Key Overdose Research – Updated February 2013

The following is a list of research and publications related overdose that maybe helpful when drafting proposals or gathering evidence to show the need for an overdose program. These publications touch on many issues related to overdose, including naloxone, overdose risk factors, statistics about overdose in different communities, and program evaluations. If you would like to see the full text of any of these articles, you can try looking them up on the internet, and if you cannot access the full text, please contact us and we can find them for you. Thank you to Alex Kral, Roxanne Saucier, Kevin Irwin, Peter Davidson, Nabarun Dasgupta, Lynn Wenger and Stephen Jones for your assistance in compiling this list. 1. Albert, S., Brason II, F. W., Sanford, C. K., Dasgupta, N., Graham, J. and Lovette, B. (2011), Project Lazarus: Community-Based Overdose Prevention in Rural North Carolina. Pain Medicine, 12: S77–S85. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01128.x An Act Relating To Drugs; Authorizing And Releasing From Liability Persons Who Administer Opioid Antagonists; Releasing From Liability Licensed Health Care Professionals; Declaring An Emergency. New Mexico Statutes Annotated. Vol 24-31-1 & -2; 2006 Ashton H, Hassan Z. Best evidence topic report. Intranasal naloxone in suspected opioid overdose. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2006; 23(3):221-223. Baca CT, Grant KJ. Take-home naloxone to reduce heroin death. Addiction. 2005;100(12):1823-1831. Baca CT, Grant KJ. What heroin users tell us about overdose. J Addictive Diseases. 2007;26(4):63 68. Bartlett, N., et al. A qualitative evaluation of a peer-implemented overdose response pilot project in Gejiu, China. International Journal of Drug Policy (2011), doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2011.04.005 Barton ED, Colwell CB, Wolfe T, et al. Efficacy of intranasal naloxone as a needleless alternative for treatment of opioid overdose in the prehospital setting. J Emergency Medicine. 2005;29(3):265-271. Beletsky, Leo, Burris, Scott C. and Kral, Alex H., Closing Death's Door: Action Steps to Facilitate Emergency Opioid Drug Overdose Reversal in the United States (July 21, 2009). Available at SSRN: Beletsky L, Rich JD, Walley AY. Prevention of fatal opioid overdose. JAMA. 2012 Nov 14;308(18):1863-4.


3. 4. 5. 6.





Beletsky L, Ruthazer R, Macalino GE, Rich JD, Tan L, Burris S. Physicians’ knowledge of and willingness to prescribe naloxone to reverse accidental opiate overdose: challenges and opportunities J Urban Health. 2006;84(1):126-136. 30 Bennett, A. S., Bell, A., Tomedi, L., Hulsey, E. G., & Kral, A. H. (2011). Characteristics of an overdose prevention and response and naloxone distribution program in Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Journal of Urban Health, 88(6):1020-30. Bergenstrom, A., Quan, V.M., Nam, L.V., McClausland, K., Thuoc, N.P., Celentano, D., et al. (2008). A cross-sectional study on prevalence of non-fatal drug overdose and associated risk characteristics among out-of-treatment injecting drug users in North Vietnam. Substance Use and Misuse; 43:73-84. Best, D., M. Gossop, et al. (2002). "Peer overdose resuscitation: multiple intervention strategies and time to response by drug users who witness overdose." Drug Alcohol Rev 21(3): 269-274. Binswanger et al. Return to drug use and overdose after release from prison: a qualitative study of risk and protective factors. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice 2012, 7:3 Binswanger IA, Stern MF, Deyo RA, Heagerty PJ, Cheadle A, Elmore JG, Koepsell TD. Release from prison-a high risk of death for former inmates. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(2):157–165. Bohnert AS, Tracy M, Galea S. Characteristics of drug users who witness many overdoses: Implications for overdose prevention. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Aug 10. Bohnert, A.S.B., et al., Policing and risk of overdose mortality in urban neighborhoods. Drug Alcohol Depend. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.07.008 Brugal, M. T., G. Barrio, et al. (2002). "Factors associated with non-fatal heroin overdose: assessing the effect of frequency and route of heroin administration." Addiction 97(3): 319-327. Buajordet I, Naess AC, Jacobsen D, Brors O. Adverse events after naloxone treatment of episodes of suspected acute opioid overdose. European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2004;11(1):19-23. Burris S, Beletsky L, Castagna C, Coyle C, Crowe C, McLaughlin J. Stopping an invisible epidemic: legal issues in the provision of naloxone to prevent opioid overdose. Drexel L Rev. 2009. Burris S, Edlin B, Norland J. Legal aspects of providing naloxone to heroin users in the United States. Int J Drug Policy. 2001; 12:237–248. Campana M. Overdose Mortality and Naloxone Distribution in Italy. Paper presented at: Preventing Heroin Overdose: Pragmatic Approaches; Jan. 13–14, 2000; Seattle, WA.






16. 17. 18.



21. 22.


Cantwell, K., P. Dietze, et al. (2005). "The relationship between naloxone dose and key patient variables in the treatment of non-fatal heroin overdose in the prehospital setting." Resuscitation 65(3): 315-319. Coffin PO. Mortality after release from prison. NEJM. 2007; 356(17):1785; author reply 1786-1787. Coffin PO, Fuller C, Vadnai L, Blaney S, Galea S, Vlahov D. Preliminary evidence of health care provider support for naloxone prescription as overdose fatality prevention strategy in New York City. J Urban Health. 2003; 80(2):288–290. Coffin PO, Galea S, Ahern J, Leon AC, Vlahov D, Tardiff K. Opiates, cocaine and alcohol combinations in accidental drug overdose deaths in New York City, 1990-98. Addiction. Jun 2003; 98(6):739-747. Coffin, P., Sherman, S., Curtis, M. (2010). “Underestimated and overlooked: A global overview of drug overdose and overdose prevention.” Global State of Harm Reduction. London: International Harm Reduction Association. Coffin, Phillip O. Sullivan, Sean D. 2013. Cost-Effectiveness of Distributing Naloxone to Heroin Users for Lay Overdose Reversal. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2013 Jan;158(1):1-9. Coffin PO, Tracy M, Bucciarelli A, Ompad D, Vlahov D, Galea S. 2007. Identifying Injection Drug Users at Risk of Nonfatal Overdose. Academic Emergency Medicine; 14:616–623. Corso P, Finkelstein E, Miller T, Fiebelkorn I, Zaloshnja E. Incidence and lifetime costs of injuries in the United States. Injury Prevention. 2006;12(4):212-218. Curran R. A milestone change in practice: a call for widespread application of intranasal medication delivery in the prehospital environment. Emergency Medical Services. 2007;36(4):40-41. Curtis, M., Dasgupta, N. (2010). Why Overdose Matters for HIV. New York: Open Society Public Health Program. Available online at Curtis, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2010 Why Overdose Matters for HIV. Open Society Foundations. tions/why-overdose-matters-20100715/why-overdose-matters-20100715.pdf Curtis, M. and Guterman, L. 2009. Overdose prevention and response: a guide for people who use drugs and harm reduction staff in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Harm reduction field guide, 2.Open Society Institute. International Harm Reduction Development Program. Darke S, Hall W, Weatherburn D, Lind B. Fluctuations in heroin purity and the incidence of fatal heroin overdose. Drug Alcohol Depend. Apr 1 1999;54(2):155-161.

24. 25.





30. 31.





36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Darke S, Hall W. Heroin overdose: research and evidence-based intervention. J Urban Health. 2003; 80(2):189–200. Darke S, Ross J, Hall W. Overdose among heroin users in Sydney, Australia: I. Prevalence and correlates of non-fatal overdose. Addiction.1996;91(3):405–411. Darke S, Ross J, Hall W. Overdose among heroin users in Sydney, Australia: II. responses to overdose. Addiction. 1996;91(3):413-417. 28 Darke S, Ross J. Fatal heroin overdoses resulting from non-injecting routes of administration, NSW, Australia, 1992-1996. Addiction. 2000;95(4):569-573. Darke S, Zador D. Fatal heroin overdose: a review. Addiction. 1996;91(12):1765– 1772. Darley, J. M. and B. Latane (1968). "Bystander intervention in emergencies: diffusion of responsibility." J Pers Soc Psychol 8(4): 377-383. Dixon, P. (2007). "Managing acute heroin overdose." Emerg Nurse 15(2): 30-35. Dasgupta N, Brason II F, Albert S, Sanford CP. Project Lazarus: Overdose Prevention and Responsible Pain Management. The Forum - The Journal of the North Carolina Medical Board. 2008; April 2008 Dasgupta N, Jöhsson Funk M, Brownstein JS. Comparing unintentional opioid poisoning mortality in metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties, United States, 19992003. In: Thomas Y, Richardson D, Cheung I, eds. Geography and Drug Addiction. New York: Springer; 2008:175-192. Davidson PS, McLean R, Kral A, Gleghorn A, Edlin B, Moss A. Fatal heroin overdose in San Francisco, 1997-2000: a case for targeted intervention. J. Urban Health. 2003;80:261-273. Davoli M, Perucci CA, Forastiere F, et al. Risk factors for overdose mortality: a casecontrol study within a cohort of intravenous drug users. Int J Epidemiology. Apr 1993;22(2):273-277. Department of Public Health. (2010). Patrick-Murray Administration Release Report Showing Life Expectancy at All-time High, Decrease in Opioid Overdose Deaths. Boston: The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Health and Human Services. Dettmer, K., Saunders, B., Strang, J. (2001). Take home naloxone and the prevention of deaths from opiate overdose: Two pilot schemes. British Medical Journal Vol. 322. Dietze P, Jolley D, Fry CL, Bammer G, Moore D. When is a little knowledge dangerous? Circumstances of recent heroin overdose and links to knowledge of overdose risk factors. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. 2006;84(3):223-230.

41. 42. 43.








Dietze P. Intranasal naloxone is an effective first line treatment for suspected opioid overdose in the prehospital setting. Paper presented at: 15th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm; April 24, 2004; Melbourne, Australia. Doe-Simkins, M., Walley, A., Epstein, A., Moyer, P. (2009). Saved by the nose: Bystander administered intranasal naloxone hydrochloride for opioid overdose. American Journal of Public Health; 99(5). Drug Policy Alliance. 2009. Preventing Overdose, Saving Lives: Strategies for Combating a National Crisis. Enteen, L., Bauer, J., McLean, R., Wheeler, E., Huriaux., Kral, A., Bamberger, J.D. (2010). Overdose prevention and naloxone prescription for opioid users in San Francisco. Journal of Urban Health; doi:10.1007/ s11524-010-9495-8. Eurasian Harm Reduction Network. (2008). Overdose: A Major Cause of Preventable Death in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Vilnius EHRN. Evans JL, Tsui JI, Hahn JA, Davidson PJ, Lum PJ, Page K. 2012. Mortality Among Young Injection Drug Users in San Francisco: A 10-Year Follow-up of the UFO Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jan 6. Fernandez, W., H. Hackman, et al. (2006). "Trends in opioid-related fatal overdoses in Massachusetts, 1990-2003." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31(2): 151-156. Fingerhut L. Increases in Poisoning and Methadone-Related Deaths: United States, 1999-2005. National Center for Health Statistics; 2008. Fuller, C. and S. Sherman (2003). Staying Alive: Baltimore's Overdose Prevention Program. American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. Galea S, Ahern J, Tardiff K, et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in overdose mortality trends in New York City, 1990-1998. J Urban Health. Jun 2003;80(2):201-211. Galea S, Worthington N, Piper TM, Nandi VV, Curtis M, Rosenthal DM. Provision of naloxone to injection drug users as an overdose prevention strategy: early evidence from a pilot study in New York City. Addict Behav. May 2006;31(5):907-912. Gaston, R.L., Best, D., Manning, V., Day, E. (2009). Can we prevent drug related deaths by training opioid users to recognize and manage overdoses? Harm Reduction Journal; 6:26. George, S., and Moreira, K. (2008). A guide for clinicians on ‘take home’ naloxone prescribing. Addictive Disorders and Their Treatments (7)3. Gerevich J, Bacskai E, Farkas L, Danics Z. A case report: Pavlovian conditioning as a risk factor of heroin 'overdose' death. Harm Reduct J. Jul 25 2005;2:11.




54. 55.

56. 57. 58. 59. 60.


62. 63.


Glaser A, Arakaki D, Chan GM, Hoffman RS. Randomised trial of intranasal versus intramuscular naloxone in prehospital treatment for suspected opioid overdose. Medical Journal of Australia. 2005;182(8):427. Gossop M, Griffiths P, Powis B, Williamson S, Strang J. Frequency of non-fatal heroin overdose: survey of heroin users recruited in non-clinical settings. BMJ. Aug 17 1996;313(7054):402. Grau, L.E., Green, T.C., Torban, M., Blinnikova, K., Krupitsky, E., Ilyuk, R., et al. (2009). Psychosocial and contextual correlates of opioid overdose risk among drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia. Harm Reduction Journal; Jul 24; 6:17. Green TC, Grau LE, Blinnikovab KN, Torbanc M, Krupitskyc E, Ilyukc R, Kozlovb A, Heimer R. Social and structural aspects of the overdose risk environment in St. Petersburg, Russia. International Journal of Drug Policy; 20 (2009) 270–276. Green TC, Heimer R, Grau LE. Distinguishing signs of opioid overdose and indication for naloxone: an evaluation of six overdose training and naloxone distribution programs in the United States. Addiction. 2008;103(6):979-989. Green TC, McGowand SK, Yokell MA, Pouget ER, and Rich JD. 2011. HIV infection and risk of overdose: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS, 25:000–000 Hall AJ, Logan JE, Toblin RL, et al. Patterns of abuse among unintentional pharmaceutical overdose fatalities. JAMA. December 10, 2008 2008;300(22):2613-2620. Hall W, Darke S. Trends in opiate overdose deaths in Australia 1979–1995. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998; 52(1):71–77. Havens, J. R., Oser, C. B., Knudsen, H., Lofwall, M., Stoops, W. W., Walsh, S. L., Leukefeld, C. G., & Kral, A. H. (2011). Individual and network factors associated with nonfatal overdose among rural Appalachian drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 115(1-2), 107-112. Heller, D. I. and S. Stancliff (2007). "Providing naloxone to substance users for secondary administration to reduce overdose mortality in New York City." Public Health Rep 122(3): 393-397. Hembree C, Galea S, Ahern J, et al. The urban built environment and overdose mortality in New York City neighborhoods. Health Place. Jun 2005;11(2):147-156. Hickman, M., Z. Carnwath, et al. (2003). "Drug-related mortality and fatal overdose risk: pilot cohort study of heroin users recruited from specialist drug treatment sites in London." J Urban Health 80(2): 274-287. Hser Y, Kagihara J, Huang D, Evans E, Messina N. 2011. Mortality among Substance-using Mothers in California: A 10-year Prospective Study. Addiction. 2011 Aug 10





69. 70. 71. 72.


74. 75.


77. 78.

Hurley R. 2011. Pilot scheme shows that giving naloxone to families of drug users would save lives. BMJ. 2011 Aug 25;343:d5445. Kelly AM, Kerr D, Dietze P, Patrick I, Walker T, Koutsogiannis Z. Randomised trial of intranasal versus intramuscular naloxone in prehospital treatment for suspected opioid overdose. Medical Journal of Australia. 2005;182(1):24-27. Kerr D, Dietze P, Kelly AM. Intranasal naloxone for the treatment of suspected heroin overdose. Addiction. Mar 2008;103(3):379-386. Kim D, Irwin KS, Khoshnood K. Expanded Access to Naloxone: Options for critical response to the epidemic of opioid overdose mortality. Am J Public Health. January 15, 2009 2009:AJPH.2008.136937. Kinner SA, Milloy MJ, Wood E, Qi J, Zhang R, Kerr T. 2012. Incidence and risk factors for non-fatal overdose among a cohort of recently incarcerated illicit drug users. Addict Behav. 2012 Feb 7. Klausner JD, Chaw JK. Patient-delivered therapy for chlamydia: putting research into practice. Sex Transm Dis. 2003; 30(6):509–511. Lagu, T., Anderson, B.J., Stein, M. (2006). Overdose among friends: drug users are willing to administer naloxone to others. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment; 30(2): 129-133. Lankenau SE, Wagner KD, Silva K, Kecojevic A, Iverson E, McNeely M, Kral AH. Injection Drug Users Trained by Overdose Prevention Programs: Responses to Witnessed Overdoses. J Community Health. 2012 Jul 31. Latkin CA, Hua W, Tobin K. Social network correlates of self-reported non-fatal overdose. Drug Alcohol Depend. Jan 7 2004;73(1):61-67. 26 Leach D, Oliver P. Drug-Related Death Following Release from Prison: A Brief Review of the Literature with Recommendations for Practice. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011 Aug 12. Lehder D, Arria A, Artigiani E, Wish E. Alcohol and Drug-Related Overdose Deaths in Maryland: 1997-2001. An Examination of Data from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. College Park, MD: University of Maryland; November 2002. Liu, Y., Bartlett, N.A., Li, L.H., Lü, X.Y., Zhou, W.H. (2010). Attitudes and knowledge about naloxone and overdose prevention among Chinese detained drug users. Submitted to the International Journal of Drug Policy, August 2010. Man LH, Best D, Gossop M, Stillwell G, Strang J. Relationship between prescribing and risk of opiate overdose among drug users in and out of maintenance treatment. Eur Addict Res. 2004;10(1):35-40.

79. 80.


82. 83.


85. 86.





Maxwell S, Bigg D, Stanczykiewicz K, Carlberg-Racich S. Prescribing Naloxone to Actively Injecting Heroin Users: A Program to Reduce Heroin Overdose Deaths. J Addictive Diseases. 2006;25(3):89-96. McGregor C, Darke S, Ali R, Christie P. Experience of non-fatal overdose among heroin users in Adelaide, Australia: circumstances and risk perceptions. Addiction. 1998; 93(5):701–711. Milloy, M.J., Fairbairn, N., Hayashi, K., Suwannawong, P., Kaplan, K., Wood, E., et al (2010). Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. Harm Reduction Journal 13;7:9. National Drug Intelligence Center. Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice; 2007. 2007-Q0317-001. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2010). “New Health Department Report Shows that Drug Overdose Deaths Have Declined.” Available online at New York State Assembly. An act to amend the public health law, in relation to opioid overdose prevention. McKinney’s Public Health Law. 2005–2006 Regular Sessions ed; 2006. Ochoa, Kristen. Peter J. Davidson, Jennifer L. Evans, Judith A. Hahn, Kimberly Page-Shafer, Andrew R. Moss. Heroin overdose among young injection drug users in San Francisco, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 80, Issue 3, 12 December 2005, Pages 297-302. Paulozzi LJ. Opioid analgesic involvement in drug abuse deaths in American metropolitan areas. Am J Public Health. October 1, 2006 2006;96(10):1755-1757. Paulozzi LJ. The Epidemiology of Prescription Drug Overdoses in the United States. United States Senate Subcommittee on Crime & Drugs. Washington, DC; 2008. Paulozzi, L.J. Ballesteros, M.F. Stevens, J.A. “Recent trends in mortality from unintentional injury in the United States.” Journal of Safety Research 37 (2006): 277-283.







97. 98. 99.

100. Paulozzi, L. Recent changes in drug poisoning mortality in the United States by urban-rural status and by drug type. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety. 2008:DOI:10.1002/pds.1626. 101. Picetti E, Rossi I, Caspani ML. Management of opioid analgesic overdose. N Engl J Med. 2012 Oct 4;367(14):1371-3 102. Piper T, Stancliff S, Rudenstine S, et al. Evaluation of a naloxone distribution and administration program in New York City. Substance Use and Misuse. 2008;43(7):858870.

103. Piper TM, Rudenstine S, Stancliff S, et al. Overdose Prevention for Injection Drug Users: Lessons Learned from Naloxone Training and Distribution Programs in New York City. Harm Reduction J. 2007;3(3):1-18. 104. Piper, T.M., Stancliff, S., Rudenstine, S., Sherman, S., Nandi, V., Clear, A., et al. (2008). Evaluation of a naloxone distribution and administration program in New York City. Substance Abuse and Misuse; 43:858–870. 105. Pollini, R.A., McCall, L., Mehta, S.H., Vlahov, D., Strathdee, S.A. (2006). Non-fatal overdose and subsequent drug treatment among injection drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence; 83(2): 104-110 106. Ronconi S. Prevention of overdoses among current heroin users in Torino, Italy, for the period 1995-1998. Paper presented at: Preventing Heroin Overdose: Pragmatic Approaches; January 13-14, 2000; Seattle, WA. 107. Saucier, R. (2010). Saving Lives with Naloxone: Global Update on Overdose Programming. Vilnius: Eurasian Harm Reduction Network. 108. Saucier, Roxanne. 2011. Stopping Overdose: Peer Based Distribution of Naloxone. Public Health Fact Sheet: Open Society Foundations. 109. Seal KH, Downing M, Kral AH, et al. Attitudes about prescribing take-home naloxone to injection drug users for the management of heroin overdose: a survey of street-recruited injectors in the San Francisco Bay Area. J Urban Health. June 1, 2003 2003;80(2):291-301. 110. Seal KH, Kral AH, Gee L, et al. Predictors and prevention of nonfatal overdose among street recruited injection heroin users in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1998-1999. Am J Public Health. Nov 2001;91(11):1842-1846. 111. Seal, K. H., R. Thawley, et al. (2003). Providing naloxone and training to IDUs can save lives. American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. 112. Seal KH, Thawley R, Gee L, et al. Naloxone Distribution and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training for Injection Drug Users to Prevent Heroin Overdose Death: A Pilot Intervention Study. J Urban Health. 2005;82(2):303-311. 113. Seaman SR, Brettle RP, Gore SM. Mortality from overdose among injecting drug users recently released from prison: database linkage study. BMJ. Feb 7 1998;316(7129):426-428. 114. Sergeev B, Karpets A, Sarang A, and Tikhonov M. Prevalence and Circumstances of Opiate Overdose Among Injection Drug Users in the Russian Federation. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine Vol. 80, No. 2, June 2003.

115. Shah NG, Lathrop SL, Reichard RR, Landen MG. Unintentional drug overdose death trends in New Mexico, USA, 1990-2005: combinations of heroin, cocaine, prescription opioids and alcohol. Addiction. 2008; 103(1):126-136. 116. Sherman SG, Cheng Y, Kral AH. Prevalence and correlates of opiate overdose among young injection drug users in a large U.S. city. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. 2007;88(2-3):182-187. 117. Sherman SG, Gann DS, Scott G, Carlberg S, Bigg D, Heimer R. A qualitative study of overdose responses among Chicago IDUs. Harm Reduct J. 2008;5:2. 118. Sherman SG, Kral AH, Lorvick JA. Epidemiology of opiate overdose and response: a review of overdose prevention naloxone prescription interventions. Paper presented at: New York State Department of Health; April 18, 2005; New York City, New York. 119. Sporer KA. Acute heroin overdose. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(7):584-590.

120. Sporer KA. Strategies for preventing heroin overdose. BMJ. 2003;326(7386):442444. 121. Sporer, KA, & Kral, A. H. (2007). Prescription naloxone: A novel approach to heroin overdose prevention. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 49(2), 172-177. 122. Strang J, Darke S, Hall W, Farrell M, Ali R. Heroin overdose: the case for take-home naloxone. BMJ. 1996;312(7044):1435–1436. 123. Strang J, Powis B, Best D, et al. Preventing opiate overdose fatalities with takehome naloxone: pre-launch study of possible impact and acceptability. Addiction. 1999; 94(2):199–204. 124. Strang, J., Best, D., Man, L., Noble, A., Gossop, M. (2000). Peer-initiated overdose resuscitation: fellow drug users could be mobilized to implement resuscitation. International Journal of Drug Policy; 11:437-445. 125. Strang, J., Manning, V., Mayet, S., et al. (2008). Overdose training and take home naloxone for opiate users: prospective cohort study of impact on knowledge and attitudes and subsequent management of overdoses. Addiction; 103(10): 1648-1657. 126. Strang, J., Manning, V., Mayet, S., Titherington, E., Offor, L., Semmler, C., Williams, A. (2008). Family carers and the prevention of heroin overdose deaths: Unmet training need and overlooked intervention opportunity of resuscitation training and supply of naloxone. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy; 15(2): 211-218. 127. Tobin KE, Davey MA, Latkin CA. Calling emergency medical services during drug overdose: an examination of individual, social and setting correlates. Addiction. 2005;100(3):397-404. 128. Tobin KE, Gaasch WR, Clarke C, MacKenzie E, Latkin CA. Attitudes of emergency medical service providers toward naloxone distribution programs. J Urban Health. 2005;82(2):296–302.

129. Tobin KE, Latkin CA. The relationship between depressive symptoms and nonfatal overdose among a sample of drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. J Urban Health. Jun 2003;80(2):220-229. 130. Tobin, K.E., Sherman, S.G., Beilenson, P., Welsh, C., Latkin, C.A. (2008). Evaluation of the Staying Alive program: Training injection drug users to properly administer naloxone and save lives; International Journal of Drug Policy; doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2008.03.002. 131. Tracy M, Galea S, Markham P, et al. Determinants of non-fatal overdose in injecting drug users in New York City. Paper presented at: 2003 American Public Health Association Meeting; November 15-19, 2003; San Francisco, CA. 132. Tracy M, Piper TM, Ompad D, et al. Circumstances of witnessed drug overdose in New York City: implications for intervention. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. 2005;79(2):181190. 133. Vilke GM, Buchanan J, Dunford JV, Chan TC. Are heroin overdose deaths related to patient release after pre-hospital treatment with naloxone? Prehosp Emerg Care. 1999; 3(3):183–186. 134. Wagner, Karla et al. 2013. Personal Social Network Factors Associated with Overdose Prevention Training Participation. Substance Use & Misuse 2013 48:1-2, 21-31 135. Wagner, K., Valente, T., Casanova, M., Partovi, S.M., Mendenhall, B.M., et al. (2009). Evaluation of an overdose prevention and response training program for injection drug users in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles, CA. International Journal of Drug Policy; doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.01.003. 136. Walley AY, Doe-Simkins M, Quinn E, Pierce C, Xuan Z, Ozonoff A. Opioid overdose prevention with intranasal naloxone among people who take methadone. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2013 Feb;44(2):241-7. Epub 2012 Sep 12. 137. Walley AY ,Xuan Z ,Hackman HH ,Quinn E ,Doe-Simkins M ,Sorensen-Alawad A ,et al. Opioid overdose rates and implementation of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution in Massachusetts: interrupted time series analysis. BMJ 2013;346:f174 138. Warner-Smith M, Darke S, Day C. Morbidity associated with non-fatal heroin overdose. Addiction. 2002; 97(8):963–967. 139. Warner-Smith M, Darke S, Lynskey M, Hall W. Heroin overdose: causes and consequences. Addiction. 2001; 96(8):1113–1125. 140. Webster LR, Cochella S, Dasgupta N, et al. 2011. An analysis of the root causes for opioid-related overdose deaths in the United States. Pain Med. 2011 Jun;12 Suppl 2:S26-35. 141. Wermeling, DP. Opioid harm reduction strategies: focus on expanded access to intranasal naloxone. Pharmacotherapy Jul 2010;30(7):627-631

142. Worthington, N., T. Markham Piper, et al. (2006). "Opiate users' knowledge about overdose prevention and naloxone in New York City: a focus group study." Harm Reduct J 3: 19. 143. Wright, N., N. Oldham, et al. (2006). "Homeless drug users' awareness and risk perception of peer "take home naloxone" use--a qualitative study." Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 1: 28. 144. Wright, N., N. Oldham, et al. (2005). "Exploring the relationship between homelessness and risk factors for heroin-related death: a qualitative study." Drug and Alcohol Review 24(3): 245 - 251. 145. Wunsch M, Nakamoto K, Behonick G, Massello W. Opioid deaths in rural Virginia: a description of the high prevalence of accidental fatalities involving prescribed medications. Am J Addict. 2009;18(1):5-14. 146. Yokell MA, Green TC, Bowman S, McKenzie M, Rich JD. 2011. Opioid overdose prevention and naloxone distribution in Rhode Island. Med Health R I. 2011 Aug;94(8):240-2.

CDC Publications:
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Poisoning in the United States: Fact Sheet. Available online at 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Non-pharmaceutical Fentanyl-Related Deaths— Multiple States, April 2005–March 2007. MMWR. 2008;57(29):793-796. 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Unintentional Opiate Overdose Deaths – King County, Washington, 1990-1999. MMWR. July 21, 2000;49(28):636-640. 4. CDC - Prescription Painkiller Overdoses Policy Impact Brief 2011 5. Vital Signs: Overdoses of Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers November 2011 6. Vital signs: risk for overdose from methadone used for pain relief - United States, 19992010. 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.2012 Jul 6;61:493-7 8. CDC Grand Rounds: Prescription Drug Overdoses - a U.S. Epidemic. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012 Jan 13; 61:10-3.

9. CDC - Poisoning Research Update: State prescription drug monitoring programs and drug overdose deaths. 2011 10. Heroin-Related Deaths -- District of Columbia, 1980-1982 11. Heroin Overdose Deaths — Multnomah County, Oregon, 1993-1999 12. Fatal poisoning: controlled drugs other than heroin and methadone, England & Wales, 1993-2002 13. Drug Overdose Deaths — Florida, 2003–2009 14. Adult Use of Prescription Opioid Pain Medications --- Utah, 2008 CDC. Increase in poisoning deaths caused by non-illicit drugs---Utah, 1991--2003. MMWR 2005;54:33--6. 15. CDC Grand Rounds: Prescription Drug Overdoses — a U.S. Epidemic Weekly January 13, 2012 16. Warner, M. et al. Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980–2008. NCHS Data Brief No. 81 December 2011

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful