Last Updated: Sat Nov 24 03:53:13 UTC 2012

Sukhoi Flankers
The Shifting Balance of Regional Air Power
T echnical Report APA-T R-2007-0101 by Dr Carlo Kopp, AFAIAA, MIEEE, PEng
January, 2007 Updated September, 2009 Updated April, 2012

T ext, Line Art © 2003 - 2012 Carlo Kopp

Flanker Imagery Supplement Video Footage Supplement

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February 2010 APA Analyses Journal Assessing the Sukhoi PAK-FA

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KnAAPO/Sukhoi Su-35 Flanker E of the Russian Air Force

Background Sukhoi Su-30 Derivatives Su-30 Growth Paths Radar Electro-Optical Systems Cockpits, Computers and Networking Electronic Warfare Propulsion - Supercruising Al-41F Air to Air Weapons Su-30 vs RAAF Alternatives Strategic Impact of Su-30 in the Region Conclusions Further Reading Resources

Background
It is unfortunate that since 911 the ongoing media spectacle of the Global War on Terror and Operation Iraqi Freedom have diverted the public and media focus in Australia away from happenings in the nearer region. In recent years several important developments have taken place, with Malaysia and Indonesia signing contracts for and taking delivery of, respectively, their first top-tier Sukhoi Su-30 fighters, and India establishing production of its first fully configured Su-30MKI aircraft. W hile these developments were expected, they represent an ongoing change in regional aerospace power and capabilities which Australia should not choose to ignore. Some defence analysts in Canberra have argued vocally in the media that the Global War on Terror demands that Australia fundamentally restructure its basic strategic doctrine and indeed reshape its force structure. It is proposed that the needs of coalition warfighting in distant locations should take precedence over the Defence of Australia in the nation's force structuring and funding priorities. Media comments attacking established doctrine and ridiculing it as 'Fortress Australia Policy' suggest that this perspective is more popular than one might imagine.
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Such reasoning is dangerous and ill informed - reflecting on the part of most protagonists of this view a weak if not wholly absent understanding of modern air power and its implicit strategic influence. To better understand how foolish this point of view actually is, we must explore more closely the capabilities of the latest Sukhoi fighters and their inherent longer term growth potential. This analysis is an updated and greatly expanded derivative of the two part series published in 2003 (see Resources).

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air defence force) and FA (Frontovaya Aviatsia . while Easy Tartar's reference at the Fighter Tactics Academy is the best website). Introduction into PVO-S (Protivo-Vozdushnaya Oborona Strany . The original design aim of the Perspektivnyy Frontovoy Istrebitel (PFI . Like the MDC F-15A.com . especially due to problems with manufacturing an airframe with a substantial amount of titanium alloy and honeycomb converted by Web2PDFConvert. the basic design was devised from the outset to accommodate both single and dual seat configurations.S. The result has been the most aerodynamically refined of all of the third generation fighters. Air Force photo) Sukhoi Su-30 Derivatives The early history of the Su-27 family of fighters has been widely documented.Future Tactical Fighter) was to kill the US Air Force's then new F-15A. and some excellent references exist (Andrei Fomin's Su-27 Flanker Story published by RA Intervestnik is arguably the single best printed reference. The Sukhoi T-10 concept emerged in the early 1970s. The Su-27UBK tandem dual trainer airframe became the basis of the Su-30 series. From the outset the design was to use various combinations of mechanical-hydraulic and Fly By W ire (FBW ) controls with some reduced static stability to achieve exceptional manoeuvrability. later to become the F16A.Indian AF Su-30K at Cope India (U.tactical air force) service was protracted. The early T-10-1 demonstrator evolved into the current T-10-15/Su-27 configuration through an almost complete but necessary redesign during the early eighties. The Soviets made good use of sample Iranian Grumman F-14A Tomcats and their AN/AWG-9/AIM-54A weapon system. and both the Sukhoi and Mikoyan bureaus submitted designs. and was conceptually closest to a fusion of the fixed wing Grumman VFX-404 configuration with the blended strake/wing/body configuration of the GD LW F demonstrator.

the Sovs in 1986 stripped and modified the T10-15 prototype. enlarged flaperons. To demonstrate the aircraft's potency as an F-15 killer. with design authority remaining at the Sukhoi bureau. here intended to be either an Il-78 Midas or another Su-27 buddy tanker carrying a centreline UPAZ hose-drogue pod. The Su-27K had beefed up undercarriage with twin nosewheels. Another notable Su-27K feature to migrate to later variants was the right offset IR Search and Track housing.000 lb/min. Chinese PLA-AF Su-27SK Flanker B The baseline Su-27 airframe resulted in two nearly identical variants for the PVO and FA. the Su-27 and Su-27S Flanker B.5 55. Both types were to carry the large pulse Doppler Myech air intercept radar.com . Perhaps the most important feature of the Su-27K/Su-33 are the enlarged LERX/canards which increase the available body lift of the aircraft. redesignated it the P-42 and promptly took out no less than 22 FAI records. but production aircraft with the NIIP N001 used a simple mechanically steered cassegrain antenna.000 tonne class aircraft carrier. folding outer wings and stabs.laminates. The probe permits a fuel transfer rate into the fighter of up to 4. was developed for the Project 1143. and the centre of pressure forward thus enhancing achievable pitch rates. with a common dual trainer in the Su-27UB Flanker C. K for 'Korabl'ny'. mostly in the time to height categories previously held by the F-15A. a tailhook. The Su-27 series shares with the F-14 series a large body lift capacity resulting from the wide fuselage tunnel . Production Su-27Ks operated by the Russian Navy are often designated the 'Su-33'. enlarged leading edge slats and a deployable aerial refuelling probe.as a result the aircraft's effective wing loading is much lower than that of aircraft with different converted by Web2PDFConvert. Such impressive basic performance results from the exceptionally clean aerodynamic design and the pair of large Lyulka AL-31F series afterburning turbofans . which was to use a mechanically steered planar array antenna with electronic vertical beam steering. of which four were to have been built. this improving the pilot's downward view over the aircraft's nose. a modified ejection seat angle. Several early derivatives of the Su-27 are of much interest since they paved the way for the production Su-30 subtypes new seen in the Asian export market.not unlike the F-15A/B/C/D models. The navalised Su-27K Flanker D. but also due to difficulties with the complex F-15-like avionics package. The refuelling probe modification included a pair of deployable floodlights in the nose. The single seat Su-27/Su-27S was manufactured by the KNAAPO plant at Komsomolsk-on-Amur and the dual Su-27UB was manufactured by the IAPO plant at Irkutsk.the P42 would have used early variants of the engine. modified LERX (Leading Edge Root Extensions) with canards. The principal distinction in the Frontal Aviation Su-27S was a capability to deliver dumb bombs and rockets . upgraded FBW. used to illuminate the tanker aircraft. upgraded hydraulics.

Most late build Flankers are equipped with a retractable aerial refuelling probe and floodlights (RuAF photo). Further images. The side-by-side dual navalised trainer was so successful it evolved into the F-111 like Su32/34 Fullback series bombers. It is expected that around 50 aircraft will eventually be acquired to equip an air wing. [Click for more] The Su-33 Flanker D has now been ordered by the PLA-N for trials on the refurbished former Soviet Project 1143. intended to replace the Su-24 Fencer. converted by Web2PDFConvert.configurations.5 carrier Varyag. The Su-27K/Su-33 Flanker D was recently ordered by the PLA-N Air Arm to equip the Varyag air wing (RuN). An Su-27K prototype performs a dry hookup during buddy refuelling trials using the UPAZ-1A Sakhalin series centreline refuelling store.com . This is reflected in superb high alpha handling and sustained turn rates.

air/air and air/ground GCI (Ground Control Intercept) datalinks. It was to be the initial platform for the then new Vympel R-77 AMRAAM-ski active radar guided AAM. ShO-13A Doppler nav. The Su-35 was to carry a complete EW SP package. an inertial nav package. an improved OLS-27K Infra-Red Search/Track (IRST). the baseline Su-35 best compares to the F-15C in basic capabilities. Initiated in 1982. the land based variants accounted for most of the avionic and propulsion improvements. the Schchel3UM Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS).com . an N012 tail warning radar. a cockpit wide angle Head Up Display (HUD). frequently labelled as the Su-35. triple MFDs. but also a wide range of strike and air defence roles. two additional inboard wing hardpoints to permit up to 12 external stores. [Click for more] W hile the navalised Sukhois spawned key aerodynamic design innovations in the series. and the aerial refuelling probe. It retains the existing avionics of the Su-27K/Su-33 Flanker D (Sukhoi). converted by Web2PDFConvert.The dual seat Su-27KUB/Su-33UB is a mulirole naval variant suitable for carrier conversion training. The most important early derivative was the dual role single seat Su-27M strike fighter. an improved RSLU-27/N011 fire control radar package using a new slotted planar array antenna rather than the N001 design.

converted by Web2PDFConvert. Rollout of the first Su-35BM Mid Life Upgrade configuration Flanker E. Further images. and a 360 litre tank was added to each vertical tail thus providing a total internal capacity of 22. from the 9th.000 hr TBO for the AL-31FP core. dual nosewheels. The additional 3. an electrical sidestick controller was mounted in the right side of the cockpit. The Lyulka bureau designed the first axisymmetric two dimensional thrust vectoring (2D TVC) nozzle ever deployed during this demonstration program .phased array). aerial refuelling probe and revised avionics. and the Su-33's canards were later incorporated. January 2007 (MilitaryPhotos.net) Structural changes were required to the forward fuselage to accommodate the larger radar aperture. Twelve pre-production Su-35s were built. To offset the loss of combat radius due to additional weight the wet portion of the wing was extended to the 13th rib.Su-27M/Su-35 Flanker E and Il-78 Midas tanker.000 lb of empty weight required strengthened undercarriage. In addition. detail structural changes.com . These were thrust vectoring nozzles and the new NIIP N011M passive shifter technology ESA (Electronically Steered Array . Note the UPAZ-1A pods (RuAF).the nozzle Time Between Overhauls (TBO) is reported at 250 hours vs the 1.630 lb (10. The Su-37 was to incorporate two important advancements over the Su-27M/35. The dual combat trainer variant designed by KNAAPO is designated the Su-35UB. and tail number 711 became the Su-37 demonstrator. relocated IRST.250 kg).

Su-37 Demonstrator '#711' The KNAAPO sponsored Su-37 demonstrator was an advanced derivative of the Su27M/Su-35. The Su-37 introduced a genuine redundant digital system. but has incorporated many design features demonstrated in the Su-27M/35/37 line. converted by Web2PDFConvert. with the first generation hybrid analog system running in parallel with the conventional hydromechanical design. canards and the NIIP N-011M phased array radar. The export variant of the Su-30 was designated Su-30MK and unveiled in 1993 . Much of the technology developed in this program has since migrated into the Indian Su-30MKI and will most likely be seen in its Irkut sibling. when the PVO sought a combat capable derivative of the existing Su-27UB conversion trainer. The Su-30 was developed in part by the Irkutsk plant. incorporating digital fly-by-wire.Uchebnoy) and later relabelled the Su-30. The dual variant was to be equipped for aerial refuelling and used as a long range / long endurance interceptor and combat command and control fighter to lead long range CAPs. responsible for manufacturing the Su-27UB. the Malaysian Su-30MKM. similar in concept to its contemporary Western designs.(Sukhoi).as a multirole strike fighter rather than interceptor. The origins of the Su-30 lie in the last years of the Soviet era. The aircraft was initially designated the Su-27PU (Perekhvatchik . The all important Flight Control System (FCS) in the Su-27 family evolved incrementally. thrust vectoring nozzles.com . The Su-30 series is not directly evolved from the Su-27M line.

and moving tanks at 25 NMI. Since 2003. Air-surface modes include real beam mapping. and an improved OLS-30 IRST package. Aerial fighter sized targets have been acquired at 76 NMI. which deflected only in the vertical plane. in which an export customer is supplied with a product which is half a generation ahead of the Russian air force . and is driven by the engine's fuel system rather than main aircraft hydraulic loop. glass cockpits. enlarged rudders. Ground/Maritime Moving Target Indicator (GMTI/MMTI). W hile reports of an Active ESA (AESA) have surfaced. Su-33/35/37 canards and aerial refuelling probe. details are as yet not available to the public. converted by Web2PDFConvert. AL-31FP TVC engines.Irkut/Sukhoi Su-30MKI Flanker H. target position measurement and GMTI tracking of two concurrent targets.2 kW. Air-air modes include Track W hile Scan for 15 targets and concurrent engagement of four. The Su-30MKI is a fusion of technology from the Su-37 demonstrator and Su-30 program. The Indian developed Tarang RW R is used in the EW SP suite. NIIP claim a 3 dB noise figure three channel receiver. and some items of Israeli and EU hardware. The Indian Su-30MKI is to date the most advanced Su-27 derivative to enter production and with the exception of mission avionics and software is a credible equivalent to the F15E/I/K/S family. raid assessment and Non-Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR). The Su-30MKI variant has a 32 degree canted TVC plane to introduce a lateral and vertical vectored force component. and an average transmit power of 1. Radar Data Processor provide under the Vetrivale (Lance) industry program. The BARS phased array assembly is mechanically steerable to +/-55 degrees offboresight. The aircraft has a Sextant Avionique HUD and RLG (Ring Laser Gyro) INS/GPS.in effect the combination of mechanical array steering and electronic beam steering provides full forward hemispherical coverage. K-Export. providing a total field of regard in azimuth of +/-100 degrees off-boresight . Doppler beam sharpening. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. more details have also been revealed about the N-011M BARS ('Panther') hybrid phased array radar designed for the Su-35/37 and supplied on the Su-30MKI and likely the Su-30MKM. I-India) Flanker H. NIIP N011M phased array. India negotiated a deal which will see around 180 of these aircraft deployed with IAF squadrons. with 1 kW in illuminator mode for semi-active missiles. with additional Indian designed and built processor hardware in the Mission Computers. the Su-30MKI (MImproved.com .the IAF designates it as its Air Dominance Fighter. In a complex deal which saw initial deliveries of basic Su-30K and progressive development and later delivery of full configured and licence build Su-30MKI. The hard sell by the Irkut (formerly IAPO) and Sukhoi paid off in late 1996 when the Indian Air Force signed for an advanced derivative of the baseline Su-30. It also underscores the 'no holds barred' international arms market. The TVC system in the Su-30MKI has evolved beyond the Su-37 system. Further images.

the PLA-AF ordered around 50 Su-30MKK Flanker G fighters from KNAAPO. The baseline Su30MKK the Su-35/37 vertical tail design. A second batch of aircraft was. Russian avionics and a variant of the Phazotron Zhuk planar array radar. However. no TVC capability. An additional buy of twenty or more imported Su-27UBK dual trainers was reported in 2002. It is like the Su-35 a dual role fighter. bringing the fielded total to 46. The Su-30MKK is a KNAAPO development which is closest in concept to a dual seat Su-35 without the canards added to the production Su-35.also the very first export deal for the aircraft. That same year KNAAPO were awarded a contract to set up licence production of the Su-27SK at the Shenyang plant in the PRC . despite the shared Su-30MK designation. numbering 16 x Su-27SK and 6 x Su-27UBK. was supplied in 1996. the greatest Sukhoi export success to date has been KNAAPO's deal to supply and licence build Su-27SK Flanker Bs and Su-27UBK Flanker Cs for the Chinese PLA-AF .com . Like the PLA-AF Su-27SK the Su-30MKK uses the original analogue FCS. converted by Web2PDFConvert. The KNAAPO Su-30MKK is not the same as the Irkut Su-30MKI in configuration. An improved OEPS-31E-MK IRST package is fitted. The initial order was for 20 x Su-27SK and 4 x Su27UBK.these are designated as the J-11 and up to 250 may be built.Irkut/Sukhoi Su-30MKI Crew Stations. no canards. essentially the same configuration as Soviet Frontal Aviation units flew but claimed to be fitted with Phazotron Zhuk rather than the NIIP radars. There are reports the aircraft has an increased maximum takeoff weight against the Su-30/Su-30MKI. occupying the same niche as the F-15E but less accurate and less capable in the air-air role as the Su-30MKI. India's buy of the Su-30MKI triggered a response in Beijing . requiring structural changes.

com . with deployment as yet undisclosed. is a reflective passive phased array antenna. It is lighter than the legacy design. The principal improvement is that the Su-27SKM incorporates all of the refinements of the multirole Su-30MK variants. built around the N-001VEP radar. the Shedian-10 radar replacing the N-001. specifically the Woshan-10A (W S-10A) engine replacing the AL-31F. replacing the legacy cassegrain design. The PLA-AF was dissatified with the limitations of the Su-27SK/J-11 and renegotiated the licence arrangement to have the latter 100 aircraft delivered as the Su-27SKM (also reported as SMK) variant. incorporating Chinese technology. converted by Web2PDFConvert. but offers similar beamsteering agility to the latest Western AESAs. The Su-20MK3 was to incorporate the 'Panda' upgrade package for the N-001 radar. a derivative of the Su-30MKK. As such the Su-27SKM can carry the full suite of air to ground munitions now carried by the Su-30MKK series. The PLA-N Air Arm was evidently not satisfied with the domestically built JH-7 Flying Leopard strike fighter. The Su-30MK2 has an enhanced weapon system optimized for maritime strike. The radar configuration has not been disclosed but may include the Pero passive phased array. including a signal processor upgrade based on COTS software and a Ts-100 processor. the Su-30MK3. designated the Kh-59MK2. Another possible alternative is a derivative of the developmental Phazotron AESA. Venezuela is acquiring this variant. The radar will target the Kh-31A ramjet supersonic anti-shipping missile. was also developed for the PLA-N Flanker G. Recent reports suggest this program is no longer funded. It is likely that the J-11B will be introduced to production on completion of the J-11 build. reported to have been tested with a 0. The Chinese also recently unveiled the 'indigenised' J-11B. developed by NIIP and Ryazan GRPZ.7 metre array size on the MiG-29. and the new Pero phased array. and the PL-12 (SD-10) BVR missile replacing the R-77 and R-27.000 lb. and a radar seeker equipped variant of the Kh-59. and opted to expand its fleet by acquiring the Su-30MK2. the Kh-59Mk. A radar guided derivative of the Kh-59M. and a range of indigenous guided munitions replacing the Russian types. and can thus support guided munitions. Further images. The Russians were reported to have been developing a third PLA variant of the Su-30. The Pero. with a rated maximum takeoff weight of 85.KnAAPO/Sukhoi Su-27SKM Multirole Flanker Prototype. making it equivalent to proposed but never built single seat multirole derivatives of the F15E. Chinese sources claim that 36 Su-30MK2 aircraft were ordered.

and a commitment for licence production of around 200-250 aircraft.KnAAPO/Sukhoi Su-30MKK Crew Stations. although as yet no details are available on the specific fit of the MKM variant . the US Air Force fielded around 400 F15Cs and 200 F-15Es. 50 x Su30MKK with outstanding orders for 19 more. Indonesia's TNI-AU has had a long standing interest in the Sukhoi fighters and prior to the Asian economic crisis committed to purchase the Su-30KI. Russian sources put the current total supplied to the PLA-AF as 76 x Su-27SK/UBK. The aircraft were to be delivered from 2006. a Mid Life Upgrade design converted by Web2PDFConvert. Russian estimates of the ultimate size of the PLA-AF Su-27/30 fleet fall between 350 and 500 aircraft. It is likely that a large portion of the deal will be financed by barter of Malaysian industrial and consumer goods. This aircraft was to be supplied by KNAAPO and was derived from the single seat Su-27SMK. The Su-30MKM is being supplied by Irkut and will therefore be close in configuration to the Su-30MKI.com . For comparison. but reports in 2006 indicated the aircraft remained parked in Russia pending payment.it is known that some French avionics will be used. putting the PRC's orders into a similar force structure size bracket and almost twice the size of the Indian Su-30MKI fleet. Malaysia committed in 2003 to purchase 18 Su-30MKMs beating the Boeing F/A-18F bid evidently Malaysia's bilateral MiG-29 support relationship with India exposed the RMAF/TUDM to Indian Su-30MKI program and they liked what they saw.

From an 'information age' warfighting perspective. with the improved N001E radar and cassegrain antenna. In late April 2003. Since then the TNI-AU had its four aircraft delivered. In 2006. others Su-30KI) to the Indonesian TNI-AU later this year. as part of a larger arms package. and cash permitting any of these variants can over time morph into a more advanced model.part of the Su-30KI configuration. centreline OLS-27 IRST. Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono visited Moscow and ordered an additional six aircraft. it makes up for this with exceptionally good low speed high alpha handling and performance. The Su-30KI is thus an improved single seat Su-27S. Indonesian President Megawati signed an MoU with Russia for the supply of four Sukhoi fighters. W hile it does not offer quite as good top end supersonic performance and handling to the F-15. and often report the inclusion of an aerial refuelling capability . two Su-27SK and two Su-30MK (some sources claim Su-35. Su-30KIs or Su-30MKs is immaterial in the longer term. and provisions for the R-77 Adder missile. ILS-31 HUD.com . since the basic KNAAPO/Irkut T-10 family of designs permits incremental retrofits. Su-30 Growth Paths The Su-27/30 series is by far the aerodynamically most refined of the third generation fighters in the market and is a direct equivalent to the late build F-15E/I/K/S variants. W hether the TNI-AU aircraft are Su-27SKs. Media reports from Jakarta indicated that the TNI-AU intends to acquire between 48 and 54 of these aircraft over this decade. Su-35s. the basic Su-30 series airframe has some converted by Web2PDFConvert. This variant is more the air superiority fighter than dual role strike fighter and is essentially a low cost upgrade of the basic production KNAAPO Su-27 line . aerial refuelling probe.the use of the early configuration centreline IRST installation suggests the Su-30KI may be built from refurbished low time PVO Su-27 airframes.package for the baseline Su-27S.

converted by Web2PDFConvert.NIIP.com . It is evident that inside the 10-20 nautical miles envelope the radar will be able to challenge aircraft with quite good stealth characteristics. Phazotron. The 9B-1101K has not been included (Author .very attractive features absent in competing Western third generation fighters. The NIIP N011M BARS phased array is the most capable fighter radar produced by Russian industry and is designed to support the R-77M family of ramjet missiles. Agat data). The depicted detection range curves are based on publicly disclosed Russian performance figures for co-altitude BVR engagements. The NIIP Irbis-E is an evolution of the BARS using a 20 kW ganged TWT transmitter and increases range performance significantly. and include the TMS320 equipped digital variant. The curves for the Agat 9B-1103M and 9B-1348E seekers are based on the most recent Agat data release.

radar range is a key factor and for any given radar technology. we can expect to see many other Sukhoi users emulate the Indians in coming years. for a receding target up to 50 NMI. W ith similar TR (Transmit-Receive) module performance. F-16E/F and Joint Strike Fighter.for instance the N011M has around twice the aperture size of the JSF AESA and F/A-18E/F's APG-79 and even with inferior TR module technology will be highly competitive. The phased array can electronically steer the mainlobe through +/-70 degrees in azimuth and +/-40 degrees in elevation. the larger the aperture the better.Radar The first of these is its massive radar bay. available in variants with peak power ratings between 4 and 7 kiloWatts. In the long range BVR combat game. Three receiver channels are used. The whole array can be further steered mechanically.com . and CW illumination at 1 kW. capable of fitting a 1 metre class X-band phased array antenna. with individual per element receive path low noise amplifiers delivering a noise figure cited at 3 dB. The baseline N011M radar uses a vertically polarised 0. the future is the path India has followed. Electrical power and liquid cooling have been issues for the integration of AESAs in Western fighters. be it in MLUs or new build aircraft. especially so with smaller types like the F/A-18E/F. This is not an issue given the sheer size of the Flanker.9 metre diameter aperture hybrid phased array. one presumably for sidelobe blanking and ECCM. W ith widely available commodity processor chips in the 1 to 2 GHz class. the US and Russia. Polarisation can be switched by 90 degrees converted by Web2PDFConvert. W hile the existing N011M has limitations in its older technology back end processing. retrofitting third party hardware with better performance than the Russian processor hardware. the fighter with the largest aperture size wins in this game . W hile the current N011M/ME BARS (Panther) and Pero (Plume) upgrades use passive array technology which delivers less peak power than competing active arrays (AESA) it is only a matter of time before NIIP and Phazotron adapt commercial GaAs MMIC technology (98% of the total GaAs chip market) to build an AESA variant competitive against the AESAs in the latest Western evolved 3rd Gen fighters. It is worth noting that India is only the fourth nation worldwide to field a phased array equipped aigile air combat fighter. The EGSP-6A transmitter uses a single Chelnok Travelling Wave Tube. Cited detection range for a closing target (High PRF) is up to 76 NMI. after France. similar to an AESA.

ganged to provide a total peak power rating of 20 kiloWatts. but the receiver has four rather than three discrete channels. or eight simultaneous shots using an active missile like the RVV-AE/R-77 or ramjet RVV-AE-PD/R-77M. The Irbis-E is an evolution of the BARS design. The performance increase in the Irbis-E is commensurate with the increased transmitter rating.02 data processor.com . and better ECCM capability. the master oscillator and exciter of the BARS.5 dB. but significantly more powerful. with 2 kiloWatts CW rating for illumination.01 digital signal processor hardware and Solo35. The biggest change is in the EGSP-27 transmitter. and the ability to detect a closing 0. but retains receiver hardware. A prototype has been in flight test since late 2005.215 NMI (350-400 km). NIIP Irbis E Prototypes (above.01 square metre target at ~50 NMI (90 km). The Irbis-E was clearly designed to support the converted by Web2PDFConvert. The radar is cited at an average power rating of 5 kiloWatts.for surface search modes. In Track W hile Scan (TW S) mode the radar can handle 30 targets simultaneously. the noise figure is slightly worse at 3. where the single 7 kiloWatt peak power rated Chelnok TW T is replaced with a pair of 10 kiloWatt peak power rated Chelnok tubes. in development since 2004 and planned for the Su-35 block upgrade. NIIP claim twice the bandwidth and improved frequency agility over the BARS. and as a block upgrade or new build radar for other Flanker variants. The Irbis-E has new Solo-35. below) NIIP Irbis E Components (above) The follow on to the BARS is the new Irbis-E (Snow Leopard) hybrid phased array. and NIIP claim a detection range for a closing 3 square metre coaltitude target of 190 . and provide guidance for two simultaneous shots using a semi-active missile like the R-27 series. W hile the hybrid phased array antenna is retained.

ramjet RVV-AE-PD/R-77M missile in BVR combat against reduced signature Western fighters like the Block II Super Hornet or Eurofighter Typhoon. driven by the need to compete against US and EU cockpit designs. weight is lower. it is only a matter of time before this technology finds its way into an OLS-30/31 derivative. in the longer term an AESA is an inevitability. designated 'Panda' was recently developed for the baseline N-001-01 radar carried by Su-27S/SK. Specifications for the OLS-30 have not been disclosed . The same will be true of mission computer equipment. W ith militarised commodity AMLCD display panels becoming increasingly available. and cover as field of view as narrow as 3x3 degrees but has poor sensitivity with a head on detection ranges cca 8 nautical miles. as customers demand an ability to defeat or degrade Western ESM equipment and the technology to do this becomes more accessible. and a strut supported boom which mounts the X-band waveguide and radiating horn. compared to the BARS hybrid array. W hile a 20 kiloWatt Pero system would have inferior receiver sensitivity due to the space feed loss. In summary.5 nautical miles. but reports indicate one of the two prototypes was sent to China for evaluation. The launch customer is the RuAF. A block upgrade package. both in display technology and back end processing. but with lower cost and transmit power ratings. As with radars. This is likely to change over the coming decade. In terms of block upgrades. It is not known whether the 5U15K-11 datalink designed for networking the A-50 AW ACS and MiG-31 has been adapted to the Su-27/30. This lightweight design avoids the cost and complexity of the backplane fed BARS (N-011M) phased array. and the Sukhoi is in a commanding position with the existing OLS-27/30 package.ru/) and Phazotron. Curiously. a technique used with the 64N6E Big Bird SAM system radar.com .it is known that further development is under way on an IRST/FLIR design similar in concept to the Eurofighter's Pirate system. Computers and Networking The cockpit of the existing Su-30 series provides plenty of opportunities for further growth. IRST and FLIR aperture size matters. The N012 tail warning radar has been reported to be part of the Su-30MKI suite and is offered as a retrofit to other models. W ith commercial technologies such as Quantum Well longwave/multiband imagers of 800x600 pixel resolution in the EU market. near term we can expect to see the Irbis-E and Pero appear in new build and upgrade packages. the former has been the most active of recent. instead using a space (optical) feed scheme.the more photons the IRST can capture. of the two competing radar houses in Russia. the trend we have observed with the Sextant displays in the MKI is likely to grow over time. Cost is comparable to the existing Su-27S/SK Cassegrain antenna. Cockpits. which can fit an aperture larger than competing Western IRST systems . The design incorporates the phase element array. with the Irbis-E. yet their cited performance figures exceed the public (and no doubt heavily sanitised) range figures for the APG-77. Current US IRSTs using older MCT imaging arrays have detected fighters at distances of many tens of miles. NIIP (http://www. Of more interest however is a low cost phased array block upgrade package designated Pero ('Plume'). The Pero will provide the beam steering agility of modern Western AESAs. The first stage is the N-001V back end upgrade using C/C++ COTS software and a Ts-100 processor. the greater its detection range potential. longer term. We should not be surprised to see India and Israel become prominent in the Sukhoi MLU market. and reflective rather than transmissive phase elements. NIIP do not claim superiority over the F-22A's APG-77 AESA. The advent of HDTV compatible CCD and CMOS daylight imaging devices in COTS applications opens up the possibility of a dual band derivative of the OLS-27/30 package. and is likely to appear in regional MLUs later this decade. An open question is whether a future Pero based block upgrade would include the 20 kiloWatt Irbis-E transmitter. as engineering the space feed for a 20 kiloWatt rated transmitter is neither difficult nor expensive. or whether a unique equivalent converted by Web2PDFConvert. Electro-Optical Systems Another attractive design feature of the Flankers is the large IRST housing. The existing N011M series lacks a Low Probability of Intercept capability. The baseline OLS-27 IRST can scan a 120x75 degree field of regard. it would be significantly cheaper to build and deploy en masse .niip. The integrated laser rangefinder is effective to about 1. in part due to antenna bandwidth limits and in part due to processor limitations. designed jointly with Ryazan GRPZ. Upgrades available for Su-27/30 include the encrypted TKS-2/R-098 (Tipovyi Kompleks Svyazi) Intra Flight Data Link (IFDL) which permits the networking of up to 16 Sukhoi fighters.

and it is reasonable to surmise that the adoption of digital FBW controls in recent Su-30 variants will see similar evolution in the Sukhoi types .com . this system uses a steerable mainlobe to maximise the Jam/Signal ratio at the threat emitter.especially given the Russian obsession with close in manoeuvre performance. The TKS-2 was used effectively during the 2004 Cope India exercise against US F-15Cs.design is used. T he KNIRTI L005S Sorbtsiya-S mid/high band defensive jammer is carried in wingtip pods. converted by Web2PDFConvert. Unlike competing Western designs. The design uses a wideband phased array and dielectric lens arrangement (KNIRTI). Maturity in flight control software has seen aggressive improvements in types such as the F/A-18E/F.

intended for centreline carriage on a large pylon. To date little has been disclosed on these pod designs. Russian contractors have been recently using Digital RF Memory (DRFM) technology.com . The latest subtypes like the Su-35BM/Su-35-1 carry the KNIRTI L175M Khibiny M Radio Frequency Surveillance (RFS = ESM/RHAW ) system. displayed at MAKS 2009. initially developed for the Su-34 Fullback. and the wideband mainlobe steering capability provided by the phased array permits best possible utilisation of available jamming power. to permit passive targeting of Kh-31P and R-27P/R-77P variants in defence suppression and air combat roles. converted by Web2PDFConvert. mostly variants of the SPO-32 / L150 Pastel digital receiver carried. which are likely to retain the wideband phased array / lens antenna system first used on the Sorbstiya. this system being an evolution of a jammer developed for the Backfire C. and competing Israeli systems. The Sorbtsiya-S. is designed to operate in pairs and uses forward and aft looking steerable wideband phased arrays to maximise jamming effect. Concurrently KNIRTI displayed a high power support jamming pod. The Khibiny M is believed to use a channelised receiver and most likely employs a wideband dual baseline interferometer in the forward sector. which is of the same generation as the US IDECM EW SP. unlike most Western jamming pods. It is worth observing that the Sorbtsiya is clearly built to provide cross-eye jamming modes against monopulse threats. The most recent defensive jamming equipment to be offered on Flanker variants is the new KNIRTI SAP-518 wingtip jamming pod.Electronic Warfare Defensive systems in legacy and production Flankers include a Radar Warning Receiver. the SAP-14. A graded dielectric lens is employed. Newer Flankers carry the podded wingtip mounted KNIRTI SPS-171 / L005S Sorbtsiya-S mid/high band defensive jammer (ECM). a similar arrangement to the Eurofighter Typhoon EW SP package.

KNIRTI SAP-14 support jamming pod and centreline pylon on display at MAKS 2009 (© 2009. Miroslav Gyűrösi).KNIRTI SAP-518 EWSP pods at MAKS 2009 (© 2009. Miroslav Gyűrösi).com . converted by Web2PDFConvert.

000 lb (145kN) of SL static thrust. Engine makers NPO Lyulka-Saturn and MMPP Salyut are now actively competing with block upgrades to the basic AL-31F turbofan.924 m dia front end and SAU-235 FADEC. including hot end changes.com/Articles/2004/03/23/179164/Su27M+flies+with+power+upgrade. KNAAPO/Irkut are offering TVC kits as retrofit items to existing models. converted by Web2PDFConvert.17 kN).000 to 44. pushing the engine to 18. Miroslav Gyűrösi).html).600 lbf. The -M2 upgrade phase implements a new cooling system for the turbine stages.55 to 4. we have seen incremental improvements in the AL-31F series. The AL-41F is the Russian equivalent to the F-22's F119-PW 100 engine.8 kN) wet thrust. a derated variant of the baseline AL-41F. the engine was built around the 'big bore' geometry already used in the AL-31F series. It is unclear when the 33. intended to increase the performance of the Flanker across all flgiht regimes. with the F-3 model cited at 28.082 lb (138. with components for the first phase already flight tested. Originally developed for the MiG MFI.flightglobal. competitive against the latest US F100 and F110 variants. as they are offering seamless engine upgrades.com . and enhance dry supersonic thrust (http://www. The third -M3 upgrade stage sees the addition of a three stage blisk technology KND-924-3 front end boosting the compression ratio from 3. Salyut have described a three phase block upgrade to the AL-31F.186 lb. In 2004 an Su27M/Su-35 Flanker E was flown with the prototype AL-41F1.Supercruising Al-41F In terms of propulsion. designed for supersonic cruise and improved performance across the full fighter envelope. The -M1 upgrade sees the addition of the KND-924-4 0.21 kN) dry and 29.320 lb (75.2. and wet thrust to 32. Salyut and Klimov are also working on a second generation TVC nozzle design. making it compatible with existing airframes. The AL-41F is reported to have recently entered Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) the intent being to equip the Sukhoi Su-34 Fullback which recently entered LRIP. The derated AL-41F1 is claimed to deliver 33. is to increase wet thrust to 31. pushing the engine to 31.180 lb (129.000 lbf class NPO Saturn-Lyulka AL-41F family will find its way into the Su-30 series.Su-30MKI Flanker H model with KNIRTI SAP-14 and SAP-518 jamming pods on display at MAKS 2009.250 lbf cf the baseline F-1 at 27.473 lb (143.26 kN) wet thrust. The pods have already been flown on the Su-34 Fullback (© 2009. NPO Lyulka-Saturn's competing upgrade. Propulsion .

W ith Germany. and a primary means of exporting Russian guided munitions. converted by Web2PDFConvert. In terms of avionic systems and propulsion we can expect to see ongoing incremental growth in the Su-30 series. France and Israel active in the MiG MLU market the existence of Asian aggregrate fleet numbers around 600 or more aircraft will present an irresistable attraction for the sale of avionic and systems upgrades. as market pressures drive KNAAPO and Irkut to integrate newer technologies in the aircraft.com . The unknown factor is how much modern EU and Israeli technology will find its way into the Sukhois over the next decade.Al-41FU supercruise powerplant. be they incremental or major block upgrades. As the Su-30 is the primary export revenue earner in Russia's defence industry. it is apt to continue to be the platform for the deployment of the latest domestic and imported technologies.

as well as a digitised seeker equipped R-74E variant credited with 75 degree off boresight capability and kinematics to kill 12 G targets. The R-27R1 and R-27ER1 are the radar guided long and short burn versions. We have yet to see reports of regional deliveries of the Vympel R-77M RVV-AE-PD (Povyshlenayya Dal'nost') ramjet adder. The basic airframe is supplied in long and short burn variants with differing range performance. autopilot kinematics and seeker jam resistance. Indian press reports suggest the Rafael Python 4 has been offered to India and it is not inconceivable that this missile will find its way on to Indian and other regional Sukhois . derived from the R-77 seeker. the AMRAAMski. is a modern BVR weapon designed to kill 12G targets. The thrust vectoring R-73 (refer AA 4/97) was a trend setter and we have since seen an improved R73M marketed. This missile. engagement geometry permitting. the AGAT 9B-1103M/9B-1348E.India is currently negotiating for the Phalcon AEW &C system fitted to the Ilyushin A-50E airframe and has acquired ballistic missile defence radars from Israel.com . The Vympel R-27 is the Russian equivalent to the late model US AIM-7 Sparrow series BVR missiles. and with heatseeking or datalink aided inertially midcourse guided semi-active radar seekers. As the R-77 matures. The most recently exported missile in the region is the Vympel R-77 RVV-AE (AA-12 Adder). credited with an A-pole range around 80 nautical miles. credited with slightly lower engagement ranges. but the similarity ends there since the R-27 is available in a plethora of variants. with unique lattice controls. More recently Agat have offered new build or retrofit active radar seekers as the R-27A/EA. The X-band anti-radiation seeker equipped R-27P/EP has been reported. The baseline Su-27S was armed with the R-27 (AA-10 Alamo) semiactive radar homing BVR missile and the R-73 (AA-11 Archer) W VR missile. converted by Web2PDFConvert. we can expect to see refinements in propellants. designed to kill emitting fighters in the forward quarter by homing on their radar emissions.Air to Air Weapons Air to air weapons are one area where the Russians have been very aggressively developing and marketing new products. respectively. and credited with an A-pole range of 54 nautical miles. although some reports suggest early production rounds are not delivering the kinematic performance advertised. not unlike early AIM-120A AMRAAMs. The R27T1 and R-27ET1 are the respective heat seeking equivalents. it permits an Su-30 to launch multiple rounds and guide these concurrently. This missile is a direct derivative of the R-77. As the R-77 has AMRAAM-like capabilities. credited with F-pole ranges of 70 nautical miles and 43 nautical miles.

F/A-18E/F.a developmental R-37 successfully engaged a target at 162 nautical miles of A-pole range in 1996.semi-active radar homing seeker. A more interesting proposal has been the use of the Novator R(KS)-172 RVV-L (AAM-L) missile. two on the inlet stations. Target G . W hile such seekers may do little to offset the overwhelming advantages of the supercruising F/A22A.650 lb launch weight long range AAM. APU .Aviatsionnaya Puskovaya Ustanovka (rail launcher). although India is negotiating licence production.either analogue or digital. IRH . a 215 nautical mile range 1.000 ft and snapdown capability to 10 ft AGL.datalink for midcourse guidance corrections . Russian missiles either carried by or proposed for Flanker variants (Author). KS-172 mockups have been photographed on Su-30 displays but its production status is unclear at this time.heatseeking. DL . late model F-15E and F-16C/B50. and Russian sources claim a snap-up capability to 100. in basic anti-radiation and dual mode seeker variants is often dubbed the AW ACS killer and would be used to destroy opposing AEW &C aircraft. AKU . defeating the RCS reduction measures on these aircraft. IMU . This missile. Launch G max load factor of launch aircraft. ARH . the Vympel R-37 (AA-X-13) series of AIM-54 Phoenix lookalikes have been proposed .Aviatsionnaya Katapultnaya Ustanovka (ejector). Kinematic Range is A-pole or F-pole. and the antiradiation R-77P.inertial package for midcourse guidance. In the long range missile domain.the heatseeking R-77T using an MK80M seeker from the R-73M and R-27T. The R-172 uses datalink/inertial midcourse guidance and an active radar terminal seeker. Passive RF . Notes: O/B . Of no less interest is the Kh-31P (AS-17 Krypton) family of ramjet anti-radiation missiles. or surface based radars. they are likely to prove quite effective against inferior types such as the JSF. SARH .active radar homing seeker. This is a current open source compilation based on manufacturers' and third party data therefore figures should be treated with appropriate caution (Author). converted by Web2PDFConvert.max load factor of target vehicle. offered as a standard store on the Su-30/35 subtypes.Alternate seekers for the R-77 have been advertised . single or dual colour scanning seeker. Sukhoi advertise a load of up to six rounds. The antiradiation R-77P could be used to engage at maximum missile range. an optical seeker equipped R-77 variant can be used to effect an engagement. anti-radiation and electro-optical imaging seekers on the R-77/R-77M in an attempt to counter the combined kinematics and all-aspect stealth of the F/A-22A.com . Acquisition Range is that at which the seeker can acquire its target.passive radio frequency anti-radiation seeker. If the Su-30 can close to a range where an advanced longwave IRST can track the target.seeker off-boresight acquisition angle. The deployment of the new F/A-22A later in the decade will see significant pressure on Vympel to supply heatseeking.

It is clear that the Su-30 has at least two decades more of yet to be exploited technological growth capacity. and with an increasingly borderless international upgrade market. The R37/AA-X-13 Arrow remains in development for the Su-35. COTS based computer hardware running COTS based software. Novator KS-172 and Zvezda-Strela Kh-31 variants qualifies exactly as that. The excellent kinematics. All are in advanced development and actively being marketed. Heatseeking and anti radiation variants of the R-77 Amraamski. regional users with the cash required will be able to fit some very capable upgrades over time. the R-172 was recently reported as the subject of licence negotiations with India.com . R-37. A two color band FLIR/IRST sensor replacing the OLS-30. These have been actively marketed. The Su-37 included redundant sidestick controls for the pilot. Canard foreplanes for enhanced high alpha agility. Production hardware on Su-33 and Su30MKI. Given the current delivery of first generation glass cockpits in Su-30MK and Su-27SKM.The dominance of US ISR capabilities is producing an increasing demand for hard kill 'counter-ISR' weapons and the Sukhoi fighter equipped with missiles like the Vympel R-77M. Full glass cockpit based on digital technology. 2006): Supersonic cruise 40. We can summarise growth options thus (IASC. and would be easily accommodated with a FLIR/IRST sensor. AW ACS killer long range missiles in the 160 to 200 nautical mile range category. especially in systems and weapons. Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) becoming standard for late build Flankers. using QW IP imaging array technology. large airframe and large apertures give it a decisive long term advantage in growth potential against all teen series types. An active phased array (AESA) fire control radar replacing the N-001 and N-011/011M series. this is a natural progression. and extended range ramjet powered variants of the R-77.000 lbf class AL-41F engines replacing the AL-31F. A Helmet Mounted Display with FLIR projection capability. Such an upgrade was being discussed some years ago. converted by Web2PDFConvert. Advanced digital variants of the R-73/74 Archer close-in air to air missile. Su-35 upgrade marketing literature depicts the use of such missiles. Thrust vectoring (TVC) engine nozzles with 2D or 3D capability.

the JSF panacea and recently proposed interim fighters such as the F/A-18E/F. Because the JSF is designed within the kinematic performance class of the F/A-18 and F-16. Production hardware available off the shelf. W hen not operating at extended combat radii. converted by Web2PDFConvert.L. The Sukhoi combines high alpha manoeuvre capabilities with excellent thrust/weight performance. with a specific aim of reducing legacy aircraft observables. all three types will live or die in a close in engagement with an advanced Su-30MK variant by pilot ability and good or bad luck.Cruise missiles for standoff attacks. since the aircraft's configuration delivers a considerable amount of body lift. Against all three types the Su-30 derivatives. Numerous Russian unclassified papers detail a range of technologies for surface wave suppression and edge signature reduction. Shaw's Fighter Combat). T he effective w ing loading of the Su-30 is better than depicted. the JSF and the F/A-18 family. A JSF driver opting to engage a thrust vectoring late model Su-30MK in a knife fight may not survive to speak of the experience. Radar absorbent materials for radar observables reduction. and is apt to have an energy advantage entering and prosecuting a close in fight. it is right in the middle of the performance envelope of aircraft the Sukhoi was designed to kill. Advanced jam resistant fighter to fighter and fighter to AW ACS datalinks and networks. China acquired Kh-55SM/AS-15 Kent cruise missiles from the Ukraine. especially with later engine subtypes. W ith mutually competitive W VR missiles and Helmet Mounted Sights/Displays for close-in combat. and that energy can nearly always be used to an advantage. Further evolution of protocol software will see this technology grow to match current US capabilities.there is no substitute for thrust in the kinematic performance game. and buddy refuelling stores. Su-30 vs RAAF Alternatives Many visitors will be asking the obvious question of how the Sukhois stack up against the F/A-18A HUG. While in the near term the AESAs in the JSF and F/A-18E/F w ill be competitive. in the longer term the retrofit of AESA technology in the N011M series radar w ill see the advantage in pow er aperture go to the Sukhoi . Aerial refuelling probes. which is the superlative 10 tonnes of internal drag free fuel the Sukhoi carries. In close in air combat terms the JSF qualifies as 'double inferior' against the later model Sukhois. T his chart compares some cardinal design parameters for the Su-30MK series. and is manufacturing indigenous designs. There is another factor to consider here. the Sukhoi driver has more fuel to convert into energy. India intends to use the supersonic Brahmos on its Su-30MKIs. will always have a significant kinematic advantage .both the JSF and F/A-18E/F are aperture size and cooling capacity limited in grow ing AESA performance (Author). and with its canard and thrust vectoring capability will generally be able to gain a firing solution quicker. using manufacturer's data. since the Sukhois have an advantage in both thrust/weight ratio and in wing loading (interested visitors refer R. unless the Sukhoi driver is unable to exploit his advantage properly. pylon plumbing for drop tanks.com .

ostensibly for use on the R-77 converted by Web2PDFConvert. the Sukhoi will again have a kinematic advantage. A post 2010 AESA equipped Sukhoi could almost certainly take on the F/A-18E with confidence as it will have much better power-aperture capability in the radar. which may be exploitable at the bounds of engagement radii. The F/A-18A HUG is wholly outclassed by an Su-30MK with an N011M phased array and R-77M ramjet missile. fighters in the teen series performance envelope w ill have to contend w ith BVR shots using the R-27ET . and long range missile capabilities.such as a single chip QWI P device? T he result w ill be a capability to engage opposing aircraft under clear sky conditions regardless of RCS reduction measures. both onboard and offboard the fighters. enough to offset the radar signature reduction measures in the F/A-18E/F. these w eapons w ill permit the Su-30MK to engage the JSF despite the JSF's good forw ard sector radar stealth performance (Author). Similar issues arise w ith the deployment of modern ESM receivers on the Su-30MK. as the Sukhoi can gain separation in and out of the missile envelope of the F/A-18's and JSF faster . R-77T or likely future variants with imaging seekers analogous to the AIM-9R and ASRAAM seekers. but with external stores its margin of survivability is eroded and it is likely to fall well within the engagement envelope of the Sukhoi and also come to grief (refer radar/missile plot). analogous to a number of existing Western systems. the JSF is not designed to be a hot supersonic performer and like the F/A-18s will need to generously use afterburner to effect an intercept against a rapidly penetrating Sukhoi. with an advanced IRST to supplement radar data. R-77T and R-77M cued by the thermal imaging search and track set. and engagement by a long burn heatseeking or optically guided AAMs such as the R-27ET. While the supercruising F/A-22A can defeat such techniques by kinematics alone. or the R-27EP and R-77P w ith passive radio-frequency anti-radiation seekers. R-77. A late model F/A-18E with minimal external stores and the APG-79 AESA fares much better due to its radar signature reduction measures and better radar power-aperture performance. but in a long range missile with datalink midcourse guidance.In Beyond Visual Range (BVR) combat. The BVR game is however dominated by sensor capabilities. T he Su-30MK series can then launch long range BVR missiles such as the R-27ET . A new two-colour infrared seeker with 10. especially jam resistance. This exposes the JSF to detection and tracking by a newer technology IRST. However. A clean JSF will have the advantage of a very low X-band radar signature in the forward quarter which will significantly degrade the Sukhoi's otherwise overwhelming radar poweraperture advantage over other types.com . What happens w hen the existing OLS-27/30/31 series I RST is replaced w ith a new er longw ave Focal Plane Array device .it has the extra thrust and combat fuel to play kinematic games both smaller fighters cannot. R-77T w ith infrared seekers.8 nautical mile acquisition range has been announced by the Arsenal infrared systems house. W ith the latter seekers an R-77/R-77M acquires many of the capabilities of the RAAF's superlative ASRAAM. I f cued by such sensors or offboard sources.

If Iraq could acquire smuggled Russian GPS jammers during a UN arms embargo.the E-3 AW ACS. and F/A-18F as an interim types. W ith three of the four seeker technologies passive defeating such weapons is not trivial. In the beam and aft sectors the JSF may be also quite vulnerable to an active or semiactive radar guided missile shot .or late model R27P/EP. ESM receivers. It is an evolutionary adaption to the growing dependency of Western air forces on large and vulnerable ISR platforms . R-77P or when eventually deployed. The result is that forward defending CAPs have to then light up their radars to attempt to function autonomously . statements and more recently promotoional video footage.its beam and aft sector radar signature reduction is much less refined than that in the forward sector. the result is a very lethal cocktail from a defensive countemeasures perspective .in turn making them vulnerable to detection by ESM and shots by anti-radiation missiles like the R-27EP or R-77P/MP. A view commonly heard in Canberra these days is that the use of the Wedgetail AEW &C to provide offboard targeting for the JSF will provide a decisive advantage over the Sukhois 'Network Centric Warfare' will ostensibly offset all other deficiencies in the force structure and platform capabilities. advanced IRST. In the long term the Russians will find a growing market for 'Counter-ISR' weapons . Soviet and more recent Russian BVR doctrine has always emphasised firing pairs of missiles.if the Sukhois do not shoot very long range missiles at the Wedgetail to force it to shut down or indeed kill it. On publicly available data the JSF is likely to be detected and engaged by an N011M ESA equipped Su-30 inside the 10 to 20 nautical miles head on range envelope. If a JSF were deployed in 2005 with a supporting Wedgetail and existing Su-30 capabilities. This argument is clearly contingent upon a great many 'ifs' . unless the JSF can get the first shot off and successfully kill the Sukhoi. RC-135V/W Rivet Joint. In any engagement against a Western air force. Given the mistrust of the US and its allies we see in many regional players. This Russian doctrine of a deluge of long range missiles is not new . Another factor for the JSF is its radar emission making it vulnerable to a long range shot with an anti-radiation seeker equipped R-27P. it is likely to experience similar grief. E-8 JSTARS. Kh-31 .series. and indigenous equipment. and by the end of the decade an imaging seeker. if the Sukhois are not carrying advanced IRSTs or X-band homing receivers. if the Wedgetail MESA is not jammed.Agat are developing FOG (fibre) gyro technology to avoid dependency on Western Ring Laser Gyro technology transient loss of the JSF radar emission may not defeat the R-77P/R-77MP .the 215 nautical mile R-172.e. Professionals might contemplate that these are not 1980s 36T series seekers. Since the R-77/R-77M has a midcourse inertial package .or types as yet unknown . but with better detection range. the odds are very good that the existing trend will persist and the most advanced Russian hardware. there is no guarantee that equipment like high power L-band jammers. However. all bets are off on the JSF's ability to survive the close in engagement. R27EP. will be implementable with Russian hardware in the latter half of this decade given the current rate of evolution. heat-seeking and anti-radiation seekers. W ith the option of active radar. W hile some Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) techniques may reduce vulnerability to anti-radiation missiles. long range ramjet powered anti-radiation missiles and low band radars will not proliferate into the region . W hile this will not put a dent into the US Air Force's stealthy supercruising F-22A fleet. to defeat countermeasures.to either destroy the AEW &C/AW ACS or force it to shut down and retreat . Russia and the Ukraine have a competent infrared systems industry . in a post 2010 environment it is most likely not going to hold up most of the time. then the argument probably holds most of the time. and if the Sukhois are not supported by HF or low VHF band radars. be it the PRC or lesser nations. 160 nautical mile R-37 and 60 nautical mile Kh-31 series. if the JTIDS/MIDS or other datalinks to the fighters are not jammed. the first wave of Sukhois would shoot long range 'AW ACS-killer' weapons such as the R-172. R-37. E-10 MC2A and of course the RAAF's new Wedgetail. will be widely used. If the RAAF opts for the JSF as its single type solution. ramjet R-77MP. it is likely to make life very difficult for the USN with a planned force structure of F/A-18E/Fs and JSFs. If the Sukhoi can close with the JSF. competitive against the latest EU technology and suitable for missile seekers and thermal imaging IRST detectors. one with heat-seeking guidance and one with radar guidance.a defending fighter may only have datalink transmissions to provide warning and no indication of the seeker mix on the inbound missiles.the Kh-31P has been already been reported in use with the PLA-AF.g. converted by Web2PDFConvert. Cyclone JSC recently described their QW IP single chip thermal imagers with 128x128 and 320x256 resolution. radar modes for closing missile shots typically require high update rates and favour the anti-radiation seeker.it is a variation on their proven theme of attacking naval task forces with long range missiles. Therefore an advanced derivative of the OLS-30/31 series with capabilities similar to the Eurofighter PIRATE thermal imaging IRST.the 'AW ACS-killer' theme is frequently seen in Russian marketing literature .com .

any nation with the cash can acquire very quickly large numbers of top-tier combat aircraft often with the latest Western avionics and Russian weapons and sensors fitted. The acquisition of long range Su-27SK/30MKK fighters and supporting Il-78MKK aerial refuelling tankers provides the PLA-AF with unprecedented reach across the near region (C. Kopp). converted by Web2PDFConvert. The rate of Su-30 uptake in the region is a good case study .com .The reality is that of an evolving technological landscape in which advanced conventional weapons and supporting technologies proliferate often very rapidly.

The Sukhois are a generation beyond the MiG-29 Fulrcums flown by the IAF and two generations ahead of the 1950s technology which makes up the backbone of the PLA-AF.com .The arrival of the Su-27/30 series fighters in this region changes Australia's strategic context significantly. and it is unclear how many Sukhois both Malaysia and Indonesia will ultimately operate. In the near term. These problems should been seen in the proper context as they represent the transient state experienced when introducing a radically new piece of technology and supporting systems. Another factor in time will be the availability of third party Indian and Chinese made spares to other Sukhoi users in the region. both Indonesia and China will have difficulties with fully exploiting the aircraft as they have steep learning curves to climb in training and support . India and the PRC will not have most of their Sukhoi force structures deployed until 2015 or later. As a result what we see now in the support base for the aircraft will not persist and should not be used as an indicator of the long term supportability of the aircraft. Bottlenecks in the supply of Russian made spares may not persist past 2010 since the commercial incentives to bypass Russian suppliers are considerable . W ith four sources of converted by Web2PDFConvert. of the ilk seen between India and Malaysia for MiG-29 support. emerging between regional players and this will change the support environment seen by smaller regional users of the aircraft. indeed the Indian government audit public report listed a litany of contractual problems and Su-30K/MK servicabilities as low as 50% in 2003. The view widely held in some Canberra circles that Asia's air forces will remain at current proficiency levels is not supportable in the longer term. The superb combat radius of these large aircraft provides a significant capability to cover the sea-air gap (C. Strategic Impact of Su-30 in the Region We have yet to see the full strategic impact of the Su-30 proliferating in the nearer and wider region.India and Malaysia are apt to fare much better with Western based training systems.and many regional Sukhois will use substantial fractions of Western avionic hardware. W ith HAL and Shenyang to perform domestic assembly and part production.with a population base of over a billion it is however only a matter of time before they learn to do this properly. Kopp). W ith large fleet sizes even a large proportion of grounded aircraft still leaves strategically significant numbers to cause mayhem with. We can expect to see regional users of the Su-30 maturing their capabilities to use the aircraft in the latter part of this decade. and perform factory/depot deep overhauls. Much has been said about the PRC's difficulties in recruiting and training competent Sukhoi drivers . In time we can expect to see more bilateral deals. Much has been made of the serviceability and support problems experienced by the IAF and the PLA-AF with their initial Sukhoi aircraft. in time both nations will have the ability to domestically manufacture high failure rate components.

On a buddy refuelling sortie the shooter gains around 200-250 nautical miles of radius . Just as we have seen Irkut and KNAAPO competing in the sales of Sukhois. W hile the latter is not the kind of heavy iron 1.at the expense of half of the force committed to tanking sorties.a major issue for the dual role tasked F-22A fleet. if used cleverly. This provides all of the Sukhoi operators with a much larger air defence footprint than we have ever seen before. which is built around a Texas Instruments TMS320C44 digital signal processor chip and achieves a 25% acquisition range improvement over the baseline seeker. The first is that it will provide its users with the ability to threaten or intimidate neighbours with lesser capabilities. Unless the US is prepared to take the gloves off early in a dispute and deploy the F-22A centric US Air Force Global Strike Task Force. we have seen a wide range of Russian weapon makers like Vympel. the US Navy may cease to be a viable tool for coercive diplomacy. if they fall within the footprint of the Sukhoi.a second generation '9B-1348ME' will almost certainly carry the same TMS320C44 digital signal processor. India is now taking delivery of its six Il-78 Midas tankers and will be able to robustly project their Sukhoi force well beyond their borders . optimised for engaging 'nonmaneuvering airborne targets such as AW ACS' out to 100 nautical miles. The latest advertised Kh-31 variant includes a dual mode air-air seeker. but it is unclear whether any integration work has taken place to date. incorporating an active radar seeker and passive anti-radiation seeker. this provides a limited strike capability beyond a 1. thus diminishing the strike sortie rate . Zvezda. it is nevertheless enough capability to cause considerable mayhem. This model is not a valid one for assessing the longer term regional situation in Russian and third party hardware.000 nautical miles radius. propulsion and computing technologies.the ability to threaten a CVBG with a mixed package of shooter and escort Su-27/30s to radii essentially greater than that of the F/A-18E/F and JSF mix on a carrier deck drives up the risk for the US Navy in a nasty political stand-off. The Raduga Kh-41 Moskit (3M-80/82 SS-N-22 Sunburn) has been integrated on the Sukhois' centreline station (Su-33) and is considered to be one of the most lethal supersonic sea skimming anti-ship weapons in existence.yielding a radius very close to 1. W hile such a strike refuelling technique is not viable for sustained high intensity operations.000 nautical miles radius. petrochemical/gas plants. Raduga and others selling their products across the accessible market. Some of the air-surface weapons being offered for the Sukhois are genuinely capable.Irkut. KNAAPO. lesser regional players have the option of buddy refuelling Su-30s with the UPAZ hose/drogue pod . with plenty of combat gas to burn at shorter radii. converted by Web2PDFConvert. Many of these products incorporate modern Western digital COTS technology. an example being the upgraded second generation 9B-1103M active radar seeker for the Vympel R-27A/EA missile. Even without a proper tanking capability. W hat this means in practical terms is that Su-30 users will have the potential to contest airspace up to 500 nautical miles or further from their runways. shipping. To assume that historical case studies of Russian aircraft support will be representative of the longer term future in this region is arguably to misunderstand the developing dynamic across the region. both in the active radar anti-shipping A model (PLA-N) and anti-radiation P model (PLA-AF). The era of Cold War technology monopolies is long gone . both advertised on Sukhois. such as airfields. aircraft carriers and other targets the destruction of which could be highly politically embarrassing to the victim.spare component supply rather than one . The NPO Soyuz/Turayevo TKMB ramjet powered Mach 4 class Zvezda-Strela Kh-31 (AS-17 Krypton) is offered on Sukhoi variants. The Su-30s are 'honest' 700+ nautical mile radius class fighters.000 nautical mile radius capability Australia possesses in its F-111 fleet. Both the supersonic OKB-52 P-800/3K55/3M-55/Kh-61 Yakhont / Brahmos (SS-N-26) and Novator 3M-54 Club (SS-N-27) have been publicly discussed as options for the Sukhoi fighters. since it has the radius to threaten both tankers and large ISR platforms in a shooting contest.China ordered six Il-78MKKs in late 2005.market forces will have their impact. W hile the F22A would deal with the Sukhois quickly and effectively. W ith a 200 nautical miles class standoff missile such as a 3M-54E or Kh-41 variant. especially the Su-34 series.000 nautical miles. The second is that the US Navy's CVBGs will lose much of their ability to intimidate by gunboat diplomacy . Even for the US Air Force the Su-30 presents some interesting challenges. it is feasible for nasty pinprick raids against very high value assets. Another factor to consider is the ongoing proliferation of advanced guided munitions and other hardware produced by competing Russian vendors. and launch limited strikes out to around a 1. in many scenarios the Sukhois could create genuine complications by forcing a relatively high ratio of F-22A escort sorties to F22A strike sorties.only the US can sustain such due its commanding lead in stealth.com . In the longer term the Sukhoi will have several strategic effects. derived from the R-77's first generation 9B-1348E . HAL and Shenyang lines and subcontractor pools .

the Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingbolt) is available but has not been advertised on the Sukhoi . using an APK-9 Tekon datalink guidance pod carried on the left inlet pylon.30 series.the weapon is a direct equivalent to the very effective French Aerospatiale AS.com .000 lb class 50 nautical mile range turbojet sustained Raduga Kh-59M (AS-18 Kazoo). converted by Web2PDFConvert. the 1.Cruise missiles integrated on or proposed for the Flanker (Author). which uses a conceptually similar TV/datalink guidance scheme. thermal imaging contrast lock homing (Kh-29D) and semi-active laser homing (Kh-29L) variants . An equivalent to the RAAF's AGM-142 is available in the 2. For strikes against land targets.500 lb class Molniya Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge) is available in television (Kh-29T). The smaller semi-active laser homing S-25LD and Zvezda Kh-25ML (AS-12 Kegler) are also on offer.the newer Kh-31R series appearing to be favoured by the market. An anti-radiation variant. with the television and thermal imaging guided variant seeker equivalent to the AGM-65 Maverick series.

Either three of the 1.000 lb GBU-8 HOBOS fitted with a bunker busting or fuel air explosive warhead. the KAB-500Kr is equivalent to a TV contrast lock guided 1.com . and the KAB-1500Kr a TV contrast lock guided system. or six of the 500 kg weapons can be carried by an Su-27/30 with suitable avionics. converted by Web2PDFConvert. The KAB500L is a direct equivalent to the GBU-16 using the 27N series laser seeker. available with unitary or bunker busting warheads.GNPP KAB-500 and KAB-1500 guided bombs (Author) The Russians are also actively marketing guided bomb kits for the Sukhoi fighters.500 kg weapons.000 lb class dumb bombs. Su-27SKM loadout (Sukhoi). The KAB-1500L is a semi-active laser homing kit. The KAB-1500 is a family of guidance kits for 3. the KAB-1500TK a TV command link guided kit analogous to the GBU-15 but 50% bigger.

the Kh-29T TV guided missile. and the KAB-500Kr electro-optically guided bomb kit.highly accurate and devoid of the need for a targeting pod. the stark reality is that the tyranny of distance which has protected Australia for decades is being rapidly eroded by developing capabilities across the region.with suitable laser coding modifications third party pods are likely to evolve to fill this niche over the next decade. W hile we might choose to argue ad nauseam as to whether a future Indonesian regime might opt to get into a fight with Australia. W ith the potential for a pre-programmed scene matching correlation capability (ie preloading the bomb with a digitised target image not unlike the early Tomahawk DSMAC). The principal impediment to the wider use of Russian laser guided bombs has been a shortage of good targeting pods . The large volume of the KAB series seekers would easily permit a lot of evolutionary growth in the design. or debate the likelihood of PLA-AF Sukhois being based in the northern apporaches at a future date. It is likely that we will see more of this family of bomb seekers in time. or a GBU-15 used in lock-on-before-launch mode . The availability of a wide range of competitively priced Russian guided weapons is likely to result over time in an increasing broadening of the role of regional Sukhoi fleets.com . converted by Web2PDFConvert. this presents the prospect of a JDAM like capability to attack multiple aimpoints on a single pass. PLA-AF Su-27SKs have been seen carrying paired KNIRTI L005-S Sorbtsya wingtip jammer pods designed to defeat the APG-63/65/68/70/73 radars and Hawk/Patriot SAM systems. Russian sources claim the PRC has ordered the Kh-59ME stand-off missile.Su-30MK loadout (Sukhoi). albeit daylight limited. since they provide a fire-and-forget capability very similar to the long retired GBU-8. The television guided KAB-500Kr and KAB-1500Kr kits are also worth closer scrutiny. the Kh-31R anti-radiation missile. or debate India's future role in the near region. To date most regional users have invested in Sukhois primarily to provide air superiority capabilities. and low cost commodity processing chips and QW IP thermal imagers would facilitate this. a technology the Russians do have. The impact of the US GBU-12 in Afghanistan and Iraq will not have gone unnoticed. Conclusions For Australia the Su-30 presents the prospect of a more difficult to defend sea-air gap.

И. Indeed. стр. стр. стр. №1. Sovetskaya."Электронное сканирование в системах управления вооружением истребителей". №5.. seem both to be quite incongruous. KNAAPO/Sukhoi brochure (Zipped PDF 16 MB) 10."Мир авионики". and is having genuine difficulties with a poorly ageing tanker and fighter fleet . 23B. стр. №1. Russia. Neither aircraft offers a decisive capability margin against the Su-30 series. 1. Similarly the belief that F/A-18E/F interim fighters will somehow address the capability gap in the F/A-18A HUG fleet is hard to accept. 125284.August 2004 . 125315. Ю. 6..Белый.И.Бодрунов. Komsomolsk-on-Amur.August 2003 -Asia's Advanced Flankers (Su-27/30) Australian Aviation . T here are no quick or cheap fixes in this game. Белый Ю. leaving a genuine window of strategic vulnerability should the more vocal proponents of RAAF capability reduction have their way in Canberra.In this context the 2002 JSF decision.Su-30 vs RAAF Alternatives (Su-27/30) Australian Aviation .Рождение АФАР . ul. Russia KnAAPO (JSC). even if the then incumbent US administration wants to do so. 68. 2. 13. 11."Мир авионики"."Аэрокосмическое обозрение". 2002.July 2004 .И.Asia's Advanced Precision Guided Munitions Australian Aviation ."Авиасалоны мира".20-22 "Ирбис" готовиться к прыжку . 4.in a crisis the US may not be in the position to deploy sufficient assets quickly enough. .Sukhois present new strategic risk for Australia converted by Web2PDFConvert. Multirole Super-Maneuverable Fighter.Moscow. The belief in some Canberra circles that the JSF will somehow solve all of the RAAF's force structure problems does not stand up to scrutiny. and ongoing lobbying for F/A-18E/F interim fighters. I f Australia is to retain its relative strategic position in the region it must start thinking realistically about its long term force structure and abandon the quick fix panacea solution mindset w hich seems to be so prominent in the current Canberra defence debate.and if possible convert the Sukhois to scrap metal in situ .The Sleeping Giant Awakens (PLA-AF/PLA-N) Defence Today . Leningradsky prospekt. Синани А.22-25 Владимир Ильин . Moscow. one idea popular in some Canberra circles seems to be that the RAAF is now less needed and should be downsized to save money since Indonesia is in a state of chaos and all the RAAF is needed to do is participate in the odd US coalition force . and in the modern age this positional advantage lies largely in air pow er. Further Reading Sukhoi/KnAAPO Su-35-1/BM/S Flanker Analysis Shenyang J-11B Flanker B Sukhoi Su-33 and Su-33UB Flanker D: Russia's Maritime Multirole Fighter Flanker Radars in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat T he Russian Philosophy of Beyond Visual Range Air Combat PLA Air to Air Missiles Soviet/Russian Guided Bombs Soviet/Russian T actical Air to Surface Missiles Soviet/Russian Cruise Missiles F/A-18E/F Super Hornet vs.радар нового поколения .108-111 С. №3. 5. especially longer term as the sensors.Dec 2003 .of course if anything goes really bad in our neighbourhood the US will instantly assist! This is a particularly lame argument insofar as the US Air Force is badly stretched with worldwide commitments. №4. 2006. 3. Sukhoi Flanker Assessing Russian Fighter T echnology Flanker Imagery Page Sukhoi Flanker Multimedia Supplement References 1. Bldg. Ю.23-28 9. Russia Sukhoi Company (JSC). 12.19-20 8. in the light of the known capabilities and demonstrated growth potential of the Sukhoi Su-30 which is rapidly becoming the 'standard' fighter across the region. Australian Aviation . 7.И. 14. The belief that the F111's heavyweight counter-air strike capability is now irrelevant also conflicts with the reality that the best way to fight an Su-30 without an F-22A is to shut down its basing from day one of a conflict . The Booklet.com . Strategy has alw ays been a game of positional advantage. avionics and weapons evolve in the Sukhois and regional players acquire AEW &C aircraft and other supporting capabilities. Su-35.September 2003 . The Americans may not solve their block obsolescence problems until later in the next decade.neither achievable with a handful of standoff missile shots. Polikarpov str. 1. стр.Таганцев.Зеленюк . 125315."Аэрокосмическое обозрение". 2005.А.«Панда» займет нишу многофункциональных БРЛС на период разработки радиолокационных систем пятого поколения" . 2006.Д. There is of course no guarantee that a future US leadership group will have the kind of relationship with Australia which we observe today. 681018. Irkut SPC (JSC). 2003. В. p/b 604 РЛСУ "Ирбис-Э" .

China's Rise as a Regional Superpower (PDF) Imagery Sources: Author. Military. All rights reserved. 2006 . 18.APA-2005-03 . Contact webmaster.Regional Developments 2005 Defence Today .net. Rosoboronexport.728 $ Site History: Notices and Updates / NLA Pandora Archive Save Page as PDF Tweet 8 Follow @APA_Updates converted by Web2PDFConvert. Defence Today . Recommended browsers.May 3rd. Text © 2004 .Carlo Kopp and Peter Goon .cz. 2007 Carlo Kopp Russkaya Sila.January/February 2006 .Regional Precision Guided Munitions Survey APA Analyses Volume II .January/February 2006 .15. XinHua Line Artwork: © 2003. graphic design. MilitaryPhotos.2010+ Regional Futures The International Assessment and Strategy Center .Sept 2004 . Site navigation hints.PioneerMilitaryLoans. Smart Fixed Rates. layout and text © 2004 . 17.com Military? Get $500-$10k in Minutes.com . T echnical Report APA-T R-2007-0101 Pioneer Military Loans® www.2012 Carlo Kopp. Apply Online Now Artwork. Vestnik PVO.2012 Peter Goon. 19.The Flanker Fleet -The PLA's 'Big Stick' Defence Today . 16. Site Update Status: $Revision: 1. Current hot topics.

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