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# FRACTIONS / PECAHAN (ADDITION & SUBTRACTION =PENAMBAHAN & PENOLAKAN)

1. Penambahan dan penolakan pecahan dapat dilakukan jika penyebut pecahan-pecahan tersebut adalah sama. 2. Pendaraban dan pembahagian pecahan tidak memerlukan penyebut yang sama. 3. Sentiasa berikan jawapan pecahan yang teringkas. EXAMPLE 1: Evaluate the following question / Nilaikan soalan yang berikut (Addition/Hasiltambah)

## NOTE : IF QUESTION IS MIXED NUMBERS.

1. Mixed numbers (nombor bercampur) tukarkan dahulu kepada improper fraction (pecahan tak wajar) atau asingkan whole number (nombor bulat) daripada fraction(pecahan) 2. Kemudian samakan denominator (penyebut) EXAMPLE 1: Evaluate the following/ Nilaikan yang berikut (Fraction+mixed number)

## EXAMPLE 4 : Calculate the following/Kirakan yang berikut

DIVISION OF FRACTIONS
NOTE: 1. Selepas operasi bahagi ditukar kepada darab, nombor pecahan selepas itu mesti diterbalikkan. 2. Permudahkan (simplify) kemudian baru darab.

## SUBJECT OF THE FORMULA

EXAMPLE 1

EXAMPLE 2

STEP 1 BRING p TO THE RIGHT HAND SIDE STEP 2 BRING 2k TO THE RIGHT HAND SIDE AND 2p TO THE LEFT HAND SIDE

QUADRATIC EQUATION

1. Quadratic equation can be solved a) Factorization b) Completing the square c) Using the quadratic formula
x b b 2 4ac 2a

a)

Factorization

Solve x2 + 5x + 6 = 0. This equation is already in the form "(quadratic) equals (zero)" but, unlike the previous example, this isn't yet factored. The quadratic must first be factored, because it is only when you MULTIPLY and get zero that you can say anything about the factors and solutions. You can't conclude anything about the individual terms of the unfactored quadratic (like the 5x or the 6), because you can add lots of stuff that totals zero. So the first thing I have to do is factor: x2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 2)(x + 3) Set this equal to zero: (x + 2)(x + 3) = 0 Solve each factor: Copyright Elizabeth Sta1 All Righx + 2 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 x = 2 or x = 3

## b) Completing the Square

EXAMPLE i) Determine the roots of the following quadratic equations by completing the square x 2 8x 3 0

Solution i)
x 2 8x 3 x 2 8 x 4 2 3 4 2
2

x 4

3 16

13

c)

## Using the quadratic formula

x b b 2 4ac 2a

Solve x2 + 3x 4 = 0 This quadratic happens to factor: x2 + 3x 4 = (x + 4)(x 1) = 0 ...so I already know that the solutions are x = 4 and x = 1. How would my solution look in the Quadratic Formula? Using a = 1, b = 3, and c = 4, my solution looks like this:

## Then, as expected, the solution is x = 4, x = 1.

SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS - PERSAMAAN LINEAR SERENTAK 1. Simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns can be solved by a) Elimination method b) Substitution method a) Elimination method Example 1 : Solve the simultaneous linear equations below
5m 2n 7 m 4n 19

SOLUTION :
5m 2n 7 (1) m 4n 19 (2)

From (1) x 2 10m 4n 14 ..(3) (3) + (2) 11m = 33 m=3 Substitute m = 3 in (2)
3 4n 19 4n 19 3 4n 16 n4

n = 4, m = 3

b)

Substitution method Example 1 : Solve the simultaneous linear equations below x-y=3 3x + y = 9

Solution /Penyelesian : x - y = 3 ------(1) 3x + y = 9 ---------(2) (1) + (2) 4x = 12 x = 12/4 x =3 Substitude (Gantikan ) x = 3 into (1) 3-y=3 y=3-3 y=0