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Aerodrome Controller Book (ADC)

Training Material

English version
(1.0) (17-June-2011)

Team leader: Working group:

Daniel Hickmann Documentation Advisors ATA Group PTA Group Approved by TD/TAD

This document contains training material based on ICAO. It is for IVAO use only and may not be edited by any Staff Member or User, excluding the Documentation Team. Please check divisional procedures for differences. Prior your exam request be sure you read the Training Material careful!

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Table of Contents
1.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

What is aerodrome control? .............................................................................................. - 4 -

Parts and Responsibilities of Aerodrome Control ................................................................- 4 Control zone (CTR) ...........................................................................................................................- 4 Delivery control (DEL) ....................................................................................................................- 5 Ground control (GND) .....................................................................................................................- 6 Tower control (TWR) ......................................................................................................................- 6 Notification Structure ......................................................................................................................- 8 Units .......................................................................................................................................................- 8 Airfield ICAO Code ............................................................................................................................- 9 Date and time......................................................................................................................................- 9 Speed and Wind direction ..............................................................................................................- 9 Wind Variability ............................................................................................................................. - 10 Visibility ............................................................................................................................................ - 11 Runway Visual Range ................................................................................................................... - 12 Weather Phenomena .................................................................................................................... - 12 Cloud Layers................................................................................................................................. - 15 Air Temperature and Dew point .......................................................................................... - 16 Pressure at Mean Sea Level (QNH at MSL) ........................................................................ - 17 Recent Weather .......................................................................................................................... - 18 Runway Status ............................................................................................................................. - 18 Previsions ..................................................................................................................................... - 19 AIRMETs ........................................................................................................................................ - 20 SIGMETs ......................................................................................................................................... - 20 Pilot Weather Report (PIREP) ............................................................................................... - 21 -

2.

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18

Meteorology ............................................................................................................................. - 8 -

3. 4.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

ATIS - Automatic Terminal Information Service ..................................................... - 22 Flight plan.............................................................................................................................. - 26 Explanation item by item ............................................................................................................ - 27 The Filed Flight Plan (FPL) and the Current Flight Plan (CPL) ...................................... - 40 Flight Plan Validation ................................................................................................................... - 42 Flight strip and CPL/FPL radar presentation ...................................................................... - 42 SID Standard Instrument Departure Route ....................................................................... - 44 VMC Minima ..................................................................................................................................... - 46 VFR within different airspaces .................................................................................................. - 47 The VFR Flight Plan ....................................................................................................................... - 48 Clearance for VFR flights ............................................................................................................. - 49 Taxi to the runway ......................................................................................................................... - 50 Basic knowledge about traffic circuit (left / right) ............................................................ - 51 Traffic Circuit STEP by STEP ...................................................................................................... - 53 Solutions to manage the traffic within the Traffic Circuit (VFR -VFR / VFR IFR) . - 58 How to get a VFR aircraft into a Traffic Circuit (in Air) .................................................... - 65 CTR Management (Additional Procedures)...................................................................... - 70 Orbit waiting clearance (360).............................................................................................. - 74 VFR Handling Entering / Leaving the Control Zone ....................................................... - 75 Handling of Approaching VFR aircraft ............................................................................... - 77 -

5.

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13

VFR ........................................................................................................................................... - 45 -

6. 7.

IFR Clearance ....................................................................................................................... - 79 Pushback / start-up ........................................................................................................... - 81 -

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8. 9.
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

Taxi .......................................................................................................................................... - 82 Runway ................................................................................................................................... - 83 How to choose the runway in use? ........................................................................................... - 83 Runway Crossing ............................................................................................................................ - 85 Backtrack .......................................................................................................................................... - 86 Runway Delcared Distances ....................................................................................................... - 87 Runway and Approach Lightning ............................................................................................. - 87 General ........................................................................................................................................... - 90 Wake turbulence Categories .................................................................................................. - 90 Departure Separation ............................................................................................................... - 91 Line Up ........................................................................................................................................... - 92 Take-off .......................................................................................................................................... - 93 Immediate Take-off ................................................................................................................... - 93 Go-around ..................................................................................................................................... - 95 Non-Precision Approach Procedures ................................................................................. - 98 Precision Approach Procedures ........................................................................................... - 99 Circling to Land ........................................................................................................................ - 100 Speed control on final ............................................................................................................ - 104 Missed Approach ..................................................................................................................... - 104 Emergencies .............................................................................................................................. - 105 Squawk codes ........................................................................................................................... - 107 Emergency on ground / take-off ........................................................................................ - 108 Rejected take-off...................................................................................................................... - 109 Communications failure ....................................................................................................... - 109 Blocked Runway ...................................................................................................................... - 110 GUARD frequency .................................................................................................................... - 111 Low Visibility Procedures .................................................................................................... - 111 Wind shear ................................................................................................................................ - 115 How to do a transfer (handoff) ....................................................................................... - 116 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. - 117 Guidelines .................................................................................................................................. - 118 The Spelling Alphabet............................................................................................................ - 120 Aircraft Callsigns ..................................................................................................................... - 121 Call/Reply Procedure ............................................................................................................ - 121 ICAO format Callsigns ............................................................................................................ - 121 IATA Flight Numbers.............................................................................................................. - 121 Aircraft Immatriculation Callsigns ................................................................................... - 122 Aircraft Abbreviated Callsigns ........................................................................................... - 122 Ground Station Callsigns ...................................................................................................... - 123 -

10.

10.1 10.2 10.3 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

Wake Turbulence ............................................................................................................... - 90 -

11.

Clearances for take-off and landing ............................................................................. - 92 -

12.

Low approaches, low passes, touch-and-go and stop-and-go ............................. - 97 -

12.1 12.2 12.3

13.

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.11 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11

Emergencies and abnormal procedures .................................................................. - 104 -

14.

Coordination and Communication ............................................................................. - 116 -

15.

UNICOM ................................................................................................................................ - 125 -

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1.

What is aerodrome control?

An aerodrome is defined as: Any area of land, water (including the frozen surface thereof) or other supporting surface used, designed, prepared, equipped or set apart for use either in whole or in part for the arrival, departure, movement or servicing of aircraft and includes any buildings, installations and equipment situated thereon or associated therewith. So, an aerodrome is a term for any location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve cargo, passengers or neither. Now it is easy to derive aerodrome control. This means the Air Traffic Control (ATC) that is present on an aerodrome.

1.1

Parts and Responsibilities of Aerodrome Control

Aerodrome Control can be divided into three positions, each with their own responsibilities and working methods. All these ATC are controlling in the so called: Control Zone. Three types of control are provided in the CTR (Control Zone). Before you open one of these positions you should always make sure to execute the following steps:

Connect and log-in: Identifier: The name of your position to correctly log in Frequency: The correct radio frequency of your position to be selected in IvAc and TS Coordination: Advise your adjacent position (GND, TWR or higher) that you are online and ready

ATC will preferable take the highest available position in line with his rank and the existing FRA's. (FRA stands for Facility Rating Assignment, which means that there may be limitations for manning a certain ATC position. If you don't meet these requirements, you cannot take that position.) This rule is based on the fact that within IVAO each ATC position controls all the lower positions, if they are not occupied. E.g. if only TWR is active, he will provide, additionally to his own TWR control service, all the services of DEL and GND. Similarly, the Area Controller (ACC, but in IVAO CTR) will provide additionally all airfield services in his region, if these are not manned. That includes APP, TWR, GND and DEL for all airports in his area! (When you log-in at an airport, make sure that you have checked which is the lowest available position) In practice, quite often, it will be hardly possible to do all these positions by one person.

1.2

Control zone (CTR)

A Control Zone (CTR) is a volume of controlled airspace, normally around an airport, which extends from the surface to a specified upper limit, established to protect air traffic operating to and from that airport. Because CTRs are, by definition, controlled airspace, aircraft can only fly in it after receiving a specific clearance from air traffic control. This means that ATC at the airport knows exactly which aircraft are in that airspace, and can take steps to ensure aircraft are aware of each other, either using separation or by passing traffic information. The ATC in

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the CTR can be divided in three types, namely: delivery control (1.3), ground control (1.4) and tower control (1.5).

1.3

Delivery control (DEL)

The job of a clearance delivery controller (DEL) is to provide departing aircraft with their IFR clearance. The smooth flow of all traffic depends on these clearances. The DEL controller makes sure that the IFR flight plan is correct. Thereafter the flight plan clearance shall be given. The flight plan should indicate all items necessary to Air Traffic Control for all stages of the flight.

Phraseology will be discussed later on in the book.

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1.4

Ground control (GND)

The job of a surface movement or ground controller (GND) is to control all the aircraft movements on the surface of the airfield. Whether this is the push-back, taxi to the runway holding point or from the runway to the parking (stand) or gate, the ground controller keeps it all under control. It is of great importance that the ground controller has a good knowledge of the total airfield. Good ground maps are therefore a must. If aircraft need to enter or cross an active runway this has to be coordinated first with the Tower. For departures, the transfer to tower (TWR) is done when the aircraft approaches the holding point. For arrivals, the transfer will be done from tower (TWR) after the aircraft has vacated the runway.

1.5

Tower control (TWR)

The job of a Tower controller (TWR) is to control all the aircraft that make use of the runways and that are flying visual in the local control zone (CTR). Simply said, all traffic that you could see from the Tower at or around the airfield. (Do not confuse CTR. In real life CTR stands for Control Zone. On IVAO it is used for Area Control.) The smooth flow of all traffic depends on the proper take-off sequence. It is important to be able to handle many departures in a short time, to sequence in such a way that those departures are well separated after take-off. E.g. where the one has a right turn out and the next a left turn out after take-off. Or, a faster aircraft first, followed shortly thereafter by a slower one, taking into account possible wake turbulence. In addition to departing traffic, there will be arriving traffic (at the same time) and quite often at the same, single, runway. Sequencing between departing and arriving aircraft is in all cases an important task. If a runway is constructed in such a way that back-track is

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needed, especially both at departure and at landing, the job becomes even more complicated and thorough training is necessary to learn how to deal with this. Good co-ordinations with Approach are essential here. Although in ATC the general rule of "first comes, first served" is valid, it will not always be possible to apply this. To handle expeditiously the flow of traffic, other practical decisions could be necessary and more logical. Special attention is needed for the mix of IFR and VFR traffic. IFR traffic is limited to the published instrument procedures. These are strict and prescribed instructions that have to be followed exactly. Thus IFR traffic is not the flexible part here. But VFR traffic is in the sense that they could more easily make a delaying turn and provide properly their own separation in respect of IFR traffic. As a TWR controller, be aware of this and use it if necessary. Approach (APP) should hand off ILS traffic to Tower once established on the ILS. When several aircraft are on the ILS are tightly separated, pilots may expect a late landing clearance, because two aircraft can never be cleared to land at once. The next aircraft could only land when the previous one has vacated the runway. Local exceptions may apply! Departing IFR aircraft are to contact Departure/Approach Control immediately after take-off. Avoid speaking to the pilot during take-off and landing operations in order not to disturb him in these phases Unless it concerns the safety of the operation. Instead of landing, an aircraft can perform a: Low approach (a go-around when reaching minima, before touching the runway, while staying at low altitude over the runway) Touch-and-go (will touch the runway and immediately take-off again) Stop-and-go (will land, stop on the runway and take-off again from the remaining distance) VFR traffic remains under control of TWR until leaving the local Control Zone. For departures, the transfer to departure/approach (DEP/APP) shall be done immediately after take-off. Good practice is to advise the pilot before giving the departure clearance, so that the pilot could prepare while the pilot is still on the runway. (There could be a separate Departure Control (DEP) active. Otherwise Approach (APP) will be responsible for departed traffic as well.) For IFR arrivals, the transfer will be done from Approach (APP) after the aircraft has reported established on the ILS. As soon as arrived traffic has vacated the active runway, they will be handed over to GND, if online. Please keep in mind that: Each division has its own division procedures. Also the so-called the Letter of Agreement (LoA) between divisions deserves extra attention. LoAs can be found on the divisional website. These procedures written above may differ from your division.

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2.

Meteorology

Note: If you have any problems in understanding how to spell letters according to the aviation alphabet look at chapter 14 Coordination and Communication) A METAR (METeorological Airport Report) is a meteorological observation report (not a prediction), created at least every 60 min, and dedicated to the aviation. This international code was developed by the ICAO and approved by the World Meteorological Organization. Baseline data are common to all countries, but some sections of the code are subject to local variations. This kind of message is brought out each hour (or less, depending of the airfield). It allows knowing the meteorological conditions on an airfield at a given timeframe. Its elements are determinants in order to choose the landing/departing direction for example. A SPECI is identical to a METAR with the difference that it is not created regularly but from time to time. It's a special observation message showing a punctual meteorological event that occurred since the last METAR or SPECI published.

2.1

Notification Structure

The METARs have a syntax that may appear a bit complex. The terms used in this code are abbreviations that come from different languages.

Considering the example METAR that we will follow during this tutorial: LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299 We will decode it together and give you some additional examples for each part below.

2.2

Units

The units are also variables and have been settled from the history development of the aviation and the influence USA and British pioneers in aerospace. We use: Hundreds of fett (ft) for the clouds height above ground knot (kt) for the wind speed (Nm/h), t equals to the time meter (m) for the horizontal visibility hectopascal (hPa) for the atmospheric pressure (QNH QFE) degree Celsius (C) for the temperature measures Some units can change depending of the countries. For example, we use: meter per second 'mps' (m/s) in Russia for the wind speed kilometre per hour 'km' (km/h)

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American land mile 'SM', also known as Statute Mile for the visibility in North America inch of mercury (inHg) for the atmospheric pressure in America (1013hpa=2992 inHg)

2.3

Airfield ICAO Code


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

THE LFPO ICAO CODE IS PARIS-ORLY AIRPORT. All airports in the world have a unique ICAO code, which is a location indicator with 4 letters. 1st letter determines an area in the world (France is in the L area) 2nd letter determines a country in the world area (F for France) 3rd and 4th letters determine an airfield The AUTO indicates a fully automated report with no human intervention. It is removed when an observer logs on to the system. The NIL indicator is inserted if the observation message is missing. It's showing the end of message.

2.4

Date and time


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 2679199

OBSERVATION OF DAY NUMBER 04 OF THE CURRENT MONTH AT 13:00 HOURS UTC (Z OR GMT) All dates and times are in UTC using a 24-hour clock; the first two digits are for the day of the month followed by a four-digit time; always appended with Z to indicate UTC.

2.5

Speed and Wind direction


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

WIND FROM 360 BLOWING AT 20 KNOTS (KT)

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It is, normally, a five numbers group which shows the average wind on 10 minutes following (without a space) by an abbreviation in order to precise the unit used to transmit the wind speed. The first 3 numbers indicate the wind direction. The last two, the wind speed with the speed unit. The wind direction is indicated in multiples of 10 true rounded to the multiple or at the nearest number. The wind direction values below 100 are always preceded by a 0. (Wind from 60 will be 060) A wind blowing from the true north is indicated by 360 (and not 000). The wind direction is from the front when the aircraft is at the indicated wind heading. When during the last 10 minutes preceding the observation, the maximum wind speed into the gusts (average on 3 seconds) exceeds at the least of 10 knots or more of the average wind speed, this maximal speed is indicated directly after the average speed by G letter following of by this maximal speed. The wind direction is written VRB (variable winds) instead of the average direction when: The wind speed is below 3 knots (6 km/h) and the total variation, on 10 minutes of the wind direction is above or equals to 60. The wind speed is above or equals to 3 knots (6 km/h) and the total variation, on 10 minutes of the wind direction is above or equals to 180.
Complements:

00000KT = Wind calm when the average speed is below 1 knot 27010G25KT = wind 270 10kt with gusts at 25kt (G=gust) VRB03KT = wind from variable direction blowing at 3kt

2.6

Wind Variability
LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

WINDS VARIABLE AROUND 360 BETWEEN 320 AND 040 Note: It's an optional group; it is present only to indicate a variable wind. When the 10 minutes period preceding the observation, the wind direction variability is between 60 included and 180 excluded and the average speed is above or equals to 3 knots (6 km/h), the both extreme directions observed are indicated in the direction of clockwise, the V letter is inserted between the two values.

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2.7

Visibility
LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

MINIMAL VISIBILITY OF 1200 METERS OVER THE WHOLE HORIZON The visibility is measure of the opacity of the atmosphere. An automated, instrumentally derived visibility value is a sensor value converted to an appropriate visibility value using standard algorithms and is considered to be representative of the visibility in the vicinity of the airport runway complex. A manually derived visibility value is obtained using the "prevailing visibility" concept. In this section, the term "prevailing visibility" shall refer to both manual and instrument derived values. The 4 numbers are indicating the visibility in meters. One or two letters can be added to define a particular visibility in a sector. Note: In special cases, if local conditions vary greatly then two groups may be displayed showing the visibility variation in different sectors. At automated stations, when visibility sensor can't deliver any direction, the value of visibility is followed by NDV. Automated stations shall use an M to indicate "less than" when reporting visibility. (Example: M1SM)
Examples:

0000 = visibility is below 50 m 9999 = visibility is greater than 10 km (or equal) 4000NE = visibility is 4000 m at north-east (mean visibility = 1.5x4000 = 6000 M) 1400S 4000N = visibility is 1400 m at south but 4000 m at north 10SM = visibility of 10 statute miles or American land mile (=1.625km) 1/4SM = visibility of 0.25 statute miles (one quarter) 1 1/2SM = visibility of + SM = 1.5 statute miles CAVOK = Clouds And Visibility OK NSC = No Significant Clouds (no clouds below 5000 feet, no cumulonimbus (CB) or towering cumulus (TCU)) SKC = SKy Clear no clouds

CAVOK definition: 1. No clouds exist below 5,000 feet or below the highest minimum sector altitude, whichever is greater, and no cumulonimbus clouds (CB) or no towering cumulus clouds (TCU) are present. 2. Visibility is 10 kilometres or greater and, 3. No precipitation, thunderstorms, sandstorm, dust storm, shallow fog, or low drifting dust, sand or snow is occurring.

Note: The term CAVOK is not used in the United States

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2.8

Runway Visual Range


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

RVR OR RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE IS 400 METERS ON RUNWAY 26 Note: It's an optional group. This group is present only to indicated runway visual range when visibility is below 1500m. Runway Visual Range is an indication of the real visibility as measured down the runway either electronically or manually. RVR will always be prefixed by the letter R followed by the runway for which the value has been taken Some letters (M,P,D,U,N) can be added to the RVR to specify the evolution of visibility.
Examples:

R25/M0075 = RVR runway 25 is below than 75 meters (M=Minus) R33L/P1500 = RVR runway 33 LEFT is greater than 1500 meters (P=Plus) R16R/1000D = RVR runway 16 RIGHT is 1000 meters with deteriorating (D=Down) R16R/1000U = RVR runway 16 RIGHT is 1000 meters with improving (U=UP) R33C/0900N = RVR runway 33 CENTRE is 900 meters with no change (N=No change) R27/0150V0300U = RVR runway 27 variable (V) from 150 to 300 meters with improvement (U= Up)

2.9

Weather Phenomena
LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

HEAVY (+) SHOWER (SH) RAIN (RA) Note: It's an optional group. This group is present only to indicate when precipitation and weather and obscuration phenomena are present. Present Weather Phenomena includes precipitations, obscuration, and other weather phenomena. Present weather may be evaluated instrumentally, manually, or through a combination of instrumental and manual methods. Intensity qualifier:
sign "-" = Light No sign = Moderate sign "+" = Heavy

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Weather phenomena:

VC = in ViCinity MI = Shallow PR = PaRtial DR = low DRifting BL = BLowing FZ = FreeZing RE = REcent BC = Patches SH = SHower TS = ThunderStorm XX = Violent
Precipitation:

RA = RAin SN = SNow GR = Hail DZ = DriZzle PL = ice PeLlets GS = GreSil SG = Snow Grains IC = Ice Crystals UP = Unknown Precipitation
Obscuration:

BR = Mist FG = FoG HZ = HaZe FU = Smoke SA = SAnd DU = DUst VA = Volcanic Ash


Others:

PO = Well developed dust / sand whirls SS = SandStorm DS = DustStorm SQ = SQualls FC = Funnel Cloud +FC = e.g. tornado

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Precipitation is any of the forms of water particles, whether liquid or solid, that falls from the atmosphere and reaches the ground. The types of precipitation are: Drizzle: Fairly uniform precipitation composed exclusively of fine drops with diameters of less than 0.02 inch (0.5 mm) very close together. Drizzle appears to float while following air currents, although unlike fog droplets, it falls to the ground. Rain: Precipitation, either in the form of drops larger than 0.02 inch (0.5 mm), or smaller drops which, in contrast to drizzle, are widely separated. Snow: Precipitation of snow crystals mostly branched in the form of six-pointed stars. Snow Grains: Precipitation of very small, white, and opaque grains of ice. Ice Crystals (Diamond Dust): A fall of unbranched (snow crystals are branched) ice crystals in the form of needles, columns, or plates. Ice Pellets: Precipitation of transparent or translucent pellets of ice, which are round or irregular, rarely conical, and which have a diameter of 0.2 inch (5 mm), or less. There are two main types: Hard grains of ice consisting of frozen raindrops, or largely melted and refrozen snowflakes. Pellets of snow encased in a thin layer of ice which have formed from the freezing, either of droplets intercepted by the pellets, or of water resulting from the partial melting of the pellets. Hail: Precipitation in the form of small balls or other pieces of ice falling separately or frozen together in irregular lumps. Small Hail and/or Snow Pellets: Precipitation of white, opaque grains of ice. The grains are round or sometimes conical. Diameters range from about 0.08 to 0.2 inch (2 to 5 mm). Obscuration: Any phenomenon in the atmosphere, other than precipitation, that reduces the horizontal visibility. These include: Mist: A visible aggregate of minute water particles suspended in the atmosphere that reduces visibility to less than 7 statute miles but greater than or equal to 5/8 statute miles. Fog: A visible aggregate of minute water particles (droplets) that is based at the earth's surface and reduces horizontal visibility to less than 5/8 statute miles and, unlike drizzle, it does not fall to the ground. Smoke: A suspension in the air of small particles produced by combustion. A transition to haze may occur when smoke particles have travelled great distances (25 to 100 miles or more) and when the larger particles have settled out and the remaining particles have become widely scattered through the atmosphere. Volcanic Ash: Fine particles of rock powder that originate from a volcano and that may remain suspended in the atmosphere for long periods. Widespread Dust: Fine particles of earth or other matter raised or suspended in the air by the wind that may have occurred at or far away from the station that may restrict horizontal visibility. Sand: Sand particles raised by the wind to a height sufficient to reduce visibility. Haze: A suspension in the air of extremely small, dry particles invisible to the naked eye and sufficiently numerous to give the air an opalescent appearance. Spray: An ensemble of water droplets torn by the wind from the surface of an extensive body of water, generally from the crests of waves, and carried up a short distance into the air. - 14 -

Other Weather Phenomena Well-developed Dust/Sand Whirl: An ensemble of particles of dust or sand, sometimes accompanied by small litter, rose from the ground in the form of a whirling column of varying height with a small diameter and an approximately vertical axis. Squall: A strong wind characterized by a sudden onset in which the wind speed increases at least 16 knots and is sustained at 22 knots or more for at least one minute. Funnel Cloud (Tornado Activity): These include: Tornado = A violent, rotating column of air touching the ground. Funnel Cloud = A violent, rotating column of air which does not touch the surface. Waterspout = A violent, rotating column of air that forms over a body of water, and touches the water surface. Sandstorm: Particles of sand carried aloft by a strong wind. The sand particles are mostly confined to the lowest ten feet, and rarely rise more than fifty feet above the ground. Dust storm: A severe weather condition characterized by strong winds and dust-filled air over an extensive area.

2.10 Cloud Layers


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

BROKEN (BKN) AT 4000FT (040) WITH PRESENCE OF TOWER CUMULUS (TCU) Heights of sky cover layers and vertical visibility shall be evaluated in feet above the surface . The reportable values of sky cover height are hundreds of feet. Heights of layers shall be reported in hundreds of feet, rounded to the nearest reportable increment. When a cloud layer is 50 feet or less above the surface, the height shall be reported as 000. A METAR maybe includes more than one layer. E.g. FEW015 SCT023 BKN041 what describes 3 layers in the following order: FEW cloud layer at 1500ft AGL, SCT cloud layer at 2300ft AGL and BKN cloud layer at 4100ft AGL. Ceiling (coverage > 50% or 4/8th) is the height above the earth's surface of the lowest layer that is reported as broken (BKN) or overcast (OVC); or if the sky is totally obscured, the vertical visibility shall be the ceiling. Sky cover shall be included in all reports: Sky condition shall be coded in the format XXXYYY where XXX is the type of coverage (e.g. FEW or BKN) and YYY its height above airport elevation. There shall be no space between the summation layer amount of sky cover and the height of the layer. Sky condition shall be coded in an ascending order up to the first overcast layer. At mountain stations, if the layer is below station level, the height of the layer shall be coded as ///. - 15 -

Vertical visibility shall be coded in the format VVxxx where VV is the abbreviation for Vertical Visibility and xxx the visibility's value in hundreds of feet. If there is no information available the report shall contain VV///. There shall be no space between the VV identifier and the value. E.g. VV010 reports a vertical visibility of 1000ft. Clear skies shall be coded in the format, SKC or CLR, where SKC is the abbreviation used by manual stations to indicate no layers are present and CLR is the abbreviation used by automated stations to indicate no layers are detected at or below 12,000 feet.

Each layer shall be separated from other layers by a space. The sky cover for each layer
reported shall be coded by using the appropriate reportable contraction. The report of clear skies (SKC or CLR) is complete layer reports within themselves. The abbreviations FEW, SCT, BKN, and OVC shall be followed without a space by the height of the layer .
FEW = Few = up to 2/8th SCT = Scattered = 3/8th to 4/8th BKN = Broken = 5/8th to 7/8th OVC = Overcast = 8/8th NSC = No Significant Clouds NCD = No Cloud Detect SKC = Sky Clear

At manual stations, cumulonimbus (CB) or towering cumulus (TCU) shall be appended to the associated layer. For example, a scattered layer of towering cumulus at 1,500 feet would be coded "SCT015TCU" and would be followed by a space if there were additional higher layers to code.
Examples:

BKN025TCU = BROKEN cloud layer at 2500ft with towering cumulus SCT020CB = SCATTERED cloud layer at 2000ft with cumulonimbus

2.11 Air Temperature and Dew point


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

THE AIR TEMPERATURE IS 17 DEGREES CELSIUS AND ITS DEW POINT AT 15 DEGREES CELSIUS. Temperature: In general, the degree of hotness or coldness of the ambient air as indicated on some definite scale as measured by any suitable instrument. Dew point: The temperature to which a given parcel of air must be cooled at constant pressure and constant water vapour content in order for saturation to occur.

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The temperature shall be separated from the dew point with a solidus " /". The temperature and dew point shall be coded as two digits rounded to the nearest whole degree Celsius. Sub-zero temperatures and dew points shall be prefixed with an M.

Note: If the temperature is not available, the entire temperature/dew point group shall not be coded. If the dew point is not available, the temperature shall be coded followed by a solidus "/" and no entry made for dew point.
Examples:

00/M00 = Air temperature is +0C, dew point temperature is -0C (Example if air temperature is +0.3C and dew POINT is -0.2C) M03/M05 = Air temperature is -3C, dew point temperature is -5C

2.12 Pressure at Mean Sea Level (QNH at MSL)


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

THE SEA LEVEL PRESSURE OR QNH AT AERODROME IS 1015 HECTOPASCAL. Sea-level pressure (QNH): A pressure value obtained by the theoretical reduction of barometric pressure to sea level. Where the earth's surface is above sea level, it is assumed that the atmosphere extends to sea level below the station and that the properties of that hypothetical atmosphere are related to conditions observed at the station. Coding the Altimeter Setting Group (A): (it's another sea level pressure with other unity) The altimeter group always starts with an A (the international indicator for altimeter in inches of mercury). The altimeter shall be coded as a four digit group immediately following the A using the tens, units, tenths, and hundredths of inches of mercury. The decimal point is not coded.

Station Pressure: (QFE) The atmospheric pressure at the designated station elevation.
Examples:

A2985 = Altimeter 2985 - indicates a sea-level pressure of 29.87 inches of mercury (inHg) QFE 987 = pressure at surface or QFE is 987 hectopascal QNH 997 = QNH of 997 (below 1000hPa only 3 digits)

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Note: Coding the Sea-level Pressure Group: The sea-level pressure group is included in the remarks section of the message. It starts with 'SLP' and is followed by 3 digits (units, tenths and hundreds). A sea-level pressure of 1002.5 hectopascal would be encoded as: SLP025.

2.13 Recent Weather


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 320V040 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

RECENT (RE) THUNDERSTORM (TS) Note: It's an optional group. This group is present only to indicate when recent weather is defined. Examples:
RERA = REcent RAin WS TKOF RWY 26 = WindShear during take off on runway 26 reported WS LDG RWY28L = Wind Shear during LANDING on runway 28 LEFT reported SNOCLO = Airfield close due to snow

2.14 Runway Status


LFPO 041300Z 36020KT 1200 R26/0400 +RASH BKN040TCU 17/15 Q1015 RETS 26791299

RUNWAY 26: ICE (7) COVERING MORE THAN 51% OF THE RUNWAY (9), COVERAGE HEIGHT OF 12 MILLIMETRES (12), BRAKING COEFFICENT INCAPABLE OF MEASUREMENT OR NOT RELIABLE (99) Note: It's an optional group. This group is present only to indicate special runway conditions. The evaluation of the group above is done with the following table.

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This table includes the optional data of a runway condition indication in a METAR and declares how its syntax works: Runway Type of Dimension of Height of Friction coefficient and designator coverage coverage coverage braking action Frictional coefficient R and 15: RWY15 or 15L 0: dry and clear 1: up to 10% 00: < 1 mm braking action B: 65: 15R (15+50) 1: humid 2: 11 - 25% 01: 1 mm 88 : ALL RWYs 2: wet or 5: 26 - 50% 02: 2 mm R < 26 - B bad puddles 9: 51 - 100% 03: 3 mm R 26-29 - B bad/moderate 3: collar /: not specified ... R 30-35 - B moderate 4: dry snow 10: 1 cm (10 R 36-39 - B moderate/good 5: wet snow mm) R > 39 - B good 6: snow slush ... 7: ice 50: 5 cm 91: B bad 8: compressed 90: 9 cm 92: B bad/moderate snow 92: 10 cm 93: B moderate 94: B moderate/good 9: frozen wheel 93: 15 cm 95: B good tracks 94: 20 cm 99: B and R not specified or /: type not ... not reliable specified or 97: 35 cm unavailable 98: >= 40 cm //: RWY not in use 99: RWY not useable //: Height incapable of measurement

2.15 Previsions
NOSIG = NO SIGnificant changes coming within the next two hours according to the hour of BECMG = weather development (BECoMinG) TEMPO = TEMPOrary existing weather phenomena (changes to the main report) FM = FroM (time) AT = time TL = unTiL (time)

BECMG: Indicator of regular or irregular evolution of weather conditions. It is only used when the evolution begins and ends at the hours of the beginning and the end of the tendency or occurs at the uncertain one o'clock during the validity of the tendency.
BECMG AT1200 33010KT = wind becomes 330 at 10 knots at 12h00 UTC BECMG FM1130 TL1230 0350 = visibility will be 350m from 11h30 until 12h30 UTC

TEMPO: Indicator of temporary weather fluctuations on one or several parameters for less than one hour and covering less half of the period. It is only used when the beginning and the end of the period of temporary fluctuations correspond at the beginning and at the end of validity of the tendency.

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TEMPO FM1130 TL1230 OVC006 = temporary fluctuation between 11h30 and 12h30 UTC, with overcast cloud layer at 600ft TEMPO 3000 SHRA = temporary visibility 3000m with rain showers

2.16 AIRMETs
Hazardous weather advisories of moderate intensity will be issued as AIRMETs. AIRMETs are issued when the following conditions are expected to cover an area of at least 3000 square miles: Moderate icing. Moderate turbulence. Sustained surface winds of 30 knots or more. Ceilings less than 1,000 ft. and/or visibility less than 3 miles affecting 50% of an area at one time. Extensive mountain obscuration.

2.17 SIGMETs
Hazardous weather advisories of severe intensity will be issued as SIGMETs. SIGMETs are reported as convective or no convective. Convective SIGMETs report only thunderstorms and related phenomena (tornadoes, heavy precipitation, hail and high surface winds. No convective SIGMETs are issued when the following conditions occur or are expected to cover an area of at least 3,000 square miles: Severe or extreme turbulence or clear air turbulence (CAT) not associated with thunderstorms. Severe icing not associated with thunderstorms. Widespread dust storms, sandstorms, or volcanic ash lowering surface or in-flight visibilities to below three miles. Volcanic eruption.

Volcanic eruption SIGMET's are identified by an alphanumeric designator which consists of an alphabetic identifier and issuance number. The first time an advisory is issued for a phenomenon associated with a particular weather system, it will be given the next alphabetic designator in the series and will be numbered as the first for that designator. Subsequent advisories will retain the same alphabetic designator until the phenomenon ends. In the conterminous U.S., this means that a phenomenon that is assigned an alphabetic designator in one area will retain that designator as it moves within the area or into one or more other areas. Issuance's for the same phenomenon will be sequentially numbered, using the same alphabetic designator until the phenomenon no longer exists. Alphabetic designators NOVEMBER through YANKEE, except SIERRA and TANGO are only used for SIGMET's, while designators SIERRA, TANGO and ZULU are used for AIRMET's. - 20 -

2.18 Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)


Pilots will report any significant weather or flight condition to you as ATC as soon as possible. Additionally, you can expect that all significant weather or flight conditions that clearly differ from the forecast will be reported by the pilot. There is no specific format for this type of report. Remember: If there is any wind shear during departure or approach the pilot will inform the tower controller.

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3.

ATIS - Automatic Terminal Information Service

Reference Annex 11 Chapter 4 This chapter will provide information on the Automatic Terminal Information Service regarding contents and use. Before departing from or arriving at an airport, pilots want to have the latest operational airport information (runway-in-use, closed taxiways etc.) and the newest weather update (wind direction and speed, clouds etc.). To avoid that the ATC frequency would become congested by pilots who request this information, it is made available via the Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS). In real-life, at the airports where it is installed, the ATIS is continuously broadcasted over a separate VHF radio frequency or on the voice portion of a local navigation aid such as a VOR. Area Control Centers (ACC, in IVAO XXXX_CTR), Upper Area Control Centers (UAC) and Military controlled airfields have no ATIS. On IVAO, ATIS "transmissions" are displayed in the IvAp interface each time initial contact is made on another ATC channel or the pilot uses the get ATIS function of the IVAP software. On IVAO, the order in which ATIS information is shown differs from real-life because of the limited space that is available in the IvAp interface. Nevertheless pilots can use the line select keys to read the whole message. The ATIS is an Aerodrome Terminal Information Service and generally the Tower Controller is responsible for the contents. As every controller position on IVAO has its own ATIS the following procedures apply: GND and APP have to copy the ATIS of TWR exactly plus necessary additions If any irregularities or mistakes are found within the ATIS issued by the Tower Controller, GND and/or APP should check it with TWR via chat. If no TWR is active, APP will be responsible for the ATIS. An (upper) area controller (CTR) does not have an active ATIS despite the name of the ATC station and necessary information on the airports within the area. According to the picture below, a CTR has to skip item 6 to 9. Item 10 to 13 is optionally and should only be used if the Transition Level and Transition Altitude are the same within the whole area. Remarks could include active runways but only if no local ATC is available. ATIS contents Once you are connected as ATC you have to fill the ATIS with the help of the following form:

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1 2

4 5 6 7

8 9

10 11

This tick always has to be set in the box if you are online as an active ATC When connecting to IVAC you already have to decide whether to control with or without voice communication. For this reason the box (2) is already filled and you should not change it. This field has to include the name of your ATC station (e.g. 'Frankfurt Tower'). The correct names can be found on your division web page or within the local AIP. Do not fill in the location indicator here (e.g. EDDF_TWR) This is a drop-down menu where you will see the TeamSpeak server for your voice communication. Do not touch this as you filled it during your connecting already. Here you will see your ATC station (e.g. EDDF_TWR) as filled in during connecting This box only applies for the following position: DEL, GND, TWR, DEP, APP. (Upper) Area Control will not tick this box. This field is filled already with the ICAO code of the airport where you chose your controller position. The ATIS will include weather information of this airport and will be updated every 30 minutes. The field must include the active runway(s) for departure. The field must include the active runway(s) for arrival. If a runway change is planned it has to be changed in the ATIS before the changed runways are in use. This decision is up to the TWR but in coordination with adjacent ATC units. Do not change active runways too often! You have to tick this box to include the Transition Level within your ATIS. You have to tick this box to include the Transition Altitude within your ATIS.

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12 13 14

(Transition Level and Transition Altitude if applicable can be found within the local procedures) If applicable you have to insert the correct Transition Level here (e.g. FL070) If applicable you have to insert the correct Transition Altitude here (e.g. 5000 ft) This field includes remarks. They can contain the following information: - Departure frequency (e.g. After Departure contact Langen Radar on 128.500) - Holding delay if applicable - Information about closed runways or blocked turn-off taxiways (if longer than 15 minutes) - Sudden changes of airport equipment which happen unexpectedly If low visibility procedures are active at the airport

As an exception from real life remarks can include the following information: 'Training in progress' 'Exam in progress' 'New controller / newbie' Remarks should never include the following: Personal issues (e.g. Welcome to , Your Controller is , Thanks for flying, VFR traffic appreciated, Online until , etc.) Any information about restrictions or malfunctioning of equipment on the airport which are planned and/or last longer than one day. Those information are always published as a NOTAM and should not be included in the ATIS again

The IVAC software creates the ATIS automatically with the above and following information: Designators [A-Z]; Time of observation; METAR information Specific ATIS instructions [Remarks].

That information are mainly given within a METAR (METeorological Aerodrome Report). You will find further information on that within the chapter before. (METAR) Pilots should obtain the ATIS information for departure at the first ATC unit of the departure aerodrome (DEL, GND, TWR or APP/DEP). During Approach a pilot has to read the ATIS of the approach controller only and has to acknowledge it on initial contact. The current ATIS message is identified by a letter and is valid until a significant change has to be made (new runway in use, significant weather changes, facility failure). The first ATIS of the day is usually identified as "Information Alfa". The second ATIS message will be "Information Bravo". Then Information Charlie, Delta etc... when reaching Zulu, the next will be Alfa again. - 24 -

Controllers have to pass important information to pilots who do not acknowledged the letter of the ATIS or received ATIS information that is no longer correct. An example for an ATIS: "Dresden Approach information DELTA recorded at EDDC 070900Z 28005KT 9999 FEW030 BKN039 09/03 Q1021 ARR RWY 22 / DEP RWY 22 / TRL FL060 / TA CONFIRM ATIS INFO DELTA on initial contact".

0930z NOSIG 5000FT

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4.

Flight plan

The purpose of a Filed Flight plan (FPL) is to provide specified information to air traffic services (ATS) units about an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft. Also the equipment stated in the FPL should be correct according to the operation the crew is going to conduct. Therefore a Filed Flight plan shall include all information relevant to that specific planned flight. This includes:

Aircraft identification (Note: Aircraft identification means the radio callsign!) Flight rules and type of flight Number and type(s) of aircraft and wake turbulence category Equipment on board Departure aerodrome Estimated off-block time Cruising speed(s) Cruising level(s)or altitude(s) Route to be followed Destination aerodrome and total estimated elapsed time Alternate aerodrome(s) Fuel endurance Total number of persons on board Emergency and survival equipment Other information.

Note: In IVAO a flight plan MUST be filed ALWAYS before any flight. IFR and VFR! Local flights as well.

To know each part of the Flight Plan (FPL), we should pass through all the items in the FPL: The following is a sample Flight plan form with full explanation of all the possible fields. The picture shows the lay-out used when the ATC uses the Show FPL option in the Ivac.

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4.1

Explanation item by item


Item 7: Aircraft Identification (Maximum 7 characters)

This item shows the callsign and can be as follows: The registration marking of the aircraft ( N704YA , OONZA , etc...) as pronounced on the frequency. - (dash) is not used! The ICAO designator for the aircraft operating company, followed by the flight number (plus letters) ( BCS777, SLR05K , etc...). It is not possible to have another letter directly after the ICAO designator (e.g. DLHX83) The callsign determined by the military authorities ( BAF54, USAF112, etc...)

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Item 8: Flight Rules and Type of Flight Flight Rules (1 character)

In general lines we can distinguish between Instrumental flight rules (IFR) and Visual flight rules (VFR). The difference relies in the navigation performance. While in VFR the navigation is performed visually, referring to visual aids on the ground, such as mountains, rivers, roads, and so on, the IFR navigation is done using cockpit instruments that read the information provide by navigation aids, for knowing the relative position between the aircraft and the radio aid being used. Lets see them. VFR: VFR flying means that pilots fly mainly by looking outside of the aircraft for navigation, orientation and separation. It is the rule of "see and be seen". Pilots are allowed to use navigation instruments when flying VFR, but using outside as the primary flying reference. For VFR flights, meteorological conditions have to be better than the set minima so that flying is possible by only looking outside. Otherwise pilots are forced to use their instruments and have to apply the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). To know these weather minima called VMC (visual meteorological conditions) is very important. These VMC will be different depending on the type of airspace. It is forbidden to fly below the VMC under VFR unless you fly sVFR (specialVFR). IFR: IFR flying means that pilots rely on their navigation and attitude instruments for navigation and orientation. This will allow pilots to fly through clouds and in poor visibility. In most of the cases separation is provided by ATC in controlled airspace, and flight information will be given. But, the rules that state which kind of separation and information is provided, and within which flights, is in compliance with the airspace class type. Y and Z flight rules: When part of the flight is going to be conducted in IFR, and the other one in VFR, or the other way round, pilots must notify this to the ATS (Air traffic services). Instead of filling - 28 -

a FPL with IFR or VFR, they will use Y or Z flight rules to specify this special situation. When talking about Y flight rules, this means that the first part of the flight will be IFR finishing the flight in VFR. When talking about Z flight rules, the first part is visual, thereafter the flight is conducted in IFR.

One of the following letters will denote the category of flight rules which the pilot intends to comply.

I when the whole flight will be under IFR V when the whole flight will be under VFR Y when first part of flight will be under IFR and later changed into VFR (*) Z when first part of flight will be under VFR and later changed into IFR (*) Note: (*) The pilot should specify in the appropriate route item the point or points at where that change of flight rules is planned. When item 8 (Flight Rules) is Y, then in item 15 (Route) it has to be filled in after what point the flight becomes VFR. Example: GIBAL W616 LXR VFR DCT. This means the flight will depart IFR and remain IFR till LXR, after LXR the flight will continue VFR When item 8 (Flight Rules) is Z, then in item 15 (Route) you must specify from what point the flight will become IFR, as well as the speed and the planned level. Example: GIBAL/N0260F120 IFR W616 LXR. This means the flight will depart VFR and remain VFR till GIBAL, after GIBAL the flight will continue at a speed 260 kts at FL120, IFR.

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Type of flight (1 character)

The following letters will denote the type of flight:


S if scheduled services (commercial flight according time-table) N if non-scheduled Air Transport Operations (occasional commercial flight) G if General Aviation (non-commercial flight) M if Military X if other than any of the defined categories above (State Flight, Searc h And Rescue, )

Item 9: Number and Type of aircraft (1 or 2 characters) Number:

Number of aircraft in the formation, only if more than one.

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Type: (2 to 4 characters):

Here will appear the appropriate designator as specified by IVAO, or, if a designator is not assigned ZZZZ should appeared and then it should be specified in item 18 other information (numbers and) and type (s) of aircraft preceded by TYP/ Note: See IVAO database at www.ivao.aero/db/ for details.

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Wake Turbulence Category (1 character)

One of the following letters will indicate the wake turbulence category of the aircraft:

H Heavy, for an aircraft type with a MTOM of 136.000 kg (300.000 lb.) or more. M Medium, for a MTOM less than 136.000 kg but more than 7.000 kg (15.500 lb.). L Light, for a MTOM of 7.000 kg or less. Note: For each aircraft type, the wake turbulence category is determined by its MTOM (Maximum Take-Off Mass). The actual mass of an aircraft does not change its wake turbulence category. Although the Boeing 757 belongs to the Medium wake turbulence category, because of the dangerous wake turbulence it produces, it is considered as a Heavy to aircraft flying behind it. There is actually a fourth category called super which was established for the Airbus A380.

Item 10: Equipment Radio Communication, Navigation and Approach Aid equipment. Preceding the oblique stroke, one letter will indicate:

N if no equipment for the route to be flown is carried, or if the equipment is unserviceable. S if standard COM/NAV equipment (VHF RTF, ADF, VOR and ILS) for the route to be flown is carried and serviceable. And/or one or more of the following letters to indicate the COM/NAV equipment available and serviceable:

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A and B not to be used C LORAN C (Long Range Air Navigation system B) D DME (Distance Measurement Equipment) E Not to be used F ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) G GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) H HF RTF (High Frequency Radiotelephone) I INS (Inertial navigation) J Data link (in Item 18 specify equipment by DAT/ and one or more letters) K MLS (Microwave Landing System) L ILS (Instrument Landing System) M Omega O VOR (Very high Omnidirectional Range) P P-RNAV Q not to be used R RNP (Area Navigation) T TACAN (UHF Tactical Air Navigation Aid) U UHF RTF (Ultra-High Frequency Radiotelephone) V VHF RTF (Very-High Frequency Radiotelephone)

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W RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum) X MNPS (Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications) Y 8.33 kHz (channel spacing radio equipment) Z if other equipment; then specify in item 18 other information, preceding by COM/ or NAV/ Then, following the oblique stroke, one of the following letters to describe the serviceable Surveillance equipment carried: SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar) Equipment

N Nil A Transponder - mode A - 4096 codes C Transponder - mode A - 4096 codes and mode C X Transponder - mode S - without pressure altitude and without aircraft identification transmission P Transponder - mode S - with pressure altitude but without aircraft identification transmission I Transponder - mode S - without pressure altitude but with aircraft identification transmission S Transponder - mode S - with both pressure and aircraft identification transmission ADS (Automatic Dependent Surveillance) Equipment

D ADS capability

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Item 13: Departure Aerodrome and Time (8 characters) ICAO four letter location identifier of the departure aerodrome, or if no location identifier is assigned, ZZZZ and it should be specified in item 18 other information, the name of the aerodrome in plain language, preceded by DEP/ Note: See IVAO database at www.ivao.aero/db/ for details The Estimated Off-Block Time (time at which you will be ready for push-back or taxi-out for departure if no push-back is necessary).

Item 15: Route Cruising Speed (maximum 5 characters)

The cruising speed for the first or whole portion of the flight, in terms of: Knots (TAS = True Air Speed), expressed as N, followed by 4 figures (e.g. N0220); Mach Number, when so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority to the nearest hundredths of unit Mach, expressed as M followed by 3 figures ( e.g. M072 ); Kilometres per hour, expressed as K followed by 4 figures (e.g. K0350).

Note: The speed value K or N is selected for the first part of the flight. If the required value changes

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en-route, speed/level field for level changes should be appeared. Mach number is only given for flight in those airspaces where ATC prescribes (big example: North Atlantic.) There is no Flight Level above which Mach must be filed.

Cruising Level or altitude (maximum 5 characters)

Flight Level F followed by 3 figures ( e.g. F085, F320 ) Altitude in hundreds of feet A followed by 3 figures ( e.g. A015 , A100 ) Standard Metric level in tens of meters S followed by 4 figures ( e.g. S1130 ) (**) Altitude in tens of meters M followed by 4 figures ( e.g. M8040 ) (**) For a VFR flight that is not planned to be flown at a specific cruising level

VFR Used by pilots flying VFR Note: (**) When so prescribed by the appropriate authorities (on IVAO this will be either a Division Staff or HQ).

Route including changes of speed, level/altitude and/or flight rules

The route can include ATS routes, significant points, points defined by its coordinates or radial/distance groups.

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for a flight along designated ATS routes: It usually appears the SID or its endpoint to the ATS route, or the letters DCT followed by the point of joining the route, then each point at which a change of route, speed, level or flight rules is planned, followed by the designator of the next route segment.

For a flight outside designated routes: It will be shown points normally not more than 30 minutes flying time in between, or 200 nm apart, including each point where a change of speed, level, track or flight rules is planned. For VFR, it will be filled in commonly used visual reference points to indicate the intended flight path. (See the appropriate VFR navigation charts.)

Item 16: Destination Aerodrome and EET Destination Aerodrome and estimated elapsed time (8 characters) The ICAO four letter location indicator of the destination aerodrome followed by the total estimated elapsed time, or if no designator has been assigned, ZZZZ followed by the EET and it should be specified in item 18 other information the name of the aerodrome preceded by DEST/ Note that EET is the time taken since the take off until the aircraft reaches the main radio aid serving the airport or in VFR the overhead. Note: See IVAO database at www.ivao.aero/db/ for details Alternate Aerodrome The ICAO four letter location indicator of alternate aerodrome or, if no designator has been assigned, ZZZZ and it should be specified in item 18 other information the name of the aerodrome preceded by ALTN/ Note: See IVAO database at www.ivao.aero/db/ for details

Item 18: Other Information 0 (zero) will appear if no other information is to be inserted, or If any other necessary information is required, then in the preferred sequence shown below, the form of an appropriate indicator should appear, followed by an oblique stroke and the information to be recorded.

Important remarks are: Newbie No FMC VFR Daylight Callsign Tuijet

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Keep advised that the following remarks have only very little use on IVAO. They are allowed, but shall never hide the important remarks you can see above.

ALTN/ destination alternate aerodrome if the letter group ZZZZ is inserted in Item 16 CODE/ Aircraft address (expressed in the form of an alphanumerical code of six hexadecimal characters) when required by the appropriate ATS authority COM/ indication of radio telephony equipment carried if letter Z is indicated in Item 10 DAT/ Data related to data link; followed by the letters S (for satellite), H (for HF), V (for VHF), and/or M (for SSR Mode S) DEP/ departure aerodrome if the letter group ZZZZ is inserted in Item 13 or the point from which the flight plan is applicable, or the position from which supplementary flight plan data may be obtained if the letter group AFIL is inserted in Item 13 Note: AFIL stands for Air File, used when a flight plan is filed while airborne. This normally would not be used within IVAO since filing a flight plan before departure is obligatory.

DEST/ destination aerodrome if the letter group ZZZZ is inserted in Item 16, or the point to which the flight plan is applicable DOF/ Date of flight, given in the sequence year-month-day EET/ significant points, points with change of flight rules, indication of locations or FIR boundaries with accumulated estimated elapsed time NAV/ indication about the radio navigation equipment carried if the letter Z is indicated in Item 10 OPR/ aircraft operator, if not obvious from the aircraft identification in Item 7 of the flight plan form Note: This is additional to the radio callsign indicted in item 7. It can not carry different or contrary information to item 7! PER/ aircraft performance data (e.g. rate of climb) RALT/ name of en-route alternate aerodromes REG/ aircraft identification, if not already indicated in item 7 RFP/Qn replacement flight plan (replacement, alternative flight plan), n indicating the current number 1 9 of the replacement flight plan for the flight concerned RIF/ changes of routing to the changed destination aerodrome and/or changed destination aerodrome RMK/ any other remark significant for the handling of the flight by the Air Traffic Services RVR/ indicates the minimum Runway Visual Range in which the aircraft is allowed to be operated at an airport SEL/ SELCAL Code STS/ Reasons for special handling STS/ATFM EXEMPT APPROVED STS/EMER Flights engaged in emergency missions (***) STS/EXM833 State aircraft, not equipped with 8.33 kHz channel spacing radio equipment prescribed for an area

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STS/HEAD Flights with Heads of States STS/HOSP Flights with sick or injured persons needing immediate medical assistance, including flights urgently required for life-saving medical care of sick or injured persons. This comprises both flights for the transport of transplants, stored blood and medicine and flights to be conducted to pick up a patient, transplants, stored blood or medicine at the destination place. STS/HUM Flights operating for humanitarian reasons STS/NIL Replaces all other STS/entries. Only to be used when reporting flight plan changes. STS/NONRNAV State aircraft, not equipped with type RNP prescribed for a route segment, a routing and/or an area STS/NONRVSM State aircraft without RVSM permission. STS/PROTECTED Flights critical to safety, the flight plan of which is only to be made available to a limited circle of recipients. STS/RNAVINOP For aircraft, the RNAV equipment of which is inoperable at short notice or no longer complies with the required minimum conditions STS/SAR Flights engaged in Search and Rescue missions (***) STS/STATE Government flights (***) Leads to an automatic exemption from ATFM restrictions. Note: ATFM stands for Air Traffic Flow Management

TYP/ type of aircraft if the letter group ZZZZ is inserted in Item 9

Item 19: Supplementary Information This information is not filed with the flight plan, but is kept at the unit where the plan was filed. In case of emergency the supplementary information will be transmitted to the appropriate rescue agencies. Endurance After E/ 4 figure group giving the fuel endurance in hours and minutes. Persons on Board (POB) After P/ the total number of persons (passengers and crew included) on board, when required by the appropriate ATS authority. TBN should be inserted (to be notified) if the total number of persons is not known when filing. Pilot in Command (PIC) After C/ the name of the PIC (Pilot in command) as in information the user provided when you complete your registration form Aircraft colour and markings (MTL) After A/ aircraft type the user wish other pilots and controllers see you with (when available, if not the user can choose similar one), and texture with significant markings

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4.2

The Filed Flight Plan (FPL) and the Current Flight Plan (CPL)
The Filed Flight Plan tells what the pilot plans to do:

Complete the flight VFR or IFR Change flight rules (IFR to VFR or VFR to IFR) during his trip Fly a particular SID / Non Standard Departure*, route or STAR Cruise at a certain level or change levels during flight Land at his destination or divert to a particular alternate when necessary Anything else he stated in item 18 of the FPL

* Further explanation in the next Chapter IFR Clearance When receiving his IFR-Clearance and the assume control (an input by the actual controller) has been done, the Filed Flight Plan becomes "active" and is from now on referred to as the Current Flight Plan. The Current Flight Plan is what the aircraft has been cleared or instructed by ATC. It can be identical to the Flight Plan, but will mostly contain changes to what the pilot requested due to airspace availability, traffic, weather, etc... FPL examples: IVAC Flight plan window

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In ICAO format the same flight plan looks like: (FLP-SVW128A-IG -C551/L-SDRWY/S -EBKT1520 -N0360F330 MAK DCT REMBA UA24 DIK UN852 MOROK UZ24 ODIGA -LSGG0105 LFLP -0) IFR Flight from Brussels to Tokyo with an Airbus A340: (FLP-DLH123-IS -A343/H-SDHIRWXY/S -EBBR1400 -N0486F290 TOLEN UA5 SPY UR12 BEDUM/N0476F330 UR12 JUIST UP729 TALSA UP730 CDA UM611 SORLA UP862 LIMAK/K0872S1010 G59 GR/K0882S0910 R30 SU/K0863S1010 R30 KTL R22 AGATA/K0876S1110 R22 JQ A333 UHHH/K0878S1010 R211 SOLAN/K0878S1160 B358 IGROD/N0474F390 R347 EKVIK/N0471F370 R347 GTC R211 KASMI -RJAA1114 RJTT RJNN -0) VFR flight from Calais to Kortrijk-Wevelgem with touch and go at Lille-Lesquin with a Robin 400: (FLP-FWBTS-VG -DR40/L-S/C -LFAC1600 -N0120VFR DCT LEQ DCT OKT DCT -EBKT0120 LFQQ - OPR/PVT REQ/1 TOUCH AND GO AT LFQQ RMK/TRAINING FLIGHT) VFR Flight from Kortrijk-Wevelgem to Heliport Midden Zeeland in the Netherlands with a Helicopter Robinson 44: (FLP-OOJOR-VG -R44/L-S/C -EBKT1520 -N0100VFR DCT COA DCT -ZZZZ0100 EBOS -DEST/HELIPORT MIDDEN ZEELAND)

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4.3

Flight Plan Validation


Validating a Flight Plan For arrivals into your Control Zone (CTR), check: For arrivals into your CTR check whether the flight plan is indicating enough what the pilot intentions are. If there are any things, which are unclear ask the pilot for clarification. Please do not change the flight plan. Don't hesitate to coordinate flights with previous/next controller if necessary!

Editing a flight Plan As an active ATC (with rating ADC or above) you are able to change a flight plan as filed by a pilot. Keep in mind: The FPL is a pilots responsibility. You may use this feature for trainings reasons only. If you wish a Flight Plan is updated, advise the pilot of the change he has to make. (As Controller you have to click Cancel to close the FPL window) How to edit a flight plan in IvAc:

Press F6 after activating the callsign, or Right click the target label and select 'Show FPL'

4.4

Flight strip and CPL/FPL radar presentation

The flight strip is the main tool for the ATC to know what the intentions of the traffic are (via the FPL: route, FL, speed) and what he has been cleared to by the (adjacent) ATC unit. So knowing how to use it and its meanings is very important for a good control management. The following picture explains all fields in the flight strip:

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Apart from the flight strip you can also view a complete flight plan of an aircraft. Right-click the label and select Show FPL from the menu (or press F6 when callsign selected). This window can also be opened from the I/O window by double-clicking the corresponding line or right click the line and select Show FPL. Now you get the ICAO FPL window. In the flight strip above you see the following input of an ATC unit: Cleared Flight Level 050 as Initial Climb Cleared Waypoint: VEBA4S as SID (VEBAK4S)

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4.5

SID Standard Instrument Departure Route

A SID is a standard ATS route identified in an instrument departure procedure by which aircraft should proceed from take-off phase to the en-route phase. The name of the SID point is a normally used as well to identify and to name that departure route. e.g. "DEGES 1 W departure", then DEGES 1 W is the name of the departure route; the exit point is DEGES intersection. There are many different Standard Instrument Departure routes (SID) possible at one airfield. Each runway has its different SIDs into different directions of departure. It all depends on in which direction the aircraft have to go. So, it depends on the runway in use and it depends on the filed flight plan route. Your task as ATC is to check if the correct SID is used for the desired route and fill in the correct SID in the Waypoint field. (See above). Below an example of SIDs of runway 24 at Amsterdam Schiphol Intl. Airport is given.

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5.

VFR

This chapter will give you first some general ideas on what VFR is and will show you the tasks an aerodrome controller will have to deal with afterwards. A flight according visual flight rules (VFR) is done when the pilot can maintain the aircraft in a flight configuration (speed, attitude) on its route in order to join the destination airport with outside visual landmarks (cities, road, railways, river, mountains, antennas, etc.) and with chart information. The visual flight is the easiest and the freest manner to fly. The pilot shall follow basic air rules see and avoid. This technique is the historical manner of flying used by many pilot pioneers. To perform a VFR flight, the pilot must consider the minimum visual conditions criteria known as VMC (Visual Meteorological Conditions). Those conditions differ between airspace classifications. VFR flights are only possible in VMC with some exception called Special VFR. The different conditions and special VFR will be explained more detailed within this chapter. Flying according to VFR can have several different specifications. A flight can be performed within uncontrolled airspaces or within controlled ones. The pilot can use all required Air Traffic Services (ATS) including Flight Information Service (FIS) Altering Service (AL) and Air Traffic Control Service (ATC). In some countries VFR flights can be performed during night time. The following four terms often occur when speaking of VFR. This is only a short definition. Further knowledge on those points that might be necessary for the ADC rating will be given later. VFR (daylight and VMC): This is the most common VFR flight are performed. It can be without any ATC. Maybe the pilot will use FIS to get necessary information regarding other traffic, weather, airspaces. Night VFR (NVFR): These flights are partly or completely performed during night time. The night is defined as from 30 minutes after sunset until 30 minutes before sunrise. The pilot must always be on the active ATC frequency. You as Tower Controller have the hand over a NVFR flight to the ATC above (if manned). In IVAO it is allowed to simulate daylight flights. This has to be stated clearly within the flight plan remarks. Those pilots will be considered as usual daylight VFR. Controlled VFR (CVFR): Pilots have to fly CVFR within Airspace Class B and C. In Airspace D pilots may fly CVFR, but it is not required. In real this requires additional licences. On IVAO each pilot is allowed to fly according to VFR within these airspaces. ATC can give Headings and altitudes but they can only be recommendations as the pilots have to maintain VMC all the time. Special VFR (SVFR): Pilots can also operate at an airport, if the visibility is below the VMC. Special VFR has some further requirements regarding separation issues. This can not be done if the visibility is too bad. The concrete values will be shown later.

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VFR flights can be done locally at one airport which is often connected to the performance of traffic circuit within the control zone. They can also be done with a route part from A to B. This chapter will show you how to handle VFR traffic within the control zone of your airport.

5.1

VMC Minima

As mentioned before, VFR flights can only be performed, if some minima regarding sight and distance to the clouds are not exceeded. The following table shows these minima within the different airspace classes. Additionally it shows the minima that will be applied for SVFR flights. To find the necessary values you first have to check the airspace classification of the airport, you control at. This can be found in the charts. Keep in mind that VFR pilots will always stay clear of clouds which may cause some unexpected turns. For this reason you can only give heading and altitude recommendations. Altitude band Airspace class Flight visibility 8 km Distance from clouds

At and above 3050 m (10000 ft) AMSL

ABCDEFG

Below 3050 m (10000 ft) AMSL and above 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL, or above 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higher

ABCDEFG 5 km

1500 m horizontally 300 m (1000 ft) vertically

At and below 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL, or 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is the higher

ABCDE

FG

5 km *

Clear of clouds and with the surface in sight

* When so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority: a) Flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1500 m may be permitted for flights operating: 1) At speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision; or 2) In circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low, e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels.

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b) HELICOPTERS may be permitted to operate in less than 1500 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision. If for example the transition altitude is below 10000 ft you should apply FL 100 instead. The clouds are defined with the so called ceiling. Ceiling is the height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6000 meters (20000 feet) covering more than half the sky. Cloud layers are subdivided into oktas (eighths) of the sky that is occupied by cloud. Further information can be retrieved from the METAR chapter. If the ceiling is less than 450 m (1500 ft) or when the ground visibility than 5 km it is possible to perform a Special VFR flight. It will be explained later. SVFR within a control zone is not permitted at a flight visibility of less than 2,5 km or a ceiling below.

5.2

VFR within different airspaces

Airspace class A: VFR is not permitted in this airspace. Airspace A is a controlled airspace, which means, that you will have ATC available and operating within this airspace.

Airspace class B: VFR traffic has to be separated to other VFR traffic and to IFR (instrument flight rules) traffic. The VFR pilot has to contact ATC and needs a clearance for the airspace. Airspace B is a controlled airspace.

Airspace class C: VFR traffic has to be separated to IFR traffic. Traffic information have to be given on other VFR aircraft. The VFR pilot has to contact ATC and needs a clearance for the airspace. Airspace C is a controlled airspace.

Airspace class D: VFR traffic has to receive traffic information on other aircraft in the vicinity. The VFR pilot has to contact ATC and needs a clearance for the airspace. Airspace D is a controlled airspace.

Airspace class E: VFR traffic do not have to contact ATC. VFR pilots have to maintain visual separation to other aircraft (IFR and VFR). In some areas of airspace E, VFR aircraft need a transponder (TMZ Transponder Mandatory Zone) in order to ensure, that ATC can see them on the radar. In critical areas it might be necessary to be in contact with ATC or FIS. Airspace E is a controlled airspace. Airspace class F: This airspace is only temporary active, when IFR traffic is operating within the airspace. It is necessary to be in contact with FIS. VFR pilots have to maintain visual separation to other aircraft. Airspace F is an uncontrolled airspace. That means that there is usually no ATC but only FIS available.

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Airspace class G: This airspace is for VFR aircraft only and does not allow any flights performed under IFR. Airspace G is an uncontrolled airspace.

5.3

The VFR Flight Plan

In Reality VFR aircraft do not need a flight plan in many cases. Nevertheless IVAO software forces the pilots to fill a valid flight plan. As seen before, VFR flight can be local flights, where the flight will end at the departure airport or can have two different airfields. A flight plan will indicate this to you. We will not discuss the flight plan in detail as there is a separate chapter for this. We will only focus on some items. Item No 8: Here you will see if the flight will be an IFR, VFR or Y/Z (will be explained later). This should be your first check while reading a flight plan. If there is a V, which stand for VFR you can assume that the pilot wants to perform a VFR flight. Sometimes pilots may choose the wrong option here. Therefor you have to crosscheck it with the rest of the plan. Item No 9: This item will show you the type of aircraft and in combination with item No X (wake turbulence category) you are able to assume any flight performances. For example a turboprop aircraft may file faster patterns than an ultra light aircraft. Item No 15: The field will include the intended route. Daylight VFR flights can have some landmarks like motorways, rivers, etc but also navigational aids like VORs or NDBs. Beside that there can also be a simple DCT (Direct). There are a lot of possibilities. VFR flights during night or controlled VFR should have a defined route with geographical or radio-navigational positions. Nevertheless this has not much effect on you as aerodrome controller and so we will not go too much into detail. Item No 18: Here the pilot should fill some remarks that are important for you as ATC. This can for example be the information, that the pilot wants to perform traffic circuits at your airport, that the pilot will perform a daylight flight during night, etc. Beside that VFR pilots will report or request any intensions on your ATC frequency anyway. If not, it is your task to ask for that.

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5.4

Clearance for VFR flights

General clearances: Within control zones class D or C VFR pilots have to receive a clearance. In some airports this can be done with the taxi instructions without any start up approval. In other airports you first have to ask the approach controller and then give the according VFR clearance. Specific rules have to be retrieved from the local procedures. If you man a position with an airspace class F you have to give traffic information only without any taxi instructions or even take-off or landing clearances. Local procedures may differ regarding taxi instructions. Yankee/Zulu flight plan: These are possibilities to perform parts of a flight under VFR or IFR. They will be indicated AS Y or Z at item No 8. Yankee means, that the pilot will depart under IFR. You as aerodrome controller have to pay attention to the so called clearance limit. You are only allowed to clear the IFR part of the intended flight. Taking a closer look to the following flight plan you will see that the pilot wants to change from IFR to VFR at Warburg VOR (WRB). As soon as this is clear you do not give a clearance to the destination airport but to this waypoint. D-IEDH cleared to WRB via NUTGO2T departure route, flight planned route, SQ 1234

A Zulu flight plan is the opposite in fact the pilot will depart under visual flight rules and will change to IFR later. There is no difference in handling for you between a Zulu flight and a complete VFR flight. The handling of VFR flight will be discussed in detail within the next paragraph. Night VFR: A NVFR clearance has to contain the route, how to leave the airport. This is either done with a specific direction or by the use of reporting points. It will be discussed later. Special VFR: If the weather conditions are below VMC it is possible to request a so called Special VFR clearance. This requires some further coordination and special procedures. It will be discussed later.

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5.5

Taxi to the runway

VFR aircraft will get the same taxi instructions as IFR pilots. There is no need to have the current ATIS available for VFR pilots. If they do not report them on initial contact at least the QNH should be given with the taxi instructions. Pilot: D-ECHO, Vienna Tower ATC: D-ECHO, Vienna Tower, Good day Pilot: D-ECHO, Cessna 172, two persons, request taxi for traffic circuit ATC: D-ECHO, taxi Holding Point 34 via L and Mike, QNH 1023 The expression traffic circuit will be explained later. As you can read within the cha pter for IFR traffic the crossing of an active runway needs a particular permission. Consider that VFR pilots often fly with small aircraft that may not need the whole runway for the departure. Intersection departures can be useful in order to save time and space for other aircraft. Departure clearance The pilots have to know the procedure that they should perform after airborne. There are many possibilities for VFR pilots. The pilot could fly directly to a specific reporting point, could enter a traffic circuit / holding or could leave the control zone in a certain direction. According to the intensions the pilot has to get the procedure before the take-off clearance as long as this is possible. Other traffic, weather or geographical conditions may require an initial procedure different to the requested one. Pilot: D-ECHO, Ready for departure runway 34 ATC: D-ECHO, after departure leave control zone via Oscar (compulsory reporting point), wind 310 with 6 knots, runway 34 cleared for take-off The italic part can also be replaced with the following examples. join right downwind runway 34, leave control zone in southern direction, leave control zone direct on course, join traffic circuit runway 34, etc. It is important to put the actual take-off clearance after the procedure information. In some countries it is also common to give the procedure during the VFR clearance or during taxi.

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5.6

Basic knowledge about traffic circuit (left / right)

An aerodrome traffic pattern is used by VFR traffic to fly to and away from the runway in use at an airfield. Normally this pattern has a rectangular shape. Its details are published on a Visual Approach Chart (VAC) of the aerodrome. The standard circuit parameters when data are not published on charts or you have no charts, are: * All turn angles are 90 * All turn shall be taken by the left: thats left hand circuit * The circuit shall be performed at 1000ft above the ground (AGL) or airfield elevation. (Note that pattern height may vary from 500ft AGL to 1500ft AGL)

Figure: basic left hand circuit

The default circuit pattern is left hand pattern where all 90 turn are taken to the left. When you dont have any information about circuit pattern orientation, it will be preferable to choose left handed pattern if you cant get any information from ATC service.

Figure: basic left hand circuit

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Some situations, such as terrain, noise-sensitive areas, cities, natural parks, require all turns in the aerodrome traffic circuit to be made to the right. This is then called a right hand circuit.

Figure: basic right hand circuit It is not unusual to find a runway served by a standard (left) circuit when used in the one direction and by a right hand circuit in the opposite direction. Note: Since left-hand circuit is standard, the words "left hand" will normally not be used. To differentiate with the non-standard right-hand circuit, always the words "right-hand" will be used when proceeding in a right-hand visual circuit. ATC: D-ECHO, enter downwind runway 34 This will be the left downwind of the runway. ATC: D-ECHO, enter right downwind runway 34 This will be the right downwind of the runway. Note: This is an example to help you understand what a visual circuit looks like. At different airfields, some may find different configurations.

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5.7

Traffic Circuit STEP by STEP

Upwind Leg: The upwind leg begins at the point where the airplane leaves the ground. It continues climbing straight ahead to gain the sufficient altitude before the 90-degree left turn is made to the crosswind leg.

Figure: upwind leg for left hand circuit Figure: upwind leg for right hand circuit

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Crosswind Leg: The first 90 turn will place the plane under a perpendicular route from runway axis: its the crosswind leg. Except in special cases, this turn shall not be performed before 500ft AGL. The crosswind leg is a flight path at a 90 angle to the takeoff direction. After making a left turn from the upwind leg one enters the crosswind leg. This turn is made at a safe height, while the climb is continued towards the indicated or cleared circuit altitude.

Figure: crosswind leg for left hand circuit

Figure: crosswind leg for right hand circuit

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Downwind Leg: The second 90 turn will place the plane under a parallel route from runway axis: its the downwind leg. Except when circuit altitude is published, this leg is performed at 1000ft AGL at about 1NM to 1.5NM distance from runway. The downwind leg is a flight path at a 180 angle (opposite) to the takeoff direction. In this branch, the pilot will prepare its plane in approach configuration for landing. The pilot shall maintain his flight direction with outside landmarks and with maintain the sight of runway.

Figure: crosswind leg for right hand circuit

Figure: crosswind leg for right hand circuit

When reaching the point where you are overtaking the runways threshold, the pilot shall extend the downwind about 1.6NM (it shall be reduced to 1NM for training).

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Base Leg: The third 90 turn will place the plane under a perpendicular route from runway axis: its the base leg. The pilot shall perform this turn when the runway threshold is sight with about 45 angle. The base leg is a flight path at a 90 angle to the landing runway direction and connects the downwind leg to the final approach leg. During base leg, the pilot initiates the descent to reach about 700ft AGL at the end of the leg.

Figure: base leg for left hand circuit

Figure: base leg for right hand circuit

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Final: The last 90 turn will place the plane in axis of runway in order to land on the runway: its the final. This turn shall normally be performed to reach 500ft AGL when finished. The final approach leg is a flight path in the direction of landing from the base leg to the runway. During final, the pilot prepares his plane for landing: flaps configuration, speed near 1.3 x Vso (stall speed).

Figure: final for left hand circuit

Figure: final for right hand circuit

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5.8

Solutions to manage the traffic within the Traffic Circuit (VFR -VFR / VFR IFR)

In our example, we take the following conditions: Airfield named Rockwood One runway 18 / 36 One tower with Tower controller inside. Just one aircraft in the traffic circuit: The two major reporting points, that shall not be missed, are downwind leg report and final position report. The crosswind leg report and the base leg position report are optional and less used. You will find here under classical aerodrome circuit management with one aircraft.

Pilot: Rockwood Tower, holding point runway 3 6, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG, wind calm, runway 3 6 cleared for takeoff, report right hand downwind runway 3 6

FGJNG

FGJNG

Pilot: right hand downwind runway 3 6, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG number one, report final runway 3 6

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Pilot: final runway 3 6, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG, wind 010 degrees 6 knots, runway 3 6 cleared to land Or ATC: FGJNG, wind 010 degrees 6 knots, runway 3 6 cleared to touch and go

FGJNG

Two VFR aircraft in a traffic circuit: You will find here under classical aerodrome circuit management with two VFR aircraft.

FGJEL

Pilot: Rockwood Tower, holding point runway 3 6, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG, wind calm, runway 3 6 cleared for takeoff, report right hand downwind runway 3 6

FGJNG

Pilot: right hand downwind runway 3 6, FGJEL ATC: FGJEL number one, report final runway 3 6

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FGJNG

Pilot: right hand downwind runway 36, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG number two, follow Cessna 1 7 2 on base, report right hand base runway 3 6 Pilot: Number two, traffic in sight, will report on right hand base runway 3 6, FGJNG

FGJEL

Pilot: final runway 3 6, FGJEL ATC: FGJEL, wind 010 degrees 6 knots, runway 3 6 cleared touch and go, report right hand downwind runway 3 6

FGJNG

FGJEL

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FGJEL

Pilot: final runway 3 6, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG, wind 010 degrees 6 knots, runway 3 6 cleared to touch and go, report right hand downwind runway 3 6, traffic Cessna 1 7 2 on right hand crosswind leg
FGJNG

One VFR and one IFR (Mixed Traffic) You will find here a classical aerodrome circuit management with one VFR aircraft and one IFR aircraft on final.

FGJNG

Pilot: Rockwood Tower, Lotus Flower 6 2 1 8, established ILS runway 3 6, 4 Nm final ATC: Lotus Flower 6 2 1 8, number one, traffic Cessna 1 7 2 on right hand downwind, wind calm, runway 3 6 cleared to land. Pilot: Number one, traffic in sight, runway 3 6 cleared to land

ATC: FGJNG, number two, traffic Airbus 3 3 0 long final runway 36, report right hand base runway 3 6 Pilot: Wilco, traffic in sight, FGJNG

TAS6218

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Pilot: Lotus Flower 6 2 1 8, runway 3 6 vacated ATC: FGJNG, wind 010 7 knots, runway 3 6, cleared to touch and go Pilot: runway 3 6, cleared to touch and go, FGJNG
FGJNG

ATC: Lotus Flower 6 2 1 8, taxi gate 5

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Extend Downwind Clearance When there is a sequence of IFR arrival, the tower controller can use the downwind extension clearance (if possible in function of aerodrome configuration).

FGJNG

ATC: Lotus Flower 6 2 1 8, traffic Cessna 1 7 2 on right hand downwind, wind calm, runway 36 cleared to land. Pilot: cleared to land runway 36, traffic in sight, Lotus Flower 6 2 1 8 Pilot: right hand downwind runway 36, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG, extend downwind runway 36, traffic Airbus 3 3 0 long final runway 36 Pilot: extend downwind runway 36, traffic in sight, FGJNG

TAS6218

Attention: make sure that when extending the downwind, the VFR flight must maintain the sight with the runway all the time. Check the visibility on METAR airport.

Pilot: Rockwood Tower, Air France 3 8 7, established ILS runway 3 6, 8Nm final ATC: number two, behind airbus 3 3 0 on final runway 36, continue approach Pilot: number two, traffic in sight, continuing approach
AFR387

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FGJNG

When the first IFF (A330) is landing, its time to give other traffic information in order to make separation with the second IFR (A320) :

ATC : FGJNG, number two, traffic Airbus 3 2 0 long final runway 36, report right hand base leg runway 36 Pilot : number two, traffic in sight, report right hand base leg runway 36, , FGJNG

ATC: Air France 3 8 7, traffic Cessna 1 7 2 right hand down wind, runway 36 cleared to land.

Pilot : runway 36 cleared to land, traffic in sight, Air France 3 8 7

AFR387

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5.9

How to get a VFR aircraft into a Traffic Circuit (in Air)

A clearance from tower controller is needed to enter in an aerodrome traffic circuit. It shall be delivered to an aircraft when the aerodrome traffic circuit conditions are permitted the circuit integration. The radio contact between aircraft and tower controller shall be initiated before beginning any entry of an aerodrome traffic circuit if the associated class of space does not oblige a preliminary radio contact. It is at the latest at this moment when the aircraft asks for the clearance to join the circuit The aircraft in the aerodrome circuit have priority over traffic outside the circuit. The aerodrome traffic circuit entry shall be possible in several manners: From beginning of downwind leg Semi direct entry (in base leg) Direct entry (in long final) The tower controller can make some other possibilities in function of all aircraft positions (example: entry from end of downwind or middle of downwind.)

Downwind Entry:

FGJNG

ATC: FGJNG, join right hand downwind runway 3 6, report right hand downwind Pilot: Join right hand downwind runway 3 6, wilco, FGJNG

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Downwind Entry with traffic on Crosswind:


FGJNG

FGJEL

ATC: FGJEL, join right hand downwind runway 3 6, number 2, Cessna 1 7 2 on right hand crosswind, report right hand downwind Pilot: Join right hand downwind runway 3 6, number 2, traffic in sight, wilco, FGJEL ATC: FGJNG, traffic information, Cessna 1 7 2 from the east to join behind Pilot: Traffic in sight, FGJNG The mutual traffic information is mandatory for both aircraft, because the trajectories of both devices are potentially conflicting.

Base Entry:

FGJNG

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This clearance allows shortening the trajectory of the aircraft which are in a sector closer to the base than to the beginning of the branch rear wind. However, because of the complexity of the traffic either to optimize or simplify the sequence, the controller remains free not to propose or to refuse a semi direct approach. ATC: FGJNG, join right hand base runway 3 6, report base leg Pilot: Join right hand base runway 3 6, wilco, FGJNG

Base Entry with Traffic on Downwind:

FGJNG FGJEL

ATC: FGJEL, join right hand base runway 3 6, Cessna 1 7 2 abeam mid-runway, report base leg Pilot: Will join right hand base runway 3 6, traffic in sight, will report base leg, FGJEL ATC: FGJNG, traffic, Cessna 1 7 2 from East airfield to base leg Pilot: Traffic in sight, FGJNG

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Straight-in approach:

FGJEL

ATC: FGJEL, join final, straight-in runway 3 6, report final Pilot: Join final runway 3 6, wilco, FGJEL

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Straight-in approach with traffic on Downwind:

FGJNG

FGJEL

ATC: FGJEL, join final, straight-in runway 3 6, number 2 behind a Cessna 1 7 2 on right hand downwind, report final Pilot: Join final runway 3 6, number 2, wilco, FGJEL ATC: FGJNG, number one, traffic information, Cessna 1 7 2 from the southeast Pilot: traffic in sight, FGJNG

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5.10 CTR Management (Additional Procedures)


The control zone used in example extends upward, from the surface towards altitude 3000ft, and laterally until 5Nm at least of the aerodrome. There are 3 entry/exit points associated with the CTR: W - Whiskey, N - November, S - Sierra There is one transit point: WA - Whiskey Alpha

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VFR Transit The aircraft FGJNG requests a transit in CTR zone. He comes from western part of CTR from the W point. When crossing only a controlled area, you must ask a transit clearance to tower controller.

FGJNG

Pilot : Rockwood Tower, Cessna 1 7 2, 3000ft, 2 minutes inbound W, request cross your CTR from the West to the South, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG, cross the CTR from W, via WA to leave at S, altitude 2000 feet, QNH 1013, report WA Pilot: Cross the CTR from W via WA to S, altitude 2000 feet, QNH 1013, wilco, FGHNG

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Two aircrafts in Transit Here is a case with 2 aircraft crossing the CTR: FGJEL is going to W exit point from N point via overhead airfield. FGJNG is going to S exit point from W point via WA The two aircraft routes create potential conflict, so the Tower controller must give traffic information to both aircraft. After receiving traffic information, both aircraft ensure their own separation maintaining visual contact.

FGJEL

FGJNG

ATC: FGJNG, traffic, Cessna 1 7 2, from N to over airfield, then W, same level, report in sight Pilot: Traffic in sight, FGJNG ATC: FGJEL, traffic, Cessna 1 7 2, from WA to over airfield then S, same level report in sight Pilot: Traffic in sight; FGJEL

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One VFR in transit and one VFR in aerodrome circuit In this situation, there is one aircraft in aerodrome circuit on downwind, and another one crossing the CTR from S entry point to N exit point. During route over airfield of the aerodrome, it is recommended to the tower controller to impose a height superior to the aerodrome circuit altitude, in order to avoid any potential conflict with both aircrafts. A separation of at least 500ft shall be applied, when it is possible. Traffic information can be provided to assure security to both aircrafts.

FGJNG

FGJEL

Pilot: Rockwood Tower, Cessna 1 7 2, 1000ft, 2 minutes inbound S, request cross your CTR from the South to the North, FGJEL ATC: FGJEL, cross the CTR from S, via overhead the field to N, altitude 1500 feet, QNH 1013, report N Pilot: cross the CTR from S, via overhead the field to N, altitude 1500 feet, wilco N, FGHNG Pilot: Right hand downwind runway 36, FGJNG ATC: FGJNG, traffic, Cessna 1 7 2 at your twelve oclock, from S trough the overhead, 500ft above Pilot: Traffic in sight, FGJNG ATC: FGJEL, traffic, Cessna 1 7 2 right hand downwind runway 36, 500ft below Pilot: Traffic in sight, FGJEL

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5.11 Orbit waiting clearance (360)


Another solution to delay traffic When there are too many aircraft in the aerodrome circuit, the tower controller can use an orbit clearance at any location. The clearance can be used to hold VFR traffic out of congested areas. The instruction to orbit may be given over a specified or just at a present position.

FGJEL

ATC: FGJEL, orbit over right at WA Pilot: orbit over right at WA, FGJEL Note: ATC can give orbit altitude if necessary in the clearance. When traffic allows the waiting traffic to join the circuit, an appropriate clearance can be given by the controller, along with sufficient traffic information.

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5.12 VFR Handling Entering / Leaving the Control Zone


To leave a controlled airport, VFR pilots have to leave the control zone on a predefined way. This can be done either via VFR reporting points, certain VFR routes or direct on course. In the following paragraphs you will get to know further details concerning the entry and exit procedures connected to a controlled airport. The following example will make you understand the procedures to leave/enter a control zone via VFR reporting points. Imagine the aircraft with the registration D-EBCL will depart from HofPlauen Airport (EDQM) heading for Dresden Airport (EDDC). The aircraft is now ready for departure. In the previous part you learned, that it must be clear prior departure, how the pilot should fly. A = ATC P = Pilot P: D-EBCL, ready for departure runway 27. A: D-EBCL, leave control zone via November, right turn approved, wind 240 degrees 10 knots, runway 27 cleared for takeoff. P: D-EBCL, leaving control zone via November, right turn approved, runway 27 cleared for takeoff. The aircraft is now flying directly to the reporting point, which is called N (November) at HofPlauen Airport. If this point is a compulsory reporting point the Pilot will report his position and usually the altitude when passing it. There are also non-compulsory reporting points that only have to be reported on ATCs request. P: D-EBCL, passing November, 2200ft. A: D-EBCL, roger, squawk VFR, frequency change approved, good day. P: D-EBCL, frequency changed approved, squawk VFR, good day. The pilot can proceed without ATC as long as there is airspace G, F or E after passing the reporting point. He can ask the radar controlled for flight information service. Remember, that pilots operating as Night VFR have to be on the active ATC frequency all the time. In this case the Tower Controller has to hand over the traffic to the radar above (if manned). Beside the reporting points, there are other ways to leave a control zone. In some airport VFR pilots have to follow a certain route including several reporting points or geographical guiding marks. In this case you have to instruct the pilot to follow the route. Always be sure, that there is no conflicting traffic or that there are the necessary traffic information in order to avoid separation problems. In some situations it might be useful to leave a control zone on a certain heading without any reporting point. In this case the pilot has to receive the information prior departure. P: D-EBCL, ready for departure runway 27. A: D-EBCL, leave control direct on course, wind 240 degrees 10 knots, runway 27 cleared for takeoff. P: D-EBCL, leaving control zone direct on course, runway 27 cleared for takeoff. This means, that the pilot will maintain runway heading after airborne until he/she left the control zone. Instead of direct on course you can allocate any desired heading or an approximate direction like to the north-east. You always have to consider, that VFR pilots will

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stay clear of clouds at any time. For this reason it might be possibly, that there will be some inaccuracy as the headings are recommendations only. You should also tell the pilot in this case to stay below the vertical border of your control zone. Otherwise the pilot may enters another controlled airspace above the CTR which is controlled by the Radar Controller. Leaving a control zone by climbing through its top can only be done in coordination with your adjacent Radar unit. Such procedure might be useful for medical flights or other operations that are in a hurry. Lets get back to back to the example: The aircraft left the control zone of Hof-Plauen (EDQM) and is now on the way to Dresden (EDDC). Once the pilot is 5 minutes away from the airport, he has to report his position and his intentions to the Tower Controller. P: Dresden Tower, good evening, D-EBCL. A: D-EBCL, Dresden Tower, good evening. P: D-EBCL, Cessna 172, VFR, 5 minutes northwest of November, 2000ft, for landing. A: D-EBCL, enter control zone via November, QNH 1008, runway 22, squawk 3201. P: D-EBCL enter control zone via November, QNH 1008, runway 22, squawk 3201. Remember, that you as ATC decide whether there is enough space for the VFR aircraft within the control zone or if there is no more capacity available. In this case you can deny the request and the pilot will stay clear of your control zone. You should give at least an expected time, when the pilot will be allowed to enter it. If the pilot has passed the compulsory reporting point, he/she has to report it immediately including the current altitude. P: D-EBCL, passing November, 2000ft. A: D-EBCL, roger, join right hand downwind runway 22. P: D-EBCL Joining right hand downwind runway 22. The same as for leaving a control zone regarding defined routes or certain headings can be applied during the approach as well. In this case you can tell a pilot to enter control zone via the certain route or on current heading, etc. Once the pilot is within the control zone you can give instructions how to enter the traffic circuit. Take a look to the part Handling of approaching VFR aircraft for further information.

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5.13 Handling of Approaching VFR aircraft


Once the aircraft is overhead a compulsory reporting point or on its way to the airport there are several possibilities to get into the final approach. You as ATC have to give the instructions including the way how to get in to the traffic circuit. The aircraft can proceed in to a (right) downwind of a runway, can enter the base directly or can even fly in to final without further instructions. This depends on the current traffic situation. P: D-EBCL, overhead November, 2100ft A: D-EBCL, enter downwind runway 04 Alternatively you can tell him to enter final runway 04 if there is no other traffic that could be influenced. You know, that VFR aircraft have to maintain own separation to other aircraft only with the help of the sight out of the cockpit and with your traffic information. For this reason it is also possible to have a conditional instruction, when there is other approaching traffic. Imagine, D-EBCL is on downwind and another Boeing 737-500 is on 5 miles final runway 04. A: D-EBCL, traffic information, Boeing 737-400 on 6 miles final, report in sight! P: D-EBCL, traffic in sight A: D-EBCL, behind that traffic, enter final runway 04 behind, caution wake turbulence. P: D-EBCL, behind approaching Boeing 737-400 on 6 miles final, enter final runway 04 behind, roger. You have to ensure, that the VFR pilot has the aircraft of interest in sight and not any other one that may lead to confusion. The pilots in the Boeing aircraft have to receive traffic information as well. You always have to consider, that light type aircraft are often slower than bigger aircraft. For this reason it is very important to have an anticipatory plan, how to get all aircraft in to the final with enough separation in between. If there are further approaching aircraft you should delay the VFR aircraft, ask your radar controller to get more space between approaching traffic or send other aircraft on to the go around in order to maintain the necessary separation. Especially for light type aircraft it is possibly to perform approaches with a very short final. This can help you to increase the traffic flow. A: D-EBCL, turn base now to keep you number 1, traffic on final. Now the pilot knows about the other traffic and that there is a need to hurry. Especially for helicopters it is possible to bring them to the field on a very direct way. P: D-HUPE, passing November, 1800 ft A: D-HUPE, proceed direct to the field/helipad This can of course only be done, if there is no interfering traffic. Helicopters are also able to hover at a certain position. This can avoid long downwind and final procedures. A: D-HUPE, remain north of the airport or D-HUPE, maintain current position

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Landing Once the VFR aircraft is on final you have to give a landing clearance. That does not differ to IFR aircraft. Nevertheless there are some issues connected to this. First of all you can give a landing clearance already, if the VFR aircraft is on downwind or base. Therefore you have to be sure, that there is no other interfering traffic. This also applies to touch and go procedures, stop and go, low approaches, low passes, etc. In these cases it always should be clear, what the VFR pilot has to do after the option. A: D-EBCL, after touch and go enter downwind runway 04, wind 060 with 5 knots, runway 04 cleared for touch and go As VFR pilots often fly with light type aircraft it might be a good idea to land in the middle of the runway. This so called long landing can be useful to avoid long taxi routes to the GAT. A long landing means that the pilot will not touch down at the defined marking at the beginning of the runway, but somewhere later. Do not mistake this with the long rollout, where pilots touch down at the beginning and taxi on the runway for a longer time than necessary. A long landing is usually requested by the pilot in command. If there are reasons for you as the ATC to have the aircraft on a long landing you can ask the pilot as well. Remember that this is only possibly with a runway, that is long enough and with smaller aircraft. P: D-EBCL request long landing to vacate via E A: D-EBCL long landing approved, vacate via E If you instruct a pilot performing a VFR flight to go around you also have to give a procedure which has to be flown thereafter. An IFR approach does have a defined missed approach procedure but VFR pilots dont have it. A: D-EBCL, go around, enter downwind runway 04 Once the aircraft is on ground and vacated the runway you again have to give taxi instructions to it final parking position or any other place, where the pilot likes to go to.

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6.

IFR Clearance

Every flight that is intended to be operated with Instrument Flight Rules has to receive an IFR clearance. If you are the first ATC unit the pilot has to contact prior departure you have to issue this clearance to the pilot. This applies also, if you are delivery or ground controller. So you are the first controller before start-up and there will be no IFR clearance with the tower controller later. Before issuing a clearance for a flight on the IVAO network (IvAn), the controller should check the first waypoint of the Filed Route is it an exit point of a SID?) In case of issues, ATC may inform the pilot about the issues with his flight plan. Please have in mind: Your input of the SID within the field Cleared Waypoint is important. Nothing else to change within the FPL! The IFR clearance shall contain the following items: - Aircraft identification - Clearance limit (usually destination aerodrome) - Designator of the assigned Standard Instrument Departure (if applicable) + flight planned route - Initial climb (except it is already included in the SID description) - allocated squawk code (SQ) - Any other necessary instructions or information not included in the SID description, e.g. the change of frequency at a particular point, a non-standard departure, etc. The following example will be an IFR flight from Brussels International Airport (EBBR) to Stockholm Arlanda (ESSA).

A possible clearance can be the following: Scandinavian 5-0-9, you are cleared to Stockholm Arlanda via Nicky-1-H departure, flight planned route, initial climb 4000 feet, squawk 3-5-2-5 This clearance includes the aircraft identification (SAS509) and the clearance limit (Stockholm Arlanda). In case of runway 07L for departure the controller has to take a look into the SID chart of this runway. There you will find a SID called NIK1H which will end at Nicky VOR. So the SID with the designator NIK1H is called Nicky-one-Hotel. Next part is the flight planned route which clears the pilots for their filed route. The initial climb of 4000 ft only has to be mentioned in case it is not published within the SID description. As there are no further information for the pilots in the example the last act is to give the allocated squawk code. Another standard departure is the Omnidirectional Departure Route where you will fly to a fix

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when for instance passing a defined altitude for example. Therefore you have a certain sector to perform this procedure. Next to the Standard Instrument Departure there are other possibilities to depart from the airport. Those Non Standard Departures are less frequent ways to get to the first fix. One example is a Vectored Departure: Scandinavian 5-0-9, you are cleared to Stockholm Arlanda after departure maintain runway track, climb altitude 4000 ft, when passing 3000ft turn left direct Nicky VOR, thereafter flight planned route, squawk 3-5-2-5 Another way next to the vectored departure is the Visual Departure where pilots navigate to the initial fix with own navigation and by the use of visual terrain monitoring. Non standard departures have to be coordinated with the departure controller (who has to define /approve the procedure) prior the pilot receives the clearance. Non standard departures are mainly used for separation reasons but also to safe time, for noise abatement, no ability to fly a SID, etc.

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7.

Pushback / start-up

Once the aircraft is ready for pushback you have to approve it first. Therefore you initially have to check, if there is other traffic that will interact with the pushing plane. If the taxiway is available for the aircraft you will approve the pushback with the following phrase: Scandinavian 5-0-9, pushback approved If it is not clear into which direction the aircraft has to push or if you want to have it in a specific direction you can add the following: Scandinavian 5-0-9, pushback approved, face to the north This will tell the pilot, that the aircraft nose has to be aligned to the north after the push is completed. If there is traffic behind the aircraft you can give a conditional pushback approval like this: Scandinavian 5-0-9, behind Lufthansa Boeing 737 crossing from left to right, pushback approved This will tell the pilot to wait for the passing Lufthansa aircraft before starting the pushback. At many airports the start-up has to be approved as well. Scandinavian 5-0-9 start-up approved This can take place before the pushback starts, meanwhile or after it is completed. This can differ in airports. The start-up should only be given when there is no delay expected which is greater than 20 minutes. It is also possible to put the start-up and pushback approval into one phrase: Scandinavian 5-0-9 pushback and start-up approved

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8.

Taxi

Once the aircraft is on the taxiway and the engines are running the pilot will ask you for taxi instructions. Note that some parking positions do not require a pushback and that IFR clearances can also be given during taxi. The idea of a taxi instruction is to tell the pilot the correct way from the parking position to the departure runway. The basic structure will first name the destination (here: the active runway holding point) and then the way how to get there (taxiway names): Scandinavian 5-0-9, taxi to holding point 07 left via taxiways Alfa, Bravo, Charlie and Delta. You will find the taxiway names on the according aerodrome layout charts. There can be several additions to this. Imagine the aircraft has to cross another active runway to reach the holding point of runway 07L. In this case there are two different possibilities. Either you give the taxi instruction initially to the runway which have to be crossed followed by another taxi instruction to the final holding point. Or you will give the whole taxi instruction with the following addition: Scandinavian 5-0-9, taxi to holding point 07 left via taxiways Alfa, Bravo, Charlie and Delta, hold short of runway XY (actually pilots have to stop in front of an active runway without having the approval to cross it but for safety reasons you should mention it explicitly) Once it is clear, that there is no other traffic on the runway, the pilot has to cross, you can say: Scandinavian 5-0-9, cross runway XY. This should be some seconds before the pilot reaches that runway to avoid unnecessary breaking actions. Only if there is other traffic on the runway or is cleared for take off / to land on that runway the pilot has to stop and wait until the other traffic has passed. You can also apply a conditional instruction in this case: Scandinavian 5-0-9, behind landing/departing Lufthansa Boeing 737 cross runway XY behind. NB: Beware - the ICAO phrase behind has been misinterpreted as an instruction to get close to the preceding aircraft, leading to serious jet blast incidents. If you are online as ground controller you need the approval from the ATC above you before giving the runway crossing. At many airports there will be a hand-off to the tower controller before crossing the runway. Then the TWR will handle the traffic to the final holding point. If you want an aircraft to stop on a taxiway you can either say hold position which will cause an immediate stop at the present position or you give the following instruction: Hold short of taxiway Alfa. This tells to pilot to stop before entering taxiway Alfa. These instructions should be used to avoid collisions on ground. A taxi instruction can also have a taxiway as intermediate destination: Taxi and hold short of taxiway Charlie via taxiways Alpha and Bravo. If you do not want to stop one aircraft but have to solve an interaction between two or more aircraft you can give instructions that give priority to one of the pilots: Scandinavian 5-0-9, give way to Lufthansa Boeing 737 crossing from left to right You can also instruct a pilot to follow another aircraft in front: Scandinavian 5-0-9, taxi to holding point 07L, follow Lufthansa Boeing 737 via taxiways Alpha, Bravo and Charlie

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9.
9.1

Runway
How to choose the runway in use?

One of the most important questions when connecting as ATC is which is the current runway in use? The tower controller is the only one in charge of runways so the choice of the runway in use, also called configuration, depends on him. The term runway in use is used to indicate the runway which ATC considers the best, at a given time, for departing and arriving types of planes within an aerodrome. A tower controller must choose the active runway so that inbound and outbound pilots will find it suitable to operate at such given time. In other words, the main objective is to help pilots in their take-offs and landings. Normally, aircrafts will take off and land with a headwind component, if it exists, unless safety or current air traffic conditions determine that another runway would be more appropriate. Nevertheless, for choosing the runway in use, the tower controller will take into account other relevant factors apart from surface wind component and speed, such as traffic patterns, runway length, approach and landing aids available, noise abatement, local regulations Finally, as ATC is providing a control service to aircraft, the pilot in command may decide to request a different runway for departure. The aircraft requesting a different runway from the active runway, chosen by ATC, will have to accept any possible delay. Obviously, other traffic using the runway in use would have right of way and the aircraft requesting another runway would have to assume the delay created by such request. The key is that a runway in use must be chosen but other runways might be used (on pilots request, for expediting traffic) without changing the runway in use. Practical situations Below you will read how two nearby but different Spanish airports operate in real life so that you get a general idea. Vitoria airport (LEVT) At LEVT only runway 04 and 22 exist. A parallel taxiway does exist so no backtrack is required. Runway 04 has serviceable ILS CAT II, VOR, LOC (localizer) and LCTR (locator) approaches and runway 22 has VOR and LCTR approaches. When wind is below 10 KT, runway 04 is usually the runway in use. If a tailwind component exceeding 10 KT exists for runway 04, runway 22 becomes the runway in use. For arrivals runway 04 is the most direct one but for departures runway 22 is sometimes better for southerly flights. Almost every pilot flying to the south requests runway 22 with insignificant wind and, if there are no arrivals for runway 04, they are usually cleared to use runway 22.

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Nevertheless, the ATC informs the pilot requesting 22 about current traffic situation so that the pilot can evaluate it. A typical communication is: ACFT: Vitoria tower, ANE8928 request IFR clearance to Madrid. ATC: ANE8928, cleared to Madrid, standard departure VRA1A, initially climb FL90, squawk 0641. ACFT: Cleared to Madrid via VRA2A, FL90, squawk 0641 and request runway 22. ATC: ANE8928, readback correct and there is an arrival for runway 04 estimating the approach at 0920, time-check 0903. Would you be airborne before 0920? ACFT: Information copied and affirm, ANE8928. ATC: ANE8928, roger, recleared standard departure NEA 1D , runway 22. ACFT: NEA1D, runway 22, ANE8928. ATC: ANE8928, readback correct. In this case, runway 22 is preferred by this pilot because it will shorten the flight time but he gets informed about traffic situation and the condition to use another runway before the ATC issues the IFR clearance for the requested runway.

Pamplona airport (LEPP) At LEPP runway 15 and 33 exist. There is no parallel taxiway and the runway is only connected to the ramp through a single taxiway named A. Runway 15 has serviceable ILS CAT I approach and runway 33 has serviceable VOR approach. Arrivals landing on runway 15 leave it on the left via A but departures from runway 15 need a complete backtrack on runway from A taxiway, which delays aircrafts and slow down airport operations as runway occupancy time increases. Departures from runway 33 may need a shorter backtrack but arrivals landing on runway 33 would need to make a 180 when stopped or taxi till the turning bay at the end of the runway to taxi back and leave the runway via A. At this airport, runway 15 would be the preferential runway as it has the ILS approach but in real life there is not usually a defined runway in use if the wind component is below 10 KT and visibility values do not make an ILS approach necessary. As the airport is not so crowded, ATC try to depart aircrafts via runway 33 and land aircrafts on runway 15 so that runway occupancy time is the lowest. This requires careful planning, anticipation and coordination with the Approach Controller.

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9.2

Runway Crossing

Many airports around the world have crossing runways. Controllers must become acquainted with the airport runways and proper crossing points.

Crossing a runway (active or not) is an important matter, due to the conflict it can create with departing and/or arriving traffic using the runway to cross. When ATC is available, it is important for the ATC to grant permission to cross a runway when taxi instructions are issued. If no instructions are received from ATC to cross a runway, a pilot should verify with the control prior to crossing. Example: HHI2903, taxi to holding point runway 32R via B and A, cross runway 24. On some divisions, when taxi clearance is given, and no crossing restrictions are given, it is implied that the crossing is authorized. Proper hold short points before a runway are marked with hold short lines in order for pilots to establish a proper holding distance that would not create an incursion or separation problem.

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9.3

Backtrack

Many airports may not have parallel taxiways to the runway, making a backtrack maneuver necessary in order to reach the runway end or vacate the runway.

For departing traffic it is important that proper timing is allowed to make the backtrack. Special attention must be paid to this when there is inbound traffic on approach/final. Some arriving traffic need to execute a 180 degree turn to backtrack and then exit the runway on the available taxiway. In such instance, the controller should allow and coordinate sufficient separation between arriving traffic in order to avoid unnecessary missed approaches. Backtracking may also be used at airport with parallel runways, in which one of the runways may be used as a taxiway in order to reach the end of the other runway.

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9.4

Runway Delcared Distances

TORA Take Off Run Available= Length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an airplane that is taking off. TODA Take Off Distance Available= Length of the runways, plus length of clearway (if applicable). ASDA Accelerate-Stop Distance Available= Length of the runway plus length of the RESA (if applicable) LDA Landing Distance Available= The length of the runways that is declared suitable for an aircraft ground run for landing. EDA Emergency Distance Available = It is equal to LDA plus length of RESA (if applicable) RESA Runway End Safety Area= Stop way available at end of runway.

You dont have to know the last 3 Runway Declared Distances (LDA, EDA, RESA). You should know the first 3 descriptions only.

9.5

Runway and Approach Lightning

Runway Lights Runway lights have different colours in order to provide important information, such as: Runway edge lights= White Runway end identifier lights (REIL) = Green at beginning of runway, red at the end. Runway centerline lights= White

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-3000 ft marking lights= White first 3000 feet, alternating white/red from last 3000 feet to last 1000 feet. -1000 feet marking lights= Red

Slope/Path indicators VASI Visual Approach Slope Indicator provides a generally 3 degree slope into the runway. VASI in comprised of Red and White lights indicating the position of the aircraft.

PAPI Precision Approach Path Indicators, provide the arriving aircraft with an appropriate angle to the runway. PAPI is comprised with Red and White lights:

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10. Wake Turbulence


10.1 General
Wake turbulence is turbulence that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air, causing wingtip vortices. Wingtip vortices are stable and can remain in the air for up to three minutes after the passage of an aircraft, making it the primary and most dangerous component of wake turbulence.

Wake turbulence is especially hazardous during the landing and take-off phases of flight. When the configuration of the aircraft is heavy, clean (flaps and gear up) and slow (in airspeed), the strength of the wake turbulence is greater.

10.2 Wake turbulence Categories


Depending on the weight of the aircraft, they are categorized a light medium or heavy, as shown below:

Light MTOM of 7,000 kilograms (15,000 lb) or less; Medium MTOM greater than 7,000 kilograms, but less than 136,000 kilograms (300,000 lb); Heavy MTOM of 136,000 kilograms or greater.

*MTOM=maximum Take-Off Mass Keep in mind that pilots callsign have to follow wit h a simple word heavy on initial contact when the aircraft has as Maximum Take Off Mass of 136,000 kilograms or greater (Example for an Lufthansa A340, Callsign: DLH481| Lufthansa 481 heavy). When you are not sure when to use heavy you can find the Wake Turbulence Category in the Flight strip behind the Aircraft Type.

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10.3 Departure Separation


There are certain separation minima that must be followed in order to maintain proper separation between traffics and avoid wake turbulence for departing traffic:

Procedures In order to avoid conflicts with wake turbulence, certain procedures are also observed by the pilots in regards to wake turbulence. A) Landing traffic will land beyond the touchdown point of the preceding aircraft B) Landing traffic will land prior to the departing aircrafts rotation point C) Departing aircraft will lift off (if possible) prior to preceding aircrafts rotation point. D) Departing aircraft will lift off past the preceding aircrafts touchdown point.

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11. Clearances for take-off and landing


Usually the aircraft is expected to be ready for departure when it has arrived at the holding point for the runway. The pilot will inform ATC when more time is needed, for example when the cabin crew has not called to let them know that the cabin is secure for take-off. On IVAO, a lot of pilots will call on the tower frequency and let the controller know they are ready, although this is not a requirement in the real world. If this happens, a simple acknowledgement (KLM123, Roger) by the TWR controller is sufficient. Once the aircraft has arrived at the holding point for the runway and is ready for departure, the TWR controller has a number of options, depending on the situation.

11.1 Line Up
An instruction to line up and wait is issued to an aircraft when a take-off on the runway is not yet possible, but the controller wants to speed up the flow of traffic. It may only be issued when there are no aircraft close to landing on that runway. Example situations where line up and wait may be used are: When another aircraft is still rolling on the runway after landing or take-off When wake turbulence may be a consideration An aircraft or vehicle is crossing the runway Landing/departing traffic on a crossing or parallel runway (wake turbulence!)

TWR: KLM123, line up and wait, runway 06. PLT: line up and wait, runway 06, KLM123.

To cancel a line up and wait clearance: TWR: KLM123, cancel line up, hold short runway 06.

If needed, conditional phrases may be used. Most common are line-up after departing aircraft or landing aircraft conditions. TWR: KLM123, behind departing US Airways 767, line up and wait, runway 06, behind. PLT: Behind departing 767, line up and wait runway 06 behind, KLM123.

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The aircraft must be in sight by the pilot of the aircraft that will receive the conditional line-up clearance. If in doubt, have the aircraft report that they have the landing or departing traffic in sight. TWR: KLM123, landing traffic is a 767 on a 1 mile final, report in sight. PLT: 767 in sight (not in sight), KLM123.

11.2 Take-off
To clear an aircraft for take-off is rather simple, as long as you have considered a number of factors, such as: Any traffic on (short) final Landing aircraft must have vacated the runway No traffic on taxiways or other runways crossing the departure runway Flying traffic crossing the extended runway centerline (aircraft crossing the CTR or departures or go-arounds from another runway) Allow for adequate wake turbulence separation appropriate for the types of aircraft involved

TWR: Brickyard 123, wind 070 degrees 3 knots, runway 18L, cleared for take-off. PLT: runway 18L, cleared for take-off, Brickyard 123. Pilots do not need to read back the winds. Note: not every airport includes winds in their takeoff clearances.

Helicopters may be cleared for a take-off in a similar way, or from a location at the airport. TWR: PH-RPA, wind 070 degrees 3 knots, from the helipad [or other location], cleared for takeoff. PLT: cleared for take-off, PH-RPA. The phrase lift is not a take-off clearance. It may only be used to approve a hover and later an air taxi. Conditional phrases may be used here as well. Most common is a clearance for an immediate take-off.

11.3 Immediate Take-off


If for any reason minimal time on the runway is required by the controller, the aircraft may be cleared for an immediate take-off. This instructs the pilot to commence his take off roll immediately, as soon as instructed, while spending minimum time on the runway. - 93 -

An aircraft that is cleared for an immediate take-off will basically continue rolling from the moment it crosses the HOLD SHORT line onto the runway and take-off in one continued motion. TWR: Brickyard 123, wind 070 degrees, 3 knots, runway 18L, cleared for immediate take-off PLT: runway 18L, cleared for immediate take-off, Brickyard 123.

When in doubt whether an aircraft can accept this immediate take-off clearance, ask the pilot. Never use the word take-off, except in a take-off clearance! This will avoid confusion. TWR: Brickyard 123, are you ready for an immediate departure? PLT: Affirm, ready, Brickyard 123. When the take off clearance cannot be given yet, but with the confirmation of the pilot that he is ready for an immediate departure the following phrase may be used: TWR: Brickyard 123, behind the landing Boeing 737 short final, line up and wait runway 18L behind, be ready for an for an immediate departure when instructed PLT: behind landing Boeing 737, line up and wait runway18L behind, wilco, Brickyard 123 To cancel a take-off clearance: It is very rare that controllers will have to cancel a take-off clearance. Either the controller made a big error or the pilots have caused a situation requiring the controller to cancel a takeoff clearance. Therefore, use this only when absolutely necessary. TWR: Air France 701, hold position, cancel take-off, I say again cancel take-off, (If there is time, you can give him the reason). PLT: holding position, Air France 701. (Reading back the reason, if given, will congest the frequency and is therefore neither useful nor required) To stop a take-off after the aircraft is already on the take-off roll: TWR: Air France 701, stop immediately, Air France 701, stop immediately. PLT: stopping, Air France 701.

- Clearances / Approvals for Arrival o Landing o Late landing clearance (= not official R/T) o Continuing Approach

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As is the case with take-off clearances, clearing an aircraft for landing is something done only after considering a number of factors. Any landing aircraft must have cleared the runway It must be assured that any departing aircraft on the same runway will not abort its take off. This means the departing aircraft is turning away from the departure runway, has passed the end of the runway, or at the earliest it has just become airborne (local procedures may differ in some countries).

TWR: EZY 456, wind 070 degrees, 3 knots, runway 36C, cleared to land. PLT: Runway 36C, cleared to land, EZY 456.

When a TWR controller is unable to issue a landing clearance for the approaching aircraft, he will instruct it to continue the approach. PLT: Brussels Tower, UPS 120, ILS (or visual) runway 25R. TWR: UPS120, continue approach (winds xxx) ** **Officially per ICAO it is not required to include the winds, but it is good technique and therefore checked on exams at IVAO. PLT: Wilco, UPS120. When a situation is getting a little tight on whether the runway will be cleared in time, to issue the landing clearance. If the controller anticipates that it will be and if time and frequency congestion permit: TWR: UPS120, continue approach, expect late landing clearance. A phrase such as expect late landing clearance is informational only, it is NOT official R/T, but it raises the pilots situational awareness.

To cancel a landing clearance, when it is no longer safe to have a landing clearance issued, but a go-around is not yet required: TWR: UPS120, cancel landing clearance [and any additional instructions if needed].

11.4 Go-around
Although pilots usually execute a go-around, for example when they do not see the runway when arriving at minimums during an IFR approach, the TWR controller may issue a go-around

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instruction. This could for example happen when an aircraft is on short final and preceding traffic has not cleared the runway yet or traffic enters the runway without being cleared to do so (a common example of a runway incursion). Or previous traffic reported a bird strike/debris on the runway. A runway inspection has to be carried out before the runway can be returned to a full operational status. As ATC you may elect to inform the pilot on short final of the pilots report and put the decision to continue to land on a runway which may have debris still on it with the pilot of the approaching aircraft. Situation where the pilot decides he wants to land and assumes responsibility. TWR: EZY 456, continue approach, previous departing traffic reported a bird strike on rotation, please advice. PLT: we are happy to continue to land, EZY 456 (here the pilot takes responsibility) TWR: Roger, EZY 456, wind 220 degrees, 10 kts, runway 22 cleared to land.

Situation where the pilot chooses not to land until an inspection has been carried out. TWR: EZY 456, continue approach, previous departing traffic reported a bird strike on rotation, please advice. PLT: Roger, we will wait for the runway inspection, EZY 456 TWR: EZY 456, go around, I say again go around. PLT: Going around, EZY 456

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12. Low approaches, low passes, touch-and-go and stop-andgo


Aircraft may sometimes execute an approach to the airport without actually landing. For training purposes, such as practising instrument approaches, visual approach techniques, or to practice go-around procedures for the aircraft, pilots may request a low approach. When flying the low approach, aircraft practising an instrument procedure will descend to a certain altitude (usually the published minima for that specific instrument approach) and then execute a missed approach as shown on the approach chart (or as instructed by Tower if needed), or a go-around when practising a visual approach to a landing.

TWR: Brickyard 123, cleared low approach, runway 01. PLT: Cleared low approach runway 01, Brickyard 123. The low approach clearance may be followed by additional instructions or information.

A low pass, may be requested by the pilot when there is a need to have someone visually inspect the aircraft, for example when there is uncertainty whether the landing gear may not be completely down. ATC will never be able to confirm whether the gear is down and locked, just whether the gear has partially or fully extended. When cleared for a low pass, the pilot is allowed to fly past the control tower or other observation point at a lower altitude than what normally would be allowed during a low approach. PLT: Tower, Brickyard 123 request low pass (usually the reason is mentioned as well). TWR: Brickyard 123, cleared low pass, runway 01. PLT: Cleared low pass runway 01, Brickyard 123.

Normally all landings are made to a full stop. Sometimes, there are situations where aircraft will ask for a touch and go or a stop-and-go. A touch-and-go is often used for training purposes. The aircraft will touch down on the runway, then change to take-off configuration and take-off again without stopping. This saves time and money because the airplane does not have to taxi back and take-off again. The pilot will request this, and the controller will allow it, circumstances permitting. PLT: Tower, PH-KAT, request touch and go TWR: PH-KAT, wind 070 degrees, 3 knots, runway 04, cleared touch and go. PLT: Cleared touch and go, runway 04, PH-KAT.

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A stop and go is similar to a touch and go, except the aircraft will come to a complete stop on the runway, then take-off again from the point where it stopped, without taxiing back to the beginning of the runway. The R/T is the same. PLT: Tower, PH-KAT, request stop and go, runway 04 TWR: PH-KAT, wind 070 degrees, 3 knots, runway 04, cleared stop and go. PLT: Cleared stop and go, runway 04, PH-KAT. An Introduction to Approaches. Aircraft will approach the airport for landing in two ways, either via a visual approach or using an instrument approach. During a visual approach, the pilot has visual contact with the runway. Basic VFR visibility and cloud minima apply and may be different per country. If adequate visibility or cloud minima are not present, the pilot will use an instrument approach procedure to approach the airport until he has obtained and can maintain the required visual reference before reaching the minima, to complete the landing. The only exception is the CAT IIIC approach which requires no visual reference and therefore has minima equal to zero, and therefore provides for zero visibility approach and landings.] Instrument approach procedures are available to the pilot in chart form (paper or electronic), and show the required visibility and cloud minima specific to that approach. Normally, visual or instrument approach clearances are issued by the approach controller responsible for the airport. When no approach controller is available, the responsibility rests with the controller in an ACC/ARTCC sector that is responsible for the TMA of the airport. On IVAO, it operates in much the same fashion, except when neither CenTeR or APProach controllers are online, the pilot executes his own approach, then contacts the tower before he enters the towers control zone. There are two main types of instrument approaches: - Non-Precision Approaches - Precision approach

12.1 Non-Precision Approach Procedures


A non-precision approach is an instrument approach that provides lateral course guidance, but no vertical (glide path) guidance. Some examples of these are LLZ (LOCalizer), LDA (Localizer type Directional Aid), VOR, VOR/DME, VOR/TAC, NDB, NDB/DME GPS and TACAN.

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Of these, TACAN is not simulated by FS or at least not completely. Within FS, the only usable part of a TACAN for civil aviation is DME, so from pure TACAN navigational aids, only the DME can be used in FS. An exception is the VORTAC navaid, which has VOR and TACAN and DME and therefore will work like a normal VOR/DME in FS.

GPS is considered non-precision, even though it provides an electronic vertical guidance for some approach procedures. This is based on the fact that the vertical guidance is provided by the receiver in the airplane, and based on barometric and satellite input.

On a non-precision approach procedure, the pilot will descend to an MDH/MDA (Minimum Descend Height/Minimum Descend Altitude). New rules allow NPAs flown as a Continuous Descend Approach (CDA) from the FAF to have a DH/DA, to establish lower minima. Visibility requirements are defined by RVR or VIS minima in feet/meters/miles/kilometres.

12.2 Precision Approach Procedures


A precision approach, in addition to lateral guidance, provides also vertical guidance, by means of a glide path/glideslope (GP/GS). Examples are: ILS, MLS (Microwave Landing System) and GLS (GNSS Landing System). Of these, only ILS is simulated in FS. Note: some charts for ILS approaches have a section with approach minima that the pilot can use when the GS/GP is out of service. Although this essentially the same as a localiser approach, there is a difference in the approach clearance. ILS with GP/GS out of service becomes a non-precision, localiser only approach. In the real world, ILS signals may be distorted when a large metal object moves into the radiation zone of the localiser and glide path transmitters, therefore giving incorrect readings to the pilot. This could be caused by an aircraft on the ILS in front of the pilots aircraft, or a vehicle or aircraft on the ground. As a result, on some airports, ILS critical areas for traffic on the ground will be designated on the actual taxiways and also on the airport charts. On IVAO, you can use these charts simulate this by holding aircraft outside of the ILS critical areas when IFR operations are conducted, even though the ILS in FS has no such problems!

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On a precision approach procedure, the pilot will descend to a DH/DA (Decision Height/Decision Altitude). Visibility requirements are, like non-precision approaches, defined by RVR or VIS minima.

12.3 Circling to Land


Most approaches are aligned within 30 degrees of the landing runway. These are called straight-in approaches. A circle-to-land manoeuvre is the exact opposite of a straight-in approach, and is used when the runway of intended landing is outside of 30 degrees of the final approach course of the instrument approach used, or extra manoeuvring is required (for example when more than 400 ft of descent per nautical mile is necessary). In all these cases, some visual manoeuvring is needed near the airport after the instrument portion of the approach is completed, so that the aircraft will be aligned properly with the runway of intended landing. For example, consider the following scenario with the airport of Rotterdam in the Netherlands:

Figure 1 ILS 24 EHRD. Source ATC the Netherlands Rotterdam has one runway, 06/24. The winds are favouring runway 06 but the weather is IFR and the only approach available today is the ILS to runway 24. The airplane falls under a category B.

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In this case, the pilot will fly the ILS 24 and descend to circling minima as charted. Using figure 2 as example: when the aircraft is category B, it will descend to 520 ft. If the runway is then in sight and will remain in sight, and the airplane will be in a position from which a safe landing can be made using normal manoeuvres, the pilot will then visually circle to runway 06 and land.

Figure 2 Circling minima. Source: ATC the Netherlands

The airplane is cleared for the ILS 24 by the approach controller and then handed-off to Rotterdam Tower. PLT: Rotterdam Tower, PH-KAT, ILS 24. TWR: PH-KAT, wind 070 degrees at 12 knots, circle to runway 06, cleared to land. PLT: Cleared to land runway 06, PH-KAT Note that, without instructions from tower, the pilot will circle northwest of runway 06/24, because circling southeast of runway 06/24 is prohibited. When no such conditions are present, the tower will instruct the pilot which way to circle (NW, or SE) to runway 06. When, for some reason, the visual contact with the runway is lost, the pilot will execute a missed approach, by making a climbing turn towards the landing runway (or as local procedures dictate) and then execute the charted missed approach procedure. The climbing turn towards the runway ensures that the aircraft will remain clear of major obstacles. Circling approaches are considered more risky than straight-in approaches, because the pilot has to remain within a certain distance of the airport (depending on category) and is manoeuvring at a low altitude.

*** When terrain such as tall hills or mountains are an issue and a straight in visual approach to 06 would not be possible aircraft on a visual approach to runway 24 can also circle to 06, using the same phraseology as shown above. Another example could be a circling manoeuvre to a second runway, as seen in figure 3.

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Washington National Airport (KDCA) in the USA has three different runways. Runways 1 and 33 are in use. Winds are 280 at 12. The visual approach in use is called the Mount Vernon Visual runway 1. The aircraft was cleared to fly the Mount Vernon Visual Runway 1. After the approach controller has handed off the airplane to Washington Tower, the pilot checks in.

Figure 3 Mount Vernon Visual Runway 1 approach at KDCA, USA Source: FAA PLT: Washington Tower, Cactus 123, Mount Vernon Visual 1 approach. TWR: Cactus 123, wind 280 degrees at 12 knots, circle to runway 33, cleared to land. PLT: Cleared to land runway 33, Cactus 123 When in doubt whether an aircraft can accept the shorter runway 33, the controller needs to ask before giving a circling clearance. TWR: Cactus 123, can you accept runway 33? PLT: Affirm, Cactus 123. This same R/T could be used, when IMC conditions prevail, and the aircraft are using the ILS for runway 01 (Figure 4 shows the circling minima). If the aircraft is of the C category approach type, the circling minima are 660 ft AMSL and 1.75 miles visibility. This means that the aircraft has to have the runway visually before reaching this altitude, to commence the circling manoeuvre. If the cloud ceiling is lower than this, the airplane will not be legal or safe to execute a circling manoeuvre, because will be below the necessary altitude of 660 ft AMSL.

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Figure 4 Straight-in and Circling minima for ILS 01, KDCA Source: FAA

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13. Emergencies and abnormal procedures


13.1 Speed control on final
Background Knowledge As the Tower-Controller there remain very few options to control the speed on final. The Approach controller is in charge of guaranteeing the separation throughout final. He usually does this by assigning the pilots a speed, so the separation he created continues to exist when he hands the traffic over to the Tower-Controller. The job you have as Tower controller is to assess the situation and anticipate. To make this assessment you need to have a reasonable understanding of what speeds aircraft fly on final. An aircraft turning onto final for an instrument approach procedure will usually be flying around 180-210 kts IAS. Once he is established the speed is reduced to 160 or 170 kts IAS. The aircraft is able to maintain this speed until respectively 4 or 5 NM final. Thereafter the aircraft needs to be further configured and slowed down to the Final Approach Speed (FAS), in order to fly a stable approach. In general, commercial aircraft fly as FAS in a range from 110-140 kts IAS, depending on aircraft type and weight. That means that they travel approximately 2 NM per minute. The will not fly any slower than there FAS. How to? So now we have a basic understanding of the speeds flown by the aircraft on final. What options do you have left as a Tower-Controller? Well not much. You as Tower-Controller shall not change any speed instruction given by the ApproachController to any inbound IFR traffic cleared for an Instrument Approach. If you feel the separation is too tight, and doesnt match the average runway occupancy time, or you would like to get a departure away in between, the only option you have is to coordinate with Approach that he increases the separation.

13.2 Missed Approach


Background Knowledge A missed approach or go-around procedure may be initiated by either the pilot or the TowerController. The pilot will initiate the missed approach for one of the following reasons: - He doesnt have the required visual reference at the minima. - He didnt receive a landing clearance in time. - The aircraft became unstable on the approach (stable criteria for a pilot are: On the glide slope, on the centreline, at Vapp +10/-5 kts, in landing configuration, vertical speed not in excess of 1000ft/min in the later stage of the approach)

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- A malfunction occurred on the approach which may be unsafe to continue with. (E.g. Landing gear/ brakes unsafe, or flaps/slats locked) A Tower-Controller may initiate a missed approach because the runway is obstructed. Keep in mind that when a missed approach is initiated, it becomes quite a busy work environment on the flight deck. That is the reason why you should transmit only important information by instructing a go around. How to? When a pilot initiates a missed approach, he will notify ATC immediately. The controller should acknowledge this. The pilot is expected to follow the published missed approach procedure. Do not try to give the pilot complicated instructions during the initial stage of the missed approach. The pilot is very busy flying the aircraft. At an appropriate point transfer him to the adjacent controller who will line him up for another approach. Keep it short and simple example: C: HHI2803, go around, aircraft on the runway. P: Going Around, HHI2803. When you see, the aircraft is in a constant climb you have to transfer him back to Radar if not otherwise published in the charts. Example: C: HHI2803, contact Langen Radar on 128.500. P: 128.5, HHI2803.

13.3 Emergencies
In daily operation aviation is based on the use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). In an emergency situation however the use of common sense and the ability to think outside the box could become of great value. This means that deviations from SOPs could be justified, using your best judgement, without compromising safety. There are several degradations of emergencies. The Pilot will choose the appropriate level according to his best judgement. Minor failures Commercial aircraft are very complicated machines. It is very likely that partial system failures occur from time to time. A minor failure is not an immediate threat to the aircraft, as it will have back-up systems. However the pilot may choose to return to stand or his departure

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airfield. For example there may be no technical support at his destination. The aircraft does not need priority over other traffic. Your job is just to provide a normal ATC service to him. Urgency call (PAN PAN) A pilot will issue an urgency call by using the words PAN PAN (3x) followed by his message when: He is in a condition concerning the safety of the aircraft or some person on board, but which does not require immediate assistance. Urgency calls take priority over all other messages, except distress calls. As controller you shall acknowledge the urgency call. TWR: [A/C Callsign] [ATC Station] Roger PAN PAN at time [xx]

There is no need to give the aircraft absolute priority. However an expeditious ATC service is required. Usually a pilot will let you know if he requires anything from you. If not given, you can try to get any information you think is necessary to enable you giving the pilot the best service possible. A pilot may tell you to standby, because he is busy or doesnt have an answer to your question just yet. But you can trust that he will get back to you when he can. How to handle an urgency call will be different every time. Important to remember is: - Do not get tunnel vision, dont focus solely on the traffic requiring assistance - Do not stop controlling, you may still have other traffic requiring your attention - There is no need to get stressed. Stay calm, you are not the one having problems. A calm controller, who sounds in control of the situation, reassures the pilot(s). - Make sure you inform your adjacent controllers of the situation. Relay any information that could be of value for them. The key is to get your priorities right. Distress call (MAY DAY) A pilot will issue a distress call by using the words MAY DAY (3x) followed by his message when: He is in a condition of being threatened by serious and/or imminent danger and of requiring immediate assistance. Distress calls take priority over all other messages. As controller you shall acknowledge the distress call. TWR: [A/C Callsign] [ATC Station]

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Roger MAY DAY at time [xx] When a MAY DAY is declared the aircraft requires an absolute priority service over all the other traffic. Even if the pilots request to hold somewhere to complete checklists and procedures. You are now dealing with an aircraft that has a serious problem possibly endangering the safety of the aircraft, passengers and crew. The last thing you now need is a second aircraft in distress. Although the chance of this happening is very slim, you need to consider the worst case scenario (e.g. I need all my fire fighting services for this emergency thus I do not have any spare capacity for a second emergency aircraft). Important to remember, when handling a MAY DAY call is: - Do not get tunnel vision, dont focus solely on the traffic requiring your assistance - Do not stop controlling, you may still have other traffic requiring your attention. However delay traffic and inform them of the situation. Keep traffic movements to a minimum and reduce them where possible: - Dont issue new clearances, tell them to standby - Get traffic out of the traffic pattern, preferably by diverting them. Issuing a landing clearance has the potential risk that the aircraft could block your runway for the emergency traffic. - Clear the runway and keep it that way. No traffic lands ahead of an emergency aircraft potentially blocking the runway. - Inform your adjacent controllers of the situation. Relay any information that might be of value for them. Inform Approach and/or ACC that there is an undetermined delay at the airport due to an emergency. Have them hold all the traffic at the appropriate points until the situation is resolved and the emergency is considered dealt with. If that means traffic needs to divert, so be it. - On IVAO there occasionally are some pilots not very situational aware. They continue to ask for clearances, when you already told them to standby because you are dealing with an emergency. When pilots continue to transmit because they are not listening out, you can use the following phrase: All Stations XXXX_TWR Stop Transmitting MAYDAY Once again the key is to get your priorities right. It is fairly obvious that the emergency aircraft needs priority. But you need to handle a fair amount of tasks in a fairly short period of time.

13.4 Squawk codes


There are three squawk codes that need to be mentioned. They are related to some form of emergency situation. Pilots use them to notify ATC of their emergency when they wont be able to tell ATC using the radio.

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7500 This code is used to inform ATC that the aircraft has been hi-jacked. NOTE: IVAO rules and Regulations state in paragraph 4.4.5 that: On the IVAO network Hijacking, war simulation and all other forms of aggression are not allowed. 7600 This code is used to inform ATC that the aircraft has lost all forms of radio-communications. Procedures to be followed by the pilots may have subtle differences in each country. The pilots are expected to act accordingly. Real communications failures seldom happen these days. The topic about Radio communication failures will go into more detail. NOTE: On IVAO it is impossible to lose all ways of communications. If instructions can no longer be given using Team Speak, there is always is the possibility to communicate via text. Furthermore IVAO Rules and Regulations state in paragraph 6.3.8: Simulation of a radio failure (i.e. squawking 7600) is not cause to ignore ATC instructions in case of a conflict or requests from supervisors. 7700 This code is used to inform ATC that the aircraft is in a condition of being threatened by serious and/or imminent danger and of requiring immediate assistance. If the pilot is on an active radio frequency, the most commonly used form to inform ATC is the MAY DAY call. The pilots will prefer to use this method over the squawk when they can, as it is more instinctive. If the emergency is acknowledged by ATC there is no reason for the ATC-unit to request the pilot to set squawk 7700. So, please do not do that! There are situations where pilots have to act first before they start talking to ATC. One of these situations is the emergency descend. The pilots are occupied protecting themselves from a hostile environment and trying to get the aircraft down to an altitude where they have enough oxygen. One of the drills is to set squawk 7700, because the aircraft will deviate from its assigned path and level very rapidly. The use of this code notifies all ATC units.

13.5 Emergency on ground / take-off


Fire There are not that many situations to be considered an emergency on ground. One emergency situation on ground can be fire. Fire is always a big hazard. It does not necessarily have to be an engine fire. It can also be an APU fire, a galley fire, in the avionics bay, or a fire in the cargo hold. The major thing to remember about an aircraft having an uncontained fire is that the pilots will at an appropriate point for them decide to evacuate the aircraft (sometimes anxious passengers or cabin crew may make this decision for them by just blowing a slide). This can happen anywhere, at any time. The next thing is once they told you they are evacuating, there wont be anyone left on the flight deck to speak to.

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13.6 Rejected take-off


Another situation you may encounter on the ground is a Rejected Take-off (RTO). Once the pilots commenced the take-off roll they can still decide to stop the aircraft for a serious malfunction or potential hazard up to a certain speed. The speed pilots refer to this speed as V1. A RTO is a very violent manoeuvre, especially when done in the high speed regime (80/100 kts V1. Once the pilot decides to reject a take-off there are new potential problems that can become a problem for you as a controller. All the kinetic energy the aircraft had rolling down the runway has to absorbed and transformed into a different kind of energy. In this case this will be done by the brakes. They will transform all this energy into heat. That is your new theat. The brakes are going to be so incredibly hot they might catch fire, which puts the aircraft into a different kind of emergency. The heat produced by the brakes also might have blown some tires. This means that once the aircraft comes to a stop on the runway, it will not be able to move again under its own power. Your runway is now blocked. (Delete that runway from field 8 and/or 9 of your ATIS) If you have just one single runway, add Airport closed due to emergency in field 14 of your ATIS Blown tires could also cause the wheel rims to badly damage the runway. Also the sparks caused by the wheel rims in direct contact with the runway surface can cause fire. Things to consider when dealing with an on ground emergency: - Can I continue the operation while dealing with this specific emergency or does it need delaying other traffic? - Will I be able to use the runway again? No, Do I have another runway available that is not affected? Yes, is it safe to continue the operation on a secondary runway while the emergency is still in progress? - Inform all adjacent controllers of the situation. And relay any information that may be of value for them. In the end it is not so much about how you deal with the emergency, because you are actually not. The pilot(s) is (are). It is how you manage the (emergency) situation. Build up your own picture based on the information available to you. Think about the options you have available to handle it. And then decide how to action it according to your best judgement. Once you have dealt with the initial actions, take one step back for a moment and see if you have done the right thing. If necessary change your actions when they need to be changed.

13.7 Communications failure


On IVAO this should not pose a problem. If voice fails we still have the text option available to us to communicate with a pilot. However there are some cases where a communications failure may be simulated. Once a pilot identifies his communication problem he will squawk 7600. Tough if he has a complete electrical failure the transponder will not work either.

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However as an ADC controller it is not too difficult. Departing traffic with a communications problem is not going to leave, if contact is lost before the take-off clearance has been given. Arriving traffic requires a bit more attention. If the communications failure is already known to the approach controller he will have informed you of the situation. The aircraft will be flying published procedures. Your task is to make sure no other traffic interferes with these procedural routes and that the runway will be clear. In real life the Tower controller may have lights at his disposal with he can confirm the aircraft is cleared to land by giving him a steady green light. On IVAO we do not have this feature. For the actual Communications failure procedures, please refer to your local documentation under emergency procedures.

13.8 Blocked Runway


A runway can be blocked temporarily or for an undetermined time period. A runway can be blocked for various reasons: - An aircraft rejected a take-off - An landing (emergency) aircraft will not (be able to) vacate the runway - Although it is poor planning and anticipation, an operations vehicle may be on the runway carrying out a routine inspection - The runway is contaminated with Snow/ Standing water - There may be reports of FOD (Foreign Object Debris) on the runway by pilots. (As in bird strikes, other dead animals, and other objects that do not belong on the runway) Depending on the emergency, an emergency aircraft is most likely to block the runway for an undetermined period. Make sure approach is informed not to line up any other arriving aircraft behind the landing aircraft. Operations vehicles and debris can be considered as temporarily blockages of the runway, as they can be easily cleared. A contaminated runway does not necessarily block the runway; it could be the cause for runway closure until the contaminant has been satisfactorily cleared of the runway. (Delete the blocked runway from field 8 and/or 9 of your ATIS if you expect the aircraft will block the runway for at least 15 min) If you just have one single runway, add Airport closed due to emergency in field 14 of your ATIS). Do not use the runway until the emergency traffic is on ground. Considerations for dealing with emergency aircraft blocking the runway are discussed in Emergency on ground /take-off.

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13.9 GUARD frequency


The guard frequency is the emergency frequency known worldwide. The frequency shall only be used for the purpose of emergencies. In civil aviation the frequency to be used is 121.500 MHz. For military operations this is 243.000MHz (Which is double the figure used in civil aviation). However on IVAO we do not have UHF band available and thus wont we be able to use the latter frequency. As controller you have a special designated tab in your COMM Box named GUARD. You have to monitor this tab. Any transmission on the guard frequency will be displayed in this tab. The message could be for you. Example: You are radar controller on a position named Langen Radar (EDGG_SE_CTR) If there are more positions with the name of Langen Radar the first controller, who answers the pilot has to hold the contact with the pilot until further communication is done. An example for building up such a first contact:

Lets say the pilot changed his squawk onto 7600 you can try to establish communication via GUARD, too. There are no other situations for Controllers to communicate on GUARD. Dont use it when you got no reaction on force acts.

13.10 Low Visibility Procedures


When meteorological conditions deteriorate to such an extent that the cloud base drops to a certain level, or the horizontal visibility decreases below a certain value, then it might become necessary to establish Low Visibility Procedures at your airfield. Not all airfields may be equipped to establish Low Visibility Procedures. To check if an airfield is able to go into Low Visibility Procedures, check the local procedures. Why is there a need to establish Low Visibility Procedures?

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As ground or tower controller you need to have sufficient visibility in order to exercise control based on visual reference. Pilots are required to have obtained the required visual reference for the approach they are flying at the published weather minima. When the meteorological conditions have deteriorated to such an extent that either or both of these is no longer possible, Low Visibility Procedures should be introduced to be able to continue the operation. Approach Categories As a controller you are supposed to know what approach category the equipment at your airfield can support. The pilots are responsible to check which category they can fly with their aircraft, and which category they are authorized to fly by the local authorities and their company. Precision Approach Minimum DH Category Normal CAT I Not less than Operations 200ft Minimum RVR required RVR not less than 550m or ground visibility not less than 800m Visual Reference required by the pilot Approach light system elements. Threshold or threshold markings, lights or ident lights. Visual glideslope indications. Touchdown zone, zone markings or lights. Runway edge lights. 3 consecutive lights from: CL of app lts, TDZ lts, CLs or RLs Lateral reference required 3 consecutive lights from: CL of app lts, TDZ lts, CLs or RLs No lateral reference required 1 light with DH, No vis reference required without DH No vis ref reqd

Low Visibility Procedures

CAT II

Less than 200ft RVR not less than but not less 300m than 100ft

CAT III Less than 100ft RVR not less than A or No DH 200m

CAT III Less than 50ft or RVR less than 200m B No DH but more than 50m CAT III No DH C Category I ILS Approach No requirements RVR

This is the normal approach category that we use on a daily basis. This usually the approach that will provide the pilots with the lowest approach minima before Low Visibility Procedures have to be flown. Category II ILS Approach and Category III ILS Approaches

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The difference between CAT II, CAT III A and CAT III B approaches have nothing to do with the equipment at the airfield. These differences exist because not all aircraft are certified to meet the specifications for CAT III B approaches. We wont go into aircraft specific details. There are very few aircraft certified to perform CAT III C procedures. Because it is very expensive there are therefore very few airports that provide this service. Cloud base, RVR and Visual Reference The Cloud base does not stop the pilots from flying a CAT I approach legally. However a sensible pilot knows that he is not going to see the runway at 200ft with a cloud base overcast at 100ft The RVR though is a legal requirement the pilot must have to fly the approach. A pilot can start flying the approach if the actual RVR is below the RVR he requires. But he needs to have a RVR that is equal or greater to his required RVR before the Outer Marker, or equivalent (usually 4 NM). He cannot proceed legally beyond the OM without a reported RVR that he requires. The Visual reference must also be obtained by the DH to continue the approach to land. This is however a bit of a grey area because the only ones able to judge whether they have the visual reference required are the pilots. Runway Visual Range (RVR) The RVR is a method used to report the visibility on the runway. Because of the (warm) high intensity lights, aircraft movement and thrust used on the runway the air in the vicinity of the runway is mixed and will be higher than the measured meteorological visibility. Instrumented RVR (IRVR) The RVR is measured by means of instruments placed along the side of the runway. There are three points were the IRVR is measured. These three points represent zones on the runway. These zones are called: Touchdown, Midpoint, and Stop end respectively. IRVR Indication On IVAO there is no way of giving accurate actual IRVRs. The only information you have available to you is the METAR, for example: EGSS 280950Z 00000KT 0300 R22/0550V1000D FG VV001 5/5 Q1014 The underlined part clearly indicates that LVPs are in force. The meteorological visibility is 300m. The RVR for runway 22 is variable between 550m and 1000m and decreasing. FG indicates fog and VV001 shows that the sky is obscured and the vertical visibility 100ft In the METAR there is no distinction made between the three zones. So on IVAO you can only give values with are in accordance with the information you have got. ATC unit: RVR runway 22, between 550 and 1000 meters Implications with introducing Low Visibility Procedures

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Because extra safety measures are taken with the introduction of Low Visibility Procedures the capacity of the airfield reduces dramatically. - Increased separation between landing and departing traffic is required. On aerodromes with different runways for landing and departing traffic increased separation between departing traffic and separation between landing traffic still has to be increased - Conditional clearances can no longer be given. - Care must be taken when giving taxi clearances because pilots may not be able to see each other until the very last moment. - CAT II/III holding points shall now be used, instead of the normal holding points. The ILS sensitive area must be protected - Landing and departing traffic shall be provided with the most current meteorological data. In this case the Runway Visual Range (RVR) is what the pilots are interested in. Implementation on IVAO Implementing LVPs on IVAO are obviously to keep to the ARAIG philosophy. Because on IVAO as a controller using IvAc you dont have any problems with visibility. - IvAc serves as ground radar, and you will be able to separate the aircraft perfectly without compromising safety. However care must still be taken when giving taxi clearances. Although you may be able to spot potential conflicting traffic. The pilots situational awareness is tremendously reduced, by the poor visibility. Try to prevent issuing taxi clearances in these conditions that could pose a potential conflict. - As already discussed giving real actual IRVRs is also not possible on IVAO. A work around has already been described. - Using CAT II/III holding points to protect the ILS sensitive area is only to stay ARAIG. The ILS equipment in FS is not sensitive to aircraft holding within the protected area. The marking for runway holding positions is as follows:

Where the runway is CAT II/III equipped but has only one holding point. This holding point is compliant with the CAT II/III safeguarding. Where there is only one holding point this is automatically the CAT I but also the CAT II/III holding point. The marking is as shown in the picture. The solid lines are always furthest from the runway affected.

Where the runway is CAT II/III equipped and has more than one holding point. The closest holding point to the runway is marked the same as in the situation with only one holding point. However this holding point infringes the CAT II/III safeguarding area, and can thus only be used as a CAT I holding point. The holding point situated further from the runway has a different marking as shown in the picture. This holding point is situated

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far enough from the runway in order to protect the ILS sensitive area and will be used as CAT II/III holding point. Keep in mind not all scenerys may have all the real CAT II/III holding points . So not all pilots on IVAO can see where to stop. - Furthermore taxiing in RL is often aided by advanced taxi lighting systems. Controllers can switch the green taxi lights, and the red stop bars on and off, thus creating taxi routes with clear visual clues to the pilots. This is an option we dont have on IVAO. - We havent even spoken about the pilots yet, who are supposed to know the landing capability of their aircraft, their own qualification, the requirements, minima, and all others procedures and rules involved. It is highly likely that very few pilots on IVAO actually know everything.

13.11 Wind shear


Background Knowledge Wind shear is a potential threat to an aircraft. Wind shear is a change in wind speed and/or wind direction. There are three types of wind shear: Vertical wind shear (VWS): the speed and/or direction of the wind changes with height Horizontal wind shear (HWS): the speed and or direction of the wind changes in a horizontal plane Shear of the vertical wind (SVW): the vertical direction and/or speed of the changes If pilots report wind shears, make sure you give the information to following aircraft.

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14. Coordination and Communication


Possible reasons Air Traffic Control is impossible without coordination. It begins when the pilot requests his initial clearance and ends with the taxi to the gate at the destination. Generally, each ATS unit needs to coordinate with every adjacent unit. They need to coordinate anything deviating from the flight plan or standard procedures. They need to coordinate special requests, such as directs, requests for a certain runway, arrange a sequence of the aircraft, coordinate a specific FL of entering or existing a sector, etc. When it comes to runway changes, all involved stations need to find the perfect moment to perform the change thats where coordination becomes vital.

14.1 How to do a transfer (handoff)


A handoff is split into 3 parts: Transfer of details Transfer of control Transfer of communication Transfer of details is the starting point. You need to inform the receiving controller (ATS station) of the coming traffic. All information shall be shared and agreed. Any requests from both controllers are stated, items differing from the flight plan are communicated. Transfer of control is the second part. The transfer should be done shortly before the aircraft reaches the point of transfer. This may be the sector boundary (standard) or any other defined point (as stated in letter of agreement). When the receiving controller accepts the traffic, only the transfer of communication is left. Transfer of communication is the phrase you tell the aircraft to call the next controller on the designated frequency. Recommended Practices Transfer of details Differing to the real world, you can assume the controller already knows about the traffic. Since no correlations of squawk codes and flight plans are done at IVAO, all flight plans are visible. Only information not stated in the flight plan, or deviating from the flight plan, need to be provided. Transfer of control This part is easy: shortly before the aircraft reaching the agreed point of transfer, right click the A/C, select Transfer and select the next ATS station.

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When the next ATS station accepted the aircraft, tell the pilot to contact the ATS station on the designated frequency. This is the transfer of communication. Phraseology: HHI5203, contact Langen Radar on 128.550.

Note: As a remainder from the old days quite often the term R/T is used which is derived from Radio Telephony. It implies a clear double sense, namely for the use of radio and telephone alike.

14.2 Introduction
In the early days of on-line flying with ATC, text was the only method of communication. Most people's typing was slow, mistakes were common and although some shortcuts could be selected, no one was really satisfied with the way it worked. Nowadays, thanks to the latest developments in technology and a core of highly skilled Software Developers within IVAO, frequency selection can be done swiftly without "endangering" any virtual life. Although slow and inefficient, some people still use text for a number of reasons:

a newcomer on IVAO may not feel sufficiently confident to speak on a "frequency" someone may not want to make "noise" and disturb his/her relatives or neighbours Some people may have a broken microphone but can't miss IVAO while they are waiting to buy a new one...

Whatever reason people have to use text, they still have the right to do so and to receive ATC service!

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BUT.... there is a HUGE drawback to this... Most of the communication between Pilots and ATC is done by voice. Text can be easily overlooked by ATC when busy with other traffic and this could cause some delay before you may receive a clearance. Text-Text communication is slow, inefficient and demands particular effort from the controller. In a busy environment you will be his nightmare for several reasons:

while typing your clearance or instruction, an Air Traffic Controller is not able to concentrate on his traffic Your read back via text is relatively slow and by the time you have started to do what ATC wanted, it may be too late... If you or the controller made a mistake, everything will have to start over again from the beginning and the situation will rapidly get worse (frustrating for both of you!) Just imagine what will happen if he urgently needs to give you traffic information...

If you use Text-Text as a controller, you won't make people happy either! Here are some reasons why:

while typing in the IvAp text-box, the pilot will not be able to make any inputs in his FlightSim If at some point he forgets to click in the IvAp-textbox to type a message, his keyboard commands will make his FlightSim do all kinds of things he didn't intend to and his flight may end in a crash! in situations where the pilot needs instruction or clearance urgently, such as a landing clearance in short final, by the time you have typed and sent his clearance or instruction and he has typed the read back and complied with it... it could be much too late A pilot who is flying his aircraft manually will flip up-side-down in no time if he has to type while in a turn or executing delicate manoeuvre! Any other reason you can think of...

To make everything as enjoyable as possible for everyone, while keeping things practical and somewhat realistic, Text-Voice Communication is the best alternative to Text-Text Communication.

14.3 Guidelines
Text-Voice Communication means that either a Pilot or an ATC uses text, whilst the other people on the same frequency use Voice.

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This method is designed to reduce the "lag" (reaction time) between an instruction, clearance or request and their compliance or reply. If the reason you want to use text is for "noise abatement" at home, use a headset to listen to Pilots or ATC. Use the abbreviations from Text Communication Abbreviations as much as possible.

The main way of passing messages between pilots and controllers is via two-way radio communication. Standard words are used to avoid confusion and misunderstandings for the safe conduct of flights. Or like ICAO defines it: The information and instructions transmitted are of vital importance in the safe and expeditious operation of aircraft. Incidents and accidents have occurred in which a contributing factor has been the use of non-standard procedures and phraseology. The importance of using correct and precise standardized phraseology cannot be overemphasized. ICAO has defined a transmitting technique that it is also of great importance in our virtual world. To be able to have a clear communication: 1. before transmitting, listen out on your frequency to make sure that there is no other conversation on-going at that moment; 2. know how to use your microphone, hereby paying attention to the distance between mouth and microphone and the volume of your voice; 3. use a normal conversational tone, don't speak too loud or too slow and speak clearly and not too fast; 4. a very short pause before and after numbers will make it easier to understand them; 5. avoid hesitations and unnecessary interruptions or sounds such as "eh" and "yeah"; 6. Press the transmit switch before you start speaking and keep it pressed until the full message is completed. Many of these points are of importance in our virtually world alike and sometimes even more, because of the limitations we have in comparison with real life.

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14.4 The Spelling Alphabet


The NATO phonetic alphabet is a common name for the radiotelephony spelling alphabet of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which assigned words to the letters of the English alphabet so that critical combinations of letters could be pronounced and understood by aircrew and air traffic controllers regardless of their native language. Character A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Morse Code Telephony Alfa Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey Xray Yankee Zulu PHONIC (PRONUNCIATION) (AL-FAH) (BRAH-VOH) (CHAR-LEE) or (SHAR-LEE) (DELL-TAH) (ECK-OH) (FOKS-TROT) (GOLF) (HOH-TEL) (IN-DEE-AH) (JEW-LEE-ETT) (KEY-LOH) (LEE-MAH) (MIKE) (OSS-CAH) (PAH-PAAH) (KEH-BECK) (ROW-ME-OH) (SEE-AIR-RAH) (TANG-GO) (YOU-NEE-FORM) or (OONEE-FORM) (VIK-TAH) (WISS-KEY) (ECKS-RAY) (YANG-KEY) (ZOO-LOO)

November (NO-VEM-BER)

Note: This codification is to be used with voice communications only; it is quite useless when using text mode.

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14.5 Aircraft Callsigns


On initial contact say the complete callsign - always use full callsigns when establishing communications After good communication has been established the abbreviated callsign may be used when initiated by ATC Always pronounce each digit separately Use the company radio callsign if possible (as shown on the flight strip in IvAc) If company radio callsign is unknown, spell the callsign using the NATO Alphabet Start with a call and a reply to establish contact, except when it is certain that the call will be received. After contact has been established, further identification or call until termination of the contact.

When it is uncertain which station is calling you, use the following: ATC: Station calling Canaria Control say again your callsign? Pilot: Canaria Control, AIR EUROPA five two golf, inbound LARYS, flight level one eight zero.

14.6 Call/Reply Procedure


Call: Station called, Station calling Reply: Station calling, Answering station, Proceed with transmission Pilot calling: Rio De Janeiro Tower, TAM three five three seven ATC replying: TAM three five three seven, Rio De Janeiro Tower ATC calling: TAM three five three seven, Rio De Janeiro Tower Pilot replying: Rio De Janeiro Tower, TAM three five three seven

14.7 ICAO format Callsigns

ICAO formatted callsigns start with the 3 letter ICAO code of the airline VIP 418 SVA 011 BCS 666 Freewings FOUR ONE EIGHT Saudi ZERO ONE ONE Eurotrans SIX SIX SIX

14.8 IATA Flight Numbers


IATA formatted Flight Numbers start with the 2 letter IATA code of the airline and end with the flight number Only used by travel agencies and on the passenger tickets (flight number)

Examples: SN2268 TV884 KL1722 AF301

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/!\ In real life IATA abbreviations are NOT used by ATC or on flight plans. Only ICAO call signs or full immatriculations are used /!\

14.9 Aircraft Immatriculation Callsigns


OOTWA DEDJF FCYAB OSCAR OSCAR TANGO WISKEY ALFA DELTA ECHO DELTA JULLIET FOXTROT FOXTROT CHARLIE YANKEE ALFA BRAVO

14.10 Aircraft Abbreviated Callsigns


The first character of the registration At least the last two characters of the callsign Use abbreviated call signs only after satisfactory communication has been established and no confusion with other aircraft on your frequency is possible.

/!\ A pilot shall use his abbreviated callsign ONLY AFTER ATC has taken the initiative /!\ OOFWA OSCAR _ _ WHISKEY ALFA NOVEMBER _ _ _ PAPA YANKEE N202PY NOVEMBER _ _ TWO PAPA YANKEE Note: Either the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the aircraft model may be used instead of the first character Robin _ _ _ WHISKEY ALPHA OOFWA Robin _ _ FOXTROT WHISKEY ALPHA Piper _ _ _ MIKE GOLF OOTMG Piper _ _ TANGO MIKE GOLF

The telephony designator of the aircraft operating agency (company callsign), followed by at least the last two characters of the registration Speedbird SPEEDBIRD _ _ _ - 122 -

(BAW) GBOAC

ALPHA CHARLIE SPEEDBIRD _ _ OSCAR ALPHA CHARLIE

Never abbreviate ICAO callsigns EIN631 SHAMROCK SIX THREE ONE

THA2268 THAI TWO TWO SIX EIGHT DLH1EE LUFTHANSA ONE ECHO ECHO /!\ CAUTION /!\

Different aircraft, same abbreviated call sign: DEHLB DAHLB D _ _ _ LB or D _ _ HLB D _ _ _ LB or D _ _ HLB

14.11 Ground Station Callsigns


On initial contact always identify yourself The ATC Callsign may be omitted if good communication has been established Pilot: Madrid Barajas APPROACH, BMA625 inbound BAN FL230, information A ATC: BMA625, Madrid Barajas APPROACH, squawk ident Pilot: Squawk ident, BMA625 ATC: BMA625, identified 20NM west of BAN Unit or Service Area Control Center Callsign remarks (NOT in France) Use "CENTER" only in the USA

Radar (in general) Langen RADAR Ezeiza CONTROL

Only when DEP and Only when DEP Approach Control ARR are on same and ARR are on freq. same freq. Approach Control Radar Arrivals Narita ARRIVAL ONLY Precision Approach Radar Geilenkirchen PRECISION Military APP procedure

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Approach Control Radar Departures Jeddah DEPARTURE ONLY Aerodrome Control Surface Movement Control Clearance Delivery Flight Information Service Eindhoven TOWER Frankfurt GROUND Cairo DELIVERY Brussels INFORMATION New Zealand and Vanuatu use: FLIGHT SERVICE Schaffen RADIO Aeronautical Station France: ... CLUB New Zealand and Vanuatu: ... FLIGHT SERVICE Information at airfield without ATC ATC on taxiways and taxilanes in France use: PRE-FLIGHT Outside controlled airspace

Direction-Finding Antwerp HOMER station Apron Control Company Dispatch Seattle APRON Company Dispatch

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15. UNICOM
In real life, ATC is mostly available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Some aerodromes that are not open permanently will have no TWR and APP controllers at times, but Area Control will always be provided. On IVAO, when no ATC is online at the airfield or area you have planned to fly, you are on your own. In order to know what the other traffic around you is doing or has in mind and to warn them about your intentions, in IVAO we have UNICOM. It is a text mode that allows the pilots to broadcast relevant information on their flight intentions so that pilots around them can read this. Note: UNICOM works only in text mode. The Teamspeak "voice channel" UNICOM is NOT to be used for this or any other purpose! Since it is only text mode, it has no radio frequency and the use of the expression "122.8" by itself is therefore not correct. That broadcast will help everyone in the neighbourhood to know if there is any other traffic around and what it will do, on the ground or in the air. This is part of what is called Situational Awareness: Be aware of where you are, what is around you and what is happening. With UNICOM, mainly traffic in your area will receive your information and make their transmitted information visible to you. E.g. if you fly in Brazil, you won't see any info of European traffic. There is a certain distance parameter set for UNICOM. Use UNICOM to transmit your intentions well in time to warn the other pilots nearby!

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