
1 n 2
x p
) c bx ax (
e
D ) 2 n )( 1 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
D ) 1 n (
1

2 n
2
1 n
I
D ) 2 n )( 1 n (
p
I
D
a 4


+
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
410
Case II. For the integral

}
+ +
+
= dx
) c x b x a (
e ) B Ax (
J
n 2
x p
n

using the identity

a 2
bA aB 2
) b ax 2 (
a 2
A
B x A

+ + = +
we find
=
+ +
+
=
}
dx
) c x b x a (
e ) B Ax (
J
n 2
x p
n


} }
+ +

+
+ +
+
= dx
) c x b x a (
e
a 2
bA aB 2
dx
) c x b x a (
e ) b x a 2 (
a 2
A
n 2
x p
n 2
x p

or

n n 2
x p
n 2
x p
n
I
a 2
bA aB 2
dx
) c x b x a (
e ) b x a 2 (
a 2
A
dx
) c x b x a (
e ) B Ax (
J

+
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
=
} }

Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'

n 2
) c bx x a (
b x a 2
+ +
+


x p
e
1 n 2
) c bx ax (
1
) 1 n (
1

+ +

x p
e p

we find
=
+ +
+
}

dx
) c x b x a (
e ) b x a 2 (
1 n 2
x p

}

+ +

+
+ +

= dx
) c x b x a (
e
) 1 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e
) 1 n (
1
1 n 2
x p
1 n 2
x p


1 n
1 n 2
x p
I
) 1 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e
) 1 n (
1


+
+ +

=
Therefore
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
411
=
+ +
+
=
}
dx
) c x b x a (
e ) B Ax (
J
n 2
x p
n


n 1 n
1 n 2
x p
I
a 2
bA aB 2
I
) 1 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e
) 1 n (
1
a 2
A
+

+
+ +


or
=
+ +
+
=
}
dx
) c x b x a (
e ) B Ax (
J
n 2
x p
n


1 n n
1 n 2
x p
I
a ) 1 n ( 2
Ap
I
a 2
bA aB 2
) c bx ax (
e
a ) 1 n ( 2
A

+
+ +

=
For the integral
n
I we have established reduction formulas previously in this
section.
7.7 Seventh Category. This Category includes integrals of the form

}
dx e ) x ( R
x

where ) x ( R is a rational function.
In this case we express the function ) x ( R as
) x (
) x ( Q
) x ( P ) x ( R + =
where ) x ( P is the proper part (a polynomial) and
) x (
) x ( Q
is the fractional part, i.e.
) x ( Y deg ) x ( Q deg < . We then apply the partial fraction decomposition for the
fractional part. We thus arrive at integrals of the form
dx
a x
e
x p
}

, dx
) a x (
e
n
x p
}

,
dx
) a x (
e ) x ( P
n
x p
}

where n ) x ( P deg <
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
412
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
}
+ +
, dx
) c bx x a (
e
n 2
x p
}
+ +

and
dx
c bx x a
e ) B Ax (
2
x p
}
+ +
+
, dx
) c bx x a (
e ) B Ax (
n 2
x p
}
+ +
+

where we suppose that 0 ac 4 b D
2
> .
All these integrals can be evaluated by methods explained previously.

7.8

Exercises on Integrals of
Exponential Functions






In this case we put
}
= dx e x I
x n
n
and we establish the reduction formula
1 n
x n
n
I

n
e x

1
I

= (see 7.1.1) . Alternatively, we set
C e ) a x a x a x a ( dx e x I
x
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0
x n
n
+ + + + + = =


}

The coefficients
n 1 n 1 0
a , a , , a , a

are determined by differentiation of the
above identity and equating the coefficients of similar powers of x.
Exercise 1 contains integrals of the form
}
dx e x
x n
and
}
dx e ) x ( P
x

where
) x ( P
is an nth-degree polynomial.
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
413
For integrals of the form
}
dx e ) x ( P
x
, where ) x ( P is an nth-degree polynomial,
we either integrate term by term using the reduction formula, or we consider the
identity
C e ) a x a x a x a ( dx e ) x ( P
x
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0
x
+ + + + + =

}

and differentiate both members to determine the coefficients.
Exercise 1. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
dx e x
x 3 2
2)
}
+ dx e ) 2 x x (
x 3 2

3)
}
dx e x
x 3 4
4)
}
+ dx e ) 3 x x 3 x (
x 2 2 3

(1) Hint. Considering the integral
}
= dx e x I
x 3 n
n
, we find the recurrent formula
1 n
x 3 n
n
I
3
n
e x
3
1
I

= . For 2 n = we have
1
x 3 2 x 3 2
2
I
3
2
e x
3
1
dx e x I =
}
.
For 1 n = we have
0
x 3
1
I
3
1
e x
3
1
I = where
x 3 x 3
0
e
3
1
dx e I = =
}
.
Answer. C e
27
2
e x
9
2
e x
3
1
x 3 x 3 x 3 2
+ +
(2) Hint. Put C e ) a x a x a ( dx e ) 2 x x (
x 3
2 1
2
0
x 3 2
+ + + = +
}

Differentiating the above equation we have

x 3
2 1
2
0
x 3
1 0
x 2 2
e ) a x a x a ( 3 e ) a x a 2 ( e ) 2 x x ( + + + + = +
Canceling the common factor
x 3
e we derive the equation

2 1 1 0
2
0
2
a 3 a x ) a 3 a 2 ( x a 3 2 x x + + + + = +
From the previous equation, equating the coefficients of the like exponents of the
variable x, we obtain the simultaneous equations
0
a 3 1= ,
1 0
a 3 a 2 1 + = ,
2 1
a 3 a 2 + = . Solving the system, we find
3
1
a
0
= ,
9
5
a
1
= ,
27
23
a
2
=
Answer. C e
27
23
x
9
5
x
3
1
x 3 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
414
(3) Hint. Put C e ) a x a x a x a x a ( dx e x
x 3
4 3
2
2
3
1
4
0
x 3 4
+ + + + + =
}

Differentiating the above equation we have
+ + + + =
x 3
3 2
2
1
3
0
x 3 4
e ) a x a 2 x a 3 x a 4 ( e x

x 3
4 3
2
2
3
1
4
0
e ) a x a x a x a x a ( 3 + + + + +
Canceling the common factor
x 3
e , we derive the equation

4 3 3 2
2
2 1
3
1 0
4
0
4
a 3 a x ) a 3 a 2 ( x ) a 3 a 3 ( x ) a 3 a 4 ( x a 3 x + + + + + + + + =
From the above identity we obtain the system of simultaneous equations
1 a 3
0
= , 0 a 3 a 4
1 0
= + , 0 a 3 a 3
2 1
= + , 0 a 3 a 2
3 2
= + , 0 a 3 a
4 3
= +
Solving the above system we obtain
3
1
a
0
= ,
9
4
a
1
= ,
9
4
a
2
= ,
27
8
a
3
= and
81
8
a
4
= . Answer. C e
81
8
x
27
8
x
9
4
x
9
4
x
3
1
x 3 2 3 4
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(4) Hint. Put C e ) a x a x a x a ( dx e ) 3 x x 3 x (
x 2
3 2
2
1
3
0
x 2 2 3
+ + + + = +
}

Differentiating the above equation we obtain the identity
+ + + = +
x 2
2 1
2
0
x 2 2 3
e ) a x a 2 x a 3 ( e ) 3 x x 3 x (

x 2
3 2
2
1
3
0
e ) a x a x a x a ( 2 + + + +
Canceling the common factor
x 2
e , we derive the equation

3 2 2 1
2
1 0
3
0
2 3
a 2 a x ) a 2 a 2 ( x ) a 2 a 3 ( x a 2 3 x x 3 x + + + + + + = +
From the above identity we obtain the system of simultaneous equations
1 a 2
0
= , 3 a 2 a 3
1 0
= + , 1 a 2 a 2
2 1
= + , 3 a 2 a
3 2
= +
From the above system we obtain
2
1
a
0
= ,
4
9
a
1
= ,
4
11
a
2
= and
8
23
a
3
= .
Answer. C e
8
23
x
4
11
x
4
9
x
2
1
x 2 2 3
+
|
.
|

\
|
+



Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
415






In this case we apply the transformation
x
e t = . From this relation we get
x t ln = and dt
t
1

1
dx = . Therefore the integral transforms into
}
dt
t
) t ( R

1
,
which is an integral of a rational function and can be evaluated using the methods
of Section 6.
Exercise 2. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
2 e
1 e
x
x
}
+

2) dx
3 e 2
1 e
x 2
x 2
}
+


3) dx
1 e 3 e 2
e
x x 2
x
}
+
4) dx
5 e
e 3 4
x 3
x 3
}
+


5) dx
e e e
3 e e
x x 2 x 3
x x 2
}
+
+
6) dx
) 6 e 5 e (
5 e 3 e
2 x x 2
x x 2
}
+
+

(1) Hint. Using the transformation
x
e t = , we have t ln x = and dt
t
1
dx = .
Therefore the integral becomes dt
t ) 2 t (
1 t
dt
t
1
2 t
1 t
} }
+

=
+

. Using partial fraction


decomposition
t
1
2
1
2 t
1
2
3
t ) 2 t (
1 t

+
=
+

, we get
| t | ln
2
1
| 2 t | ln
2
3
t
dt
2
1
2 t
dt
2
3
dt
) 2 t ( t
1 t
+ =
+
=
+

} } }

Answer. C x
2
1
) 2 e ln(
2
3
x
+ +
(2) Hint. Using the transformation
x 2
e t = , we have t ln
2
1
x = and dt
t 2
1
dx = .
Exercise 2 contains integrals of the form
}
dx ) e ( R
x
where
) x ( R
is a
rational function.
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
416
Therefore the integral becomes dt
) 3 t 2 ( t 2
1 t
dt
t 2
1
3 t 2
1 t
} }
+

=
+

. Using partial
fraction decomposition,
t
1
6
1
3 t 2
2
12
5
) 3 t 2 ( t 2
1 t

+
=
+

, we get
| t | ln
6
1
| 3 t 2 | ln
12
5
t
dt
6
1
3 t 2
dt 2
12
5
dt
) 3 t 2 ( t 2
1 t
+ =
+
=
+

} } }

Answer. C x
3
1
) 3 e 2 ln(
12
5
x 2
+ +
(3) Hint. The substitution
x
e t = converts the integral into
}
+ 1 t 3 t 2
dt
2
.
Since ) 1 t )( 1 t 2 ( 1 t 3 t 2
2
= + , using partial fractions we have
1 t 2
2
1 t
1
) 1 t ( ) 1 t 2 (
1
1 t 3 t 2
1
2

=

=
+
.
Therefore C
1 t 2
1 t
ln
1 t 3 t 2
dt
2
+

=
+
}
. Answer. C
1 e 2
1 e
ln
x
x
+


(4) Hint. Using the transformation
x 3
e t = , we have t ln
3
1
x = and dt
t 3
1
dx = .
Therefore the integral becomes dt
) 5 t ( t
t 3 4
3
1
dt
t 3
1
5 t
t 3 4
} }
+

=
+

. Using partial
fractions
5 t
1
5
19
t
1
5
4
) 5 t ( t
t 3 4
+
=
+

. Therefore the integral has value


| 5 t | ln
15
19
| t | ln
15
4
+ . Answer. C | 5 e | ln
15
19
5
x 4
x 3
+ +
(5) Hint. Using the transformation
x
e t = , we have t ln x = and dt
t
1
dx = .
Therefore the integral becomes dt
) 1 t t ( t
3 t t
dt
t
1
t t t
3 t t
2 2
2
2 3
2
} }
+
+
=
+
+
. Using
partial fraction decomposition
1 t t
t 2
t
3
t
2
) 1 t t ( t
3 t t
2 2 2 2
2
+
+ =
+
+
and integrating
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+
+
}
3
1 t 2
arctan
3
3 2
) 1 t t ln(
t
3
| t | ln 2 dt
) 1 t t ( t
3 t t
2
2 2
2

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
417
Answer. C
3
1 e 2
arctan
3
3 2
) 1 e e ln( e 3 x 2
x
x x 2 x
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+


(6) Hint. Using the transformation
x
e t = , we have t ln x = and dt
t
1
dx = .
Therefore the integral becomes dt
t ) 6 t 5 t (
5 t 3 t
2 2
2
}
+
+
. Using partial fraction
decomposition

t
1
36
5
) 3 t (
1
3
5
3 t
1
9
26
) 2 t (
1
2
3
2 t
1
4
11
t ) 6 t 5 t (
5 t 3 t
2 2 2 2
2
+

=
+
+

and integrating, we obtain
| t | ln
56
3
3 t
1
3
5
| 3 t | ln
9
26
2 t
1
2
3
| 2 t | ln
4
11
dt
t ) 6 t 5 t (
5 t 3 t
2 2
2
+

=
+
+
}

Answer. C x
56
3
3 e
1
3
5
| 3 e | ln
9
26
2 e
1
2
3
| 2 e | ln
4
11
x
x
x
x
+ +







These integrals are not elementary. For the first integral we have (see 7.3)
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
, where ) x ( Ei is the exponential integral function,
defined by
}

=
x t
dt
t
e
) x ( Ei , 0 x > .
For the integral dx
) a x (
e
J
n
x p
n }

= we use the reduction formula (see 7.3)
1 n
1 n
x p
n
x p
n
J
1 n
p
) a x (
e
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
e
J

=
}

After successive reductions we end up to the evaluation of the integral dx
a x
e
x p
}


Exercise 3 contains integrals of the form
dx
a x
e
x p
}

and
dx
) a x (
e
n
x p
}



Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
418
which, as mentioned earlier, is not elementary, but can be expressed in terms of
the exponential integral ) x ( Ei .
Integrals of the form dx
a x
e
x p
}

and dx
) a x (
e
n
x p
}

can also be evaluated by the
substitution
p
t ln
a x = . We then have
p
t ln
a x + = , t ln a p x p + = ,
t e e e e e
a p t ln a p t ln a p x p
= = =
+
and dt
t
1
p
1
dx = . Therefore
} } }
= =
t ln
dt
e dt
t
1
p
1
p
t ln
t e
dx
a x
e
a p
a p x p
and

} } }

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

n
a p 1 n
n
a p
n
x p
) t (ln
dt
e p dt
t
1
p
1
p
t ln
t e
dx
) a x (
e

The last integral, denoted by dx
) x (ln
1
I
n
n }
= can be evaluated using the
reduction formula (Section 8, 8.4)
1 n
1 n
n
I
1 n
1
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
I

=
The integral
}
t ln
dt
is not an elementary integral, i.e. it cannot be expressed in
terms of elementary functions. The function defined by the definite integral
}
=
x
0
t ln
dt
) x ( li is called the logarithmic integral. The following relation holds
between the logarithmic and exponential integrals: ) x (ln Ei ) x ( li = , 1 x >
Exercise 3. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
1 x
e
x 3
}

2) dx
3 x
e
x 2
}
+

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
419
3) dx
) 3 x (
e
3
x 2
}
+
4) dx
) 1 x (
e
2
x 3
}


5) dx
1 x 2
e
x 3
}
+
6) dx
) 1 x 3 (
e
2
x 3
}


(1) Hint. Use the formula )) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
for 3 p = and 1 a = .
You may also use the substitution
3
t ln
1 x = .
Answer. )) 1 x ( 3 ( Ei e dx
1 x
e
3
x 3
=

}

(2) Hint. Use the formula )) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
for 2 p = and 3 a = .
You may also use the substitution
2
t ln
3 x = + .
Answer. )) 3 x ( 2 ( Ei e dx
3 x
e
6
x 2
+ =
+

}

(3) Hint. Using the reduction formula
1 n
1 n
x 2
n
J
1 n
2
) 3 x (
e
1 n
1
J


+
+

=
for the integral dx
) 3 x (
e
J
3
x 2
3 }
+
= , we find for 3 n = ,
2
2
x 2
3
J
) 3 x (
e
2
1
J +
+
=
for 2 n = ,
1
x 2
2
J 2
3 x
e
J +
+
= , where )) 3 x ( 2 ( Ei e dx
3 x
e
J
6
x 2
1
+ =
+
=

}

You may also use the substitution
2
t ln
3 x = + and the reduction formula
1 n
1 n
n
I
1 n
1
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
I

= , dx
) x (ln
1
I
n
n }
=
Answer. )) 3 x ( 2 ( Ei e 2
3 x
e
) 3 x (
e
2
1
6
x 2
2
x 2
+ +
+

+



Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
420
(4) Hint. Using the reduction formula
1 n
1 n
x 3
n
J
1 n
3
) 1 x (
e
1 n
1
J

=
for the integral dx
) 1 x (
e
J
2
x 3
2 }

= , we find for 2 n = ,
1
x 3
2
J 3
1 x
e
J +

= , where
)) 1 x ( 3 ( Ei e dx
1 x
e
J
3
x 3
1
=

=
}

You may also use the substitution
3
t ln
1 x = and the reduction formula
1 n
1 n
n
I
1 n
1
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
I

= , dx
) x (ln
1
I
n
n }
=
Answer. )) 1 x ( 3 ( Ei e 3
1 x
e
3
x 3
+


(5) Hint. We have dx
2
1
x
e
2
1
dx
1 x 2
e
x 3 x 3
} }
+
=
+
. We then use the formula
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
for 3 p = and
2
1
a = .
Answer. ))
2
1
x ( 3 ( Ei e
2
1
2
3
+


(6) Hint. We have dx
3
1
x
e
9
1
dx
) 1 x 3 (
e
2
x 3
2
x 3
} }
|
.
|

\
|

=

. Using the reduction formula


1 n
1 n
x p
n
x p
n
J
1 n
p
) a x (
e
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
e
J

=
}
for dx
3
1
x
e
J
2
x 3
2 }
|
.
|

\
|

=
for the values 3 p = and
3
1
a = , we get
1
x 3
2
J 3
3
1
x
e
J +

= , where
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
421
) 1 x 3 ( Ei e dx
3
1
x
e
J
x 3
1
=

=
}
. Answer.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

) 1 x 3 ( Ei e
1 x 3
e
3
1
x 3







In this case we put
dx
a x
e
A
) a x (
e ) x ( Q
dx
) a x (
e ) x ( P
x p
1 n
x p
n
x p
} }

+



where ) x ( Q is a polynomial (with undetermined coefficients) with
2 n ) x ( Q deg = . In order to determine the coefficients of the polynomial ) x ( Q ,
we differentiate both members of the above identity and equate the similar powers
of the variable x.
Exercise 4. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 1 x (
e ) 3 x 2 x (
3
x 3 2
}
+
+
2) dx
) 2 x (
e ) 2 x 3 (
2
x 2
}
+


(1) Hint. Use the identity dx
1 x
e
A e
) 1 x (
b x a
dx
) 1 x (
e ) 3 x 2 x (
x 3
x 3
2 3
x 3 2
} }
+
+
+
+
=
+
+

and differentiate with respect to x both members. We then multiply by
3
) 1 x ( +
and cancel
x 3
e . After equating the coefficients of the similar powers of x, we can
determine the various constants. We find
1 x
e
A e
) 1 x (
b x a
dx
d
) 1 x (
e ) 3 x 2 x (
x 3
x 3
2 3
x 3 2
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
+
+
, which is equivalent to
1 x
e
A e
) 1 x (
b x a
3 e
) 1 x (
) b ax ( 2 ) 1 x ( a
) 1 x (
e ) 3 x 2 x (
x 3
x 3
2
x 3
3 3
x 3 2
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
=
+
+

Exercise 4 contains integrals of the form
dx
) a x (
e ) x ( P
n
x p
}

, where
) x ( P
is a
polynomial of
1 n ) x ( P deg =
.

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
422
2 2
) 1 x ( A ) 1 x )( b ax ( 3 ) b ax ( 2 ) 1 x ( a 3 x 2 x + + + + + + + = +
Performing the operations and arranging the right member we arrive at the
identity: A b a x ) A 2 b 3 a 2 ( x ) A a 3 ( 3 x 2 x
2 2
+ + + + + + + = +
Equating the coefficients of the similar powers of the variable x , we obtain the
system 1 A a 3 = + , 2 A 2 b 3 a 2 = + + , 3 A b a = + + .
The system is satisfied if 6 a = , 8 b = and 17 A = . Therefore we have
dx
1 x
e
17 e
) 1 x (
8 x 6
dx
) 1 x (
e ) 3 x 2 x (
x 3
x 3
2 3
x 3 2
} }
+

+
+
=
+
+

The last integral can be evaluated using the formula )) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}

for 3 p = and 1 a = : )) 1 x ( 3 ( Ei e dx
1 x
e
3
x 3
+ =
+

}
.
Answer. )) 1 x ( 3 ( Ei e 17 e
) 1 x (
8 x 6
dx
) 1 x (
e ) 3 x 2 x (
3 x 3
2 3
x 3 2
+
+
+
=
+
+

}

(2) Hint. We put dx
2 x
e
A e
2 x
a
dx
) 2 x (
e ) 2 x 3 (
x 2
x 2
2
x 2
} }
+
+
+
=
+


Differentiation of the above identity gives us
2 x
e
A e
2 x
a 2
e
) 2 x (
a
) 2 x (
e ) 2 x 3 (
x 2
x 2 x 2
2 2
x 2
+
+
+
+
+
=
+


from which we get ) 2 x ( A ) 2 x ( a 2 a 2 x 3 + + + + = . Equating the coefficients
of similar powers of x, we obtain the system 3 A a 2 = + , 2 A 2 a 3 = + .
The system admits the unique solution 8 a = , 13 A = . Therefore
dx
2 x
e
13 e
2 x
8
dx
) 2 x (
e ) 2 x 3 (
x 2
x 2
2
x 2
} }
+

+
=
+

. The last integral can be evaluated


using the formula
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
for 2 p = and 2 a = .
Answer. )) 2 x ( 2 ( Ei e 13 e
2 x
8
dx
) 2 x (
e ) 2 x 3 (
4 x 2
2
x 2
+
+
=
+


}

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
423






Case I. If 0 D > , then using partial fraction decomposition, we have

|
|
.
|

\
|


=
+ +
2 1 2 1
2
x
1
x
1
) ( a
1
c bx x a
1

where
1
and
2
are the two real roots of the trinomial.
Therefore the first integral transforms into
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
+ +
} } }
dx
x
e
dx
x
e
) ( a
1
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
1
x p
2 1
2
x p

))} x ( p ( Ei e )) x ( p ( Ei e {
) ( a
1
2
p
1
p
2 1
2 1


=


The second integral, since we have the partial fraction decomposition
2 2 1
2
1 2 1
1
2 1
x
1 B A
x
1 B A
) x ( ) x (
B x A


+
=

+

we obtain
=
+ +
+
}
dx
c bx x a
e ) B x A (
2
x p

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

+

=
} }
dx
x
e
) B A ( dx
x
e
) B A (
) ( a
1
2
x p
2
1
x p
1
2 1

))} x ( p ( Ei e ) B A ( )) x ( p ( Ei e ) B A {(
) ( a
1
2
p
2 1
p
1
2 1
2 1
+ +

=


Case II. If 0 D = , then
2 2
) x ( a c bx x a = + + , where
a 2
b
= is the double
root of the trinomial. Therefore in this case the integral transforms into
Exercise 5 contains integrals of the form
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
}
+ +
and
dx
c bx x a
e ) B x A (
2
x p
}
+ +
+
, where the discriminant
0 ac 4 b D
2
>
.


Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
424
dx
) x (
e
a
1
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
2
x p
} }

=
+ +

Using the reduction formula (Section 7.3)

1 n
1 n
x p
n
x p
n
J
1 n
p
) a x (
e
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
e
J

=
}

for 2 n = , we find
= +

=

=
+ +
} } 1
x p
2
x p
2
x p
J
a
p
x
e
a
1
dx
) x (
e
a
1
dx
c bx x a
e

)) x ( p ( Ei e
a
p
x
e
a
1
a p
x p
+

=
Exercise 5. Evaluate the integrals

1) dx
1 x 3 x 2
e
2
x 2
}
+
2) dx
6 x x
e ) 5 x 2 (
2
x 3
}
+


3) dx
3 x 2 x 8
e ) 4 x 3 (
2
x 2
}
+
+
4) dx
1 x 4 x 4
e ) 6 x (
2
x 3
}
+ +


(1) Hint. Using partial fractions,
1 x 2
2
1 x
1
1 x 3 x 2
1
2

=
+
the integral
becomes dx
2 / 1 x
e
dx
1 x
e
dx
1 x 3 x 2
e
x 2 x 2
2
x 2
} } }

=
+
. Using the formula
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
, we can evaluate each one of the integrals.

Answer. ) 1 x 2 ( Ei e )) 1 x ( 2 ( Ei e
2

(2) Hint. Using partial fractions,
2 x
1
5
1
3 x
1
5
11
6 x x
5 x 2
2


+
=
+

the integral
becomes dx
2 x
e
5
1
dx
3 x
e
5
11
dx
6 x x
e ) 5 x 2 (
x 3 x 3
2
x 3
} } }

+
=
+

. Using the formula


)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
, we can evaluate each one of the integrals.

Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
425
Answer. )) 2 x ( 3 ( Ei e
5
1
)) 3 x ( 3 ( Ei e
5
11
6 9
+



(3) Hint. Using partial fractions,
3 x 4
1
10
7
1 x 2
1
10
11
3 x 2 x 8
4 x 3
2
+

=
+
+
the
integral becomes dx
3 x 4
e
10
7
dx
1 x 2
e
10
11
dx
3 x 2 x 8
e ) 4 x 3 (
x 2 x 2
2
x 2
} } }
+

=
+
+
. Using the
formula )) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
, we can evaluate each one of the integrals.

Answer. ) 2 / 3 x 2 ( Ei e
40
7
) 1 x 2 ( Ei e
20
11
2
3
+



(4) Hint. Using partial fractions,
2 2
) 1 x 2 (
1
2
13
1 x 2
1
2
1
) 1 x 2 (
6 x
+

+
=
+

the integral
becomes dx
) 1 x 2 (
e
2
13
dx
1 x 2
e
2
1
dx
) 1 x 2 (
e ) 6 x (
2
x 3 x 3
2
x 3
} } }
+

+
=
+

. Using the formula


)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
and the reduction formula
1 n
1 n
x p
n
x p
n
J
1 n
p
) a x (
e
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
e
J

=
}
,
we can evaluate the two last integrals.

Answer. ) 2 / 3 x 3 ( Ei e
8
37
1 x 2
e
4
13
2
3
x 3
+
+










Exercise 6 contains integrals of the form
dx
) c bx x a (
e
n 2
x p
}
+ +
and
dx
) c bx x a (
e ) B x A (
n 2
x p
}
+ +
+
, where the discriminant
0 ac 4 b D
2
>
.


Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
426
Case I. We have for the integral
}
+ +
= dx
) c x b x a (
e
I
n 2
x p
n
the reduction formula
(see 7.6)

+ +

+ +
+

=
2 n 2
x p
1 n 2
x p
n
) c bx ax (
e
D ) 2 n )( 1 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
D ) 1 n (
1
I

2 n
2
1 n
I
D ) 2 n )( 1 n (
p
I
D
a 4


+ , 3 n > .
Case II. For the integral
}
+ +
+
= dx
) c x b x a (
e ) B Ax (
J
n 2
x p
n
, using the identity
a 2
bA aB 2
) b ax 2 (
a 2
A
B x A

+ + = + , we find

1 n n
1 n 2
x p
n
I
a ) 1 n ( 2
Ap
I
a 2
bA aB 2
) c bx ax (
e
a ) 1 n ( 2
A
J

+
+ +

=
where the integral
n
I is evaluated using the reduction formula of Case I.
Exercise 6. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e
2 2
x 2
}
+
2) dx
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e ) 5 x 2 (
3 2
x 2
}
+


(1) Hint. Using partial fractions, since ) 1 x ( ) 1 x 2 ( 1 x 3 x 2
2
= + , we have

2 2 2 2
) 1 x 2 (
4
1 x 2
8
) 1 x (
1
1 x
4
) 1 x ( ) 1 x 2 (
1

=


Therefore the integral becomes
dx
) 1 x 2 (
e
4 dx
1 x 2
e
8 dx
) 1 x (
e
dx
1 x
e
4
2
x 2 x 2
2
x 2 x 2
} } } }

+


The integrals dx
1 x
e
x 2
}

and dx
1 x 2
e
x 2
}

are evaluated using the formula
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
while the other two, using the reduction formula
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
427
1 n
1 n
x p
n
x p
n
J
1 n
p
) a x (
e
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
e
J

=
}
.
Answer. ) 1 x 2 ( Ei e 6 )) 2 x ( 2 ( Ei e 2
1 x 3 x 2
e ) x 4 3 (
2
2
x 2
+
+


(2) Hint. Using the formula
1 n n
1 n 2
x p
n
I
a ) 1 n ( 2
p A
I
a 2
A b B a 2
) c x b x a (
e
a ) 1 n ( 2
A
J

+
+ +

=
for 2 p , 3 n = = , 5 B , 2 A = = and 1 c , 3 b , 2 a = = = , we obtain

2 3
2 2
x 2
3 2
x 2
3
I
2
1
I
2
7
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e
4
1
dx
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e ) 5 x 2 (
J +
+
=
+

=
}

For the integral dx
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e
I
3 2
x 2
3 }
+
= , we use the reduction formula

+ +

+ +
+

=
2 n 2
x p
1 n 2
x p
n
) c bx ax (
e
D ) 2 n )( 1 n (
p
) c bx ax (
e ) b ax 2 (
D ) 1 n (
1
I
2 n
2
1 n
I
D ) 2 n )( 1 n (
p
I
D
a 4


+ , 3 n > .
We find
1 2
2
x 2
2 2
x 2
3
I 2 I 8
1 x 3 x 2
e
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e ) 3 x 4 (
2
1
I +
+

=
Therefore

+
=
2 2
x 2
3
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e
4
1
J

2 1 2
2
x 2
2 2
x 2
I
2
1
I 2 I 8
1 x 3 x 2
e
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e ) 3 x 4 (
2
1
2
7
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+


or

1 2
2
x 2
2 2
x 2
3
I 7 I
2
57
1 x 3 x 2
e
2
7
) 1 x 3 x 2 (
e ) 11 x 14 (
2
1
J +
+
+
+

=
Answer.
Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
428
) 1 x 2 ( Ei e 136 )) 2 x ( 2 ( Ei e 50
) 1 x 3 x 2 ( 2
e ) 125 x 566 x 788 x 344 (
2
2 2
x 2 2 3
+
+
+





In this case we express the function ) x ( R as
) x (
) x ( Q
) x ( P ) x ( R + = where ) x ( P is
the proper part (a polynomial) and
) x (
) x ( Q
is the fractional part, i.e.
) x ( Y deg ) x ( Q deg < . We then apply the partial fraction decomposition for the
fractional part. We thus arrive at integrals of the form
dx
a x
e
x p
}

, dx
) a x (
e
n
x p
}

, dx
) a x (
e ) x ( P
n
x p
}

where n ) x ( P deg <
dx
c bx x a
e
2
x p
}
+ +
, dx
) c bx x a (
e
n 2
x p
}
+ +
and dx
c bx x a
e ) B Ax (
2
x p
}
+ +
+
,
dx
) c bx x a (
e ) B Ax (
n 2
x p
}
+ +
+
, where we suppose that 0 ac 4 b D
2
> .
Exercise 7. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
2 x 7 x 4 x 4
e ) 2 x x 3 (
2 3
x 2 2
}

+
2) dx
) 4 x ( ) 2 x (
e ) 5 x 3 x x 5 (
2 2
x 2 2 3
}

+

(1) Hint. ) 2 x ( ) 1 x 2 ( 2 x 7 x 4 x 4
2 2 3
+ = . Using partial fractions,

2 2 3
2
) 1 x 2 (
1
10
13
1 x 2
1
50
27
2 x
1
25
12
2 x 7 x 4 x 4
2 x x 3
+

+
+

=

+

Therefore
dx
) 1 x 2 (
e
10
13
dx
1 x 2
e
50
27
dx
2 x
e
25
12
dx
2 x 7 x 4 x 4
e ) 2 x x 3 (
2
x 2 x 2 x 2
2 3
x 2 2
} } } }
+

+
+

=

+

Exercise 7 contains integrals of the form
}
dx e ) x ( R
x
where
) x ( R
is a
rational function.



Chapter 7-Integrals of exponential functions
429
Each one of the integrals appearing on the rhs of the above relation can be evaluated
using the hints of Exercise 3.
Answer. ) 1 x 2 ( Ei e
50
19
)) 2 x ( 2 ( Ei e
25
12
1 x 2
e
20
12
1 4
x 2
+ +
+



(2) Hint. Using partial fractions, we have

3 2 2 2
2 3
) 2 x (
1
4
37
) 2 x (
1
16
199
2 x
1
64
265
2 x
1
64
55
) 4 x ( ) 2 x (
5 x 3 x x 5

+
+
=

+

Therefore +

+
+
=

+
} } }
dx
2 x
e
64
265
dx
2 x
e
64
55
dx
) 4 x ( ) 2 x (
e ) 5 x 3 x x 5 (
x 2 x 2
2 2
x 2 2 3

dx
) 2 x (
e
4
37
dx
) 2 x (
e
16
199
3
x 2
2
x 2
} }

+

+
Each one of the integrals appearing on the rhs of the above relation can be evaluated
using the hints of Exercise 3.
Answer.
)) 2 x ( 2 ( Ei e
64
55
)) 2 x ( 2 ( Ei e
64
3041
) 2 x (
e ) 620 x 347 (
16
1
4 4
2
x 2
+ + +







8

Integrals of
Logarithmic Functions



Learning Objectives

In this Section the student will learn how to evaluate
integrals involving logarithmic functions.
The classification involves fifteen cases.














Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
431

Contents and Taxonomy
- First Category. Integrals of the form

}
= dx ) x (ln I
n
n

- Second Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln P I
where ) x ( P is a polynomial function.
- Third Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln R I
where ) x ( R is a rational function.
- Fourth Category. Integrals of the form

}
= dx
) x (ln
1
J
n
n

- Fifth Category. Integrals of the form

}
= dx
x
x ln
K
n
n

- Sixth Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln x I
n
n
.
- Seventh Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln ) x ( P I
n

where ) x ( P is an n-th degree polynomial.
- Eighth Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln ) x ( R I
n

where ) x ( R is a rational function.
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
432
- Ninth Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln x I
n m
n , m

- Tenth Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx
x ln
x
I
n
n
, 2 n > .
- Eleventh Category. Integrals of the form

}
= dx
) x (ln
x
I
n
m
n , m
, 2 m> ,
- Twelfth Category. Integrals of the form
dx
x
) x (ln
I
m
n
n }
= , 2 n >
- Thirteenth Category. Integrals of the form
}

=
n
n
) x (ln x
dx
I , 2 n >
- Fourteenth Category. Integrals of the form
}

=
) x (ln x
dx
I
n
n
, 2 n >
- Fifteenth Category. Integrals of the form
}

=
n m
n , m
) x (ln x
dx
I , 2 m> , 2 n >







Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
433

8.1. First Category. Integrals of the form

}
= dx ) x (ln I
n
n
(1)
8.1.1. First Method
This type of integrals can be evaluated using integration by parts.
- For 1 n = we have to calculate the integral
}
= dx x ln I
1
.
Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f (2)
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'

1

x ln

x

x
1

we find
C x x ln x dx x ln x dx x ln I
1
+ = = =
} }

- For 2 n > we have, using formula (2) and the table below, that
= = =

} }
dx ) x (ln
x
n
x ) x (ln x dx ) x (ln I
1 n n n
n


1 n
n 1 n n
I n ) x (ln x dx ) x (ln n ) x (ln x

= =
}


) x ( f '

) x ( g ) x ( f

) x ( g'

1

n
) x (ln
x
1 n
) x (ln
x
n


We have thus arrived at the reduction formula

1 n
n
n
I n ) x (ln x I

= , 2 n > (3)
where
C x x ln x I
1
+ = (4)
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
434
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx ) x (ln I
4

Solution. We recognize that
4
I I = . Therefore we have
For 4 n = we find from the reduction formula (3)

3
4
4
I 4 ) x (ln x I =
For 3 n = we find

2
3
3
I 3 ) x (ln x I =
For 2 n = we find

1
2
2
I 2 ) x (ln x I =
Combining the above formulas we get
= = } I 3 ) x (ln x { 4 ) x (ln x I
2
3 4
4

= + =
2
3 4
I 12 ) x (ln x 4 ) x (ln x
= + = } I 2 ) x (ln x { 12 ) x (ln x 4 ) x (ln x
1
2 3 4


1
2 3 4
I 24 ) x (ln x 12 ) x (ln x 4 ) x (ln x + =
and using formula (4) for the
1
I , we get the final result
C ) x x ln x ( 24 ) x (ln x 12 ) x (ln x 4 ) x (ln x I
2 3 4
+ + =
8.1.2 Second Method
Instead of using reduction formula, it would in some cases be more convenient to
use the formula
C } A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A { x dx ) x (ln
n
1 n
1
n
0
n
+ + + + =

}

The coefficients
n 1 0
A , , A , A are determined by differentiating both members
of the above identity.
Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
dx ) x (ln
3
.
Solution. We consider the identity
C } A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A { x dx ) x (ln
3 2
2
1
3
0
3
+ + + + =
}

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
435
Differentiating both members we get
+ + + + =
3 2
2
1
3
0
3
A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln

)
`

+ + +
x
1
A ) x (ln
x
2
A ) x (ln
x
3
A x
2 1
2
0

which is equivalent to
+ + + =
2
0 1
3
0
3
) x (ln ) A 3 A ( ) x (ln A ) x (ln

3 2 1 2
A A ) x )(ln A 2 A ( + + + +
From the above identity we obtain the system

0
A 1= ,
0 1
A 3 A 0 + = ,
1 2
A 2 A 0 + = ,
3 2
A A 0 + =
Solving the system, we obtain the values of the coefficients:
1 A
0
= , 3 A
1
= , 6 A
2
= and 6 A
3
=
Therefore the value of the integral is given by
C } 6 ) x (ln 6 ) x (ln 3 ) x {(ln x dx ) x (ln
2 3 3
+ + =
}

The reader can verify that the same result can be obtained using the reduction
formula.
8.2. Second Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln P I
where ) x ( P is an n-th degree polynomial function.

In this case we use the identity
C ) x (ln Q x dx ) x (ln P I + = =
}

where ) x ( Q is again a polynomial of the same degree with ) x ( P .
The coefficients of the polynomial ) x ( Q are determined by differentiation of both
members of the identity.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
+ dx ] 3 ) x (ln 7 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 2 [
2 3

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
436
Solution. We consider the identity
= +
}
dx ] 3 ) x (ln 7 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 2 [
2 3

C } A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A { x
3 2
2
1
3
0
+ + + + =
Differentiating both members of the previous identity, we obtain
= + 3 ) x (ln 7 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 2
2 3

+ + + + =
3 2
2
1
3
0
A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A

)
`

+ + +
x
1
A ) x (ln
x
2
A ) x (ln
x
3
A x
2 1
2
0

which is equivalent to
= + 3 ) x (ln 7 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 2
2 3

+ + + =
2
0 1
3
0
) x (ln ) A 3 A ( ) x (ln A

3 2 1 2
A A ) x )(ln A 2 A ( + + + +
From the above identity we obtain the system

0
A 2 = ,
0 1
A 3 A 5 + = ,
1 2
A 2 A 7 + = ,
3 2
A A 3 + =
Solving the system, we obtain the values of the coefficients:
2 A
0
= , 11 A
1
= , 29 A
2
= and 32 A
3
=
Therefore the value of the integral is given by
C } 32 ) x (ln 29 ) x (ln 11 ) x (ln 2 { x dx ) x (ln
2 3 3
+ + =
}

8.3. Third Category
Integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln R I
where ) x ( R is a rational function.
In this case we make the substitution x ln t = .
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
) x (ln 4
x ln 1
2
}

+

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
437
Solution. Using the substitution x ln t = , since
t
e x = and dt e dx
t
= ,
the integral transforms to
dt e
t 4
t 1
t
2
}

+
(1)
Using partial fraction decomposition, we find

2 t
1
4
1
2 t
1
4
3
t 4
t 1
2
+

+

Therefore the integral (1) takes the form
dt
2 t
e
4
1
dt
2 t
e
4
3
dt e
t 4
t 1
t t
t
2 } } }
+

+

Using the formula (see 7.3)
)) x a ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}

we find
) t 2 ( Ei e dt
2 t
e
2
t
=

}
and ) t 2 ( Ei e dt
2 t
e
2
t
=
+

}

Therefore
) t 2 ( Ei e
4
1
) t 2 ( Ei e
4
3
dt e
t 4
t 1
2 2 t
2
=

+

}

Going back to the original variable, we get the value of the integral
) x ln 2 ( Ei e
4
1
) x ln 2 ( Ei e
4
3
dx
) x (ln 4
x ln 1
2 2
2
=

+

}

8.4. Fourth Category. Integrals of the form

}
= dx
) x (ln
1
J
n
n

This type of integrals can be evaluated using integration by parts.
For 1 n = we have to calculate the integral
}
= dx
x ln
1
J
1
which cannot be
evaluated by elementary methods. This function can be identified, without loss of
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
438
generality with the logarithmic integral, defined by the definite integral (see 7.3,
Note 2)

}
=
x
0
t ln
dt
) x ( li
We also have that ) x (ln Ei ) x ( li = .
For 2 n > , using the formula
} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'

1
n
) x (ln
1


x
1 n
) x (ln
1
x
n
+

We find
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
+
dx
) x (ln
1
x
n
x
) x (ln
x
dx
) x (ln
1
J
1 n n n
n


1 n
n 1 n n
J n
) x (ln
x
dx
) x (ln
1
n
) x (ln
x
+
+
+ = + =
}

We have thus arrived at the reduction formula

1 n
n
n
J n
) x (ln
x
J
+
+ =
from which we get

n
n
1 n
J
n
1
) x (ln
x
n
1
J + =
+

or, changing n to 1 n ,

1 n
1 n
n
J
1 n
1
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
J

=
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx
) x (ln
1
I
3

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
439
Solution. Since
3
J I = , using the reduction formula proved above, we have
For 3 n = ,
2
2
3
J
2
1
) x (ln
x
2
1
J + =
For 2 n = ,
1 2
J
x ln
x
J + =
Therefore
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
1
2
3
J
x ln
x
2
1
) x (ln
x
2
1
J or

}
+ = dx
x ln
1
2
1
x ln
x
2
1
) x (ln
x
2
1
J I
2 3

The last integral can be identified with the logarithmic integral

}
=
x
0
t ln
dt
) x ( li
Therefore
) x ( li
2
1
x ln
x
2
1
) x (ln
x
2
1
I
2
+ =
8.5. Fifth Category
8.5.1 First Case. Integrals of the form

}
= dx
x
x ln
K
n
n

This type of integrals can be evaluated using integration by parts.
For 1 n = we have to evaluate the integral

}
= dx
x
x ln
K
1

which can be evaluated using the substitution x ln t = . We then find
C ) x (ln
2
1
C t
2
1
dt t dx
x
x ln
K
2 2
1
+ = + = = =
} }

For 2 n > , using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
440
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'

n
x
1


x ln
1 n
x
1
1 n
1


x
1

we find
=

= =
} }

dx
x
1
1 n
1
x
x ln
1 n
1
dx
x
x ln
K
n 1 n n
n

C
x
1
) 1 n (
1
x
x ln
1 n
1
1 n 2 1 n
+

=


We thus have arrived at the formula
C
x
1
) 1 n (
1
x
x ln
1 n
1
dx
x
x ln
K
1 n 2 1 n n
n
+

= =

}
, 2 n >
C ) x (ln
2
1
K
2
1
+ =
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x ln
x
x x
I
5
3 4

+
=
}

Solution. The integral can be written as the sum of two integrals

2 1 2
K K dx
x
x ln
dx
x
x ln
I + = + =
} }

where

2
1
) x (ln
2
1
K =

x
1
x
x ln
K
2
=
Therefore
C
x
1
x
x ln
) x (ln
2
1
dx x ln
x
x x
I
2
5
3 4
+ =
+
=
}

8.5.2 Second Case. Integrals of the form
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
441

}

dx
) a x (
x ln
n

For 1 n = , we have to evaluate the integral

}

dx
a x
x ln

In this case we use the substitution t a a x = . We then have ) 1 t ( a x + = and
dt a dx = . The integral thus becomes
=
+ +
=
+
} }
dt
t
) 1 t ( ln a ln
a dt a
t
)] 1 t ( a [ ln


} }
+
+ = dt
t
) 1 t ( ln
a dt
t
1
) a (ln a
The integral
}
+
dt
t
) 1 t ( ln
under the substitution t 1 u + = takes the form
}

du
u 1
u ln
, which can be identified, without loss of generality to the
dilogarithm, a function defined by the integral
dt
t 1
t ln
) x ( Li
x
1
2 }

=
Therefore
) 1 t ( Li dt
t
) 1 t ( ln
2
+ =
+
}

and
C )} 1 t ( Li | t | ln ) a {(ln a dt a
t
)] 1 t ( a [ ln
2
+ + =
+
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain the following value of the integral
C 1
a
a x
Li
a
a x
ln ) a (ln a dx
a x
x ln
2
+
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+

}

or
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
442
C
a
x
Li 1
a
x
ln ) a (ln a dx
a x
x ln
2
+
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
=

}

The integral

}

= dx
) a x (
x ln
J
n n
, 2 n >
can be evaluated using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'
n
) a x (
1



x ln
1 n
) a x (
1
1 n
1


x
1

We then find

} }

=
1 n 1 n n
n
) a x ( x
dx
1 n
1
) a x (
x ln
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
x ln
J , 2 n >
Example. Evaluate the integral

}

dx
) 3 x (
x ln
3

Solution. Using the above formula, we have for 3 a = and 3 n = :

} }

+

2 2 3
) 3 x ( x
dx
2
1
) 3 x (
x ln
2
1
dx
) 3 x (
x ln

We find, using partial fraction decomposition,

2 2
) 3 x (
1
3
1
3 x
1
9
1
x
1
3
1
) 3 x ( x
1


Therefore
=

} } } } 2 2 3
) 3 x (
dx
6
1
3 x
dx
18
1
x
dx
6
1
) 3 x (
x ln
2
1
dx
) 3 x (
x ln

C
3 x
1
6
1
| 3 x | ln
18
1
| x | ln
6
1
) 3 x (
x ln
2
1
2
+

=

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
443
8.6. Sixth Category
Integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln x I
n
n
.
Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts.
Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g ) x ( f

) x ( g'

n
x

x ln
1 n
x
1 n
+
+


x
1


we find
=
+

+
= =
} }
+ +
dx
x
1
1 n
x
x ln
1 n
x
dx x ln x I
1 n 1 n
n
n

=
+

+
=
}
+
dx x
1 n
1
x ln
1 n
x
n
1 n

C
1 n
x
1 n
1
x ln
1 n
x
1 n 1 n
+
+ +

+
=
+ +

Therefore
C x
) 1 n (
1
x ln
1 n
x
dx x ln x I
1 n
2
1 n
n
n
+
+

+
= =
+
+
}

Example. Evaluate the integral

}
dx x ln x
4

Solution. Using the above formula, we find for 4 n = :
C x
25
1
x ln
5
x
dx x ln x
5
5
4
+ =
}

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
444
8.7. Seventh Category
Integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln ) x ( P I
n
where ) x ( P is an n-th degree
polynomial:

n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0
a x a x a x a ) x ( P + + + + =


Integrals of this type can be evaluated either integrating term by term using the
formula of the previous Category (8.7) or using the formula
= + + + +
}

dx x ln ) a x a x a x a (
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

+ + + + + =

+
x ln ) x A x A x A x A (
n
2
1 n
n
1
1 n
0

C ) x B x B x B x B (
n
2
1 n
n
1
1 n
0
+ + + + + +

+

The various coefficients appearing in the above formula can be determined by
differentiation and equating the coefficients of similar power of the variable x.
We thus find
= + + + +

x ln ) a x a x a x a (
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

+ + + + + + =

x ln } A x A 2 x nA x A ) 1 n {(
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

+ + + + + +

+
x
1
) x A x A x A x A (
n
2
1 n
n
1
1 n
0


n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0
B x B 2 x B n x B ) 1 n ( + + + + + +


The previous identity can be written as
= + + + +

x ln ) a x a x a x a (
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

+ + + + + + =

x ln } A x A 2 x nA x A ) 1 n {(
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

+ + + + + +

n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0
A x A x A x A

n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0
B x B 2 x B n x B ) 1 n ( + + + + + +


or
= + + + +

x ln ) a x a x a x a (
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
445
+ + + + + + =

x ln } A x A 2 x nA x A ) 1 n {(
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

+ + + + + + +

1 n
1 1
n
0 0
x } B n A { x } B ) 1 n ( A {
n n 1 n 1 n
B A x } B 2 A { + + + +


Equating the coefficients of similar powers of x, we obtain the system

0 0
A ) 1 n ( a + = ,
1 1
A n a = , ,
1 n 1 n
A 2 a

= ,
n n
A a =
0 B ) 1 n ( A
0 0
= + + , 0 B n A
1 1
= + , , 0 B 2 A
1 n 1 n
= +

, 0 B A
n n
= +
The above system can be solved to give

1 n
a
A
0
0
+
= ,
n
a
A
1
1
= , ,
2
a
A
1 n
1 n

= ,
n n
a A =

2
0
0
) 1 n (
a
B
+
= ,
2
1
1
n
a
B = , ,
4
a
B
1 n
1 n

= ,
n n
a B =
Therefore all the unknown coefficients can be determined uniquely from the
known coefficients of the polynomial ) x ( P .
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x ln ) 4 x 5 x 2 (
2
}
+
Solution. We put
+ + + = +
}
x ln ) x A x A x A ( dx x ln ) 4 x 5 x 2 (
2
2
1
3
0
2

C ) x B x B x B (
2
2
1
3
0
+ + + + (1)
Differentiation with respect to x of both members of the previous identity gives
us the relation
+ + + = + x ln ) A x A 2 x A 3 ( x ln ) 4 x 5 x 2 (
2 1
2
0
2

+ + + +
x
1
) x A x A x A (
2
2
1
3
0

) B x B 2 x B 3 (
2 1
2
0
+ + +
which is equivalent to
+ + + = + x ln ) A x A 2 x A 3 ( x ln ) 4 x 5 x 2 (
2 1
2
0
2

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
446
) B A ( x ) B 2 A ( x ) B 3 A (
2 2 1 1
2
0 0
+ + + + + +
From the above identity we get the system
2 A 3
0
= , 5 A 2
1
= , 4 A
2
=
0 B 3 A
0 0
= + , 0 B 2 A
1 1
= + , 0 B A
2 2
= +
The previous system has the unique solution given by

3
2
A
0
= ,
2
5
A
1
= , 4 A
2
=

9
2
B
0
= ,
4
5
B
1
= , 4 B
2
=
Therefore we obtain from (1) that the value of the integral is given by
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
}
x ln x 4 x
2
5
x
3
2
dx x ln ) 4 x 5 x 2 (
2 3 2

C x 4 x
4
5
x
9
2
2 3
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx x ln ) 4 x 6 x 5 x 3 (
2 3
}
+
Solution. We put
+ + + + = +
}
x ln ) x A x A x A x A ( dx x ln ) 4 x 6 x 5 x 3 (
3
2
2
3
1
4
0
2 3

C ) x B x B x B x B (
3
2
2
3
1
4
0
+ + + + +
Using the same procedure, as in the previous Example, we arrive at
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
}
x ln x 4 x 3 x
3
5
x
4
3
dx x ln ) 4 x 6 x 5 x 3 (
2 3 4 2 3

C x 4 x
2
3
x
9
5
x
16
3
2 3 4
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
8.8 Eighth Category
Integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln ) x ( R I
n
where ) x ( R is a rational function.
Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts.
A special case of these integrals is
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
447
dx ) x (ln
) c bx ax (
B Ax
n 2
}
+ +
+

Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx ) x (ln
x
1 x
4
2
}
+

Solution.
= + =
+
} } }
dx
x
x ln
dx
x
x ln
dx ) x (ln
x
1 x
4 2 4
2

C ) x (ln
x 3
1 x 3
x 9
1 x 9
3
2
3
2
+
+

+
=
Note. In evaluating the above two integrals we have used the reduction formula
(8.5)
1 n 2 1 n n
x
1
) 1 n (
1
x
x ln
1 n
1
dx
x
x ln


=
}
, 2 n >
For 2 n = we find
x
1
x
x ln
dx
x
x ln
2
=
}

For 4 n = we find
3 3 4
x
1
9
1
x
x ln
3
1
dx
x
x ln
=
}

8.9. Ninth Category
Integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln x I
n m
n , m

Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts.
Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
m
x
n
) x (ln
1 m
x
1 m
+
+

1 n
) x (ln
x
n



Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
448
we find
=
+

+
= =

+ +
} }
dx ) x (ln
x
n
1 m
x
) x (ln
1 m
x
dx ) x (ln x I
1 n
1 m
n
1 m
n m
n , m

=
+

+
=

+
}
dx ) x (ln x
1 m
n
) x (ln
1 m
x
1 n m n
1 m


1 n , m
n
1 m
I
1 m
n
) x (ln
1 m
x

+
+

+
=
Therefore

1 n , m
n
1 m
n , m
I
1 m
n
) x (ln
1 m
x
I

+
+

+
=
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx ) x (ln x I
2 3

Solution. This is the integral
2 , 3
I . Using the above reduction formula for 3 m = ,
2 n = , we find

1 , 3
2
4
2 3
2 , 3
I
2
1
) x (ln
4
x
dx ) x (ln x I I = =
}

For the integral
1 , 3
I we find for 3 m = , 1 n =
0 , 3
4
1 , 3
I
4
1
) x (ln
4
x
I =
where
4
x
dx x I
4
3
0 , 3
= =
}

Putting everything together, we find
C
4
x
4
1
) x (ln
4
x
2
1
) x (ln
4
x
dx ) x (ln x I I
4 4
2
4
2 3
2 , 3
+

= =
}

or
C
32
x
) x (ln
8
x
) x (ln
4
x
dx ) x (ln x I I
4 4
2
4
2 3
2 , 3
+ + = =
}

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
449
Note. Integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln x I
n m
n , m
can be evaluated using the
formula
C x } a ) x (ln a ) x (ln a { dx ) x (ln x
1 m
n
1 n
1
n
0
n m
+ + + + =
+
}

where the coefficients are determined by differentiation of both members of the
above identity.
8.10. Tenth Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx
x ln
x
I
n
n
, 2 n > .
Under the substitution x ln t = , (
t
e x = and dt e dx
t
= ), the integral transforms
into
) t ) 1 n ( ( Ei dt
t
e
dt e
t
e
t ) 1 n (
t
t n
+ = =
} }
+

using the formula (see 7.3)
)) a x ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}

Going back to the original variable, we have
) x ln ) 1 n ( ( Ei dx
x ln
x
I
n
n
+ = =
}

Example. Evaluate the integral
}
dx
x ln
x
2

Solution. Using the above formula, we find ) x ln 3 ( Ei dx
x ln
x
2
=
}


8.11. Eleventh Category
Integrals of the form
}
= dx
) x (ln
x
I
n
m
n , m
, 2 n > .
Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts.
Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
450
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f

) x ( g'
m
x
n
) x (ln
1

1 m
x
1 m
+
+

1 n
) x (ln
1
x
n
+

we find
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= =
+
+ +
} }
dx
) x (ln
1
x
n
1 m
x
) x (ln
1
1 m
x
dx
) x (ln
x
I
1 n
1 m
n
1 m
n
m
n , m

=
+
+
+
=
}
+
+
dx
) x (ln
x
1 m
n
) x (ln
1
1 m
x
1 n
m
n
1 m

1 n , m
n
1 m
I
1 m
n
) x (ln
1
1 m
x
+
+
+
+
+
=
We thus have arrived at the reduction formula

1 n , m
n
1 m
n , m
I
1 m
n
) x (ln
1
1 m
x
I
+
+
+
+
+
=
from which we get

1 n , m
n
1 m
n , m
I
) x (ln
1
n
x
I
n
1 m
+
+
+ =
+

or

n , m
n
1 m
1 n , m
I
n
1 m
) x (ln
x
n
1
I
+
+ =
+
+

Changing n to 1 n in the above formula, we find

1 n , m
1 n
1 m
n , m
I
1 n
1 m
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
I

+
+

=
Example. Evaluate the integral

}
= dx
) x (ln
x
I
3
2

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
451
Solution. We have
}
= = dx
) x (ln
x
I I
3
2
3 , 2

For 2 m= , 3 n = we find from the above formula

2 , 2
2
3
3 , 2
I
2
3
) x (ln
x
2
1
I + =
For 2 m= , 2 n = we find from the above formula

1 , 2
3
2 , 2
I 3
) x (ln
x
I + =
where (Example, 8.10)

) x ln 3 ( Ei dx
x ln
x
I
2
1 , 2
= =
}

Collecting everything together, we find
= + = = =
} 2 , 2
2
3
3
2
3 , 2
I
2
3
) x (ln
x
2
1
dx
) x (ln
x
I I
=

+ + =
1 , 2
3
2
3
I 3
) x (ln
x
2
3
) x (ln
x
2
1

C ) x ln 3 ( Ei 3
) x (ln
x
2
3
) x (ln
x
2
1
3
2
3
+

+ + =
C ) x ln 3 ( Ei
2
9
) x (ln
x
2
3
) x (ln
x
2
1
3
2
3
+ + =
Note. Integrals of the form
}
dx
) x (ln
x
n
m
may be evaluated using the identity
) x ln ) 1 m ( ( Ei a x
x ln
a
) x (ln
a
) x (ln
a
dx
) x (ln
x
n
1 m 1 n
2 n
1
1 n
0
n
m
+ +

+ + + =
+

}

where the coefficients are determined by differentiation of both members.
We remind that
x
e
) x ( Ei
dx
d
x
= . Therefore in differentiating ) x ln ) 1 m ( ( Ei + , we
should take into account that
) x (ln x
1
) x ln ) 1 m ( ( Ei
dx
d
2 m+
= + .
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
452
8.12. Twelfth Category. Integrals of the form
}
= dx
x
) x (ln
I
m
n
n , m
, 2 m> .
Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts.
Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
m
x
1

n
) x (ln
1 m
x
1
1 m
1


1 n
) x (ln
x
n



we find

= =

}
1 m
n
m
n
n , m
x
) x (ln
1 m
1
dx
x
) x (ln
I
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

}
dx ) x (ln
x
n
x
1
1 m
1
1 n
1 m

}

= dx
x
) x (ln
1 m
n
x
) x (ln
1 m
1
m
1 n
1 m
n

from which we obtain

1 n , m
1 m
n
n , m
I
1 m
n
x
) x (ln
1 m
1
I

=
Example. Evaluate the integral
}
= dx
x
) x (ln
I
4
3

Solution. We have
}
= dx
x
) x (ln
I I
4
3
3 , 4

For 4 m= , 3 n = we find from the above formula
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
453
2 , 4 3
3
3 , 4
I
x
) x (ln
3
1
I + =
For 4 m= , 2 n = we find

1 , 4 3
2
2 , 4
I
3
2
x
) x (ln
3
1
I + =
For 4 m= , 1 n = we find

0 , 4 3 1 , 4
I
3
1
x
) x (ln
3
1
I + =
where

3 4 0 , 4
x
1
3
1
dx
x
1
I = =
}

Collecting everything together, we have
= + = =
} 2 , 4 3
3
4
3
3 , 4
I
x
) x (ln
3
1
dx
x
) x (ln
I I
= + =
1 , 4 3
2
3
3
I
3
2
x
) x (ln
3
1
x
) x (ln
3
1

=
)
`

+ + =
0 , 4 3 3
2
3
3
I
3
1
x
) x (ln
3
1
3
2
x
) x (ln
3
1
x
) x (ln
3
1

= +
)
`

)
`

+ + = C
x
1
3
1
3
1
x
) x (ln
3
1
3
2
x
) x (ln
3
1
x
) x (ln
3
1
3 3 3
2
3
3

C
x
1
27
2
x
) x (ln
9
2
x
) x (ln
3
1
x
) x (ln
3
1
3 3 3
2
3
3
+ =
Note. Integrals of the form
}
dx
x
) x (ln
m
n
may be evaluated using the identity
} a ) x (ln a ) x (ln a {
x
1
dx
x
) x (ln
n
1 n
1
n
0
1 m m
n
+ + + =

}

8.13. Thirteenth Category. Integrals of the form
}

=
n
n
) x (ln x
dx
I , 2 n >
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
454
Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts.
Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f

) x ( g'

x
1

n
) x (ln
1


x ln
1 n
) x (ln
1
x
n
+


we find
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
} }
+
dx
) x (ln
1
x
n
) x (ln
) x (ln
1
) x (ln
) x (ln x
dx
I
1 n n n
n


n
1 n n 1 n
I n
) x (ln
1
dx
) x (ln x
1
n
) x (ln
1
+ =

+ =

}

We have thus derived the formula

n
1 n
n
I n
) x (ln
1
I + =


from which we get
1 n
n
) x (ln
1
I ) n 1 (

= or
C
) x (ln
1
1 n
1
I
1 n
n
+

=

, 2 n >
For 1 n = we have
}

=
x ln x
dx
I
1
. Using the substitution x ln t = we have
dx
x
1
dt = . Therefore
} }
+ = + = =

= C | x ln | ln C | t | ln
t
dt
x ln x
dx
I
1
.
Example. Evaluate the integral
}

=
3
) x (ln x
dx
I
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
455
Solution. We have
}

=
3 3
) x (ln x
dx
I I
For 3 n = we find
C
) x (ln
1
2
1
) x (ln x
dx
I
2 3 3
+ =

=
}

8.14. Fourteenth Category. Integrals of the form
}

=
) x (ln x
dx
I
n
n
, 2 n >
The integral

}

+
) x (ln x
dx
1 n

under the substitution x ln t = , (
t
e x = , dt e dx
t
= ) takes the form
dt ) n (
t n
dt e
t e
dt e
t n
t ) 1 n (
t

} }

+

Under a second substitution t n u = ( dt ) n ( du = ), the integral becomes
du
u
e
u
}

which can be identified, without loss of generality, with the exponential integral
) u ( Ei . Therefore, going back to the original variable, we have the value of the
integral
) x ln n ( Ei
) x (ln x
dx
1 n
=

}
+

Example. Evaluate the integral
}

=
) x (ln x
dx
I
3

Solution. We have ) x ln 2 ( Ei
) x (ln x
dx
I I
3
3
=

=
}


Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
456
8.15. Fifteenth Category
Integrals of the form
}

=
n m
n , m
) x (ln x
dx
I , 2 m> , 2 n >
Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts.
Using the formula

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'

m
x
1

n
) x (ln
1

1 m
x
1
1 m
1


1 n
) x (ln
1
x
n
+


we find

=
} n 1 m n m n , m
) x (ln x
1
1 m
1
) x (ln x
dx
I
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|


}
+
dx
) x (ln
1
x
n
x
1
1 m
1
1 n 1 m


}
+

=
1 n m n 1 m
) x (ln x
dx
1 m
n
) x (ln x
1
1 m
1


1 n , m
n 1 m
I
1 m
n
) x (ln x
1
1 m
1
+

=
We thus have arrived at the formula

1 n , m
n 1 m
n , m
I
1 m
n
) x (ln x
1
1 m
1
I
+

=
from which we get

1 n , m
n 1 m
n , m
I
) x (ln x
1
n
1
I
n
1 m
+


or
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
457

n , m
n 1 m
1 n , m
I
n
1 m
) x (ln x
1
n
1
I

=

+

Changing n to 1 n , we obtain from the above formula

1 n , m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
1 n
1 m
) x (ln x
1
1 n
1
I


=
Special case is the integral
n , 1
I :
C
n 1
) x (ln
) x (ln x
dx
I
n 1
n
n , 1
+

=

}
, 2 n >
The integral

}

=
x ln x
dx
I
1 , 1

can be evaluated using the substitution x ln u = (
x
dx
du = ).
We find
C | x ln | ln C | u | ln
u
du
x ln x
dx
I
1 , 1
+ = + = =

=
} }

Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}

2 3
) x (ln x
dx

Solution. This integral is the integral
2 , 3
I .
For 2 n , 3 m = = we get
1 , 3
2
2 , 3
I 2
) x (ln x
1
I =
We also have (Example, 8.14)

) x ln 2 ( Ei
) x (ln x
dx
I
3
1 , 3
=

=
}

Collecting everything together, we find
= =

} 1 , 3
2 2 3
I 2
) x (ln x
1
) x (ln x
dx

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
458
) x ln 2 ( Ei 2
) x (ln x
1
2
=

8.16

Exercises on Integrals of
Logarithmic Functions






First Method. We use the reduction formula
1 n
n
n
I n ) x (ln x I

= , 2 n > where C x x ln x I
1
+ =
Second Method. We use the identity
C } A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A { x dx ) x (ln
n
1 n
1
n
0
n
+ + + + =

}

where the coefficients
n 1 0
A , , A , A are determined by differentiating both
members of the above identity.
Exercise 1. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
dx ) x (ln
2
2)
}
dx ) x (ln
4

(1) Hint. We consider the reduction formula
1 n
n
n
I n ) x (ln x I

= , 2 n > where C x x ln x I
1
+ =
For 2 n = we have
1
2 2
2
I 2 ) x (ln x dx ) x (ln I = =
}

Exercise 1 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln I
n
n

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
459
Answer. C ) x x ln x ( 2 ) x (ln x
2
+
(2) Hint. We consider the identity
C } A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A { x dx ) x (ln
4 3
2
2
3
1
4
0
4
+ + + + + =
}

Differentiating both members we get
+ + + + + =
4 3
2
2
3
1
4
0
4
A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln

)
`

+ + + +
x
1
A ) x (ln
x
2
A ) x (ln
x
3
A ) x (ln
x
4
A x
3 2
2
1
3
0

which is equivalent to
+ + + + + =
2
1 2
3
0 1
4
0
3
) x )(ln A 3 A ( ) x (ln ) A 4 A ( ) x (ln A ) x (ln

3 4 2 3
A A ) x (ln ) A 2 A ( + + + +
From the above identity we obtain the system

0
A 1= ,
0 1
A 4 A 0 + = ,
1 2
A 3 A 0 + = ,
2 3
A 2 A 0 + = ,
3 4
A A 0 + =
Solving the system, we obtain the values of the coefficients:
1 A
0
= , 4 A
1
= , 12 A
2
= , 24 A
3
= and 24 A
4
=
Answer. C } 24 ) x (ln 24 ) x (ln 12 ) x (ln 4 ) x (ln { x
2 3 4
+ + +
Exercise 2 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln P I where ) x ( P is an n-th
degree polynomial function.

In this case we use the identity
C ) x (ln Q x dx ) x (ln P I + = =
}

where ) x ( Q is again a polynomial of the same degree with ) x ( P .
The coefficients of the polynomial ) x ( Q are determined by differentiation of both
members of the identity.
Exercise 2. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
+ dx ] 2 ) x (ln 3 ) x (ln 4 [
2

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
460
2)
}
+ + dx ] 7 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 11 ) x (ln 3 [
2 3

(1) Hint. We consider the identity
C } A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A { x dx ] 2 ) x (ln 3 ) x (ln 4 [
2 1
2
0
2
+ + + = +
}

Differentiating both members of the previous identity, we obtain

)
`

+ + + + = +
x
1
A ) x (ln
x
2
A x A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A 2 ) x (ln 3 ) x (ln 4
1 0 2 1
2
0
2

which is written as

1 2 0 1
2
0
2
A A ) x (ln ) A 2 A ( ) x (ln A 2 ) x (ln 3 ) x (ln 4 + + + + = +
From the previous identity we obtain the system 4 A
0
= , 3 A 2 A
0 1
= + and
2 A A
1 2
= + . This system admits the solution 4 A
0
= , 11 A
1
= , 13 A
2
= .
Answer. C } 12 ) x (ln 11 ) x (ln 4 { x
2
+ +
(2) Hint. We consider the identity
= + +
}
dx ] 7 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 11 ) x (ln 3 [
2 3

C } A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A { x
3 2
2
1
3
0
+ + + + =
Differentiating both members of the previous identity, we obtain
= + + 7 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 11 ) x (ln 3
2 3

)
`

+ + + + + + =
x
1
A ) x (ln
x
2
A ) x (ln
x
3
A x A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A ) x (ln A
2 1
2
0 3 2
2
1
3
0

which is equivalent to
+ + + = + +
2
0 1
3
0
2 3
) x (ln ) A 3 A ( ) x (ln A 7 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 11 ) x (ln 3

3 2 1 2
A A ) x )(ln A 2 A ( + + + +
From the above identity we obtain the system

0
A 3 = ,
0 1
A 3 A 11 + = ,
1 2
A 2 A 5 + = ,
3 2
A A 7 + =
Solving the system, we obtain the values of the coefficients:
3 A
0
= , 2 A
1
= , 9 A
2
= and 16 A
3
=
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
461
Answer. C } 16 ) x (ln 9 ) x (ln 2 ) x (ln 3 { x
2 3
+ + +

Exercise 3 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln R I where ) x ( R is a rational
function.

In this case we make the substitution x ln t = .
Exercise 3. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx
) x (ln 1
x ln 3 2
2
}

2) dx
) x ln 1 }( ) x (ln 4 {
1 ) x (ln 5 ) x (ln 4
2
2
}
+


(1) Hint. Using the substitution x ln t = , since
t
e x = and dt e dx
t
= ,
the integral transforms to dt e
t 1
t 3 2
t
2
}

. Using partial fraction decomposition, we


find
1 t
1
2
1
1 t
1
2
5
t 1
t 3 2
2

+
+
=

. Therefore the integral takes on the form


dt
1 t
e
2
1
dt
1 t
e
2
5
dt e
t 1
t 3 2
t t
t
2
} } }

+
+
=

Using the formula (see 7.3)


)) x a ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
we find ) 1 t ( Ei e dt
1 t
e
1
t
+ =
+

}
and
) 1 t ( Ei e dt
1 t
e
t
=

}
. Answer. ) 1 x (ln Ei e
2
1
) 1 x (ln Ei e
2
5
1
+ +


(2) Hint. Using the substitution x ln t = , since
t
e x = and dt e dx
t
= ,
the integral transforms to dt e
) t 1 ( ) t 4 (
1 t 5 t 4
t
2
2
}
+

. Using partial fraction
decomposition, we find
1 t
1
3
8
2 t
1
4
25
2 t
1
12
5
) t 1 ( ) t 4 (
1 t 5 t 4
2
2
+
+
+

=
+

.
Therefore the integral becomes dt
1 t
e
3
8
dt
2 t
e
4
25
dt
2 t
e
12
5
t t t
} } }
+
+
+

,
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
462
where each one of the integrals is evaluated using the formula
)) x a ( p ( Ei e dx
a x
e
a p
x p
=

}
.
Answer. ) 1 t ( Ei e
3
8
) 2 t ( Ei e
4
25
) 2 t ( Ei e
12
5
1 2 2
+ + +



Exercise 4 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx
) x (ln
1
J
n
n


This type of integrals can be evaluated using integration by parts.
For 2 n > , we have the reduction formula
1 n
1 n
n
J
1 n
1
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
J

=
For 1 n = we have
} }
= = =
x
0
1
t ln
dt
) x ( li dx
x ln
1
J where ) x ( li is the logarithmic
integral. We also have the identity: ) x (ln Ei ) x ( li = .
Exercise 4. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
dx
) x (ln
1
2
2)
}
dx
) x (ln
1
4

(1) Hint. Using the reduction formula, we have for 2 n = ,
1
2
2
J
x ln
x
dx
) x (ln
1
J + = =
}
. Answer. ) x ( li
x ln
x
+
(2) Hint. Using the reduction formula, we have for 4 n = ,
3
3 4
4
J
3
1
) x (ln
x
3
1
dx
) x (ln
1
J + = =
}
. For 3 n = ,
2
2
3
J
2
1
) x (ln
x
2
1
J + = and for
2 n = ,
1 2
J
x ln
x
J + = . Therefore

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = =
} 1
2 3 4
4
J
x ln
x
2
1
) x (ln
x
2
1
3
1
) x (ln
x
3
1
dx
) x (ln
1
J
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
463
Answer. ) x ( li
6
1
x ln
x
6
1
) x (ln
x
6
1
) x (ln
x
3
1
2 3
+

Exercise 5 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx
x
x ln
K
n
n
and
}

= dx
) a x (
x ln
J
n n


Integrals of the form
}
= dx
x
x ln
K
n
n
are evaluated using the reduction formula
1 n 2 1 n n
n
x
1
) 1 n (
1
x
x ln
1 n
1
dx
x
x ln
K


= =
}
, 2 n >
2
1
) x (ln
2
1
dx
x
x ln
K = =
}

Integrals of the form
}

= dx
) a x (
x ln
J
n
n
are evaluated using the formula
} }

=
1 n 1 n n
n
) a x ( x
dx
1 n
1
) a x (
x ln
1 n
1
dx
) a x (
x ln
J , 2 n >
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
=

=
}
a
x
Li 1
a
x
ln ) a (ln a dx
a x
x ln
J
2 1

where ) x ( Li
2
is the dilogarithm, a function defined by the integral
dt
t 1
t ln
) x ( Li
x
1
2 }

= .
Exercise 5. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx x ln
x
x 2 x 5
6
4 5

}
2) dx x ln
x
x 7 x 4
5
2 3

}

3)
}

4
) 2 x (
x ln

(1) Hint. The integral can be written as the sum of two integrals
2 1
2
K 2 K 5 dx
x
x ln
2 dx
x
x ln
5 =
} }
where
2
1
) x (ln
2
1
K = and
x
1
x
x ln
K
2
=
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
464
Answer. C
x
2
x
x ln
2 ) x (ln
2
5
2
+ + +
(2) Hint. The integral can be written as the sum of two integrals
3 2
3 2
K 7 K 4 dx
x
x ln
7 dx
x
x ln
4 =
} }
. Using the reduction formula for 3 n = and
2 n = , we obtain
2 2
3
x
1
4
1
x
x ln
2
1
K = and
x
1
x
x ln
K
2
= .
Answer. C
x
1 x ln 2
4
7
x
) 1 x (ln 4
2
+
+
+
+

(3) Hint. Using the reduction formula, we have for 2 a = and 4 n = :

} }

+

3 3 4
) 2 x ( x
dx
3
1
) 2 x (
x ln
3
1
dx
) 2 x (
x ln

We find, using partial fraction decomposition,

3 2 3
) 2 x (
1
2
1
) 2 x (
1
4
1
2 x
1
8
1
x
1
8
1
) 2 x ( x
1

+ =


Therefore the integral equals to
} } } }

+


3 2 3
) 2 x (
dx
6
1
) 2 x (
dx
12
1
2 x
dx
24
1
x
dx
24
1
) 2 x (
x ln
3
1

Answer.
C
) 2 x (
1
12
1
2 x
1
12
1
| 2 x | ln
24
1
| x | ln
24
1
) 2 x (
x ln
3
1
2 3
+

+ +



Exercise 6 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln x I
n
n


Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts or the formula
1 n
2
1 n
n
n
x
) 1 n (
1
x ln
1 n
x
dx x ln x I
+
+
+

+
= =
}
we have already proved.
Exercise 6. Evaluate the integrals
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
465
1)
}
dx x ln x
5
2)
}
dx x ln x
8

(1) Hint. Using the above formula, we evaluate the integral for 5 n = .
Answer. C
36
x
x ln
6
x
6 6
+
(2) Hint. Using the above formula, we evaluate the integral for 8 n = .
Answer. C
81
x
x ln
9
x
9 9
+

Exercise 7 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln ) x ( P I
n
where ) x ( P is an n-th
degree polynomial

Integrals of this type can be evaluated either integrating term by term using the
formula of the previous Category (8.7) or using the formula
= + + + +
}

dx x ln ) a x a x a x a (
n 1 n
1 n
1
n
0

+ + + + + =

+
x ln ) x A x A x A x A (
n
2
1 n
n
1
1 n
0

C ) x B x B x B x B (
n
2
1 n
n
1
1 n
0
+ + + + + +

+

The various coefficients appearing in the above formula can be determined by
differentiation and equating the coefficients of similar power of the variable x.
Exercise 7. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx x ln ) 5 x 7 x 3 (
2
}
+ 2) dx x ln ) 3 x x 4 x (
2 3
}
+
(1) Hint. We put
+ + + = +
}
x ln ) x A x A x A ( dx x ln ) 5 x 7 x 3 (
2
2
1
3
0
2

C ) x B x B x B (
2
2
1
3
0
+ + + +
Differentiation with respect to x of both members of the previous identity gives
us the relation
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
466
+ + + = + x ln ) A x A 2 x A 3 ( x ln ) 5 x 7 x 3 (
2 1
2
0
2

) B x B 2 x B 3 (
x
1
) x A x A x A (
2 1
2
0 2
2
1
3
0
+ + + + + +
which is equivalent to
+ + + = + x ln ) A x A 2 x A 3 ( x ln ) 5 x 7 x 3 (
2 1
2
0
2

) B A ( x ) B 2 A ( x ) B 3 A (
2 2 1 1
2
0 0
+ + + + + +
From the above identity we get the system
3 A 3
0
= , 7 A 2
1
= , 5 A
2
= , 0 B 3 A
0 0
= + , 0 B 2 A
1 1
= + , 0 B A
2 2
= +
The previous system has the unique solution given by
1 A
0
= ,
2
7
A
1
= , 5 A
2
= ,
3
1
B
0
= ,
4
7
B
1
= , 5 B
2
=
Answer.
C x 5 x
4
7
x
3
1
x ln x 5 x
2
7
x
2 3 2 3
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
(2) Hint. We put
+ + + + = +
}
x ln ) x A x A x A x A ( dx x ln ) 3 x x 4 x (
3
2
2
3
1
4
0
2 3

C ) x B x B x B x B (
3
2
2
3
1
4
0
+ + + + +
Using the same procedure, as in the previous Exercise, we arrive at the following
Answer.
C x 3 x
4
1
x
9
4
x
16
1
x ln x 3 x
2
1
x
3
4
x
4
1
2 3 4 2 3 4
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
|
.
|

\
|
+

Exercise 8 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx x ln ) x ( R I
n
where ) x ( R is a
rational function.

Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts or using the
formula
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
467

1 n 2 1 n n
x
1
) 1 n (
1
x
x ln
1 n
1
dx
x
x ln


=
}
, 2 n >
or the method of the previous Exercise.
Exercise 8. Evaluate the integrals
1) dx ) x (ln
x
3 x 4 x
4
2 3
}
+
2) dx ) x (ln
x
5 x 7 x 2
4
2
}


(1) Hint.
dx
x
x ln
3 dx
x
x ln
4 dx
x
x ln
dx ) x (ln
x
3 x 4 x
4 2 4
2 3
} } } }
+ =
+

We also have,
2
) x (ln
2
1
dx
x
x ln
=
}
using the substitution x ln u = and
x
1
x
x ln
dx
x
x ln
2
=
}
,
3 3 4
x
1
9
1
x
x ln
3
1
dx
x
x ln
=
}

using the above formula. Answer. C
x
1 x ln 3
x
) 1 x (ln 4
) x (ln
2
1
3
2
+
+

+
+
(2) Hint.
dx
x
x ln
5 dx
x
x ln
7 dx
x
x ln
2 dx ) x (ln
x
5 x 7 x 2
4 3 2 4
2
} } } }
=


We find as previously
x
1
x
x ln
dx
x
x ln
2
=
}
,
2 2 3
x
1
4
1
x
x ln
2
1
dx
x
x ln
=
}
and
3 3 4
x
1
9
1
x
x ln
3
1
dx
x
x ln
=
}
.
Answer. C
x 9
) 1 x ln 3 ( 5
x 4
) 1 x ln 2 ( 7
x
) 1 x (ln 2
3 2
+
+
+
+
+
+


Exercise 9 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln x I
n m
n , m


Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
468
Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts or the reduction
formula
1 n , m
n
1 m
n , m
I
1 m
n
) x (ln
1 m
x
I

+
+

+
= .
Exercise 9. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
dx ) x (ln x
2 4
2)
}
dx ) x (ln x
3 5

(1) Hint. This is the integral
2 , 4
I . Using the above reduction formula for 4 m= ,
2 n = , we find
1 , 4
2
5
2 4
2 , 4
I
5
2
) x (ln
5
x
dx ) x (ln x I = =
}
. For the integral
1 , 4
I we
find for 4 m= , 1 n = ,
0 , 4
5
1 , 4
I
5
1
) x (ln
5
x
I = , where
5
x
dx x I
5
4
0 , 4
= =
}
.
Answer. C x } 2 x ln 50 ) x (ln 25 {
125
1
5 2
+ +
(2) Hint. This is the integral
3 , 5
I . Using the above reduction formula for 5 m = ,
3 n = , we find
2 , 5
3
6
3 5
3 , 5
I
6
3
) x (ln
6
x
dx ) x (ln x I = =
}
. For the integral
2 , 5
I we
find for 5 m = , 2 n = ,
1 , 5
2
6
2 , 5
I
6
2
) x (ln
6
x
I = . For the integral
1 , 5
I we find for
5 m = , 1 n = ,
0 , 5
6
1 , 5
I
6
1
) x (ln
6
x
I = where
6
x
dx x I
6
5
0 , 5
= =
}
.
Answer. C x
216
1
) x (ln
36
1
) x (ln
12
1
) x (ln
6
1
6 2 3
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
Note. Integrals of the form
}
= dx ) x (ln x I
n m
n , m
can be evaluated using the
formula
C x } a ) x (ln a ) x (ln a { dx ) x (ln x
1 m
n
1 n
1
n
0
n m
+ + + + =
+
}

where the coefficients are determined by differentiation of both members of the
above identity. The reader can try this method in evaluating the integrals of the
Exercise 9.
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
469

Exercise 10 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx
x ln
x
I
n
n
, 2 n >

Integrals of this form are evaluated using the formula
) x ln ) 1 n ( ( Ei dx
x ln
x
I
n
n
+ = =
}
, where () Ei is the exponential integral.
Exercise 10. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
dx
x ln
x
3
2)
}
dx
x ln
x
5

(1) Hint. Use the above formula for 3 n = . Answer. ) x ln 4 ( Ei
(2) Hint. Use the above formula for 5 n = . Answer. ) x ln 6 ( Ei

Exercise 11 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx
) x (ln
x
I
n
m
n , m
, 2 n > .

Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts or the reduction
formula
1 n , m
1 n
1 m
n , m
I
1 n
1 m
) x (ln
x
1 n
1
I

+
+

= .
Exercise 11. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
dx
) x (ln
x
2
3
2)
}
dx
) x (ln
x
4
3

(1) Hint. We have
}
= dx
) x (ln
x
I
2
3
2 , 3
. For 3 m = , 2 n = we find from the
reduction formula
1 , 3
4
2 , 3
I 4
x ln
x
I + = where ) x ln 4 ( Ei dx
x ln
x
I
3
1 , 3
= =
}

Answer. ) x ln 4 ( Ei 4
x ln
x
4
+

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
470
(2) Hint. We have
}
= dx
) x (ln
x
I
4
3
4 , 3
. For 3 m = , 4 n = we find from the
reduction formula
3 , 3
3
4
4 , 3
I
3
4
) x (ln
x
3
1
I + = . For 3 m = , 3 n = we find from the
reduction formula
2 , 3
2
4
3 , 3
I 2
) x (ln
x
2
1
I + = . For 3 m = , 2 n = we find from the
reduction formula
1 , 3
4
2 , 3
I 4
x ln
x
I + = where ) x ln 4 ( Ei dx
x ln
x
I
3
1 , 3
= =
}
.
Answer. ) x ln 4 ( Ei
3
32
x ln
x
3
8
) x (ln
x
3
2
) x (ln
x
3
1
4
2
4
3
4
+

Note. Integrals of the form
}
dx
) x (ln
x
n
m
may be evaluated using the identity
) x ln ) 1 m ( ( Ei a x
x ln
a
) x (ln
a
) x (ln
a
dx
) x (ln
x
n
1 m 1 n
2 n
1
1 n
0
n
m
+ +

+ + + =
+

}

where the coefficients are determined by differentiation of both members.
We remind that
x
e
) x ( Ei
dx
d
x
= . Therefore in differentiating ) x ln ) 1 m ( ( Ei + , we
should take into account that
) x (ln x
1
) x ln ) 1 m ( ( Ei
dx
d
2 m+
= + .
Exercise 12 contains integrals of the form
}
= dx
x
) x (ln
I
m
n
n , m
, 2 m>

Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts or using the
reduction formula
1 n , m
1 m
n
n , m
I
1 m
n
x
) x (ln
1 m
1
I

=
Exercise 12. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
dx
x
) x (ln
3
2
2)
}
dx
x
) x (ln
5
4

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
471
(1) Hint. We have
}
= dx
x
) x (ln
I
3
2
2 , 3
. For 3 m = , 2 n = we find from the
reduction formula
1 , 3
2
2
2 , 3
I
x
) x (ln
2
1
I + = . For 3 m = , 1 n = we find
0 , 3
2
1 , 3
I
2
1
x
x ln
2
1
I + = where
2 3
0 , 3
x
1
2
1
x
dx
I = =
}

Answer. C
x
1
4
1
x
x ln
2
1
x
) x (ln
2
1
2 2 2
2
+
(2) Hint. We have
}
= dx
x
) x (ln
I
5
4
4 , 5
. We find, using the reduction formula

3 , 5
4
4
4 , 5
I
x
) x (ln
4
1
I + = ,
2 , 5
4
3
3 , 5
I
4
3
x
) x (ln
4
1
I + = ,
1 , 5
4
2
2 , 5
I
2
1
x
) x (ln
4
1
I + = ,
0 , 5
4
1 , 5
I
4
1
x
x ln
4
1
I + = where
}
= dx
x
1
I
5
0 , 5
.
Answer. C
x
1
128
3
32
) x (ln 3
16
) x (ln 3
4
) x (ln
4
) x (ln
4
2 3 4
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
Note. Integrals of the form
}
dx
x
) x (ln
m
n
may be evaluated using the identity
} a ) x (ln a ) x (ln a {
x
1
dx
x
) x (ln
n
1 n
1
n
0
1 m m
n
+ + + =

}


Exercise 13 contains integrals of the form
}

=
n
n
) x (ln x
dx
I , 2 n >

Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts or using the
formulas
1 n
n
) x (ln
1
1 n
1
I

= , 2 n > with | x ln | ln
x ln x
dx
I
1
=

=
}

Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
472
Exercise 13. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}

=
5
) x (ln x
dx
I 2)
}

=
8
) x (ln x
dx
I
(1) Hint. We have
}

=
5
5
) x (ln x
dx
I . Answer. C
) x (ln
1
4
1
4
+
(2) Hint. We have
}

=
8
8
) x (ln x
dx
I . Answer. C
) x (ln
1
7
1
7
+

Exercise 14 contains integrals of the form
}

=
+
) x (ln x
dx
I
1 n
n
, 1 n >

The integral
}

+
) x (ln x
dx
1 n
under the substitution x ln t = , (
t
e x = , dt e dx
t
= )
takes the form ) x ln n ( Ei
) x (ln x
dx
1 n
=

}
+

Exercise 14. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}
) x (ln x
dx
4
2)
}
) x (ln x
dx
7

(1) Hint. We have ) x ln 3 ( Ei
) x (ln x
dx
I
4
3
=

=
}

(2) Hint. We have ) x ln 6 ( Ei
) x (ln x
dx
I
7
6
=

=
}


Exercise 15 contains integrals of the form
}

=
n m
n , m
) x (ln x
dx
I , 2 m> , 2 n >

Integrals of this type can be evaluated using integration by parts or the formulas
1 n , m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
1 n
1 m
) x (ln x
1
1 n
1
I


= , 2 m> , 2 n >
Chapter 8-Integrals of logarithmic functions
473

n 1
) x (ln
) x (ln x
dx
I
n 1
n
n , 1

=

}
, 2 n >
| x ln | ln
x ln x
dx
I
1 , 1
=

=
}

Exercise 15. Evaluate the integrals
1)
}

3 3
) x (ln x
dx
2)
}

2 4
) x (ln x
dx

(1) Hint. For 3 n , 3 m = = we get
2 , 3
2 2
3 , 3
I
) x (ln x
1
2
1
I = . For 2 n , 3 m = =
we get
1 , 3
2
2 , 3
I 2
) x (ln x
1
I = , where ) x ln 2 ( Ei
) x (ln x
dx
I
3
1 , 3
=

=
}

Answer. ) x ln 2 ( Ei 2
) x (ln x
1
) x (ln x
1
2
1
2 2 2
+ +
(2) Hint. For 2 n , 4 m = = we get
1 , 4
3
2 , 4
I 3
) x (ln x
1
I = , where
) x ln 3 ( Ei
) x (ln x
dx
I
4
1 , 4
=

=
}
. Answer. ) x ln 3 ( Ei 3
) x (ln x
1
3






9

Integrals of
Trigonometric Functions



Learning Objectives

In this Section the student will learn how to evaluate
integrals involving trigonometric functions.
The classification involves sixteen cases.



Contents and Taxonomy
- First Category. Integrals of the form

}
+ dx ) b x a sin( and
}
+ dx ) b x a cos(
- Second Category. Integrals of the form dx x cos x sin
n m
}

- Third Category. Integrals of the form
dx ) x b cos( ) x a sin(
}
, dx ) x b sin( ) x a sin(
}
, dx ) x b cos( ) x a cos(
}

- Fourth Category. Integrals involving sines and cosines in linear
expressions. In this category belong integrals of the form
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
475
dx ) x cos , x (sin R I
}
=
where ) x cos , x (sin R is a rational function of x sin and x cos , i.e.
integrals of the form

}
x sin
dx
,
}
x cos
dx
,
}
+ x cos 3 2
dx
,
}
+

dx
x sin 1
x cos 2

- Fifth Category. Integrals which contain sines and cosines where the
integrand in invariant under the substitutions x sin x sin and
x cos x cos .
- Sixth Category. In this category belong integrals of the form
dx
x sin
1
m
}
, dx
x cos
1
m
}
, dx
x cos x sin
1
n m
}

and

dx
x cos
x sin
n
m
}
or dx
x sin
x cos
m
n
}

where in general m and n are positive integers with 3 n , m > .
- Seventh Category. Integrals of the form

}
= dx x tan I
m
m
and
}
= dx x cot J
m
m

- Eighth Category Integrals of the form
dx ) ax sin( x I
n
n }
= and dx ) ax cos( x J
n
n }
=
- Ninth Category Integrals of the form

}
dx ) ax sin( ) x ( P and
}
dx ) ax cos( ) x ( P
where ) x ( P is an th n degree polynomial.
- Tenth Category Integrals of the form

}

dx
c x
) ax sin(
,
}

dx
) c x (
) ax sin(
n

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
476

}

dx
c x
) ax cos(
,
}

dx
) c x (
) ax cos(
n

- Eleventh Category

}
+ +
dx
c bx x a
) x m sin(
2
,
}
+ +
dx
) c bx x a (
) x m sin(
n 2


}
+ +
dx
c bx x a
) x m cos(
2
,
}
+ +
dx
) c bx x a (
) x m cos(
n 2

- Twelfth Category
Integrals of the form

}
dx ) ax sin( ) x ( R and
}
dx ) ax cos( ) x ( R
where ) x ( R is a rational function.
- Thirteenth Category Integrals of the form

}
= dx ) bx sin( e I
ax
and
}
= dx ) bx cos( e J
ax

- Fourteenth Category Integrals of the form

}
= dx ) bx sin( e x I
ax n
n
and
}
= dx ) bx cos( e x J
ax n
n

- Fifteenth Category Integrals of the form

}
= dx ) bx sin( e ) x ( P I
ax
n
and
}
= dx ) bx cos( e ) x ( P J
ax
n

where ) x ( P is an th n degree polynomial.
- Sixteenth Category Integrals of the form

}
= dx ) bx sin( e ) x ( R I
ax
and
}
= dx ) bx cos( e ) x ( R J
ax

where ) x ( R is a rational function.





Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
477

9.0 Trigonometric Identities
We first list some useful identities we shall need in dealing with integrals of
trigonometric functions:
1 x cos x sin
2 2
= + , x sec x tan 1
2 2
= + ,
x ec cos x cot 1
2 2
= + ,
2
x 2 cos 1
x sin
2

= ,
2
x 2 cos 1
x cos
2
+
=

x tan 1
x tan 2
x 2 sin
2
+
= ,
x tan 1
x tan 1
x 2 cos
2
2
+

=

9.1 First Category. Integrals of the form

}
+ dx ) b x a sin( and
}
+ dx ) b x a cos(
In both the above cases we use the substitution b x a u + = . Since dx a du = , we
get
= + = = +
} }
C u cos
a
1
du u sin
a
1
dx ) b x a sin(
C ) b x a cos(
a
1
+ + =
and
= + = = +
} }
C u sin
a
1
du u cos
a
1
dx ) b x a cos(
C ) b x a sin(
a
1
+ + =
Example 1. Evaluate the integrals
}
+ = dx ) 1 x 2 sin( I and
}
= dx ) 2 x 3 cos( J
Solution.
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
478
C ) 1 x 2 cos(
2
1
dx ) 1 x 2 sin( I + + = + =
}

C ) 2 x 3 sin(
3
1
dx ) 2 x 3 cos( J + = =
}

Example 2. Evaluate the integrals
}
= dx x 3 sin I and
}
= dx x 4 cos J
Solution.
C x 3 cos
3
1
dx x 3 sin I + = =
}

C x 4 sin
4
1
dx x 4 cos J + = =
}

9.2. Second Category. Integrals of the form dx x sin
m
}

First Case. Integrals of the form dx x sin
1 m 2
}
+

In this case we use the method of substitution. We have
= = =
} } }
+
dx x sin ) x (sin dx x sin x sin dx x sin
m 2 m 2 1 m 2

dx x sin ) x cos 1 (
m 2
}
=
Using the substitution x cos u = , dx x sin du = , the integral transforms to
dx ) u 1 (
m 2
}

which can be evaluated by expanding the binomial and integrating term by term.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x sin I
3
}
=
Solution.
dx x sin ) x cos 1 ( dx x sin x sin dx x sin I
2 2 3
} } }
= = =
Using the substitution x cos u = , dx x sin du = , the integral transforms to
C
3
u
u du u du du ) u 1 (
3
2 2
+ + = + =
} } }

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
479
Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C x cos
3
1
x cos dx x sin I
3 3
+ + = =
}

Second Case. Integrals of the form dx x sin
m 2
}

In this case the integrand is converted to a trigonometric number of multiple angle.
This can be done using the formula

2
x 2 cos 1
x sin
2

=
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x sin I
2
}
=
Solution.
= =

= =
} } }
dx ) x 2 cos 1 (
2
1
dx
2
x 2 cos 1
dx x sin I
2

= + = =
} }
C
2
x 2 sin
2
1
x
2
1
dx x 2 cos
2
1
dx
2
1

C x 2 sin
4
1
x
2
1
+ =
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx x sin I
4
}
=
Solution. Squaring both members of the identity
2
x 2 cos 1
x sin
2

=
we find
4
x 2 cos x 2 cos 2 1
4
) x 2 cos 1 (
x sin
2 2
4
+
=

=
In the previous identity we use the identity
2
x 4 cos 1
x 2 cos
2
+
=
and we get
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
480
=
+
+
=
4
2
x 4 cos 1
x 2 cos 2 1
x sin
4


8
) x 4 cos 1 ( ) x 2 cos 2 1 ( 2 + +
=
or

8
x 4 cos x 2 cos 4 3
x sin
4
+
=
Therefore we get
=
+
= =
} }
dx
8
x 4 cos x 2 cos 4 3
dx x sin I
4

= + =
} } }
dx x 4 cos
8
1
dx x 2 cos
8
4
dx
8
3

C
4
x 4 sin
8
1
2
x 2 sin
8
4
x
8
3
+ + =
C x 4 sin
32
1
x 2 sin
4
1
x
8
3
+ + =

9.2.1. Reduction Formula.
dx x sin
m
1 m
m
x sin x cos
dx x sin
2 m
1 m
m
} }


+ =
Proof. We call
m
I the integral dx x sin
m
}
:
dx x sin I
m
m }
=
We transform the above integral to
= = =
} }

dx x sin x sin dx x sin I
2 m 2 m
m

= =
}

dx x sin ) x cos 1 (
2 m 2

= =
} }

dx x sin x cos dx x sin
2 m 2 2 m

2 m 2 m
J I

=
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
481
The integral
2 m
J

can be written as
dx x cos ) sin x (cos dx x sin x cos J
2 m 2 m 2
2 m } }

= =
Using the formula (integration by parts)

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the Table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
) x (sin x cos
2 m

x cos
x sin
1 m
1
1 m


x sin

we find
dx x cos ) sin x (cos dx x sin x cos J
2 m 2 m 2
2 m } }

= =
}

=

dx x sin
1 m
1
1 m
x sin x cos
m
1 m

m
1 m
I
1 m
1
1 m
x sin x cos

=


Therefore

|
|
.
|

\
|

=

m
1 m
2 m m
I
1 m
1
1 m
x sin x cos
I I
which is equivalent to

m
1 m
2 m m
I
1 m
1
1 m
x sin x cos
I I


1 m
x sin x cos
I I
1 m
1
I
1 m
2 m m m


2 m
1 m
m
I
1 m
x sin x cos
I
1 m
1
1

=
|
.
|

\
|

+
2 m
1 m
m
I
1 m
x sin x cos
I
1 m
m


Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
482
2 m
1 m
m
I
m
1 m
m
x sin x cos
I


+ =
which is the sought for reduction formula.

9.2.2. Using Multiple Angles.
Any power of x sin can be expressed in terms of multiple angles of sines or
cosines. For example, considering the formula
x sin 4 x sin 3 x 3 sin
3
=
and solving with respect to x sin
3
, we find
x 3 sin
4
1
x sin
4
3
x sin
3
=
There is a powerful technique for converting any power of x sin in terms of
multiple angles of sines or cosines, based on complex numbers. This technique is
fully explained in the last paragraph (9.27) of this section. We find for example
x 7 sin x 5 sin 7 x 3 sin 21 x sin 35 x sin 64
7
+ =
35 x 8 cos x 6 cos 8 x 4 cos 28 x 2 cos 56 x sin 128
8
+ + + =
Example 1. Evaluate the integral

}
= dx x sin I
7

Solution. Using the above formula, we have
= + = =
} }
dx ) x 7 sin x 5 sin 7 x 3 sin 21 x sin 35 (
64
1
x sin I
7

= + =
} } } }
dx x 7 sin
64
1
dx x 5 sin
64
7
dx x 3 sin
64
21
dx x sin
64
35

= +
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= C
7
x 7 cos
64
1
5
x 5 cos
64
7
3
x 3 cos
64
21
) x cos (
64
35

C x 7 cos
448
1
x 5 cos
320
7
x 3 cos
64
7
x cos
64
35
+ + + =
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
483
9.3. Third Category. Integrals of the form dx x cos
n
}

First Case. Integrals of the form dx x cos
1 n 2
}
+

In this case we use the method of substitution. We have
= = =
} } }
+
dx x cos ) x (cos dx x cos x cos dx x cos
n 2 n 2 1 n 2

dx x cos ) x sin 1 (
n 2
}
=
Using the substitution x sin u = , dx x cos du = , the integral transforms to
dx ) u 1 (
n 2
}

which can be evaluated by expanding the binomial and integrating term by term.

Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x cos I
3
}
=
Solution. The integral can be written as
dx x cos ) x sin 1 ( dx x cos x cos dx x cos I
2 2 3
} } }
= = =
Using the substitution x sin u = , dx x cos du = , the integral transforms to
C
3
u
u du u du du ) u 1 (
3
2 2
+ = =
} } }

Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C x sin
3
1
x sin dx x cos I
3 3
+ = =
}

Second Case. Integrals of the form dx x cos
n 2
}

In this case the integrand can be converted to a sum of cosines of multiple angles.
This can be done using the formula

2
x 2 cos 1
x cos
2
+
=
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x cos J
2
}
=
Solution.
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
484
= + =
+
= =
} } }
dx ) x 2 cos 1 (
2
1
dx
2
x 2 cos 1
dx x cos J
2

= + + = + =
} }
C
2
x 2 sin
2
1
x
2
1
dx x 2 cos
2
1
dx
2
1

C x 2 sin
4
1
x
2
1
+ + =
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx x cos I
4
}
=
Solution. Squaring both members of the identity
2
x 2 cos 1
x cos
2
+
=
we find
4
x 2 cos x 2 cos 2 1
4
) x 2 cos 1 (
x cos
2 2
4
+ +
=
+
=
In the previous identity we use again
2
x 4 cos 1
x 2 cos
2
+
=
and we get
=
+
+ +
=
4
2
x 4 cos 1
x 2 cos 2 1
x cos
4


8
) x 4 cos 1 ( ) x 2 cos 2 1 ( 2 + + +
=
or

8
x 4 cos x 2 cos 4 3
x cos
4
+ +
=
Therefore we get
=
+ +
= =
} }
dx
8
x 4 cos x 2 cos 4 3
dx x cos I
4

= + + =
} } }
dx x 4 cos
8
1
dx x 2 cos
8
4
dx
8
3

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
485
C
4
x 4 sin
8
1
2
x 2 sin
8
4
x
8
3
+ + + =
C x 4 sin
32
1
x 2 sin
4
1
x
8
3
+ + + =
9.3.1. Reduction Formula
dx x cos
m
1 m
m
x cos x sin
dx x cos
2 m
1 m
m
} }


+ =
Proof. We call
m
I the integral dx x cos
m
}
:
dx x cos I
m
m }
=
We transform the above integral to
= = =
} }

dx x cos x cos dx x cos I
2 m 2 m
m

= =
}

dx x cos ) x sin 1 (
2 m 2

= =
} }

dx x cos x sin dx x cos
2 m 2 2 m

2 m 2 m
J I

=
The integral
2 m
J

can be written as
dx x sin ) cos x (sin dx x cos x sin J
2 m 2 m 2
2 m } }

= =
Using the formula (integration by parts)

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the Table
) x ( f ' ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g'
) x (cos x sin
2 m

x sin
x cos
1 m
1
1 m


x cos

we find
dx x sin ) cos x (sin dx x cos x sin J
2 m 2 m 2
2 m } }

= =
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
486
}

=

dx x cos
1 m
1
1 m
x cos x sin
m
1 m

m
1 m
I
1 m
1
1 m
x cos x sin

=


Therefore

|
|
.
|

\
|

=

m
1 m
2 m m
I
1 m
1
1 m
x cos x sin
I I
which is equivalent to

m
1 m
2 m m
I
1 m
1
1 m
x cos x sin
I I

+ =


1 m
x cos x sin
I I
1 m
1
I
1 m
2 m m m

+ =


2 m
1 m
m
I
1 m
x cos x sin
I
1 m
1
1

=
|
.
|

\
|

+
2 m
1 m
m
I
1 m
x cos x sin
I
1 m
m


2 m
1 m
m
I
m
1 m
1 m
x cos x sin
I

=
which is the sought for reduction formula.

9.3.2. Using Multiple Angles.
Any power of x sin can be expressed in terms of multiple angles of sinee or
cosines. For example, considering the formula
x cos 3 x cos 4 x 3 cos
3
=
and solving with respect to x cos
3
, we find
x cos
4
3
x 3 cos
4
1
x cos
3
=
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
487
There is a powerful technique for converting any power of x sin in terms of
multiple angles of cosines, based on complex numbers. This technique is fully
explained in the last paragraph of this section. We find for example
x 7 cos x 5 cos 7 x 3 cos 21 x cos 35 x cos 64
7
+ + + =
x 8 cos x 6 cos 8 x 4 cos 28 x 2 cos 56 35 x cos 128
8
+ + + + =
Example 1. Evaluate the integral

}
= dx x cos I
7

Solution. Using the above formula, we have
= + + + = =
} }
dx ) x 7 cos x 5 cos 7 x 3 cos 21 x cos 35 (
64
1
x cos I
7

= + + + =
} } } }
dx x 7 cos
64
1
dx x 5 cos
64
7
dx x 3 cos
64
21
dx x cos
64
35

= +
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = C
7
x 7 sin
64
1
5
x 5 sin
64
7
3
x 3 sin
64
21
x sin
64
35

C x 7 sin
448
1
x 5 sin
320
7
x 3 sin
64
7
x sin
64
35
+ + + + =

9.4. Fourth Category. Integrals of the form dx x cos x sin
n m
}

9.4.1. First Case. Integrals of the form
[1] dx x cos x sin
1 n 2 m 2
}
+

[2] dx x cos x sin
n 2 1 m 2
}
+

[3] dx x cos x sin
1 n 2 1 m 2
}
+ +

where m and n are non-negative integers.
In this case belong integrals where at least one of the exponents m or n is an odd
integer, i.e. integrals of the form
dx x cos x sin
3 2
}
, dx x cos x sin
5 4
}

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
488
In this case we use the method of substitution.
[1] = =
} }
+
dx x cos ) x (cos ) x (sin dx x cos x sin
n 2 m 2 1 n 2 m 2

dx x cos ) x sin 1 ( ) x (sin
n 2 m 2
}
=
Using the substitution x sin u = , dx x cos du = , the integral transforms to
du ) u 1 ( u
n 2 m 2
}

which can be evaluated by expanding the binomial, performing the operations and
integrating term by term.
[2] = =
} }
+
dx x sin ) x (cos ) x (sin dx x cos x sin
n 2 m 2 n 2 1 m 2

dx x sin ) x (cos ) x cos 1 (
n 2 m 2
}
=
Using the substitution x cos u = , dx x sin du = , the integral transforms to
}
du u ) u 1 (
n 2 m 2

which can be evaluated by expanding the binomial, performing the operations and
integrating term by term.
[3] = =
} }
+ + +
dx x cos ) x (cos ) x (sin dx x cos x sin
n 2 1 m 2 1 n 2 1 m 2

dx x cos ) x sin 1 ( ) x (sin
n 2 1 m 2
}
=
+

Using the substitution x sin u = , dx x cos du = , the integral transforms to
du ) u 1 ( u
n 2 1 m 2
}

+

which can be evaluated by expanding the binomial, performing the operations and
integrating term by term.
We can also use another route:
= =
} }
+ + +
dx x sin ) x (cos ) x (sin dx x cos x sin
1 n 2 m 2 1 n 2 1 m 2

dx x sin ) x (cos ) x cos 1 (
1 n 2 m 2
}
+
=
Using the substitution x cos u = , dx x sin du = , the integral transforms to
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
489
du u ) u 1 (
1 n 2 m 2
}
+

which can be evaluated by expanding the binomial, performing the operations and
integrating term by term.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x cos x sin I
3 2
}
=
Solution. The integral can be written as
dx x cos ) x sin 1 ( x sin dx x cos x cos x sin I
2 2 2 2
} }
= =
Using the substitution
x sin t = , dx x cos dt =
the integral takes the form
= = =
} } } }
dt t dt t dt ) t t ( dt ) t 1 ( t
4 2 4 2 2 2

C
5
t
3
t
5 3
+ =
Going back to the original variable, we get the result
C x sin
5
1
x sin
3
1
dx x cos x sin I
5 3 3 2
+ = =
}

Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx x cos x sin I
5 5
}
=
Solution. The integral can be written as
dx x cos ) x sin 1 ( x sin dx x cos x cos x sin I
2 2 5 4 5
} }
= =
Using the substitution
x sin t = , dx x cos dt =
the integral takes the form
= + = + =
} } }
dt ) t t 2 t ( dt ) t t 2 1 ( t dt ) t 1 ( t
9 7 5 4 2 5 2 2 5

= + =
} } }
dt t dt t 2 dt t
9 7 5

C
10
t
8
t
2
6
t
10 8 6
+ + =
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
490
Going back to the original variable, we get the result
C x sin
10
1
x sin
4
1
x sin
6
1
dx x cos x sin I
10 8 6 5 5
+ + = =
}

Note. In case where n m= , as in the previous case, we may use the formula
x 2 sin
2
1
x cos x sin =
and then
m
m
m
m m m
) x 2 (sin
2
1
x 2 sin
2
1
) x cos x (sin x cos x sin =
|
.
|

\
|
= =
which is an already known case.
9.4.2. Second Case. Integrals of the form dx x cos x sin
n 2 m 2
}

In this case belong integrals where both of the exponents m or n are even
integers, i.e. integrals of the form
dx x cos x sin
4 2
}
, dx x cos x sin
6 4
}

In this case the integrand should be converted to a trigonometric number of
multiple angle. This can be done using the formulas

2
x 2 cos 1
x sin
2

= and
2
x 2 cos 1
x cos
2
+
=
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x cos x sin I
4 2
}
=
Solution.
= =

= =
} } }
dx ) x 2 cos 1 (
2
1
dx
2
x 2 cos 1
dx x sin I
2

= + = =
} }
C
2
x 2 sin
2
1
x
2
1
dx x 2 cos
2
1
dx
2
1

C x 2 sin
4
1
x
2
1
+ =
9.4.3. Reduction Formulas.
We shall establish two reduction formulas for the integral
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
491
dx x cos x sin I
n m
n , m }
=
Case I. We transform the integral to dx x cos ) x cos x (sin I
1 n m
n , m }

=
Using the formula (integration by parts)

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'
x cos x sin
m
x cos
1 n

x sin
1 m
1
1 m+
+

x cos ) x sin )( 1 n (
2 n


we get

+
= =
+
}
x cos x sin
1 m
1
dx x cos x sin I
1 n 1 m n m
n , m

=
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
}
dx x cos ) x sin )( 1 n ( x sin
1 m
1
2 n 1 m

dx x cos x sin
1 m
1 n
x cos x sin
1 m
1
2 n 2 m 1 n 1 m + +
}
+

+
+
=
We can transform now the integrand using simple trigonometric identities. We
have
= =
+
x cos x sin x sin x cos x sin
2 n 2 m 2 n 2 m

= =

x cos ) x cos 1 ( x sin
2 n 2 m

x cos x sin x cos x sin
n m 2 n m
=


Therefore we get
+
+
=
+
x cos x sin
1 m
1
I
1 n 1 m
n , m

dx x cos x sin
1 m
1 n
dx x cos x sin
1 m
1 n
n m 2 n m
} }
+

+


or
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
492

n , m 2 n , m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
1 m
1 n
I
1 m
1 n
x cos x sin
1 m
1
I
+

+
+
=

+

From the previous identity we get

2 n , m
1 n 1 m
n , m n , m
I
1 m
1 n
x cos x sin
1 m
1
I
1 m
1 n
I

+
+

+
+
=
+

+
from which we obtain

2 n , m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
1 m
1 n
x cos x sin
1 m
1
I
1 m
1 n
1

+
+

+
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
2 n , m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
1 m
1 n
x cos x sin
1 m
1
I
1 m
n m

+
+

+
+
=
+
+

and finally

2 n , m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
n m
1 n
x cos x sin
n m
1
I

+
+

+
+
=
Case II. We transform the integral to dx x sin ) x cos x sin ( I
1 m n
n , m }

=
Using the formula (integration by parts)

} }
' = ' dx ) x ( g ) x ( f ) x ( g ) x ( f dx ) x ( g ) x ( f
and the table

) x ( f '

) x ( g

) x ( f

) x ( g'
x cos x sin
n
x sin
1 m

x cos
1 n
1
1 n+
+

x sin ) x )(cos 1 m (
2 m


we get

+
= =
+
}
x cos x sin
1 n
1
dx x cos x sin I
1 n 1 m n m
n , m

=
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
}
dx x sin ) x )(cos 1 m ( x cos
1 n
1
2 m 1 n

dx x sin x cos
1 n
1 m
x cos x sin
1 n
1
2 m 2 n 1 n 1 m + +
}
+

+
+
=
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
493
We can transform now the integrand using simple trigonometric identities. We
have
= =
+
x sin x cos x cos x sin x cos
2 m 2 n 2 m 2 n

= =

x sin ) x sin 1 ( x cos
2 m 2 n

x sin x cos x sin x cos
m n 2 m n
=


Therefore we get
+
+
=
+
x cos x sin
1 n
1
I
1 n 1 m
n , m

dx x sin x cos
1 n
1 m
dx x sin x cos
1 n
1 m
m n 2 m n
} }
+

+


or

n , m n , 2 m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
1 n
1 m
I
1 n
1 m
x cos x sin
1 n
1
I
+

+
+
=

+

From the previous identity we get

n , 2 m
1 n 1 m
n , m n , m
I
1 n
1 m
x cos x sin
1 n
1
I
1 n
1 m
I

+
+

+
+
=
+

+
n , 2 m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
1 n
1 m
x cos x sin
1 n
1
I
1 n
1 m
1

+
+

+
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
and finally

n , 2 m
1 n 1 m
n , m
I
n m
1 m
x cos x sin
n m
1
I

+
+

+
+
=
9.5 Fifth Category. Integrals of the form
dx ) x b cos( ) x a sin(
}

dx ) x b sin( ) x a sin(
}

dx ) x b cos( ) x a cos(
}

In this category we convert the product into sum (or difference) of sines and
cosines according to the formulas
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
494
x ) b a sin( x ) b a sin( ) bx cos( ) ax sin( 2 + + =
x ) b a cos( x ) b a cos( ) bx sin( ) ax sin( 2 + =
x ) b a cos( x ) b a cos( ) bx cos( ) ax cos( 2 + + =
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx x 2 cos x 4 sin I
}
=
Solution. Since
= + + = )] x 2 x 4 sin( ) x 2 x 4 sin( [
2
1
x 2 cos x 4 sin
) x 2 sin x 6 sin (
2
1
+ =
we have
= + = + =
} } }
dx x 2 sin
2
1
dx x 6 sin
2
1
dx ) x 2 sin x 6 (sin
2
1
I
C x 2 cos
4
1
x 6 cos
12
1
C
2
x 2 cos
2
1
6
x 6 cos
2
1
+ = +
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
Example 2. Evaluate the integral dx x 2 sin x 5 sin I
}
=
Solution. Since
= + = )] x 2 x 5 cos( ) x 2 x 5 cos( [
2
1
x 2 sin x 5 sin
) x 7 cos x 3 cos (
2
1
=
we have
= = =
} }
dx ) x 7 cos x 3 (cos
2
1
dx x 2 sin x 5 sin I
= =
} }
dx x 7 cos
2
1
dx x 3 cos
2
1

C x 7 sin
14
1
x 3 sin
6
1
C
7
x 7 sin
2
1
3
x 3 sin
2
1
+ = + =
Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx x 3 cos x 4 cos I
}
=
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
495
Solution. Since
= + + = )] x 3 x 4 cos( ) x 3 x 4 cos( [
2
1
x 3 cos x 4 cos
) x cos x 7 (cos
2
1
+ =
we get
= + = =
} }
dx ) x cos x 7 (cos
2
1
dx x 3 cos x 4 cos I
= + + = + =
} }
C x sin
2
1
7
x 7 sin
2
1
dx x cos
2
1
dx x 7 cos
2
1

C x sin
2
1
x 7 sin
14
1
+ + =
Example 4. Evaluate the integral dx x cos x sin I
2 4
}
=
Solution. We convert the integrand to trigonometric numbers of multiple angles
through the series of identities
=

= = ) x cos x sin 4 (
4
1
2
x 2 cos 1
) x cos x (sin x sin x cos x sin
2 2 2 2 2 2 4

= =

= x 2 sin ) x 2 cos 1 (
8
1
) x cos x sin 2 (
4
1
2
x 2 cos 1
2 2

= =

= ) x 4 cos 1 ( ) x 2 cos 1 (
16
1
2
x 4 cos 1
) x 2 cos 1 (
8
1

= + = ) x 4 cos x 2 cos x 2 cos x 4 cos 1 (
16
1

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = )] x 4 x 2 cos( ) x 4 x 2 cos( [
2
1
x 2 cos x 4 cos 1
16
1

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = )] x 2 cos( x 6 cos [
2
1
x 2 cos x 4 cos 1
16
1

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = x 2 cos
2
1
x 6 cos
2
1
x 2 cos x 4 cos 1
16
1

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
496
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = x 6 cos
2
1
x 2 cos
2
1
x 4 cos 1
16
1

x 6 cos
32
1
x 2 cos
32
1
x 4 cos
16
1
16
1
+ =
Therefore the integral becomes
= + =
} } } }
dx x 6 cos
32
1
dx x 2 cos
32
1
dx x 4 cos
16
1
dx
16
1
I
C
6
x 6 sin
32
1
2
x 2 sin
32
1
4
x 4 sin
16
1
x
16
1
+ + =
C x 6 sin
192
1
x 2 sin
64
1
x 4 sin
64
1
x
16
1
+ + =

9.6 Sixth Category. Integrals involving sines and cosines in linear
expressions. In this category belong integrals of the form
dx ) x cos , x (sin R I
}
=
where ) x cos , x (sin R is a rational function of x sin and x cos , i.e. integrals of
the form

}
x sin
dx
,
}
x cos
dx
,
}
+ x cos 3 2
dx
,
}
+

dx
x sin 1
x cos 2

In this case we express x sin and x cos in terms of the
2
x
tan using the formulas

2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 2
x sin
2
+
= and
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 1
x cos
2
2
+

= (1)
and then the substitution

2
x
tan u = (2)
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
497
In order to find dx, we invert (2),
2
x
u arctan = and then we get u arctan 2 x = ,
from which by differentiation we obtain
du
u 1
2
dx
2
+
= (3)
We also get from (1), using the substitution (2):

2
u 1
u 2
x sin
+
= and
2
2
u 1
u 1
x cos
+

= (4)
Example 1. Evaluate the integral
}
=
x sin
dx
I
Solution.
First Method.
We use the formula
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 2
x sin
2
+
= and the substitution
2
x
tan u = . We then
have
2
u 1
u 2
x sin
+
= and du
u 1
2
dx
2
+
= . Therefore the integral becomes
C
2
x
tan ln C | u | ln
u
du
u 1
u 2
du
u 1
2
x sin
dx
I
2
2
+ = + = =
+
+
= =
} } }

Second Method. Multiply numerator and denominator by x sin . We thus have
dx
x cos 1
x sin
dx
x sin
x sin
x sin
dx
I
2 2
} } }

= = =
under the substitution x cos u = , dx x sin du = , we get
du
1 u
1
du
u 1
1
x sin
dx
I
2 2
} } }

=

= =
Using partial fraction decomposition
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
498

1 u
1
2
1
1 u
1
2
1
1 u
1
2
+


we get
=
+

= =
} } }
du
1 u
1
2
1
du
1 u
1
2
1
x sin
dx
I
= +
+

= + + = C
1 u
1 u
ln
2
1
C | 1 u | ln
2
1
| 1 u | ln
2
1

C
1 x cos
1 x cos
ln
2
1
+
+

=
Third Method. The integral can be written as
=
+
= = =
} } }
dx
2
x
cos
2
x
sin 2
2
x
cos
2
x
sin
dx
2
x
cos
2
x
sin 2
1
x sin
dx
I
2 2

= + =
} }
dx
2
x
cos
2
x
sin 2
2
x
cos
dx
2
x
cos
2
x
sin 2
2
x
sin
2 2

C
2
x
sin ln
2
x
cos ln dx
2
x
sin
2
x
cos
2
1
dx
2
x
cos
2
x
sin
2
1
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= + =
} }

C
2
x
tan ln +
|
.
|

\
|
=
Fourth Method. We have the known relations
x ec cos ) x (cot
2
= '
and
ecx cos x cot ) ecx (cos = '
Adding the two previous relations we get
ecx cos x cot x ec cos ) ecx (cos ) x (cot
2
= ' + '
which can be written as
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
499
ecx cos ) x cot ecx (cos ) ecx cos x (cot + = ' +
from which we obtain

ecx cos x cot
) ecx cos x (cot
ecx cos
+
' +
=
Integrating the previous relation we get
C | ecx cos x cot | ln dx
ecx cos x cot
) ecx cos x (cot
dx ecx cos + + =
+
' +
=
} }

Example 2. Evaluate the integral
}
=
x cos
dx
I
Solution.
First Method.
We use the formula
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 1
x cos
2
2
+

= and the substitution


2
x
tan u = . We then
have
2
2
u 1
u 1
x cos
+

= and du
u 1
2
dx
2
+
= . Therefore the integral becomes
du
1 u
2
u 1
du 2
u 1
u 1
du
u 1
2
x cos
dx
I
2 2
2
2
2
} } } }

=

=
+

+
= =
Using partial fraction decomposition

1 u
1
1 u
1
1 u
2
2

+
=


we get
C | 1 u | ln | 1 u | ln
1 u
du
1 u
du
I + + =

+
=
} }

= +

+
= + + = C
u 1
u 1
ln C | u 1 | ln | u 1 | ln
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
500
C
2
x
4

tan ln C
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 1
ln + |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +

+
=
Second Method. Multiply numerator and denominator by x cos . We thus have
dx
x sin 1
x cos
dx
x cos
x cos
x cos
dx
I
2 2
} } }

= = =
under the substitution x sin u = , dx x cos du = , we get
du
1 u
1
du
u 1
1
x cos
dx
I
2 2
} } }

=

= =
Using partial fraction decomposition

1 u
1
2
1
1 u
1
2
1
1 u
1
2
+
+


we get
=
+
+

= =
} } }
du
1 u
1
2
1
du
1 u
1
2
1
x cos
dx
I
= + + + = C | 1 u | ln
2
1
| 1 u | ln
2
1

= + + + = C | u 1 | ln
2
1
| u 1 | ln
2
1

C
x sin 1
x sin 1
ln
2
1
C
u 1
u 1
ln
2
1
+

+
= +

+
=
The above expression can be further simplified. In fact we find
=

+
=
+
+
=

+
x sin 1
) x sin 1 (
) x sin 1 )( x sin 1 (
) x sin 1 (
x sin 1
x sin 1
2
2 2


2
2
2
x cos
x sin 1
x cos
) x sin 1 (
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=
Therefore
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
501
= +
|
.
|

\
|
+
= +

+
= C
x cos
x sin 1
ln
2
1
C
x sin 1
x sin 1
ln
2
1
I
2

= + + = +
+
= C
x cos
x sin
x cos
1
ln C
x cos
x sin 1
ln
C | x tan x sec | ln + + =
Third Method. The integral can be written as
dx
x
2

sin
1
x cos
dx
I
} }
|
.
|

\
|

= =
and using the substitution x
2

t = we have dx dt = .
Therefore
= +
|
.
|

\
|
= =
}
C
2
t
tan ln
t sin
dt
I
Since
2
x
4

2
t
= , we have
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
x
4

cot
2
x
4

tan
2
t
tan
Therefore
C
2
x
4

tan ln C
2
x
4

cot ln
t sin
dt
I + |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
}

Fourth Method. We have the known relations
x sec ) x (tan
2
= '
and
x sec x tan ) x (sec = '
Adding the two previous relations we get
x sec x tan x sec ) x (sec ) x (tan
2
+ = ' + '
which can be written as
x sec ) x tan x (sec ) x sec x (tan + = ' +
from which we obtain
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
502

x sec x tan
) x sec x (tan
x sec
+
' +
=
Integrating the previous relation we get
C | x sec x tan | ln dx
x sec x tan
) x sec x (tan
dx x sec + + =
+
' +
=
} }

Example 3. Evaluate the integral dx
x cos 1
x sin 1
I
}

+
=
Solution. Using the formulas

2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 2
x sin
2
+
= and
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 1
x cos
2
2
+

=
and then the substitution
2
x
tan u = , since du
u 1
2
dx
2
+
= (as explained
previously), we get
=
+ +
+ +
=
+
+

+
+
=
} }
du
u 1
2
) u 1 ( ) u 1 (
u 2 ) u 1 (
du
u 1
2
u 1
u 1
1
u 1
u 2
1
I
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2

du
) u 1 ( u
) 1 u (
du
u 1
2
u 2
1 u 2 u
2 2
2
2 2
2
} }
+
+
=
+
+ +
=
Using the partial fraction decomposition

2 2 2 2
2
u 1
u 2
u
1
u
2
) u 1 ( u
) 1 u (
+
+ =
+
+

we have
=
+
+ =
} } }
du
u 1
u 2
du
u
1
du
u
2
I
2 2

C ) u 1 ln(
u
1
| u | ln 2
2
+ + =
Going back to the original variable, we finally get
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
503
C
2
x
tan 1 ln
2
x
cot
2
x
tan ln 2 I
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Example 4. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
x cos b a
dx
I , 0 ab =
Solution. Using the formula
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 1
x cos
2
2
+

= and then the substitution


2
x
tan u = , since du
u 1
2
dx
2
+
= (as explained previously), we get
=
+
+

+
=
+
=
} }
du
u 1
2
u 1
u 1
b a
1
x cos b a
dx
I
2
2
2

du
b a u ) b a (
2
du
) u 1 ( b ) u 1 ( a
2
2 2 2 } }
+ +
=
+ +
=

We distinguish the following cases:
(I) If b a = , then
C
2
x
tan
b a
2
C u
b a
2
du
b a
2
du
b a
2
I +
+
= +
+
=
+
=
+
=
} }

(II) If b a = , then
du
b a
b a
u
2
du
b a u ) b a (
2
x cos b a
dx
I
2
2 } } }

+
+
=
+ +
=
+
=

(II)a If
2
k
b a
b a
=

+
, 0 k > , then
du
b a
b a
u
2
du
b a u ) b a (
2
x cos b a
dx
I
2
2 } } }

+
+
=
+ +
=
+
=

C
2
x
tan
b a
b a
arctan
b a
b a
2 C
k
u
arctan
k
2
du
k u
2
2 2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

= +
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
=
}

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
504
(II)b If
2
m
b a
b a
=

+
, 0 m > , then
du
b a
b a
u
2
du
b a u ) b a (
2
x cos b a
dx
I
2
2 } } }

+
+
=
+ +
=
+
=

=
)
`

=
} } }
m u
du
m u
du
m
1
du
m u
2
2 2

C
a b
a b
2
x
tan
a b
a b
2
x
tan
ln
a b
a b
C
m u
m u
ln
m
1
+

+
+

+

= +
+

=
Example 5. Evaluate the integral
}
+
=
x sin b a
dx
I , 0 ab =
Solution. Using the formula
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 2
x sin
2
+
= and then the substitution
2
x
tan u = , since du
u 1
2
dx
2
+
= (as explained previously), we get
=
+
+
+
=
+
=
} }
du
u 1
2
u 1
u 2
b a
1
x sin b a
dx
I
2
2

du
a u b 2 u a
2
du
u 2 b ) u 1 ( a
2
2 2 } }
+ +
=
+ +
=
We distinguish the following cases
(I) If 0 ) a b ( 4 a 4 b 4 D
2 2 2 2
> = = , then
) u )( u ( a a bu 2 au
2 1
2
= + + where
a
a b b
2 2
1
+
= and
a
a b b
2 2
2

=
are the two roots of the trinomial
Using partial fraction decomposition,
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
505
)
`


=

2 1 2 1 2 1
u
1
u
1
) ( a
2
) u )( u ( a
2

we have
=
+ +
=
+
=
} }
du
a u b 2 u a
2
x sin b a
dx
I
2

C
u
u
ln
) ( a
2
u
du
u
du
) ( a
2
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
+



=
)
`


=
} }

C
2
x
tan
2
x
tan
ln
) ( a
2
2
1
2 1
+



=
(II) If 0 ) a b ( 4 a 4 b 4 D
2 2 2 2
= = = , then
2 2
) u ( a a bu 2 au = + + where
a
b
= is the double root of the
trinomial. We then have
=
+ +
=
+
=
} }
du
a u b 2 u a
2
x sin b a
dx
I
2

C
2
x
tan
1
a
2
C
u
1
a
2
du
) u (
du
a
2
2
+

= +

=

=
}

(III) If 0 ) a b ( 4 a 4 b 4 D
2 2 2 2
< = = , then

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2
2 2
2
2
a
b a
a
b
u a a bu 2 au
In this case, using the substitution t
a
b a
a
b
u
2 2

= + , we get
=

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + +
2
2 2
2
2
a
b a
a
b
u a a bu 2 u a
) 1 t (
a
b a
2
2 2
+

=
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
506
Therefore
=
+

=
+ +
=
+
=
} } }
) 1 t (
a
b a
dt
a
b a
2 du
a u b 2 u a
2
x sin b a
dx
I
2
2 2
2 2
2

C t arctan
b a
2
1 t
dt
b a
2
2 2
2
2 2
+

=
+

=
}

Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C
b a
b
2
x
tan a 2
arctan
b a
2
x sin b a
dx
I
2 2 2 2
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
=
}

Example 6. Evaluate the integral
}
+ +
=
x sin c x cos b a
dx
I
Solution. Using the formulas

2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 2
x sin
2
+
= and
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 1
x cos
2
2
+

=
and then the substitution
2
x
tan u = , since du
u 1
2
dx
2
+
= (as explained
previously), we get
=
+
+
+
+

+
=
+ +
=
} }
du
u 1
2
u 1
u 2
c
u 1
u 1
b a
1
x sin c x cos b a
dx
I
2
2 2
2

=
+ + +
=
}
du
u 2 c ) u 1 ( b ) u 1 ( a
2
2 2

du
b a u c 2 u ) b a (
2
2 }
+ + +
=
We distinguish the following cases:
(I) If b a = , then
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
507
du
b a u c 2
2
x sin c x cos b a
dx
I
} }
+ +
=
+ +
=

= + + =
+
=
}
C | a u c | ln
c
1
du
a 2 u c 2
c 2
c
1

C a
2
x
tan c ln
c
1
+ + =
(II) If b a = , then
=

+
+

=
+ +
=
} }
du
b a
b a
u
b a
c 2
u
1
b a
2
x sin c x cos b a
dx
I
2

du
u 2 u
1
b a
2
2 }
+ +
=
, where

b a
c

= and
b a
b a

+
=
Let D be the discriminant of the trinomial + + u 2 u
2
:
) ( 4 4 ) 2 ( D
2 2
= =
We distinguish the following cases
(I) If 0 ) ( 4 D
2
> = , then
) u )( u ( u 2 u
2 1
2
= + + where
+ =
2
1
and =
2
2

are the two roots of the trinomial
Using partial fraction decomposition,
)
`


=

2 1 2 1 2 1
u
1
u
1
) (
2
) u )( u (
2

we have
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
} }
du
u 2 u
1
b a
2
x sin c x cos b a
dx
I
2

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
508
=
)
`


=
} }
2 1 2 1
u
du
u
du
) )( b a (
2

C
2
x
tan
2
x
tan
ln
) )( b a (
2
C
u
u
ln
) )( b a (
2
2
1
2 1 2
1
2 1
+



= +



=
(II) If 0 ) ( 4 D
2
= = , then
2 2
) u ( u 2 u + = + +

Therefore
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
} }
du
u 2 u
1
b a
2
x sin c x cos b a
dx
I
2


C
2
x
tan
1
b a
2
C
u
1
b a
2
) u (
du
b a
2
2
+
+

= +
+

=
+
=
}

(III) If 0 ) ( 4 D
2
< = , then
2 2 2
) u ( u 2 u + + = + +
Using the substitution t u
2
= + , then
) 1 t )( ( ) u ( u 2 u
2 2 2 2 2
+ = + + = + +
and dt du
2
= . Therefore
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
} }
du
u 2 u
1
b a
2
x sin c x cos b a
dx
I
2

=
+

=
+

=
} }
dt
) 1 t (
1
) b a (
2
dt
) 1 t )( ( ) b a (
2
2
2
2 2
2

= +

+

= +

= C
u
arctan
) b a (
2
C t arctan
) b a (
2
2 2 2

C
2
x
tan
arctan
) b a (
2
2 2
+

+

=

9.7. Seventh Category. Integrals which contain sines and cosines where the
integrand in invariant under the substitutions x sin x sin and x cos x cos .
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
509
In other words we consider integrals of the form

}
dx ) x cos , x (sin R
where the function ) v , u ( R satisfies the relation: ) v , u ( R ) v , u ( R =
In this category belong integrals of the form
dx
x cos 2 x cos x sin 3 x sin
1
I
2 2
}
+
=
The integrals in this case are evaluated using the substitution x tan u = . The
integrand has to be converted to the form

x cos
1
) x (tan f
2

The method works like the next examples.
Example 1. Evaluate the integral dx
x cos 2 x cos x sin 3 x sin
1
I
2 2
}
+
=
Solution. The integrand can be written as
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
x cos
x cos
2
x cos
x cos x sin
3
x cos
x sin
x cos
1
2
2
2 2
2
2


) 2 x tan 3 x (tan x cos
1
2 2
+
=
Therefore, introducing the substitution x tan u = , since dx
x cos
1
du
2
= , the
integral becomes
=
+
=
}
dx
x cos 2 x cos x sin 3 x sin
1
I
2 2


} }
+
=
+
=
2 u 3 u
du
) 2 x tan 3 x (tan x cos
dx
2 2 2

Using the partial fraction decomposition
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
510

1 u
1
2 u
1
2 u 3 u
1
2

=
+

we get
C
1 u
2 u
ln C | 1 u | ln | 2 u | ln
1 u
du
2 u
du
I +

= + =

=
} }

Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C
1 x tan
2 x tan
ln I +

=
Example 2. Evaluate the integral

}
+
=
1 x cos 4
dx
I
2

Solution. We transform the integrand so as to be expressed in terms of x tan and
x cos
1
2
. We have
=
+ +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ )] x tan 1 ( 4 [ x cos
1
x cos
1
4 x cos
1
1 x cos 4
1
2 2
2
2
2


) x tan 5 ( x cos
1
2 2
+
=
Therefore

} }
+
=
+
=
) x tan 5 ( x cos
dx
1 x cos 4
dx
I
2 2 2

Using the substitution x tan u = , we find dx
x cos
1
du
2
= and the integral takes
the form

}
+
=
2
u 5
du
I
Under the new substitution w 5 u = , we have
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
511
) w 1 ( 5 w 5 5 ) w 5 ( 5 u 5
2 2 2 2
+ = + = + = +
and
dw 5 du =
We thus obtain
C w arctan
5
5
w 1
dw
5
5
) w 1 ( 5
dw 5
I
2 2
+ =
+
=
+
=
} }

or
C
5
x tan
arctan
5
5
C
5
u
arctan
5
5
I + |
.
|

\
|
= + |
.
|

\
|
=
Example 3. Evaluate the integral
}
=
x cos x sin
dx
I
3 5

Solution. The integrand is invariant under the substitutions
x sin x sin and x cos x cos
Therefore we may use the substitution x tan u = .
We have however to transform the integrand into an expression of the form
x cos
1
) x (tan f
2
. We find
=

=
x cos x cos
x cos
x sin
1
x cos x sin
1
3 5
5
5 3 5


x cos
1
x cos x tan
1
x cos x tan
1
2 6 5 8 5

=
and since
x tan 1
x cos
1
2
2
+ = ,
3 2
3
2 6
) x tan 1 (
x cos
1
x cos
1
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
we have
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
512

x cos
1
) x tan 1 (
x tan
1
x cos x sin
1
2
3 2
5 3 5
+ =
Therefore the integral becomes

} }

+
= =
x cos
dx
x tan
) x tan 1 (
x cos x sin
dx
I
2 5
3 2
3 5
(1)
The substitution x tan u = ,
x cos
dx
du
2
= , converts (1) to the integral

} } }
+
=
+
= = du
u
) u 1 (
x cos
dx
x tan
) x tan 1 (
x cos x sin
dx
I
5
3 2
2 5
3 2
3 5

Expanding the numerator and dividing by the numerator, we find
u
u
3
u
3
u
1
u
) u 1 (
3 5 5
3 2
+ + + =
+

Therefore
= + + + =
} } } }
du u
u
du
3
u
du
3
u
du
I
3 5

C
2
u
| u | ln 3
u
1
2
1
3
u
1
4
1
2
2 4
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C x tan
2
1
| x tan | ln 3
x tan
1
2
3
x tan
1
4
1
I
2
2 4
+ + + =
Example 4. Evaluate the integral
}
=
x cos x sin
dx
I
4 2

Solution. The integrand is invariant under the substitutions
x sin x sin and x cos x cos
Therefore we may use the substitution x tan u = .
We have however to transform the integrand into an expression of the form
x cos
1
) x (tan f
2
. We find
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
513
=

=
x cos x cos
x cos
x sin
1
x cos x sin
1
4 2
2
2 4 2


x cos
1
x cos x tan
1
2 4 2

=
and since
x tan 1
x cos
1
2
2
+ = ,
2 2
3
2 4
) x tan 1 (
x cos
1
x cos
1
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
we have

x cos
1
) x tan 1 (
x tan
1
x cos x sin
1
2
2 2
2 4 2
+ =
Therefore the integral becomes

} }

+
= =
x cos
dx
x tan
) x tan 1 (
x cos x sin
dx
I
2 2
2 2
4 2
(1)
The substitution x tan u = ,
x cos
dx
du
2
= , converts (1) to the integral
=
+
}
du
u
) u 1 (
2
2 2

= + + =
+ +
=
} } } }
du u du 2 du
u
1
du
u
u u 2 1
2
2 2
4 2

C
3
u
u 2
u
1
3
+ + + =
Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C
3
x tan
x tan 2
x tan
1
I
3
+ + + =
Example 5. Evaluate the integral dx
x cos x sin
1
I
3
}
=
Solution. The integrand is invariant under the substitutions
Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
514
x sin x sin and x cos x cos
Therefore we may use the substitution x tan u = .
We have however to transform the integrand into an expression of the form
x cos
1
) x (tan f
2
.
We find
x cos x tan x cos x cos
x cos
x sin
x cos x sin
4 3 3
= =
Therefore
x cos x tan x cos x sin
2 3
=
The integral becomes

x cos
dx
x tan
1
dx
x cos x sin
1
I
2
3
} }
= = (1)
Using the substitution x tan u = ,
x cos
dx
du
2
= , relation (1) gets the form
= = =
} }
x cos
dx
x tan
1
dx
x cos x sin
1
I
2
3

C x tan 2 C u 2
u
du
+ = + = =
}

Example 6. Evaluate the integral
}

=
x cos b x sin a
dx
I
2 2 2 2

Solution. Since

) b x tan a ( x cos
1
x cos b x sin a
1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

=


the substitution x tan t = , dx
x cos
1
dt
2
= , converts the integral to
} }
+
=

) b t a ( ) b t a (
dt
b t a
dt
2 2 2

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
515
Using the partial fraction decomposition

b t a
1
b 2
1
b t a
1
b 2
1
) b t a ( ) b t a (
1
+

=
+

we find
=
+

} } }
b t a
dt
b 2
1
b t a
dt
b 2
1
b t a
dt
2 2 2

=
+

=
} }
b t a
dt a
ab 2
1
b t a
dt a
ab 2
1

= + + = C | b t a | ln
ab 2
1
| b t a | ln
ab 2
1

C
b t a
b t a
ln
ab 2
1
+
+

=
Going back to the original variable, we obtain
C
b x tan a
b x tan a
ln
ab 2
1
x cos b x sin a
dx
I
2 2 2 2
+
+

=
}

Example 7. Evaluate the integral dx
x sin ) x cos x (sin
x cos ) x cos x (sin
I
3 3
}

+
=
Solution. The integrand is invariant under the substitutions
x sin x sin and x cos x cos
Therefore we may use the substitution x tan u = .
We have however to transform the integrand into an expression of the form
x cos
1
) x (tan f
2
. We find
=

+
x sin ) x cos x (sin
x cos ) x cos x (sin
3 3

=
+ +
+
=
x sin ) x cos x cos x sin x (sin ) x cos x (sin
x cos ) x cos x (sin
2 2

Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
516
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
x sin
x cos
x cos
x cos
x cos x sin
x cos
x sin
x cos
x cos
x cos
x cos
x sin
x cos
x cos
x cos
x cos
x cos
x sin
x cos
2
2
2 2
2
2

=
+ +
+
=
x sin ) 1 x tan x (tan x cos ) 1 x (tan x cos
) 1 x (tan x cos
2 2
2

=
+ +
+
=
x sin ) 1 x tan x (tan ) 1 x (tan x cos
1 x tan
2

) 1 x tan x (tan ) 1 x (tan x tan x cos
1 x tan
2 2
+ +
+
=

x cos
1
) 1 x tan x (tan ) 1 x (tan x tan
1 x tan
2 2

+ +
+
=
Therefore we get
=

+
=
}
dx
x sin ) x cos x (sin
x cos ) x cos x (sin
I
3 3

dx
x cos
1
) 1 x tan x (tan ) 1 x (tan x tan
1 x tan
2 2

+ +
+
=
}

Using the substitution x tan u = , dx
x cos
1
du
2
= , we find
du
) 1 u u ( ) 1 u ( u
1 u
I
2
}
+ +
+
=
Using partial fraction decomposition

1 u u
1 u
3
1
1 u
1
3
2
u
1
) 1 u u ( ) 1 u ( u
1 u
2 2
+ +

+ =
+ +
+

we have
=
+ +
+
=
}
du
) 1 u u ( ) 1 u ( u
1 u
I
2


Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
517
=
+ +

+ =
} } }
du
1 u u
1 u
3
1
du
1 u
1
3
2
du
u
1
2


C
3
1 u 2
arctan 3 | 1 u u | ln
2
1
3
1
| 1 u | ln
3
2
| u | ln
2
+
)
`

|
.
|

\
| +
+ + + + =
where the last integral was evaluated before (6.4.3 Example 1(ii)).
Going back to the original variable, x tan u = , we find the value of the integral
=

+
=
}
dx
x sin ) x cos x (sin
x cos ) x cos x (sin
I
3 3

+ + = | 1 x tan | ln
3
2
| x tan | ln
C
3
1 x tan 2
arctan
3
3
| 1 x tan x tan | ln
6
1
2
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+ + +



Chapter 9-Integrals of trigonometric functions
518
9.8. Eighth Category. In this category belong integrals of the form
dx
x sin
1
m
}
,
where in general m is a positive integer with 3 m > .
Let dx
x sin
1
I
m
m }
=
We shall distinguish two cases: m even and m odd positive integers.
Case I. Let
dx
x sin
1
I
m 2
m 2 }
= (1)
In this case we have
= = =
} }

dx
x sin
1
x sin
1
dx
x sin
1
I
2 2 m 2 m 2
m 2

dx
x sin
1
) x cot 1 ( dx
x sin
1
x sin
1
2
1 m 2
2
1 m
2
} }

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Using the substitution x cot u = , dx
x sin
1
du
2
= , we obtain
du ) u 1 ( I
1 m 2
m 2 }

+ =
which can be evaluated using elementary methods