EXIIBKK UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

JOHN HENRY NASH
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LIBRARY
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SAN FRANCISCO
PRESENTED TDTHE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
ROBERT GORDON SPRQUL, PRESIDENT.
MR.ANDMRS.MILTON S.RAV
CECILY, VIRGINIA AND ROSALYN

RAY

RAY OIL BURNER COMPANY

MODERN METHODS OF

BOOK COMPOSITION

THE PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY

MODERN METHODS OF

BOOK COMPOSITION
A TREATISE ON TYPE-SETTING BY HAND AND BY MACHINE

AND ON THE PROPER ARRANGEMENT AND IMPOSITION OF PAGES
BY

THEODORE LOW DE VINNE, n

A.M.

NEW YORK
THE CENTURY
1904

CO.

Copyright, 1904, by

THEODORE Low DEVINNE
Published October, 190U

THE DEVINNE PRESS

CONTENTS
Chapter
i

EQUIPMENT.
Types
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Stands

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Cases

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Case-racks.

ii

EQUIPMENT
Compositors' implements Galleys and galley-racks Brass rules and cases for labor-saving rule and leads Leads Furniture of wood Dashes and braces Furniture - racks and of metal Quotations and
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electrotype guards.

in COMPOSITION
Customary routine on Spacing and leading Distribution Composition by hand and machine Recent mannerisms. Proper methods of hahd-work Time-work and piece-work Justification book-work
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75
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iv COMPOSITION OF
Title-page
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BOOKS
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Ill
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Preface matter
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Chapter headings
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Notes Extracts and synopsis Subheadings and illustrations Running titles and paging at head or at foot Poetry Appendix and index
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Initials

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Head-bands,

etc.

v DIFFICULT COMPOSITION
Tables and table-work Algebra music cases Genealogies.
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171
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Music and

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vi
Chapter

Contents

vi

FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Accents
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Page

231

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Greek

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Hebrew

German.

vii

MAKING UP
The running
extracts,
title
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255
Signatures
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Notes, tables,

and

illustrations.

vni STONE-WORK
Stones and
gins
tions
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Exact adjustment of marchases CorrecLocking up ... Taking proofs
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Clearing away.

ix IMPOSITION

331
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Schemes for various forms Elementary principles 'from two and four to one hundred and twenty-eight Inset forms The leafOblong pages pages let New method of collating Small pamphlets Folding-machines Concluding remarks.
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x MACHINE- COMPOSITION
Review of early methods General organization Learning Assembling and keyboard mechanisms to operate Management of the linotype machine Treatment of matrices and Temperature of metal of space-bands The melting-pot, mould, and disk The assembling elevator Correct keyboard fin. . .

397

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gering.

So considIt ered. In ordinary conversation this phrase is un- discriminatingly applied to composed types in small pages. of four leaves or of forty volumes. its intended supplement. This book. must be evident that there are too many kinds of books and too many fashions in type-setting to be thoroughly described in an ordinary duodecimo. As the plain book is always in most request. whether plain or decorated. The book composition here to be treated is that of the ordinary book of the established publisher the plain book made to be used and read more than to be decorated and ad- mired as an exhibit of typographical skill. its construction should be the earlier study vii . will be confined to comments upon the mechanical methods of Book Composition.PREFACE INside of type-setting was treated under title A BOOK previously published the literary the of Correct Composition. the subject seems almost limitless.

clearly printed in strong black ink on appropriate but unpretentious paper. but in what the author has written. of its information. model for every-day harmful. here and there letters or lines in a bright red. To the buyer of a book who is also its reader. Scant attention can be given to decoration. tastefully arranged in orderly pages with proper margins. its value is in the imof the portance. printed in colors would be required for an . the great value of the book is not in type or decoration. designer. are some of a few permissible attractions but after all has been done by the type-founder. for whom this book has been prepared. but the book so prepared would be of small service to the young comThe decorated book is not a proper positor. Engraved illustrations to explain the text. Next follows easily readable type. headbands and tail-pieces of harmonious design that close the staring gaps of chapter breaks and vary the monotony of print. for it service. A instructive exhibit of medieval and modern styles of printing. To describe with proper detail usual methods of workmanship in the decorated book or pamphlet that is now in favor would be a thick volume of facsimiles hopeless task. and printer. It might be presents suggestions of styles .viii Preface young compositor. real or fancied. papermaker.

are other unpleasing consequences. for fashions in type-setting are as fickle as fashions in dress. from the thought of the writer to the The unavoidably diminskill of the printer. An expert compositor may smile at the frequency of suggestions that he does not need now. No ornamental style now in vogue can be offered as one of permanent favor. in the rudiments of printing. but there was a time when he did need them. to put proper blanks between lines of display. and the increased cost of his work.Preface ix or methods that are impracticable in any printing-house with a scant supply of types or borders.' It may be that in my explanations I have been more minute than is customary in manuals of printing. To space words evenly. ished performance of every experimental decorator with type. perhaps to reiteration. To examine and compare the different styles of decorative composition that came in and went out of vogue during every ten years of the last century is to be forewarned that eccentricities of present popularity may be disliked in the near future. to make up matter in symmetrical pages and to impose them . Decoration is of doubtful value when it diverts the eye from matter to manner. Every master printer of experience will agree with me that the apprentice needs minute instruction.

As an aid to this object. To those who have little or no experience in the handling of the strange types required. There is a demand in every printing-house for more compactness in the stowage of materials. and perfection is not a trifle. There are chapters that claim the attention of a mature compositor. but the list is incomplete. or to set bars of music or formulas in algebra. Trifles make perfection. brass rules. to whom I here renew acknowledgments and thanks. and extra sorts of type. The equipment of a book-printing house with the new styles of cases and stands that are required in modern practice has received as much attention as space allows. . In the compilation of this matter I have had many helpers. suggestions have been made about new arrangements for leads. for new styles of merit are increasing in number. those compositors who rate speed higher than skill or good taste. furniture. but the remark of a great artist may here may seem trifles to be repeated.x Preface for the convenience of pressmen and binders. Every book-printing house is required at times to provide lines or paragraphs in the proper characters of foreign languages. with a proper provision for greater facility in their handling. the information here presented will be of service.

editor of the Century Dic- and made tionary.D. Smith. based upon an article in Lefevre's Guide Pratique du Compositeur. Martin of New York. James H. are not Machine-composition was written for this T. Greek has been revised by Benjamin E. and author of a treatise of great value on The Mechanism work by Mr. and every compositor should be qualified to put them in type with a reasonable approach to correctness.H. These departments of book composition common. Dodge. Correct Keyboard Fingering was contributed by Mr. Frank Horace Vizetelly. His treatise on this subject will prove a thorough explanation of a much-neglected department of composition. instructor of the machine -composition branch of the Inland Printer Technical School. . John S. Hebrew has been corrected by Mr.. Thompson. Ph. but they are sure to appear occasionally in ordinary copy. Philip of the Linotype. L. Music was specially written for this work by Mr.D. was revised clearer by Henry Burchard Fine. assistant editor of the Jewish Encyclopedia.. president of the Mergenthaler Linotype Company.Preface xi Algebra. professor of mathematics at Princeton University.

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MODERN METHODS OP BOOK COMPOSITION .

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or plain reprints. large fonts of text types and 6-point are indisand 7-point bodies. . Stands .EQUIPMENT Types . Case-racks TYPES PRINTING-HOUSE that is fitted for the practice of one branch only of printing. may be provided in smaller fonts. weekly newspapers. Types on i i . .10. does not need a large variety of faces or sizes of type. but when it is in- tended that it shall be properly equipped for all kinds of book composition. . Types on smaller bodies and of still smaller fonts will be 12. . . not often required.11. Cases . as for law cases. .89- on the bodies of pensable.

and side-notes.2 A book-house needs many types needed for foot. chases. Buyers' tastes are very capricious. that does not have to send to the type-foundries frequent orders for additions to large fonts. figures. Foreign languages and scientific treatises will re- quire accents and signs that are not supplied with the regular font of type. and many labor-saving Nor is this all. stones. etc. known as " sorts. Books must be ex- pected that will call for an increase in the supply of capitals. The difficulty itself in of providing for unforeseen requirements presents another direction. . quadrats. for side. The larger bodies of 14. To meet the notions of different buyers. brass rules. italics. metal furniture.and 24-point will be useful for the texts of quartos and larger sizes. wood and devices. It often happens that the largest fonts have been insufficiently provided with one or more characters. plain and condensed. There is no book-house.to 72-point. leads. there should be at least one complete series of old-style type or some other variation from the standard of modern roman letter." In every printing-house supposed to be amply equipped for miscellaneous book and pamphlet work. To this assortment must be added small fonts of two -line capital letters for title-pages and plain initials varying in size from 8. galleys. points.18. or as letter of display.or subheadings . racks. There must be also types of bold face of many sizes. however large or well equipped. but a small portion of its types can be kept in daily use.

Composition can be economically done only when enough to keep the compositors in 1 It is possible. many Proofs may be withheld by the author beyond the time agreed on. presses. . and in too small quantity. and sometimes steady employment. and their appliances will be needed to keep each workman in reasonably steady employment. This is largely out of proportion to the sum invested. In the house that does one branch only of printing. the average will not be so high. The return of forms from the press-room or foundry may be delayed by accident. but suspen- sions are frequent. any one of these hindrances will stop composition.Supply must exceed demand 3 During one week nearly all the compositors may be setting 10-point old-style in another week they will be setting 11 -point modern. it is unavoidable when a font too small has been there are types 1 A printing-house always does be filled with additions and alter- work to disadvantage when composition has to be suspended for want of type or sorts. Yet the value of the types and their appliances handled daily by each piece-compositor rarely exceeds one hundred dollars. be largely in excess of daily needs. and the master printer must be accustomed to have nine tenths or more of his type stand idle every day. they may ations that keep compositors at correction instead of composition. When returned. but in large book-houses it often exceeds one thousand dollars. There are occasions for this suspension. Copy may be sent in irregularly. When the font of type is small. but the large investment is not to be evaded. Every contributor to the work should keep pace with his mates. Material must . It should be assumed at the outset that in a fully equipped book-house one thousand dollars' worth of printingmaterial in types.

176. begin with a knowledge of the weight of the type set up in one day by the comNext estimate positors employed on that work.4 Stands wasteful of floor -space provided. must be determined. This time will vary from two days to two months. the supply required may be much greater than would seem necessary. and that are unavailable for any other purpose. Every prosperous book -office has large fonts of the regular text types. The type required for a specified number of pages has been tabulated. for proofs sent abroad may be kept out much longer.-iMe to peculiar faults. exposed breastThe stands that so uphold these cases are high. bulky and wasteful of l floor-space. quired for a work. . always done expensively. the time that may be taken between composition and the return of the type for distribution. See Plain Printing Types. for cases in use p. Type enough must kept be provided to keep compositors employed for a specified number of days. varying in weight from two thousand to twenty thousand hampered is pounds. to print a book from type not sufficient for a form of four or eight pages but work so . The weight of the composed types that have to be idle. but to make provision for unexpected hindrances. and is li. The most noticeable objects in a composing-room are not the types but the type cases. 1 but the table makes no allowance for type that has to be kept standing by delays To estimate the weight of the type reof author.

Description of the stand should have abundant light. too far apart. The cross-pieces at the top that connect the front with the back are at different inclinations. It is not a trivial task to keep materials accessi- and in good order. as well as the galley that receives composed type. the compositor can see and reach exposed in the two cases. To meet the conflicting of closer requirements compactness and of more some old and new forms of printingof the space. but in no workshop does the rule." call for more rigorous enforcement than in the composing-room. house furniture call for more careful examination. accents. so that the lower case may and the upper case at a higher angle. are often at an inconvenient distance.workmen. as it is called in England) is an open framework of pine wood made to support the cases of type. ble STANDS The stand (or frame. all the characters . 5 although the height of an upper case near a window often obstructs the lighting of other cases in the middle of the room. and without needed supervision or help from fellow. It follows that with insufficient Italic. "A place for everything. Greater compactness is needed in cities where room rent and artificial lighting are serious expenses. or display letter that may be needed frequently. some compositors may have to work light. and everything in its place. be at a low So placed.

4 feet 6 inches width. 4 feet 6 inches. 1 l To break the habit of resting the feet on the lower cross-piece of the stand.The common double stand Stands are made of two sizes. are length. some daily newspaper houses have the cases rest on strong iron bars that project side-walls. but they are most used in news-houses. 1 foot 10 inches height at back. from the . is not so common. Double stand of usual form. The dimensions of the double stand. about one half the length of the double. . : . height in front. 3 feet 6 inches. and to prevent the accumulation of pi or dust on the floor. containing rack for cases. The single stand that exposes two cases only. which exposes four cases. Stands are also made of iron pipe. and are known as double and single.

but leaves unoccupied a large space on the other side. It accommodates in an interior rack.Unhandiness of the common stand 1 Double stands are oftenest arranged back to back between windows. A more useful form provides for an inclined galley-ledge in a sliding drawer (which also serves for copy out of use). so that the galley can be drawn out and put back without risk of piing the composition. keeping of copy and cuts. more than five feet wide. : is much-approved departure from the old form as the Polhemus double stand. so that four compositors can work in the alley so made. As the ordinary stand has no provision for a galley. but they are not liked nearly all compositors prefer to stand at work. Stands have been made low enough for the compositor to work seated. 1 which was constructed with an intent to have the back as 1 Designed by John Polhemus. but with some inconvenience to the compositor. compositors have to empty their sticks on galleys at an inconvenient It is often without a drawer for the safedistance. A known . New York. Double stands are also made with a support for a galley that can be placed inclined upright between the two exposed lower cases. 1872. and a broad vacancy under the projecting upper cases at the top. This upward projection at the back seriously obstructs the light of those who work at a distance. This stand. allows the space below to be utilized for the stowage of two tiers of cases. six or eight cases on one side of the frame.

Front view of a panelled stand with galley-support and cases at the back. panelled. a broad standing galley.closet for Polhemus double stand. The lower cases rest on angled supports that allow these cases to be inclined backward. which equally serviceable for . Two compositors only can work The exposed cases.8 The Polhemus double stand accessible as the front. and a galley . are placed on the top of a broad cabinet rack that contains thirty-six cases. but the last-named cases and galleys are at the back and not at the front of the workmen. supported by iron brackets. movable galleys. in the alley so reduced. The two compositors who work side by side can empty their composed type on the is gal- ley behind them.

In the old-fashioned double stand the few cases in its rack below were widely separated and unavoidably received daily deposits of dust and paper rubbish. In all modern type cabinets of . cleanliness.Cases upon cabinets are preferred 9 correction or storage of distributable type. The old cases were held in their racks by supports of wood that suffered wear from continued rubbing. cabinets with case-upholding brackets of an improved form are preferred for their greater compactness and Bear view of the Polhemus double stand. Nor will they be disturbed at work if a third compositor should withdraw a case from the rack. In printing-houses recently equipped.

Another form of case-rest is designed to enable to work facing each other. so that it can be tilted upward and enable the compositor to empty his composed type on the galley underneath his case. a third compositor can have unobstructed access to ten cases underneath while the two compositors are at work. as . It is planned to be placed in front of a window. The case provided for ordinary composition is a shallow tray of wood 16j inches wide. or to make use of the top of the cabinet for the safe-keeping of copy out of use. CASES The cases on top of the cabinet that serves as a stand are held in proper angle by iron brackets. two compositors As with the Polhemus stand. The steel runs have the greater advantage of enabling the maker-up to put cases closer Some forms of cabinets of double size together. divided by thin wood partitions into separate compartments.10 Cabinet stands and cases improved construction. steel runs fastened to the side of the frame with countersunk screws are better substitutes for able the cases to slide with runways of wood. and 1 inch deep. One kind of iron bracket is constructed to swing on a proper rest. over a cabinet rack that holds eighteen air-tight cases. or boxes. 32 inches long. will hold forty cases in their type-racks. for they enmore ease and lessen their wear.

so that there shall be a box for every character of the font. For the composition of ordinary copy in roman type are needed two .The ordinary upper case called 11 by compositors.

12 The upper case has too many boxes own notion of convenience. A strange compositor who begins to work on a case that has been laid or altered by a new scheme has to relearn the loca- .

The only old mistake practical case is now made to remedy this so called the "patent hinged case" because the upper case contains but five long tiers The of boxes. but no compositor of experience would favor this arrange- The inconvenience suffered in seeking italic. instead of seven as is customary. Any unusual sort needed in composition can be put in a small annex box of tinned iron. and not so high.Attachments to the case 13 capital case. Not the least of the advantages to be gained by the use of one case only would be the increased diffusion of light in the darker parts of a composing-room. The boxes of an ordinary upper case and lower case are supposed to be arranged so that the sorts most used shall be nearest to. the reach of the compositor. suppression of these two upper tiers shortens its height. which may easily be attached to any large box. italic should have preference. then the capitals and small capitals could be put therein and be brought within easier reach. and favors the increased diffusion of light. The two cases so connected by the hinge can slide on the same cleat in the ordinary case-rack. wider. and as readily be removed. It is also supposed that the unequal sizes of the boxes are in proportion to the unequal use of the characters . fractions. If the lower case were made longer. and those least used farthest from. as that endured in looking for misplaced sorts in dusty and inconvenient boxes. or signs from a distant case is not so great ment.

Our modern lower case has in the first row of large boxes the letters b. o. w. f. Printing of 1892. Jacobi gives a diagram in which the capitals are put in the upper In his Practical left corner. In his Mechanick Exercises of 1683. s. second row has 1. case. fi. seem to have been put out of the old types of Moxon presents an upper case with the large capitals in the upper left corner. In his treatise of 1890 on Printing. It has no small capitals. half-. box. The . nient positions. The most needed but sorts are fairly placed. r. c. Southward shows a model case with capitals at the right and small capitals at the left of the lower part of the upper case. ff . The boxes that would otherwise be vacant are filled with signs. The a. but in England and America the case in two parts English schemes. and with figures in the lower left corner. i. d. r.14 Irregularities in the lay of the case they contain. 1 The upper case and lower when put upon the stand. g. Europe. h. are . figures stowed in the upper case. n. y. e. expose a surface of about seven square feet. They the upper left-hand corner. p the third row has v. prefer a case in one piece. t. and quarter-size more to suit the convenience of a case-maker than to provide for the intelligent apportionment devised by type- founders. In all the order to bring them in easier Printers of northern reach. m. and ever since we have adhered to one feature of this early usage. These suppositions are not entirely The boxes have been made of whole. correct. beginning at has always had most favor. the justifying spaces are scattered in very inconve- Annex case. u. The " " lay of the upper case has received many changes. which is too large a surface to be covered by the travel of the compositor's 1 Illustrations of early com- posing-rooms show that the first printers tried to put all the types needed for the text in one large laid the types in alphabetical order. who use text types without small capitals.

and in a direction in which the right arm has not free play. when they should be clusNor are the space boxes of proper size. In are about the every font of letter the f our-to-em spaces furnished same weight as that of the letter i. To reach and too distant boxes.Space boxes inconveniently placed 15 hand. The boxes for tered. Facilities for justification and even spacing have not been considered. while the fourto-em space in a quarter-box is not so accessible. 1 Invented by Thomas N. of New York. for he who sets five thousand ems of solid type in one day has to make his hand travel about six or seven miles. at some inconvenience performance. 1 was introduced. but rarely found in enough for brevier is book -houses. The hand -travel in distribu- tion about one third more. which is about one fifth smaller than the ordinary case. The more distant boxes on the is left side of the ordinary upper case are nearly thirty inches from the stick in the hand of the compositor. Rooker. It holds letter and all smaller sizes. the compositor of low stature has to loss in move his feet. case that will shorten the travel of the hand should materially increase the performance of the A known is compositor. spaces are too far apart. The accepted form of lower case has many serious defects. . a smaller case. but not enough for a day's work with larger types. It used to some extent in daily newspaper offices. as the E/ooker. yet i has a full box in easier reach. With this end in view. about 1858.

16 Analysis of a font of type The most needed three-to-em space is about of the same thickness as the lower-case t. Small capitals . 2 The spaces and quadrats 1 The schemes different type-founders are not exactly alike. . Quadrats Upper-case sorts. .. Points like . have separate boxes as large as that given to the four-to-em space that is provided weight of nearly ten pounds. : ! ? and types of j. . lb. averaging about ten ounces each.' . . etc 209 11 16 33 50 7 8 6 Lower-case letters Capitals . Roman accents 4 Italic accents. and Z.' .. and the space saved be given to boxes that are now too small.' . fying spaces is about one sixth. Some of the small boxes could be contracted without inconvein a nience. Italic.. oz.. 28 8 12 2 Spaces 2. but their trivial differences in apportionment will not mate- constitute more than one fourth of the weight of the lower-case The weight of the justisorts. 3 1 Leaders 6 7 8 Reference-marks Braces Dagheg Fractions Capitals. . X. The difference between space required and space allowed for each sort will be more plain after a study of the scheme for a font of Lower-case Type Foundry four hundred and twenty pounds : made by the Bruce 1 sorts.' . of 34 7 2 14 12 10 rially disturb the percentages tbat have been s P ecifled in the table Every new analysis will show decided inequality. ib. although the typefounders furnish in weight one half more of the Nor are the boxes three-to-em space than of t. oz. Lower-case letters Points Figures. but each sort occupies a box of the same size.' .. . for other characters adapted to supply.18 1 Total 420 6 3 1 ...

Accents. . and as its per minor sorts are in small request. .76 . . of that of the complete font. no great advantage As the weight could be had by altering the size of the boxes or by changing the location of their sorts. readjust- A ment of real value which in the lower case. of the font. takes in seventy-six per cent. . .Analysis of a font of type 17 The proportion that each ing percentages : class of sorts bears to the is entire weight of the font shown in the follow- Lower-case Upper-case . . must be made Large boxes. c . .03 of the upper-case sorts is but twelve cent. .12 Italic 09 etc.

braces. quarter-box. n. as will be shown upon another page. i. and reference- marks. and a are too small. The only series in steady request are the capitals. with other sorts in occasional request. have positions too prominent at the top of a case. so marked. which is always of largest size. 3. For the half-boxes the want of proportion is not . W a trifling enlargement of their boxes. r are too large those for h. Small have been discarded in many books and obstructed. spaces should have a box three times as large the five-to-em spaces. eleven and twenty-eight quarter-boxes. but they could be attached to the lower case. and abbreviations could be relaid in the ordinary capital case. O.78+ 5 . The four-to-em 1. . It is to make room for these capitals sorts that the case is is made high and the lighting of a room newspapers. d. and to them must be added the e box. that rarely appear in book. . U. Fractions. is given whole box. m. signs. : . signs. The V could be put in a smaller box b and could have a box one fourth smaller the and the en quadrat are the only sorts that call for . and that the upper case is also in fault. The stowage capacity of each box. t. The preceding tables show that a simplification of the lower case is needed. Small capitals. a box nearly twice as large. 0.18 The case has many neglected boxes The lower case comprehends fourteen whole. as comhalf- in these percentages pared with that of the entire lower case. .89 + The boxes for C. and would be as .57 + half-box. fractions.work.

and these spaces should be to- Points of punctuation and double letters gether. and to make a more convenient lay of the sorts.A If his lower case containing capitals 19 available in a rack under the compositor's stand. this plan of a new lower case is offered : . copy called for these sorts in excess. should also be in groups. they are. To save useless travel of the hand. would be as accessible there as they now out of easy reach. The lower case should have more room for spaces.

need The weight of the en quadrat and the justifying spaces is more than one sixth the combined weight the lower-case sorts. and the highest point of the case upon that stand would be about six inches lower than it is now. but there is no serious irregularity in the partitions that would increase the labor of case-making. but as an approximation that may lead to practical improvements hereafter. . Some boxes have been enlarged and others contracted. and no changes in boxes that for the leading sorts has to be respected. would make the case confusing to the compositor. to the saving of space and the improvement of the lighting of the room. The force turies the sizes of habit that has kept unchanged for three cenand relative positions of the boxes Changes have been proposed only where change seemed of real importance.20 If this Lightens work of even spacing form of case were in general use. but the provided in the present form of case of all room is that is one half of what is needed. not as a correctly apportioned case. the stand on which it rests would be narrower at least four inches. This diagram is offered. The greatest changes are where there is greatest in the sizes and positions of the space boxes. case that A exactly apportions the space for type would be too great and too expensive an innovation. only about The en quadrat is twelve inches distant in one direction and the four- and five-to-em spaces ten inches distant in another from the composing-stick in the compositor's hand.

but the new position will be found quite as space. which are repeatedly changed in justification sort. Few sorts are more ir- regularly used than the large quadrats. This case . the compositor can select the en quadrat for wide-leaded work. a new offered in the diagram on the next is wider and longer (24J x 32 J but it will contain for each box as many inches). but on ordinary plain descriptive matter they do not deserve the accessible position they now have. They are often needed in open composition. spaces will convenient as the old one. it follows that the labor of reaching for spaces should be lessened. as can be types put in the regular cases. and are more handled than any other should be clustered near the compositor's stick. The two. The The quarter-boxes for the half-boxes and whole boxes are of the old capacity. but they are more accessible at the ends of the lower case. with as much facility as he now selects the three-to-em Large boxes and a central position of the be other aids to cleaner distribution.Accessible spaces increase performance 21 As justifying and even spacing take up nearly as much time as the picking up of type. or the four-to-em space for solid work. As the spaces are laid in the new schemes. To those who wish small arrangement page. and that the spaces. is capitals exposed. capitals are one eighth smaller than those of the upper case. This form of case should enable the compositor to increase his performance seven per cent.and three -em quadrats are put to the left.

.22 A lower case with all the capitals For ordinary composition the old-fashioned stands and cases are sufficiently serviceable. but they are not helpful enough that calls for two or when more the compositor has copy sizes of roman and italic.

for subheads. one capital case. one capital case. with the accents to the extreme left right (I). of 14 for a day's x get the desired compactness. The illustrations show the brevier upper and lower cases in the usual position ( L and K in the diagram). Irregular sorts. Nonpareil. one job case. Nonpareil antique. except those at the extreme outermost corners. one capital case. long -armed compositor can reach all A without swaying his body. was selected as large 011 work the sizes of brevier and cases at right angles nonpareil. tilted were put on each inward as shown in the diagrams. two cases. the 28 inches. Nonpareil italic. Accents for brevier. The compositor. one upper case : and one lower case. can readily reach all the boxes of the four cases.Compactness of the dictionary stand illustration is 23 To those who need many sorts in ready reach. ( M and ) the italic to the extreme The framework right and left of the stand below the extreme is utilized by adding thereto racks . twelve cases readily accessible Brevier. an shown on following pages of a form of stand made for the composition of the Century For this work the compositor needed dictionary. one upper case and one lower case. one job case. Accents and signs for nonpareil. Brevier italic. Two more Rooker side. To save space and Rooker enough case. who stands before these cases. one capital case. for side-heads. Brevier antique.

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firmJy hinged. These side-frames are kept firmly in position by the swinging iron bars T and U. and for most of them without He can select accents. is attached on each side. so that cases least used can be put in sidewise. and two with capitals to the right. When he wishes to empty composed matter on galley. Two of the job cases were made with capitals to the left. he pulls out the drawer. unloads his stick. the galley is put on an inclined plane in a drawer under the case in front of the compositor. When these bars are locked. The compositor is in the centre of three sides of a small square. A swinging side-frame. exposing every box to view and touch. and to save needless travel. or words of italic or in display letter. and with supports parallel to those in the stand. and yet be kept within easy reach. When the lower cases in the change of position. side-racks are not needed.and left-hand sides. . and then shoves in the drawer. the swinging side-frame can be put back as shown in diagram 1. without removing the case from its rack. and is not so liable to accident as in the old position on an exposed stand. This keeps the most used division of the lower case nearest to reach on right. the cases on each side can be drawn out at full length. To pre- vent the cluttering up of other stands. and can pick out any type he wants from about eight hundred boxes without leaving his frame.26 Usefulness of the dictionary stand with supports. where the galley interferes with no other composition.

and by putting the four- and five-to-em-space and hair-space boxes next to the three-to-em-space box. rat This arrangement is made by putting the en-quadbox next to the three-to-em-space box on the other side of the broad bar. Not many other boxes have to be disturbed for their readjustment.A new arrangement of spaces 27 The roman cases have the most needed spaces and en quadrats directly under the compositor's hand. This .

are frequently placed in one case of a form known as the job case.28 Two schemes of job case italic. or of display tj^pe that has no small capitals or minor sorts. Small fonts of .

The triple case 29 another has large square boxes for figures only. of the two faces needed in some table-work. but they can be . Petty fonts of display types on small bodies are seldom needed in the book-house.

30 Accent cases for roman and italic proper box will be helpful to the new compositor. In . and a safeguard against reckless distribution.

which can be removed from the tray and be placed temporarily on the upper case or the imposing-stone. and the other characters occasionally needed. electrotype guards. when divided into proper compartments. They are used for brass rule. Sections still smaller (5x8 and 7 X 7 inches. great defect in cases A of old manufacture was the splitting or warping of wood that was not seasoned. cross proximate layers at Box-fastener. cases have Some modern bottom pieces of three thin layers of glued wood that have been made one solid piece under strong pressure. .Improved strength of modern cases smaller cases of one-fourth 31 Tray cases are now made to be used as nests for size. for the signs of algebra and scientific work. The cases now made are as strong as they are light: the corners of the boxes are strengthened by a long pin and clamps of thin brass that securely bind the woodwork. thereby making an effective safeguard against warping or cracking. outside) are fur- nished by founders for leaders. Other makers attach to side-frames or to cases a new form of runner that enables the case to slide easily in its rack and prevents needless friction and wear. The fibres of each layer an angle. but will be equally serviceable.

often furnished in bewildering profusion. or any kind of sort used in ex- cess that has to be carried to the compositor's case. are difficult to keep in order nor are half-tone cuts easily identified when . . Electrotyped illustrations that vary in size from an inch square to fifty square inches.32 The tray case Large types and borders that cannot be properly stowed in the ordinary capital case are often needed in a book-house for the proper composition of titlepages and publishers' circulars. that may be used with advantage for The tray all sizes greater than 24-point. case without compartments or slotted sides is of service as a nest in holding the quarter or smaller sections containing brass rules. The sections are divided in compartments of differ- ent sizes for the needs of special work. quadrats. tray case is provided with movable partitions fitting into the slotted sides. leaders. For this need a Tray case with movable partitions. figures.

is needed in printing-houses.Cases for electrotyped illustrations they have been 33 made accessible. all A cabinet case for cuts. . with index.

3. a form of quadrat case has been made this to rest upon the top of the cabinet case or galley-rack.34 An exposed case for quadrats and spaces In all printing-houses it is a rule that spaces and quadrats must not be distributed in cabinet cases that hold petty fonts. To prevent annoyance. A lead case for 1. The leads so cut can be well placed in a brass-rule case of four . for very short leads that cannot be stowed in the ordinary lead-rack.and 6- point bodies. Other ingenious designs of cases are to be had.2. gives needtrouble. is a valuable addition to a printing-house that does algebraic work or other nice justification. The scattering of -these sorts in many with less boxes. It is intended to contain the quadrats and spaces for all ordinary lines of display exposed in a position where justification is facilitated. where they are found difficulty.

case. Other forms of case leads 35 High and low and each thickness of lead should be kept apart in a separate section.Quadrat sections. 1 .

full size. with supports that project about four or . the case-racks occupy too much room. so that each piece of furniture can be readily fitted to another piece when any new arrangement is desired.36 Case-rack of wood cannot be combined or neatly fitted to one another. and sometimes in the interior of a dark room. seven. half- or double size of the ordinary double frame. In all large printing-houses that keep in stock one thousand or more cases. and the cases are difficult to handle and are liable to be pied. CASE-RACKS Case -racks are required for the stowage of cases not in frequent use. racks. It is better practice to limit their height to five feet. these too high elevations the case-rack obstructs light. and closets provided should be of the size. Sometimes they are placed against a dead wall. To economize a needed space. they are often made six. At or eight feet high. The case-racks of display type should have side- frames. In the fitting up of a new office the stands. Case-rack of wood.

. and of real service to the case should be able figure.Case-rack ofpipe-iron 37 more inches from the frame. against misplacement. Each numbered with a large readand the duplicate of this figure should be pasted on the side of the case-rack where the This method will be a safeguard case belongs. This extension will enable the compositor to expose the case and set a line therefrom without removing it from the rack. Case-rack of pipe-iron.

braces. . The quarter case that nests in the tray case for is it the most generally useful form of small case. dashes. figures. that are often made to order. rule. see diagrams on later pages under these headings. leaders.38 compositor Smaller sizes of case who begins to select type or distribute combut other plans are required for peculiar work. can be removed from its tray and placed within easy reach of the compositor without disturbing his work on the regular form of lower case. Hebrew. borders of brass rule for pages of different space rule. leaders. Many of the cases here described are in mon use. different thicknesses need cases and short leads of with unequal compartments. and irregular sorts in occasional request. and 7 X 7 Small cases are also made to the sizes of 7f X 15 inches. size. with compartments of unequal for the space orderly keeping of short leads. Labor-saving brass in a strange printing-house. and music. For the cases needed in the composition of Greek.

. made to hold composed type. . . . is stronger and much more durable it holds the type securely. . with a rim at the head and on each side. . Electrotype guards GALLEYS AND GALLEY-RACKS HE galley is a tray of wood or brass with a raised rim on two or three sides. . . . .ISAIAH THOMAS II EQUIPMENT Brass Galleys and galley-racks Compositors' tools rules and cases for labor-saving rule Dashes and braces Leads Furniture of wood and metal Furniture-racks . is frail and seldom used. which has its rim at the head and on one side only. Quotations . . . and allows it to be locked up and proved on a press. for which service it is kept in an inclined The galley of wood. . . . The galley of brass. . Galleys are sometimes . position. .

it is twenty-four inches. If less than five inches wide known as a single galley if over six inches . partly opened. The slice galley. The slice galley is preferred for the . The rim is made by Slice galley. the sides of the open box in which the slice is kept. For making up and tying up pages a short galley of brass with a low rim is preferred.40 Different kinds of galley entirely of brass. has no attached rim to the slice or tray on which the type is placed. The length in common use is Single galley of brass. from its box. if short and wide it is Galley of wood. called a quarto galley. usually of quarto shape and of wood. as a double galley. with its tied-up type. The slice has a handle at the narrow end. which enables it to be easily removed. but they oftener have wood rims lined with brass. wide.

sometimes of pipe-iron. Galley-racks are temporary rests for the galleys while the type on them waits for the action of the Galley-rack with swinging arms. .Galley-racks of old form 41 making up of pages or jobs that are too large to be seized by the hands. but that can be launched on the stone after they have been tied up. Galley-rack with fixed arms. or with joints. reader or maker-up. so that each arm can be folded back but all galley-racks of this . The form 'frequently used in a small office is a series of hanging arms attached to a dead wall. Sometimes the arms are of wood.

When each galley is numbered. It is a series of inclined shelves. that permit the galleys Shelf rack for galleys. and invite the piing or squabbling of the type on the galley. and this number is marked on the proof. firmly attached to the top of a cabinet case or low caserack. to be compactly stowed lengthwise. without risk of damage. The standing galley is an inclined tray.42 New form of galley -rack kind are wasteful of space. and a corresponding number is affixed to its shelf. made with longitudinal divisions to the width It holds standing of the measures in greatest use. In all houses that have many galleys in regular use the form of galley-rack shown in the accompanying illustration is more satisfactory. . there need be no difficulty in finding any galley in a large rack.

when the board is suddenly In the small job-office a part of the standing galley is often fitted up with separating partitions for short leads and brass rules. These letter-boards should have a Standing galley with racks. and should be placed in a good light. upon which tied-up pages or jobs of dead matter can be placed. The racks below this standing galley are often used for stowing letter-boards. jostled off .Standing galley with racks 43 matter that may be reimposed and used. or dead matter intended for distribution. raised rim at the extreme end to protect the matter from being pulled out.

44 Composing-sticks of different designs COMPOSITORS' TOOLS The composing-stick is a small open tray of iron with raised ledges on two sides. Sticks of wood of large size are now made only for the large type of posting-bills. which tightens the knee with its spring clamp and lever. is preferred by many job/r\ \\ Wooden job-stick. although the material has been changed. for it enables them quickly to readjust the stick to any width of measure. compositors. The Grover stick. . The name has survived. by which the adjustable knee is made fast. and an adjustable knee-piece within that slides to and fro and can be 1 adapted to the width of any measure. The common form has a screw-bolt that passes through the back ledge and an opening in the movable knee. made to hold but two or three ers lines. differing chiefly in the mechanism Composing-stick. It is made in many styles. common form. The form of 1 stick preferred in many newspaper The sticks of the early print- were rude channels of wood.

which used for withdrawing a faulty type from the form. or tight spacing. 1 The spring bodkin. The stick needs care. one lapping over the other. Bodkins are also made hooked or bent at is the point. American and British sticks hold ten or twelve lines of pica. It is claimed that the shallow stick does not fatigue the compositor by its weight. that shuts up is a more useful tool. if If dropped upon the is floor. a handle. . firmly fixed in Bodkin. be- French composing-sticks are shallow. and enables the left hand to follow the right in every movement of picking up type.Tools for correcting 45 houses has the knee firmly fastened to the bottom plate. The bodkin is a straight awl. holding about five lines of pica. tween tweezers. so that the measure can never be unsettled. or allowed to rust. the knee strained by over- it is liable to give bad justification. 1 Newspaper stick of unalterable measure. and so arranged that the matter of two measures can be set in the same stick one for text and one for side-notes. Another form of stick has two adjustable knees.

. act of distribution. is a movable strip of smooth metal. matter in the process of making up. that enable a compositor to pick up and arrange types in the narrow columns of a table. as a Composing-rule. those BRASS RULES Brass rules. who have to set . The smooth metal allows an easy movement and adjustment of the galley or an unlocked The composing-rule type when it is caught by the thumb. are usually of brass of news-compositors are oftener of steel. type-high.46 Brass rules The tweezers. is a serviceable tool for withdrawing type from a form on the stone. of the length of the measure required. are usually furnished to the printer in strips two feet long. The rule is also used for emptying the contents of the stick on the galley. cut from hard-rolled sheet-brass and planed to the standard height of type. . against which the compositor places the types that he puts in the stick. and for dividing and moving The composand book-printers. support for type in the V . ing-rules of jobtype to many measures. Tweezers.

Printers designate them not so often by number as by the names of gle. and ornamental rules are never used in Dotted. When a rule Bevelled or Flat-faced. and fancy.Mules needed in book. points. for they will be most needed. The faces most used in book-work are commonly Double. plain composition. parallel. face are is Different kinds of made. The waved. should be in abundant supply. triple. double. sin- Parallel. as single. border is planned to consist . but the waved and dotted rules may be of occasional service.work. dotted. waved. hyphened. but each one designated by the arbi- trary number of the typefounder.work They are rolled to conform Face Foot to the bodies of the point system. triple. and can be had of all thicknesses from 1 to 12 Single. parallel. The hair-line and the flat-faced Waved. and dotted. known double. These faces are enough for all ordinary book. spurred.

as occasion requires. are furnished by all type-founders under the name of labor-saving rule. There are also machines lengths.48 of Machines for two parallel lines. but some printers find it expedient to buy rule in strips and cut it. or the saw and mitre-box. . cutting and mitring it is better to have these lines cut upon one thick body. neatly cut to graduated lengths and arranged in convenient cases. to suitable Mitr'ing-machine. is usually greater than the price of Brass rules. are now supplanted by machines that cut the rule without bending. for the value of the time given to the mitring and proper joining of rules on two thin bodies the thick rule. and plane the cut edges with smoothness and accuracy. which were once the only tools in use. The tinman's shears and file.

The labor-saving . a rough edge may be left on the face. in a true it the rule may spring or the plane may jump and produce an uneven cnt. and with mitring adjustments for any angle. and the irregular lengths should be kept apart in a separate case. A slight deviation will prevent a true joint. Rules of prescribed length should first be cut by trifle longer than seems needed. Mitred rules should be tested the gauge a and square stick before they are used. equal distances from the right-angled line on the The machine is to be preferred that firmly holds the rule. A miscellaneous stock of brass rules is difficult to keep in order. for sometimes happens that a set of rules may be cut of true length as to face. rules furnished by the type-founder are usually cut to ens of pica for all the smaller lengths but any house may need rules of intermediate size. but over-long as to foot. so that it will not spring. Sideplaning must always be done quickly and with force. If done feebly and timidly upon a weak machine. diagram that follows shows a rule case made to 4 . dial. The face of the rule should be first met by the plane if the foot first meets the plane. for a border. A Labor-saving rule cases are made to many plans. the gauge must be set alternately at .Labor-saving rules 49 provided with fine saws for cutting thicker bodies. and afterward trimmed down by the side-plane of the ordinary machine. Most mitring-machines have dials accurately marked for In cutting a set of mitred rules different angles.

so that Ti^Ki^^i^ra^i^ . boxes are mitred for right and left joints.50 Cases for labor-saving rules hold graduated lengths from one to fifty ems of Some of the small pieces in the small nonpareil.

The are sunk in Improved case for brass rule. It is also better that each thickness and face of rule should be kept apart in separate cases. and raised in others to prevent its bruising from another overlying case. they should be kept in ample assortment and in liberal supply. brass rules of plain faces are needed now more than flowers or borders of type-metal. As The readily.Cases for labor-saving rules 51 rules in the following case are arranged in progressive order. but single and parallel rule should never be mixed. Faces that are easily distinguished may be kept together. so that any size can be found strips that divide the compartments some places to allow the rule to be seized by the fingers. .

When rules are so laid. and A As with leads. or mitred. large supply nary useful than a small supply of many faces. The bodies of 6 points are enough for ordi1. and this damage is always noticeable in print. faces of rule are When purchases of many differ- made without system from ent makers. joined. Rules often have to be pieced. and it is important that the new pieces should be of the same face and body. but the edges and hair-lines are easily damaged. all admade to stock rules should be bought from the same foundry. the rules so bought may differ in height and face. to prevent confusion and needless expenditure. and be combined with difficulty. The counters or channels of parallel and double rule are usually cut at a sharp angle that makes the lighter line weak and easily bruised. 2. Rules from another foundry may not be cut to the same height or set of face. The faces selected should be few in number. 4. the little differences of length can be readily noted. so that all rules rest on the same base. harder than type-metal. of a few faces is more work. For ordinary letterpress work the 2-point rule of hair-line face will be found of most usefulness for . where they Brass is may be bruised by overlying galleys. To ditions insure uniform height and true joints. rules must be selected with system. It is bad practice to expose rules upon a stand.52 Rules to be selected with system That rule case should be preferred in which cut rules can be laid vertically.

or that follow a running title. or even of It often happens that the backing soldering metal of an electrotype plate does not entirely fill . or that precede foot-notes. with their thick lines flush to one side. which impress is often bent or thickened to get its when the moulding plate the form of type. Flat-faced rules. the thicker body of 6-point with blunt bevel should be preferred.Special rules needed for electrotyping 53 separate columns in tables. much used for table-work. The rule borders for these tables should be about 4 or 6 points thick. is lifted from The impress may be too narrow needed share of blacklead. Their sharp-sloped shoulders make a narrow impress in the moulding wax. and also allows an exact connection with the cross-rules of tables. For electrotype work the thin bodies of hair-line brass rule are objectionable in all places where they are not protected by near-by lines of type. but for special conditions they may be made with a bevel on one side only. in this way : m The thick line flush at one side permits neat joints at the corners of a border without mitring. should be flush with the body on each side. tin. For the rules that divide the columns of a page.

thickness The For a border line the face of 1-point to be preferred to the hair-line rule. making a white line or a blemish where it it is should show a perfect joint. by the Brass rules with hair-line. When . Around small in small they pages forms on possible to print thin rules fairly large pages and in large forms they are always unit is . is really caused thinness and sharpness of the brass rules. or exposed cross -rules that are of uniform straightness and thickness. intended for electrotype work. border on each side of a page should always is be single and perfect pieces of a thick body. should have blunt angles and high shoulders. Borders of hair-line rule on 2-point body for in- closing large pages of type should be avoided. This fault. It is rare to see in a book printed from electrotype plates all its hair-line rule borders of uniform appearance. lengths. It follows that the rule in this unprotected spot bends or gives way under the pressure of the printing-press. This fault is common. accurately cut to graduated is of advantage in the composition of ordinary work that has to be done in haste. for make needless delay and trouble in composition and presswork. but it should be generously provided and carefully handled. For very exact work safer to use rules of one piece only. Under the kindest usage the corners will soon round or wear down. too often laid to the pressman.54 Imperfections of some thin rules the impress of a moulded rule. satisfactory. making a crooked or thickened line. Labor-saving rule.

or unevenness in justification or locking up.Dashes. and double. braces. but the ones in most request are the single. _ Brass braces are made and sold in usually on 8-point body. the corners A slight crook in the chase-bars. =_^====== ^=^^^=^^= sets. it is 55 accuracy. and the rule made therefrom must be weak and liable to injury. metal rules the rule is thin. as used in alge- dom bra. The ornamental formerly known as French dashes. unavoidably soft . Even if rarely mitred for a border with accurately mitred. made from solid type-metal and cast in moulds to the height of type. may not join. A lighter face. faces. This difficulty is so common that few publishers order pages electrotyped with the rule borders on the plates. DASHES AND BRACES Brass dashes are made to a variety of faces. Metal rules. are rarely used. will slight prevent the joint. They prefer to attach the rules to the patent blocks. parallel. varying in length from four to twenty ems. are now not allowed in book. for the metal is and may be porous. but they are selused in book-work. on which the rules cannot be disconnected by any ordinary accident. is now preferred.work.

Leads of 2-point thickness are most used. but leads of 3. are rarely needed. If mixed with . The thinner leads.and 18-point. cast to even ems and ens of the regular bodies.and 14-point are made Spacerules> to order only. They are made high and low the high leads that come up to the shoulrolled of : der of type are used only for electrotype or stereotype composition the low leads.9. Intermediate sizes fied should be avoided.and 4-point are common. but chiefly to bodies of 6. and to make print more readable.8. They are made for narrow columns in which short cross-rules are needed. necessarily of high price. LEADS Leads are thin blanks of soft type-metal cast or many widths from 1 -point to 6-point thick. Space-rules cast to the length of even ems of the irregular bodies of 7. but unwisely. are used for letterpress work.11.10. in place of vertical brass rules. as high as low j spaces.12. for they are not readily identiby the ordinary compositor. Sometimes ^^^_ - they are used.56 Space-rules and leads Space-rules are short pieces of metal rule of hairline face. on 2-point body. to extend composed matter. in strips eighteen inches long. They are used to widen lines of type. Two or more bodies of the same face in the same house should have a distinct nick on each body and be kept apart in separate cases.

Thickness of a twelve-to-pica lead.Illustrations of leads 57 approximate sizes. When the work containing these irregular leads has been finished. made on . Thickness of a four-to-pica lead. For ordinary book-work the bodies of 1. For the smaller measures leads have to be provided in lengths graduated by quarter-picas. will i Leads of irregular thickness. 2 Very thick leads. Under no circumstances should they be made a part of the cornnion stock.and 12point bodies. In planning a composing-room. Leads of different thick- nesses can be doubled to make blanks of an}^ other Thickness of a three-to-pica lead. the leads should be papered up and put away.2. for middle width. as of five.8. so that they can be identified at a glance. are useful as white lines and foot-lines in making They are readily the linotype machine. Thickness of a six-to-pica lead. is always of service in justifying proximate bodies.3and 4-point will be found ample. up. a proper system should be devised for keeping leads in good order. Thickness of a ten-to-pica lead. Thickness of an eight-to-pica lead. commonly called slugs. rarely used for a text.seven. they are not easily separated and may make 1 great trouble. The 1-point lead. One thousand pounds of leads so selected be of more general service than two thousand 2 pounds not selected with system. should have special nicks cut on their edges with a saw.10. on 6.and nine-to- pica.

58 System in storage of leads measures by half-picas. appropriately marked with the length of each lead. but it is impracticable so to treat all the leads for the numerous measures of a large . ing galleys is wasteful of useful room j to put them pell-mell in boxes or bins invites damage and discommon form is a stout upright closet. A divided in pigeonholes for many sizes. making each partition exactly the width of the lead for which it is adapted. collections of leads may be put in partitions upon a standing galley. order. for broad measures by full In large printing-houses the lengths most needed are furnished in weights of thousands of pounds. very large quantity of A any measure in frequent use may be piled neatly in a type-box or bin. Small Lead-cutter. Another method is to provide a series of boxes on the top of a low table or cabinet case. Separate galleys or racks should be used for different thicknesses of leads. They can be kept there in good order with little trouble. To keep a large supply of leads on standpicas.

Slugs and rules of 6-point and larger bodies are more neatly cut with a circular saw.and lead-cutter. 59 They should be exposed together and made accessible. Lead-cutters are made of many patterns: some are for cutting leads only. The best lead- cutters have an upper knife that descends at a slight lead-cutter ininclination. Cutters with knives that meet at a wide angle bend the lead or rule.Lead-cutters printing-house. tended to cut brass rule of even moderate thickness should have a compound lever as well as a strong knife. others for cutting leads and brass rules. . A Eule. cutting like a chisel.

of many thicknesses. A new form of lead-rack. they should be ordered with system.60 Suggested form of lead-rack As leads have to be provided for all measures. . to prevent needless and wasteful expenditure. The weight of leads in all the widths required for a book-house working in many measures should be at least one half the weight of the text type. and of stereotype and letterpress height. In some houses the leads weigh more than the type.

2 I stowed properly.Description of its divisions 61 The grams figures in these diadefine the length of Two are the leads in nonpareil ems. will be flush at their outward exposure. 2Z tc IIS exactly of the length of the lead it is to contain. its in- Leads should never be pieced. This treatment pre- vents misplacement in distribution a lead too long : and be noticed a lead too short will be will project . quickly perceived by dention. when As each tier is made p . tiers or channels are provided for the leads that more frequently used. It is practicable to make up many new measures by a combination of . the leads.

and tends to the hanging or bowing of the ends of lines on a wide page. wood ers . there will be irregmake-up and register. may be used. Full-length leads can be doubled with safety. Slugs of still thicker bodies are also useful for foot -lines line of and for the division- double-columned octavos. To prevent the sponginess of treble-leading. two- to-pica leads. the new leads should be used together on separate pages or columns. If the new ularities in the are mixed with the old. but treble -leading is never to be recommended. for it makes composition spongy. . For all broad measures it is better to have leads of proper width imperfect. Old leads are always a trifle thicker from accretions of dust. but the work so done is usually and the value of the time lost in piecing is more than that of the new leads. Cherry Furniture of wood is most common pine is used only for postand coarse work. Metal is preferred for open pages and work of exact register.62 Furniture of wood and metal two or more leads. FURNITURE OF WOOD AND METAL is the name given to all the low pieces or type-metal that have to be used for the larger blanks in or about a page of type or within the chase prepared for a form of type. or nonpareil slugs as they are of tener called. in one piece of metal. When new leads are bought to be added to a previous supply of old leads.

I. foot-sticks. head-bolts. Side-sticks. and great primer are in greatest request. Reglet is the name given to thin less wood furniture pica. fitted with furniture. chase furniture. chase. furniture picas. K and L. dovetails. height of seven eighths inch. F. Electrotypers prefer the three feet. gutters. quoins. E. B. are the inclined planes that secure forms of type after they have . H. than two picas wide. short cross-bar. slots for cross-bar. but other sizes can be had of the thickness of any body. The widths of non- A form A. or bevelled furniture. G. is made to the height of the low quadrat. D. or about five eighths of an inch. c. pareil. of type in chase.Eeglet and side-sticks 63 Wood furniture is usually furnished in lengths of and of many widths from two to twelve For all work printed from type. side-sticks.

2-7. 5-8. 6-7. In a few houses the thin strips near crossbars are called gutters. are the head-bolts . When the pockets are of uniform depth i Gutters are so called because they have a rounded channel planed in the middle of the wood. Furniture order. and finally to throw it. The pieces between pages 1-8. For large and heavy forms of type. places and these odd lengths are too often put in wrong and make confusion. 3-6. the blunt wedges between the chase and the bevels are the quoins. the furniture made for it. 4-5. to prevent it from receiving ink from the inking roller that passes over the form. 2-3. For irregular lengths special compartments are seldom provided. This disregard of system wastes time and material. The storage of furniture flatwise in pigeonholes or in exposed pockets of uniform depth invites disEach pocket should be exactly the depth of order. is more difficult than leads The usual practice of the small . . to keep in office is to buy furniture in yard lengths to allow compositors it up without system as new lengths may be needed. with a separate compartment for each regular length of furniture or reglet. .64 Storage offurniture been tightened by quoins. are often called gutters 1 those between 1-4. Larger offices to cut usually provide a series of deep pigeonholes against a dead wall. so that each piece will reach the end of the pocket and yet be flush with the face. the inclined planes at the foot and sides of pages are the bevels or foot- and side- sticks. when out of use. iron side-sticks are preferred. pell-mell into an open drawer.

The open pocket has another disadvantage in making no separation Furniture-rack. Long pieces of : reglet should not be 5 mixed with long furniture. . for furniture and reglets of diif erent widths to get several pieces of one width the compositor has to assort the contents of the pocket.Plan offurniture-rack 65 the shorter pieces cannot be seen and the longer pieces are annoying projections.

compositor should be able to select from office stock any length or any width of regular furniture ated sizes. For this reason there should be provided at least as much surface area of furniture as of type.66 Plan of reglet-rack The surface area of the blank space that is often required inside the chase is usually as much as and sometimes more than that required for type. three. labor-saving reglet-case is also kept on sale. It is as bad practice to require him to cut furniture for ordinary needs as to have him cut leads. eight. improvement on the disorderly furniture-drawer. the furniture-rack shown in the illustration on previous page is provided by printers' supply houses. five. Another style of rack is made to hold lengths from It is an sixty to one hundred and twenty picas. and sixty picas. which are graduated six picas apart. and readily accessible. four. Even if the intermediate pieces are not supplied at once. There are eight lengths between twelve of furniture. It is made to hold five hundred pieces There are eight pieces of each length of the widths two. for every printing-house needs furniture of lengths but one pica apart. which holds from eighteen hundred to twenty-four hundred pieces of pica and nonpareil. six. It contains A . It is equally important that the furniture should be of gradu- A proper places. in as easily as he selects a needed size or sort of type. and ten picas. For the more orderly stowage of graduated wood furniture. yet it is imperfect. a place should be provided for the new sizes.

This is not enough. to be placed against this but it should be where its contents can be easily examined. As the reglet stored does not stand upright. . it is liable to disorder. for there should be forty lengths between these extremes. usual requirements of intended to be put under an Reglet-rack. As making up imposing-stone of the dimensions 33 X 86 inches. which 1 usually kept in the same place. The furniture-cabinet shown on page 69 contains enough of sizes for all the It is a book-house.New form nine distinct of cabinet for furniture 67 sizes. resting upon its cut edge. l When a dead . graduated six picas apart.wall space is more available. dead much as type or leads. the pulling out of a box does not hinder or annoy the imposer of a form any more than the is pulling out of a chase from the chase-rack. the cabinet can be divided in two long sections. from twelve to sixty picas. in a book-house is rarely done on the stone. Furniture needs a fair light as wall.

Beyond that the progression is by one and a half picas. the compositor who may pick it up when out . so that the compositor can readily select Each compartment contains six longitudinal partitions for the six different widths of noneither. pull out or shove in the drawer does not throw the standing pieces in confusion. pica. pareil. to suit the different lengths. four-line.work. the drawer cannot be closed is is too short a piece is put in. and ten-line. they must fall sidewise. two or more pieces can be combined. in the illustration) and sixteen on These drawers are of unequal height. is put in. six-line. The vertical rest of each piece a safeguard against the mixing of lengths. even when each partition may be but half full. its shortness at once detected. These drawers contain fifty-six lengths. two-line. for if they are jostled to fall.68 Plan offurniture-cabinet drawers twelve on one It contains twenty-eight side (not shown the other. For lengths beyond seventy and a half picas. and has its length in picas stamped by a punch in figures on its end. If too long a piece if . Each drawer is divided into two compartments that hold proximate sizes like twelve and thirteen ems pica. that are rarely required in book. or great primer a graduation that is close enough for all ordinary work. As each piece is properly numbered. Each piece of furniture or reglet rests on its cut edge or narrow end. Each piece is neatly To planed and squared. beginning with twelve picas and advancing by one pica to sixty picas.

.

Wood furniture is handled. The open pigeonholes with pockets of unequal depth (after the system of the lead-rack as shown on page 60) will be found convenient. light. and can be easily to shrink. care. but it is liable cheap. j Where space crowded it may be judicious to keep long furniture under different stones or cases but it is better practice.70 Storage of long furniture of its place knows at once in what drawer of the cabinet it should be placed. It may not be expedient to get all sizes at once. Drawers that hold many pieces of long furniture are too weighty to be moved in and out with ease. when the space can be given. and unavoidable confusion. 1 For posters and large job-work another form of furniture-rack must be devised. but places should be reserved for is new sizes when they are bought. to make special place for every length that may be needed. but will help the compositor to produce quicker as well as neater work. . with provision for intermediate sizes to be afterward furnished. but it is much less than the sum usually paid every year for wasted time. wasted material. but these pigeonholes should be properly subdivided with partitions for the separation of different widths. or warp. to construct against a dead wall a large rack with a pigeonhole for every size in use. fray. will be serviceable for more than a lifetime. It will not only prevent waste of labor. in graduated lengths at most two picas apart. 1 The cost of a fully equipped cabinet of this pattern is not small. A cabinet of this form. To be of general and lasting service these pigeonholes should be constructed on a generous plan. with fair Neglect to provide cut furniture is not wise economy.

The illustration annexed represents a sectional view of an old form of metal furniture.to ten-line pica.to ten- line pica. and accuracy. with hollow or oval centres. of seven widths from two. which is made in lengths of twelve inches. This form has the merits of strength. The roughening of improved metal furniture is largely ters of .Metal furniture needs care 71 For exact work. Nor can combinations of small pieces be safely less used for the head-bolts or gutters of book-forms. but it is not adapted for combinations of unlike pieces. FURNITURE-RACKS Metal furniture that has been roughened by carehandling cannot be combined with precision. stiffness. for they lack the stiffness that is required to keep types squarely in line. metal furniture is always preferred. and from fiveto thirty-line pica long. without connecting bridges. For the head-bolts and gut- book-forms single pieces are better. rather stronger and heavier. There is another form. Its it open centres make light. and its interior bridges insure a reasonable strength. Combination metal furniture is made of many widths from three.

and twenty As they combine the good picas. should not be dropped upon the stone it should be kept . *-. qualities of strength bility to all pages. but they are on the body sometimes connected in one piece. To keep the edges free from bruising. and light weight with adaptathey are used in some houses to . or by throwing the pieces pell-mell in an open drawer. it should be handled with as it great care as types. Large pieces of combination metal furniture are of limited value . the less they can be used.72 Rack for metal furniture caused by bruising it with the shooting-stick. in lengths of eight. the Rack for metal furniture. QUOTATIONS The most serviceable forms of metal furniture for inside composition are quotations cast of three by four picas. Many - them. and make small pieces that can be used anywhere. sixteen. larger they are. printing houses discard a from combination of blanks up -i -. in neatly piled columns and in pigeonholes that have a separate compart- ment for every size.

concave on two form of quotation. Justifying spaces of three-line and four-line body should be a part of every supply of quotations.Quotations with bearers 73 the exclusion of other forms of metal furniture. and especially in all chapter heads and tails. sides. It is not good workmanship to justify them with the quadrats of smaller bodies. for they annoy the electrotyper. but all books that are expected to have large sale from two or more editions are invariably printed from electrotype plates. The guards provided by type-founders . with projecting disks or bearers that equalize the pressure of the moulding press and prevent the splurging of the moulding wax. The proper preparation of the pages for the different processes of moulding and finishing in the making of these plates calls for additional guards within the pages. ELECTROTYPE GUARDS Pamphlets and books of limited edition continue to be printed direct from type. but solid and o tight at top. Pages to be electrotyped need for all their large blanks a special of higher body.

74 Quadrats needed in electrotyping are quadrats cast with shoulders as high as those of the types of the text. . These quadrats with guards serve another useful purpose by protecting the letters on the plates from bruises while they are in the hands of the finisher Quadrats preferred for electrotyping. and prover. practised Much to the bewilderment of an un- proof-reader. that serve as aids to even pressure from the moulding press. and prevent the outspreading of the moulding wax. these black disks often appear on the author's proof. but they are routed off when all corrections have been made and the plates are pronounced ready for press. On the top of these quadrats are circular disks full type-high.

. . . It is oftenest a matter of contract. . The publisher requires an employing printer to furnish perfected composition at a fixed price per page or per thousand ems. . . TIME-WORK AND PIECE-WORK OMPOSITION house called is done by two in every booksets of workmen that are respectively time-hands and piecehands. The price given 75 . In turn the master printer agrees with his piece-compositors to have them do the type-setting part of plain composition at a fixed price per thousand ems. . . . . .MES HARPER III COMPOSITION Time-work and piece-work Justification . . Customary routine on books Distribution Spacing and leading Hand-work and machine-work Proper methods of Recent mannerisms hand-work .

Although the composition of books is perfect the contract with the publisher. take note of the possible need of additional sorts 1 Spelling. punctuation. for the work done in each one of these departments is of too irregular a nature and is too unequal in its requirements of time and dexterity to be adjusted by fixed prices. They must be done " by day's work. who will In this and following chapters. abbreviation. and other matters that belong to the literary side of position. type-setting have been noticed in the treatise on Correct Com- . but it does not include other service that is needed to Making up and stone-work. proof-reading and superintendence. usually rated as piece-work. all of equal importance." as printers phrase this method. The cost of this supplementary work is variable. the copy should be examined by an expert. are not paid for by the piece. it should be understood that about one half of it in value is timeof uncertain cost. 1 work CUSTOMARY ROUTINE ON BOOKS When an agreement has been concluded with the author about the style of an intended book. remarks and suggestions have to be confined to the purely mechanical side of book composition. seldom less and often more than one half of the cost of the type-setting that has been done by piece-hands. or on time.76 Routine of book composition to the compositors includes the distribution of type and the correction of the compositor's faulty work as it maybe marked by the office proof-reader.

and notes. Here his duty ends. Short takes are given when work is in haste. new characters. may Obeying general direcspecify the types for chapter headings. extracts. Copy is in portions invariably given out to piece-compositors known as " takes. the necessary questions. and to " turn for sorts. italic. etc. and the compositors are required to empty composed matter on a galley in a prescribed order. and must try to give proper directions for uniformity in the use of capitals. These sorts may be or accents. signs. tables. The compositor should give close attention to spoken and written instructions before he begins to set type. Long takes are given when work is not in haste and when the compositors are of nearly equal ability. not wise to order sorts in small quantities by a guess as to their Specify the number wanted of each character. but they should be procured and put in case before the copy is given to the compositor. 1 To begin composition without the needed materials. figures. If they are insufficient. and may be as quickly read and corrected. small capitals. 1 It is weight. quotation-marks." is always wasteful of time and productive of tions. He must not edit. italic." which will vary in quantity from ten to one hundred lines or more. subheadings.Minute instructions are needed that 77 may be required in excess. the expert error. all he should ask In no case should he begin composition until he knows what he must do with every uncertain feature of his copy. By this method the galley is quickly filled. .

Every compositor laid made-up page upon the stone. If the compositor thinks that is too solid. The fitting up of the chase with furniture. make-up was passed from hand to hand until pages enough had been its made up his to fill the form. the adjustment of margins. who pursued the same routine with the holder of the third take. and was held responsible for the correctness of his making up and for its proper placing. but it had to be abandoned when an expert workman mated with too many inexperts had to do more than his fair share of the work. he may show it to the foreask him or whoever is in authority to decide the doubt. Three methods of performing routine work on book composition have been practised.78 Print is Equal division of all duties always more readable when each change in its description or its argument is presented in a fresh paragraph. . In like manner. equitably divided irksome duties among all the compositors. but the paragraphing should have been settled by the author in the copy. and the locking up and proving of the form were This method done in turn by each compositor. but the making of a new paragraph is not in his province. An old the matter man and method required the compositor who held the first long take to make up in pages the matter he had composed and to pass his incomplete page with copy to the holder of the second long take. Dialogue matter should have a new paragraph for the words of every speaker.

By English usage. He ascertained the daily special needs of counting-room. to make men help one another. . or the same amount as the compositor who had realized the The intent of the companionship was largest bill. press-room. j wise employed.Working in companionship 79 Another method was that of companionship. He had the right to order any compositor to do corrections or other work of like nature at his pleasure. copy entire and gave it out in takes to each com- When there were many compositors. the hoarding of sorts. as had been agreed on. The maker-up received. to prevent the shirking of duty. he attended chiefly to make-up and stone-work when there were few. a fixed price per page or per thousand ems. and readingroom. and the taking of unfair advantages of any kind. to quicken performance. was separately computed. By this method the compositors on the book elected their own maker -up. and the pay therefor was divided the among the compositors in proportion to number of lines each compositor had set. he did composition when not otherpositor. and arranged his work so that time would not be needlessly lost in any department. He kept a schedule in which he recorded the lines set or the work done each day by each workman. who was thereby made an He received the assistant to the general foreman. he could fine a compositor for bad work or for shirking duty. The value of the headand foot -lines and blank lines he had composed .

for the with more delay and increasing new errors in every alteration. not only by compositors. and the pages 1 at the correction of outs or doublets will compel the overrunning of many pages. apart from its imposing needless labor upon other time-hands.80 Make-up now done on time is This method of working in companionship no longer practised in the United States. is too often done wastefully. for the pay conceded is usually insuffiThere is a general undervaluation of this cient. liability to are proved in strings on a press or with proof-planer on stone. Their service is paid for " on time. but by publishers. and subsequently measured and allowed for In some book-houses proofs are not taken upon the galley. 1 that cannot be proved on the galley are put by him in the proper place as attachments to the proof. It is seldom well done in all details unless the time and methods of the maker-up are entirely under the control of the foreman. which may seem the cheaper and quicker method. Compositors deliver their copy and the matter as it is set to the maker-up. labor. Matter is made up in pages as fast as it is set. Make-up and stone-work are now performed in all American book-houses by men appointed by the foreman. and even by some master printers. There are few competent men who will make up for a companionship. all the pages of a chapter will have to be untied and retied. When many proof s are required by the author. . but it does not quicken or improve composition. and then passes the copy and proof their galleys to the Illustrations furnished with copy proof-reader. This method saves the employer the cost and care of many galleys." for make-up by the piece. and paragraphs are cancelled or are added. who has proved.

benefit of the piece-compositor. The illustrations. and but lightly dampened.and foot -lines. so that it can be thinly and evenly distributed upon the type. as full -page cuts. smooth. one page only is put in a chase. and compares make it with the composed type on galley to sure that there have been no omissions or transpositions. A proof of the galley is then taken. usually on a proof -press of the form shown in the illustration on the next page. the gave to one chase. sized. Proof-paper should be thin. The time now allowed for the proper preparation of the pages is much greater than that heretofore given to the ordinary letterpress form. Ink should be stiff and repeatedly rolled on the ink-table. and additional bearers have to be added in every exposed blank. The maker-up rearranges the copy in order. which should be rolled slowly and carefully to produce 6 . Electrotyping has materially changed the old routine and has put extra labor on the stoneman. often delayed for many days. are seldom furnished ready for make-up. When great nicety of moulding is desired. head. is not reckoned for the . and to give more attention to many small chases than he formerly chase.Duties of the maker-up 81 same rate as composed type but all the other fat matter that has been composed and arranged by the maker-up. chapter heads and tails. Instead of imposing sixteen pages of octavo in one until type is stoneman now has to put one large or four small pages in the chase.

a new form of proofpress is worked by steam-power. . that prove many galleys together. or uneven at the bottom. Another form of proof-press has its proof-paper in an endless when the proof-paper unsuitably dry or harsh and does not give a readable proof with moderate pressure. or if the cylinder has been covered with an extra wrap of paper or too thick a blanket. These rude methods are often not been truly planed down.82 The cylinder press for proving This is the press most used for proving galleys. roller that precedes the houses. but it will seriously damage type if the galley has been underlaid with cardboard. or if the type has practised is and an automatic inkingmovement of the cylinder. If the galley is kinked. this iron cylinder will do more harm to the type than is afterward done by the printing-machine. In newspaper roll. These devices materially lessen the work of taking proofs.

for not receive any change in chase proving in strings tends to displace thin letters at the ends of lines and to work types off their feet. If any error marked has been neglected or wrongly corrected. and has checked in proper places the names of the com- for correction. and a pounded proof is taken with the proof -planer from the pages still in the strings. the tied-up pages are laid on the stone. this error is again marked on the revise. proof for A revise is then taken. An overinked proof prevents the reader from detecting imperfect letters. a is not to be had. When the reader has marked all the errors noted in the proof. The galley so corrected is returned by the compositor with the corrected proof to the maker-up.Duties of the maker-up 83 a readable proof. If. who is required to correct it properly and to furnish a clean proof. and the reviser compares this revise with the first proof. and the pages so made up are then imposed in a chase. When the matter is a strict reprint that will text. the proof is returned to the compositors Unless otherwise directed. This is not a procedure to be recommended. correc- tion takes precedence over all other work. Each compositor corrects the errors of his own composition. but it is often an unavoidable practice. and is returned to the neglectful compositor. however. positors. has put down his queries. the maker-up proceeds to put it in page form. and passes the galley to the compositor next in order until correction is complete. After ink .

but he may require another proof containing the correction of these alterations. In a few houses the second reading of the printing-house is done by the foundry-reader upon the page proof sent to the author. It is always a great risk to make up before the author has finished corrections. following the application of the brush. and the illustrations are in their places. Overrunning of slow and is in expensive. 1 the page is inclosed in a wrapper of stout paper and is put upon a letter-board or bank for future use. if properly used. the brush over the type may clean the face. made-up pages type the author has nothing more to add. stamps it with the proper date. and this proof should be sent with the first proof corrected to the proof-reader. The author returns it with his alterations. and dries slowly. but they push much undissolved ink over the face on the shoulders and in the counters of the type. the matter may be made up in pages. who often does this work His few passes of slightingly. until it is so firmly attached to the metal that it has to be removed by steam or boiling lye.84 Duties of the proof-reader on the proved type has been imperfectly removed with a brush moistened with benzine. A moist sponge. will sop out the gummy deposit left by benzine and foul ink. For manuscript copy that may receive changes in the text. and forwards it to the author with the copy. It is better to prevent than to cure this fault. This can be done with safety when The cleaning of proved type usually the duty of the officeboy. At this stage the rouall When tine differs. who adds his queries. or before the cuts or diagrams are ready. another proof should be taken on the galley. In these places the adhering ink receives i it is surely known that is daily deposits of fine dust. .

Book-work should receive two readings at the expense of the to office. After composition has been made correct to copy his make work and is put into pages in a workmanlike shape. according to his instructions. All proofs sent to an author should be returned to the printing-house. The compositor is required correct to copy and to maintain uniformity in style. but it takes more time and may compel the resubmission to the author of another proof. the printing-house has completed the part of its contract that concerns composition. for every proof contains some memoranda of the readers on the margins that are needed for the perfection of the work. .Responsibility for alterations 85 nothing more will be added to the proof by the A reading of the page proof by the office reader before it will be seen by the author gives the latter more time to consider queries and to approve or disapprove proposed suggestions. including the time spent in the re-reading by copy of subsequent proofs caused by the overrunning of matter. All changes subsequently made by author or publisher. even those that have been author. whether in the type or in the arrangement of paragraphs or illustrations. faithfully corrected and revised and are apparently of no future value. are rated as author's alterations and are at the publisher's expense. This is a better method. In other houses the final reading or the reading for foundry is given only when the author returns the proof as entirely corrected.

they are flush with the type. the lines so treated cannot be tightened by side-pressure. They may be feebly held by the pressure of the foot-stick. . or it may be drawn out on press by the suction of the rollers. When presswork is done direct from large forms of type. This is a serious fault. or if rule.86 Importance of exact justification JUSTIFICATION A common fault of the novice at composition is that of justifying one line tight and leaving another loose. A line is not satisfactorily justified if it will not stand in the stick unsupported by the composingIf the leads project beyond the type. for the absence of one character in the vigorous locking up." or dampened slips of now more than it was in earlier days. exact justification is obligatory. but there is always a liability that a loosely justified line will work off its feet side wise or produce an 1 Exact justification is needed boards. Loose justification was then imperfectly corrected by "scale- spongy cardboard put between the line end and the side-stick. may print may necessitate the reprinting of the entire sheet at a great loss. when types were printed on hand-presses in small forms. but when the form is lifted up from the stone a type may drop out unperceived. 1 In the book-printing house. It is a mistake to assume that a line loosely justified can be made It tight in the form by be made apparently tight by strong locking up from the foot. that compositor who does not justify lines firmly is rated as a careless workman. whatever his age or experience.

Uneven two compositors on the same page is may prevent the joining of mitred brass rules.Saves time on stone and press imperfect impression. rare fault. . To justify nicely. It is not correct practice to put four-to-em and fiveto-em spaces in the same box. the compositor should have at hand enough of thin spaces and hair-spaces. but justification it 87 by Over-tight justification is a equally mischievous. Justification would be improved if cases could be made with boxes for all kinds of spaces clustered under the compositor's hand. Practice with different bodies of type is needed before the required degree of tightness can be fairly understood. cut from ten-to-pica leads or thin brass or cardboard. for the justification of large types. and aid the pressman in making ready. for time is needlessly lost in reaching after them. a job in a large form can be locked up securely with slight taps of the shooting-stick. Large type in a narrow measure can be justified . . When proper spaces have been selected. Forms that have been neatly justified save great waste of time on the stone they prevent the wear of type from violent planing down. and they should be kept separate in distribution. Job-printers have to make use of very thin spaces. moderately tight small type in a narrow measure must be made full tight. Their distant position in the ordinary case is a serious hindrance. The so-called selfspacing types and spaces on point-sets are other aids to justification.

The space after a comma or an abbreviating period may be thinner than that used after an unpointed word. and it should be used on all types with round letters of ordinary height. The space most acceptable between entire words and thin -leaded composition is the threeto-em space. put a thin space on each side of the hyphen that connects compound words. thin -space condensed type. spacing may be narrower. but to produce this appearance of uniformity spaces of different thickness must be selected for use between types of unlike form. spacing may be wider if .88 Spaces to be used with discretion SPACING AND LEADING Uneven spacing between the words of a line is a common fault. To lessen the unsightliness of too wide spacing between separate words. The tall d at the end of one word and the tall h at the beginning of the next word call for a thicker space than that selected for the meeting of two round types like O and e in a similar position. fat type. as in the case of a brevier on bourWide-space geois body. In book-work it is required that the space between the words of a line shall seem uniform in width. m they are lower. These may seem trifling niceties. but their neglect damages the appearance of print. occupying a much larger part of the body. in which the in solid is about one half that of the body. height of the If the round letters are higher. .

like through and George. put a thin space before and after the dash. There are words. the The rules that require uniform spacing between words come in conflict with other rules concerning an arbitrary division of words. Very . Either alternative To prevent the fault. especially with double-leaded type. that are rated as indivisible. To get in words like these at the end of a line compels thin spacing the next is to drive them over to makes wide spacing. In the broad measure. and they are more unsightly than too thin spacing. In double-columned matter. This thin space may be omitted when the dash is preceded by a period or comma. wide spacing is better. em quadrat that divides sentences in that line should be replaced with an en quadrat or a threeto-em space. j graph may be overrun. Spacing too wide produces "pigeonholes" between words. solid and of narrow measure. thin spacing is preferable. the paraobjectionable. Even in leaded work it is better to thin -space the last line of a paragraph than to make a new fair line that has two or three characters only. but the en quadrat should be a average for all open composition. Even spacing often has to be sacrificed for correct divisions. but this expedient is always impracticable in a narrow measure.When the Wide and narrow spacing em dash is used in the middle 89 of a line. When the words of a line have to be thin-spaced. which is too often needlessly ordered in this place.

In a short line of an open title-page. . The it spacing of single letters is a common practice. the types should pass unspaced. especially so in the very short lines of text type that are led down by the side of illustrations. but over-wide spacing between words not so disagreeable as spaced lower-case letters. but often makes unsightly work. Side and cut-in notes are not improved by spacing single types when the author cannot change their . the words may be properly spaced with the em quadrat. pre- Lines of capital letters should always be leaded and spaced wider than the letters of lower-case. The en quadrat may be used when a few words of capital letters are put in the text. Narrow measures make even spacing difficult. To space words with the em or twb-ein quadrat is an unpleasant is alternative. but when a short line of capitals appears in a chapter heading.90 Unwise spacing of single letters it thin spacing is permitted in poetry when vents the turn-over of a short syllable. its words should be separated by two thick spaces. In electrotype composition a projecting f at the end or a j at the beginning of a line should be followed or preceded with a five -to -em space. to prevent the breaking of its projecting kern. The rule that prohibits the spacing of lower-case letters should not be applied to capitals. set in two-line letters that nearly fill the body. wording. for although irregular in form. they are fairly uniform Thin spaces judiciously placed between in width.

may have removed by the irregular spacing of his displeasure letters that The leading of lines calls for as much care as the spacing of words. so that all pages shall be of even length. all meeting types with vertical stems seem huddled. as in A. In all book titles and running titles. In solid composition a white line or less of . or that has many short articles separated by dashes. make the line more pleasing. will require the leads to be differently adjusted at each break. and L. Y. Ordinary descriptive matter calls for no caution other than the repetition of the remark that all the leads used on a book should come from one foun- dry and be exact as to thickness. are too close. and omitted between letters that have inclined stems or are of irregular form. like I 91 and H. The author who may be displeased with the general effect of a title-page. extracts. Leads or blanks improperly selected will mar the fairness of any composition. that have upright stems. and who does not know the cause of his dislike. while types of angular form seem awkwardly separated. or tables of figures. In an un- spaced line.Leading out needs discretion meeting letters. an irregular spacing of lines of capital letters will conceal the faults of inequality. The fault is easily corrected by thin-spacing the types with upright stems that approach each other too closely. and each line shall truly register its mated line is Composition that on the back of the page. broken in its text by lines of poetry.

work will make the quadrats The ordinary paragraph is usually indicated by an em quadrat at the beginning of the first line. a column or page so treated is spongy and is liable White lines of large to bow or hang in locking up. make a blank When equivalent to the same number of leads are put on each side. page intended to be open and readable is seriously disfigured by the text A the pinching of space at every break. When consists of one or the last line of a paragraph before a break two words only. in the last line usually the width of one lead. the blank may be wider. with more space above than below. which is not pleasing. The shoulders of the letters less before the dash. leads may not be needed before the break. seem alike. Prodigality of blanks in solid composition is equally offensive.92 the text Leads is before to and after dashes enough is mark the distinction. about one lead dashes. for the blanks above and below should When paragraphs are separated by there should be. but . as a rule. more solid. The rules laid down for even spacing should apply to leading for solid work. If leads are added there will be more blank at the top than at the bottom of the break. and narrow and blanks. Wide blanks should never be made with leads . the dash will seem out of centre. but when double-leaded and the margins are wide. wider spacing : . thin spaces breaks for leaded work. for the white made by the quadrats that fill this last line may be enough.

and sticky. Accuracy is of importance.Indention and distribution the 93 first line of a chapter. grimy. If foul. see the chapter on Indention in Correct Composition. needs no indention not even it is without an initial or a two-line letter. but this number can be increased as The novice expertness in handling is acquired. the type should be it is . or any line following a short subheading or a running title. A printed diagram of the case should be before him as a guide. DISTRIBUTION much more difficult to the novice than must be preceded by dampening the composition. demanded gaps when the last line of the preceding paragraph ends with a short syllable of three characters only.leaded but these broad indentions make awkward matter. from falling apart. For remarks on different forms of indention. The white space above gives enough of relief to when arrest attention. Distribution. should not undertake distribution until he thoroughly knows the proper box for every character. Indentions of two or three ems are occasionally for broad measures and double . Not more to them types keep than three lines should be taken in the hand at the first attempt. for type wrongly distributed is sure to be detected in proof. or with a full white line over it. Type for distribution should show whiteness of face before it is placed upon the letter-board.

For slight foulness use benzine. but the after deposit left by benzine and undissolved ink will call for the application of diluted ammonia or potash. Proper position of the hands in distributing. It will take more time to change one wrong type in the proof than it does to set a dozen letters in the stick.94 Proper methods of distribution immersed in a solution of hot or even boiling lye. and to take up the full word when it can . The novice should sure that every type distribute carefully and make is put in the right box. the time so spent will be as great as that taken in a setting of twenty letters. Another solvent of dirt is live steam on the galley. If this wrong letter compels a respacing of the line in the stick. When distributable type contains unusual words. the spelling of these words should be understood before their types are parted. It is better to read the line. As every type wrongly placed makes serious delay in its correction. Speed can be acquired by practice only. it is of no advantage to hurry distribution.

When distribution can be done before meals. The types can be more easily picked up if allowed to remain as they fall from the distributer's hand. In distributing words or lines that are unlike those of the text type. The case should not be shaken to make it hold more letter. Hebrew. until it 95 in The eye should follow the type hand drops in the right box. White lines. even if nicks and faces are alike. folio lines. which should as directed be kept exposed for the use of new compositors. and all matter that may be used again should be put on the standing galley returned to the case it by the foreman. signs. the composition of moist type may be avoided.Strange type labelled on boxes be done. Each box of strange types should have a print of its proper character pasted upon its inner side where it can be easily seen. accents. and they should be put in the proper case at once. is Make sure that the type came from. be deceived by a general appearance of similarity. and unusual characters will be greatly aided by printed diagrams of cases. . A stick or a short galley should be kept on the ledge of the upper case to receive words of italic or characters that belong to another case. The correct distribution of Greek. The boxes should not be filled so high that their types can be jostled into near-by boxes. Do not mix old and worn with new letter. carefully examine the nick Do not as well as the face of the distrusted letter.

One reason for the continuance of hand. At this stage of their development.work in type-setting is the capricious tastes of authors and publishers. Yet their field book-compositor. composition is now as great as ever. They cannot read proof.96 Why hand-work is needed HAND-WORK AND MACHINE-WORK Machines for setting type are now common in many printing-houses. of service is relatively limited. or even set up the more difficult kinds of book composition.and 8-point. but In a few houses they have dein others they have increased the number of compositors by creating work that did not previously exist. which are done now by hand as they have been for more than four hundred The need of workmen expert in handyears. Types that are very large or very small or of any peculiar face must be set by hand. Every large printing-house has to provide many faces of roman type. but at this date (1903) they have not seriously damaged the business of the expert prived men of employment. yet few of the faces so selected can be adapted with economy to machines. They do no more than set type. type-setting machines are not serviceable for any body larger than 12.or smaller than 5-point. is Preliminary practice at case needed by every operator on machine. and are most used for bodies between 5. make up. and it will be greater in the future. do stone-work. The . impose. correct.

like the twist of the wrist to a boy learning to write. affect performance. or of plain roman type that has to be interspersed with more than one face of display letter. however skilfully it may be directed. seem irksome in the beginning. care.Expertness in type-setting 97 composition of books of music or of algebra. PROPER METHODS OF HAND-WORK Expertness in composition by hand preliminary practice at case trifles is by attention acquired by to the that conduce to excellence. The case should allow a free play and reach of the right arm. but after practice these constrained positions are fol- lowed by the least fatigue. the distance from the stand. the position of the feet. and the husbanding of endurance is to be considered first. or with other odd arrangements. with cut-in notes. and it be fatiguing if false positions are taken before the case and needless motions are tolerated. but not be placed so low as to cause 7 . and the watchful adaptation of means to ends in every line continues to be done by hand. or with complex tables of names or figures. All composition that requires thought. and even the inclination of the stick. Type-setis not hard labor. The ting will height of the case. Some of the positions required. Practice should begin with correct methods. cannot be done economically by an unintelligent mechanism. but it is tiresome.

It is hard to train both arms to work in concert. The stick should follow the hand that picks up the type. sitting posture. the spacing between . -so that it will not have to be turned in the fingers. the case may seem too high. The crosspiece at the base of the stand should seldom The work be used to rest a tired foot. The feet should be so placed that the body can be kept erect and not be swayed too side to side.98 Expertness in type-setting bending of the back. ing motions follow. shortens the play of the arms. The stick in the left hand should be so inclined that the type put therein will strike the composingrule at a correct angle. Properly adjusted. nick out. that may be used with propriety in distribution. for the temporary it relief gives deceptive. but when they 'do performance is always increased. and prevents the weariness that follows continued stooping. is a real is The hindrance to quick composition. and this type should be taken. but a high case keeps the body erect. much from of reaching for a distant type should be done largely with the arms. on the upper part of the body. The eye should select the type before it is seized by the fingers. false When not and delaywill exactly inclined. From a strict reprint copy.

. slowly. and will increase the liability to make outs. 99 In manuscript the full sentence should be read and thoroughly understood before the first type is seized. Justifying spaces in the last or quadrat line of a paragraph should always be put before the quadrats. Each type should be dropped in the stick quietly. set in small type from another case. When foot-notes appear in the copy. and give entire attention to composition. Neglect to read the complete sentence will compel some waste of time in a more frequent inspection of the copy. that deprives him of the perfect control of his hand. italic. Many printinghouses have a printed code for the proper use of capitals.Expertness in type-setting words should be copied as each word is set. he never allows his animation to reach a fidgetiness . points. without the nervous haste that produces false moA quick compositor never seems in a hurry tions. Punctuation cannot be properly done when only half or quarter of the sentence is understood. Nerves must be husbanded as well fast before the their proper pace. refrain from talking. and abbreviations. that re- quires close reading and memorizing. False motions come from excessive eagerness to be hands have been taught to keep The novice should make haste He should set type quietly and steadily. these notes. The typographic formulas of the house should be understood before composition. The inaker-up will arrange them in their places. should be put next to the line that shows the mark of reference.

. but the rule. distributing and correcting at the end of the day. a polished stick. or disturbs tranquillity try to push execution beyond ability. They When the compositor can control his time. Importance of good tools Any habit that dulls the sensibilities is always followed by some mental depression and feebleness in performance. Good light is valuable. be.100 as muscles. A rusted stick or a short or crooked rule will diminish the performance of any workman. and become slow compositors for life. is not always to be controlled. languidly for the remainder of the day will not produce the desired speed. and a clean case free from dust are great aids to composition. If he works day after day with reasonable earnestness. he will gradually increase performance and will do more work with less effort. but he should not allow himself to do less than five hundred. A bright and neat-fitting steel composing-rule. and case may The workman is known by his tools. Expert compositors own their own sticks and rules. If a novice finds that he cannot set more than five hundred ems in an hour without undue exertion and a tendency to false motions. and in so doing acquire the bad habit of false motions. he should not attempt more. The error of many apprentices begins with the unreasonable expectation that they can acquire speed quickly. Quick motions can be acquired by working steadTo work actively for a few hours and but ily. he should do routine work at set hours. Light stick.

Emptying type from
and
will use

stick

101

no other. They get used to their size, and weight, feeling, and say that they can do more work with them than with other sticks and rules
apparently as good. To seize a type readily, that type should be
al-

lowed to rest exactly where

it falls

in the

box during

the process of distribution.

The case should not

be snaken up, nor should the little mounds formed by distribution be smoothed down. When types
are shaken
is difficult

up or

flattened

down

in parallel rows,

it

to

them up. The compositor has and them up, perhaps to turn them around pry
to snap

nick out or head up, before they can be laid in the stick.
fast

The fastest compositors, or those who can be when they choose, do not usually set the largest

quantity of type in a week. In the long race, the steadier men beat them in performance by their
superior persistence. The worst compositors and all who make foul proofs may be so considered
are usually the greatest talkers at work. All the material needed for the day should be in

or near the case before beginning work. To stop composition to distribute, or to search for leads,
quads, and extra sorts, is always a hindrance. The emptying of composed type in a stick calls
for

some sleight of hand, at which the young comHis fault comes from gripping positor often fails. too tightly the lines between his thumbs and forefingers,

and neglecting the pressure of the middle

102

Method of making measures
where pressure
is

fingers at the ends of the lines,

more needed. He should begin by taking out one line only. "When he takes up two or more lines, he will soon learn where to apply the pressure and

how

to balance the type.

As soon

as the type

is

put upon the galley he should press it up with his composing-rule, and leave it standing squarely on
its feet.

Making up the stick, or adjusting the stick by and screw to the proper width of a given measure, is a work of exactness that cannot be
its slide

When safely intrusted to a young compositor. two or more compositors are employed on the same work, their sticks should be made up uniformly. A very slight variation of width in the making up of two or more sticks, followed by other slight
variations in justification, will give much trouble when the matter is put on stone or on press. Ex-

actness of measure

is

best secured

by the use of a

solid metal gauge, about four picas thick, against which the slide is pushed until it is tight. When a solid metal gauge is not to be had, the width of

the measure can be formed from a predetermined

Reading of type in

the stick

103

number of large em quadrats, against which the A line of the letter m, slide must be set tightly.
frequently used, may not be so accurate, for the greater the number of pieces, the greater the liability to

inaccuracy from unequal rubbing at the

foundry or from the possible bending or cornerbruising of the types. To make up measure with

and a thin cardboard between the lead and is another unsafe method for any composition in which more than one stick will be used.
leads

the slide

Making measure by the gauge

of dead matter

is

fixed gauge should be equally objectionable. used to test the stick as well as to form the measure.

A

gauge shows that the stick is tight at one end of the slide and loose at the other, it is not true and should be rejected. Spacing too tight, stick the on the floor, making use of the dropping
If this

plate of the stick as a turnkey, are some of the careless practices that make sticks untrue.

&
in

GJGETIJ

^pe onf 86j: oj. pis bi^cqce bLOOj. junsp tfcdniLe ^pi
J,JJG

TIJ

nbgiqe go/Air

Goiuboajjm /qio
SfJGJ^ ^8 f JJGX tfbbGtfL

fjiJ8 jyjrre^Lg^iojj' J8 sT'iGfrqiug oj.
IIJ f JJG

line as

The young compositor should read over every soon as he sets it, and at once correct any Before he empties the matter on detected error.
the galley he should read
it

again, looking for outs

104
and doublets.

Recent mannerisms

The time given

to correction in the

stick is not time lost.

It is easier to correct there

than on the galley or the stone, and it is worth a deal of trouble to acquire the reputation of a clean
compositor.
pi is frequently unavoidable. in rule many printing-houses is that pi standing must be distributed on the day it is made. When

The making of

A

the

maker of
it

this pi is

unknown,
all

it is

customary to

divide

equally

among

immediate distribution. The seems harsh, but it is for the common advantage. The small heap of pi that remains undistributed
that

the compositors for operation of this rule

overnight invites more carelessness it is probable it will be larger at the end of the next day.
;

RECENT MANNERISMS

A new

line of every

fashion in typography directs that the first paragraph, whether at the beginning,

middle, or ending of a chapter, shall begin flush at The only indication the left side of the measure.
that the line which is so treated begins a new paragraph is to be found in the blank that may be
left in

When
the

that line

the last line of the preceding paragraph. is full, there is no indication, and

two intended paragraphs are made one.

For

this reason the suppression of the

em

quadrat as

the

mark
It

tice.

of paragraph indention is not a safe pracmay be and often is proper enough when

Eagged endings
there
is

to lines
first line

105
of

a full white line over the

any

paragraph, but not otherwise. The em quadrat has been for years the established mark of paragraph indention, and it can be omitted with safety

only

when it is so ordered. Ragged endings at the right

side of all the lines

of the text, as is unavoidable in type- writing, is another novelty. This new mannerism lessens

the labor of spacing, but it makes an unsymmetrical page that is unpleasing to the- reader. Print
is

cal

preferred to manuscript because it is symmetriand orderly as well as more readable. To

reproduce in print the irregularities of autographic work is an unwise rejection of the uniformity that is the great merit of letterpress printing.

Lines of ragged outline may attract attention to an advertisement or an ephemeral pamphlet, but to the reader this raggedness seems slovenly.

Unleaded and thin-spaced composition is preferred by the disciples of William Morris, but it is not liked by the average reader, who does need a perceptible white blank between words or lines of print. During the fifteenth century, when thin leads and graduated spaces were almost unknown and but little used, the reading world had its surfeit of close-spaced and solid
It is not probable that readers of this century can be educated to relish a practice that then had no excuse but that of unavoidability ." Words can be spaced and lines can be leaded too widely, but a perceptible break of white between words and lines at least as great as the white between the body-marks or

"

type-setting.

106
solid

Solid and thin-spaced composition

stems of single letters is needed for easy reading. A and very thin-spaced composition may be quite acceptable in the text of types on 14-point and larger bodies, when these types have been properly printed on damp paper, for under these conditions ordinary eyesight can discern the shape of each character, but it is not acceptable in any body of small type that has been printed on dry and coated paper, where the eye has to guess at the words and does not clearly discern
the forms of single types.

The dense huddling of lines of capital letters, narrowly spaced and without any leads, and the jam-

ming

of text types close against illustrations or

up

CAPITAL LETTERS NEEDLESSLY HUDDLED BY THIN SPACING AND
OMISSION OF SEPARATING LEADS
to large initial letters or

surrounding borders, are
relation of letters to

equally objectionable.

The

one another should not purposely be made difficult when they can be composed to be read at a glance. Illustrations of all kinds, whether in the form of
diagrams,
initial letters,

need a decent

relief of

head-bands, or borders, white to show their value.

Ruskiii wisely says that " the eye is not saddened by quantity of white, but it is saddened and should be offended by quantity of black.' This remark
7

can be properly extended to the mutual interference of bold-faced types, or to decorations of any kind when they crowd too close against letters.

Capital letters unwisely spaced

107

Over-wide spacing of single types, of both capitals and lower-case letters, for the purpose of making the running title of a page or every line in a page of display fill the measure, is another caprice. The advantage to be gained by this explosive treatment It is never done in the of types is not apparent.

OFSINGLETYPESTHAT
text of a

THEOVER-WIDESPACING
book in short
It

ANDPRODUCESCONFUSION
lines of dialogue

DISLOCATESTHEWORDS
does not

matter or

in poetry.

make

clearer or

more sym-

metrical the running title or any subheading. It does not add to the comeliness of a modern book, even if it was a style of the seventeenth century.

The uncouth

letters

now provided by type-found-

ers for display sometimes appear in the subheadings of magazines, but the wise publisher forbids

their appearance in a library book. 1 The reader and the student have small reason to complain of any ineffectiveness in the modest types that have

been used for years with advantage to make clear the difference between the headings and the subject-matter of a book, and they have good cause to
Advertisers are largely responsible for these letters. They properly represent in type the " barker " before a screaming " hustler " paltry show, or the
i

attention. This

new typographic

who breaks up an
insists

on

first

interview and and immediate

practice of "getting ahead "of all rivals is damaging to the serious book, for it produces the impression that there is probably an inferiority in matter that
is

heralded by needless display.

108

Injudicious use of borders

protest against rude types that deform printing. The title-page and the subheadings of a book may

be judiciously decorated by inclosing their words ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ in a rule border or in

many
Illustration of a border rule that makes un-

panels of brass

rule

formed of single

sightly

types

within.

or parallel hair-lines,

The value of black lines
as a border for small type, or under running titles, or between para-

but in some instances
the rule
is

of

much

graphs, is not apparent in the composition of any book of worth or
of

bolder face than the

permanent

value.

type within, and more strikingly attracts the
notice of the
reader.
It often requires ener-

from author and publisher, the real of the book, to prevent a young composisponsors tor from adorning its
getic protest

subheadings with the
twisted and fantastic
^^^_

black borders that are

now in fashion in Germany, or from overloading the book with
hair-line
rules

Example of th< new way of makng up a measure
or the types inborder so that

that

often

have

attached

*the types will lose to border.^?

scraps of decoration. This unwise fondto

ness for ornamentation often induces the amateur fill the blanks in the last lines of paragraphs or on each side of the running title of a modern

Improper ornamentation

109

book with petty figments of bordering. There are books on medieval subjects, and some on modern subjects, in which decoration of this kind may be a grace, but it should be selected with caution. In the larger part of modern books so treated, this filling up of all blanks with decoration is a positive fault.

Ornamented pages intended

for printing in black ink seldom need a border bolder than the types within. It should not be necessary to repeat the

platitude that the book the thought of the author

is bought to be read for and not to see the fancies

REMAEKS
ON THE

ART OF MAKING DISPLAY EXTREMELY -DIFFICULT AND EXPENSIVE-

WITHOUT

IMPROVEMENT TO ITS CLEARNESS OR BEAUTY, - AND VERY MUCH TO THE DAMAGE OF ITS SALABILITY

of the printer or decorator, but it seems to be needed. young compositor should always ob-

A

serve this rule of

all
;

architects

:

"You may

orna-

ment construction

you must not construct ornament." Types that represent words and thought must have first place ornamentation of any kind
j

should be subordinate.

whether he does or does not like the style is but when he has a free hand and asked to do the composition of a new book in workmanlike manner. for it is his plain duty to do what he is told. It is not unsafe to hazard the assertion that before another twenty years has passed they will be out of fashion. he should do so without question or remark. and to do it intelli- gently and helpfully.110 Simple methods most approved These mannerisms have been introduced during the last twenty years. and the book containing them will be in lasting discredit. of Pickering and Whittingham. he will make no mistake in adhering to methods of simplicity that have prevailed for centuries. It will be safer to accept the . When a printer is plainly directed to make use of one or more of these mannerisms. than that of many recent reformers of typography. . leadership of Bodoni and Didot.

title-page in roman capitals displayed in a plain manner is most satisfactory A for the ordinary book. . . Preface matter . . . synopsis . Poetry etc. . . HOUGHTC^ IV COMPOSITION OF BOOKS Title-page . Appendix and index Initials Head-bands. . . roman and styles. and 111 it is for the plain title . . . italic The lower-case of and the capi- tals of italic are other tolerated but title-pages exclusively in any one of these series are not common. . illustrations Running . . . .HENRY O. . Extracts Chapter headings and Notes and . . . TITLE-PAGE OMAN capitals of regular form in uneven lines of open dis- play are preferred for the titlepage by the largest number of publishers. titles . . and paging . Subheadings . .

He should understand at the outset that his composition will be most satisfactory when the types Even one line of selected show mutual relation. The compositor must do the best he can with the faces and styles that are available. . The type of the for there are should be of the same face is as that of the text. The compositor should predetermine 1 how many lines and how much pecu- Exception may be allowed for a liar word that calls for emphasis. and for a line of display with arabic figures. either in roman or italic. in a title-page other- name of a book that treats of old English literature. The uniformity of face that is the great merit of a page of text should be maintained in a page of title. italic capitals in a composition otherwise of roman title-page may capitals only will make discord. To mix two faces destroys the bookish feature it degrades the title to the level of a newspaper advertisement or a the . their Properly arrangement gives title least trouble to the compositor. A but two series can seldom be used together. but it is not pleasing in an imprint or for any other short line. but he must avoid harsh contrasts. Small capitals that are almost unreadable may be supplanted with small but more readable Eeal old English lower-case. few text types provided with larger sizes of precisely the same face and fitted for words and lines of different length. for honorary titles in separate lines. This easier said than done.112 Copy for a title-page needs study only that these brief remarks are made. be entirely in capitals or entirely in lower-case (initial letters excepted). for handbill. 1 The copy for title-page matter should be studied before the first line is put in type. selected. wise of roman capitals only. black-letter of large size may be selected.

iiiminmiiiimmiii Suggestions for sketches of titles. .

114 An old method of setting title-pages blank between lines are really needed. and to crowd the long name of the book in 1 Large type is not possible for prolix honorary titles. ticeable. nor for some details added by the publisher. Catch-lines have to be selected for some title-pages. The reader values readability more than he does ingenuity. once a grace. and a narrower one between those that are. but it is practicable to make all important words no- An play. To display the matter in the manner of a handbill by making frequent catch-lines and putting blanks of the same width between all the divisions will spoil any title. Pettiness should be avoided as much as overbold dis- . was to plan it with many distinct lines. He should begin by sketching on a bit of paper the relative and length of the proposed lines. The first by him is that the attractiveness of a title-page depends as much on the proper distribution of blank space as on the proper display size lesson to be learned of important words. Blanks of different widths are needed between a broad blank distinct divisions of subject-matter between those that are not closely related. all the words type. The strong contrast pro- duced by putting a catch-line of small capitals of nonpareil above or below a large two-line letter. not out of fashion (usually done in obedience to oryet der of author). 1 old method of constructing a title-page. but they should not be too frequent or in too small When it is possible to do so. is now a real fault. The broadest blank in titles without device or illustration should be above the publisher's imprint. in a title-page should be in types that are as readable as those of the text.

Condensed types have to be selected for this line when the author insists on putting many words in one line. A contrast of the old with the new method of treating the title is presented on the following pages. At their best when their letters are not spaced. it and incoherent. they are never entirely pleasing either for a scant or a crowded title. The name by which the book will be identified should be the boldest line. When the letters for the main line of display are few. but its boldness is it should be bold enough to arrest atten: tion at the first glance. and condensed letter is forbidden. as is often supposed. Types slightly compressed are tolerated by the critical. and the words for this feeble As this line are usually prescribed by the author. A two-line type of the standard or regular width is clearer than a condensed type of greater height. The short name had its types spaced out to fill the line. for a full line was rated of first importance. it should be the one first first set. line determines the size of other lines. and should be preferred. The . Its length or shortness is not of importance.Type for main line of display 115 one bold line of condensed type. they may be in one short line. but this shape of type should be avoided when it is possible. but not when they are visibly pinched. they may be arranged in two lines. These methods did not always give to the title the desired boldness and clearness in many books they made . but when there are too many for one line.

COLL. All rigfttt reserved . MA KNIGHT OF THE ORDER OF THE REDEEMER FELLOW AND PROF. II. P. OF ANCIENT HISTORY.A HISTORY OF CLASSICAL GREEK LITERATURE BY THE REV. TRIN. OXFORD AUTHOR OF 'SOCIAL LIFE IN GREECE* 'PROLEGOMENA TO ANCIENT HISTORV' THE GREEK WORLD UNDER ROMAN SWAY' ETC IN TWO VOLUMES VOL. J. FELLOW OF QUEEN'S COLL. REVISED THROUGHOUT Conbon MACMILLAN AND AND NEW YORK 1890 CO. DUBLIN HON. PART I. MAHAFFY. THE PROSE WRITERS FROM HERODOTUS TO PLATO THIRD EDITION.

" "Rambles and Studies Greece. Oxford .A HISTORY OF CLASSICAL GREEK LITERATURE BY THE REV." "Greek Life and Thought. PART I. Dublin. Author of " " Social I-ife in Prolegomena to Ancient HisGreece. M." " The Greek World under IN TWO VOLUMES. Honorary Fellow of Queen's College. . VOLUME II. Roman Sway." etc. tory. P. Trinity College. THE PROSE WRITERS FROM HERODOTUS TO PLATO THIRD EDITION REVISED THROUGHOUT LONDON MACMILLAN AND AND NEW YORK 1890 A II rights reserved CO. Knight of the Order of the Redeemer. Fellow and Professor of Ancient History. MAHAFFY." in J. A.

and be spaced or unspaced to have equal distinction. Letters so treated shall be kept in the same line. >Vhen the words in the lines are of equal importance. is even when it gave false value to the words of the author. 1 If these meeting lines are of the same length. The eye has been accustomed to seeing in roman lowercase type decidedly greater relief of white space above and below each line than there is within the letter. they need as much space without as within. they should be treated in the same manner. This is often done even when there is abundance of unfilled space in other quarters of the page. not always necessary that two meeting lines of display shall be uneven as to length. of the page This suggestion opposes the words It is closely related in sense practice of some designers who separate lines of large letters with very thin lanes of white space. if not exactly. the introductory article THE or A may be the first short line. of the same size. even if they are of the same length. or Two contiguous short display lines of equal length are not a fault. copy will allow. the letters of one line may be thin-spaced to make it a trifle longer. This relief of white space is equally needed for capital letters. so that its increased width will not be at A once apparent. but the display will be faulty if one line is purposely made too large and the other too small. The old rule that required a bold full line to be followed by a short inconspicuous line. 2 The main line is well placed when it appears as the second or third line on the page. not observed now by the dis- vice versa. 2 The first line may be long and the second line short. . They should not be huddled: the blank between them should be about as wide as the height of the type selected. but it is desirable that creet publisher. would be more readable if they were shortened in height and more blank were put between lines. but the spacing should be slight. title with its largest and longest line at the top When 1 is always unbalanced and top-heavy.118 Long and short lines of display two lines so picked out should be of the same face and nearly.

BOOKS AND PUBLISHERS AMONG AUTHORS. .THE GRAMMAR OF THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GRAMMARS FIFTY YEARS ENGLISH GRAMMARS FIFTY YEARS AMONG AUTHORS. Old method. BOOKS AND PUBLISHERS THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION grtt 0* THE ART OF ILLUSTRATION SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY CRITICAL CRITICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS AND MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS ONE HUNDRED BOOKS FAMOUS IN ESSAYS ONE HUNDRED BOOKS FAMOUS IN ENGLISH LITERATURE WITH ENGLISH LITERATURE WITH FACSIMILES 'OF THE TITLE-PAGES Modern method.

If this is not practicable. If the letters in the line are too many. If the line are too few. When two letters only of a type of proper size and shape will not come in. the measure should be widened to take them in. ing to full width of measure will make the line still Attaching a large capital of the same face as an initial letter will capitals and small make it practically a line of capitals (never pleasing in a title- Nor ful it j page). If smaller type is selected. Old-fashioned rules about They should display often have to be put aside. irrespective of the length or shortness of lines. When types have been chosen of a size to give a proper showing to words. a type unduly large must be used. not be maintained when they produce mean display. that does not materially increase its boldness. the line will be short and feeble and the letters must be spaced. and other details of composition are fairly adjusted. condensed type must be selected. It is of first importance that the words in a title be properly presented. is a large engraved initial of square form help- most serviceable at the head of solid text type. but pinched letters make a discord with those of standard width.120 It is Expression of words offirst importance sometimes difficult to compose in an orderly the author reletters for this manner the words prescribed when quires them in one full line. always seems discordant and out of place in the open title-page. set the words in two lines. . the result will sel- dom be unsatisfactory. even if the old rules are violated. but spac- feebler.

A CRITICAL REVIEW OF PAINTERS DESIGNERS ETCHERS AND ENGRAVERS . It may be impossible to give them proper prominence in one line or even in two lines. after this fashion two : A CRITICAL REVIEW OF PAINTERS DESIGNERS ETCHERS AND ENGRAVERS The only excuse for making this needless distinc- tion in the size of type is the unreasonable rule that required two meeting lines to be unequal in size and in length. much less troublesome. all of equal importance and all requiring equal prominence. may specify for its main but four or more distinct words. and the second in a smaller type. and more satisfactory to the author.Not the showing of arbitrary rules title-page 121 The copy for a line not one. The new method of treating these words for display is simpler. By old methods words of this description were set in lines the first line in a very large type.

The needed irregularity is produced by different sizes of type that make the lines of unequal length. as in a title-page of the Puritan or seventeenth-century style. single types in any line of display should be much narrower than that of its proximate blanks. and broad blanks put between the lines above and below the main line. All other short lines of a title-page can be centred by putting equal blanks on each side of every line. The space between line more intermediate When the main lines may be needed. a pencil line drawn diagoto the end of the longest line should touch or nearly touch the ends of the intermediate lines. regardless of their irregular endings. but it could be observed much oftener than has been done. for it makes the subject-matter incoherent.122 Hair-spacing of capital letters This treatment gives equality to all the words. and with advantage to many title-pages. hair-spacing of one or nally from the end of a short A has to be widely spaced. An old rule required every line in the title to be spaced when the main line had been spaced. The wide spacing of single types when there are narrow blanks above and below is unpleasing. This treatment is not always practicable. but there should be some symmetry in the apparent irregularity . other lines of display should be widespaced. . Small capitals that have little interior white space may need hair-spacing to make them more distinct. and the initial letters of each word line vertically.

practice. Arabic figures must be avoided in all lines of capitals. editor or translator. in the visible coherence of its words. nor set in types so large as to reduce the'importance of the main line and to encroach on the wide blanks that are needed between the regular divisions. Roman numerals or spelled-out words are imperative in lines of capitals for all amounts but . Figures of old-style face are always mean mates in the same line with their broad and tall capitals. nor is any figure of modern cut on the en body pleasing in a line of capitals of regular width. are than greater aids to a comprehension of subject-matter many lines of bold type. and designer may be in types of graduated size to indicate the relative value of their contributions. and in form or in a diamond or half-diamond arrangement. Grouping of details in a synopsis under the name of the book short lines of a squared in readable capitals.Arabic figures improper with capitals 123 Lines of secondary display should not be frequent. is the more approved The attractiveness of a title-page is largely Wide blanks that separate divisions not closely related. and narrow blanks that combine those that are related. The names of author. but to preserve irregularity of outline it may be necessary to neglect the nice distinctions intended to be pro- duced by different sizes of type. general effect of irregularity should be maintained even if those distinctions are not at once noticeable and some A lines are made a trifle short or long.

it may need a hair-line dash above and below to separate from other parts of the title. When superior distinction is required for an illustrator. it may be the head of the page or on the leaf that at put One or two precedes or follows the title-page.D. always in a separate line. wajr. but if put as is usual in the middle of the page. appear in a separate line below the name. but when there are many honorary titles BY has to be in a separate line.124 Obtrusiveness of the motto those of dates. but there may be special reasons for neglecting this practice. and the author permits.B. a title-page always seems in the It must be placed where the author directs. in small capitals or in two or more lines of small lower-case. When the crowded. Abbre- viations of short honorary titles following the name may appear with that name in the same type and same line. The motto of. editor. may be in arabic figures with propriety. yet the date following a publisher's imprinf. it title is . Honare not pleasing in small capitals by orary the side of the name they may be spelled out. or translator. When the title-page is crowded with much matter. his name may be larger. name of the author to be in larger type than that given to his coadjutors. the prefixed BY before the name of the author may be set in the same line and in the same type. or even appear in small type as the first line of the page. Spaces are not needed after the periods in abbreviaCustom requires the tions like A. to this prefixed titles . and LL.

It is not necessary that the lines of a motto should be the full width of the measure . A displayed title-page overcrowded with lines that must be read more slowly and thoughtfully than lines of the text matter is a title-page. should never be added to a title without order. The Morris title is made by crowding at the head of the page all its words in a few lines of thinspaced and unleaded capital letters.type. l Two or more long quotations selected to serve for the motto a be on should separate page. 1 Curved lines. they may be separated by a white line. or decoration of any description. not filled with decoration. are usually put on the but these additions always prevent orderly arrangement. The reference to the book from which the quoalways more pleasing when its tations have been taken should This be in a separate line. a sprinkling odd initials. more motto may be in small capitals three or lines are better in small lower-case letters. It always appears to better advantage in a purposely narrowed measure. put and roman lower-case of a small size is usually selected for this purpose.Faults of overcrowded lines of a titles 125 . the page is unsightly. It is not a modern but an old method. in smaller first and last lines are full. ornamental dashes. . of book and Explanations concerning the publication of the specifications about the edition. When two or more distinct quotations appear on the same page. as of the of copies printed. but the ungainly appearance of indented and broken lines will be prevented. apparently devised by an illuminator who wanted nearly all the page for When the blank so made is his own handiwork. and not preceded by a dash. may compel frequent overrun. it is number ning. but modern practice does not inclose it in a border-line. not by dashes.

The wishes of the publisher should be consulted before this experiment is tried. too . Although the largest number of publishers and readers prefer the plain title* there are others given by the it author. To give directions or even suggestions the composition of the fanwould be useless. The fantastic composition that may be admired in an old book or in the pamphlets of advertisers always seems out of place in any book of permanent interest. For comf or tastic title words to be used (which maybe few or too many) can be accommodated to the style of that model. for in The single hair-line border is equally it is feeble and is electro typed and printed with difficulty. Even when is re- who ask for black-letter with medieval mannerisms. Some title-pages have their words and phrasing so arranged that they are difficult to put in type in 1 No part of the book is subjected to more capricious treat- position so ordered the compositor can do no more than follow specific directions ment than the title. The bold-faced rule with face much thicker than the stem of the largest type in that title is not to be commended. Border-lines for the It title reader can take in should be so composed that the hasty its full meaning at a glance.126 mistake. Putting title matter two or more panels of brass rule may or may not be an improvement it is always a hazardous j experiment that may degrade the title instead of improving it. 1 The title-page of but few lines that presents a ragged and meagre appearance it may be improved in a brass-rule border of parallel by inclosing hair-lines or of one firm line about one point thick. it is seldom that the arrangement with brass rules and grotesque types. for it makes the words within seem insignificant. for the lover of novelty too often wants his title-page in a style that is entirely new. or for eccentricities of quested that a new title-page shall be in imitation of a given model. objectionable.

When this can be done without this gross faults of spacing or in the division of words. When used. also contains i For additional remarks on the selection of types and the composition of title-pages. which many illustrations of titles set in different faces of type and in the fashions of different periods. but it is most satisfactory when it does not show lines. in half -diamond indention. To prevent disappointment the abandonment of display is advised. see A Treatise on Title-pages. it is put on a separate leaf with a blank verso. Every attempt at improvement seems to make them more unpleasing. after the methods of the early printers. . as may be directed by the author. or all lower-case. Set the matter in large type (all capitals. the result will seldom be unsatisfactory.Types for the dedication 127 an orderly manner even when they receive the benefit of suggestions from the author and the advice of experts. It is never improved by types of eccenThe matter is usually divided into lines of tricity. or as a plain paragraph with hanging indention. unequal length. 1 DEDICATION The dedication is not a necessary part. as is done in the displayed title-page. as may seem best). and is now seldom required. and is oftenest set in small capitals with all its lines centred. all italic. with large capitals only for the name of the person to whom the book is dedicated. a marked irregularity in the length of proximate The short line of one or two words only.

even if three leads or white lines are put between the matter provided for different chapters. line. the matter should be double. When leaded to occupy two or more pages. for when the words name make two or more lines they should be kept visibly together. The number of letter of the chapter. separated by one lead only.or trebleit readable. and the page figures referred to. with capitals for the first important words. usually on a separate leaf. This line should the chapter in roman The initial letters of the chapter should be kept in a vertical line. of a chapter . TABLE OF CONTENTS The table of contents. This leading should not be strictly uniform.128 When tables can be properly leaded following or preceding a line the entire width of A the measure. table of contents needs wide leading to A make the subjects provided fill the page too compactly and leave insufficient blank at its head. is often set in small capitals one or two sizes smaller than the type of the text. the name of the chapter heading. Small capitals of the large type of a text are not a good choice. long dedication can be made more readable by setting it as a letter in italic lower-case. but roman lower-case is sometimes preferred. appear at their best when they can be put in one begin with the number of numerals of small capitals. for they make the page seem needlessly coarse. destroys symmetry in composition.

engraver. and there should be still broader blanks between the names or legends of the chapThis treatment should not be attempted in ters. When added explanation. the numerals that define chap- When may be put in a separate line in the centre of the measure. or photographer. and near its ending the name of the designer. usually contains in its first line the legend of the illustration. and it is desirable that the contents should occupy two or more pages. for some uniformity of compactness or of openness should be maintained throughout the fore part of the book. so an attempt should be made to keep the names of the artists in vertical that the casual reader will note the distinction. Not a little ingenuity .Tables needing orderly arrangement 129 other parts of the book are wide -leaded. Under the legend line are often put one or more lines of small type. line. The leaders provided by the type-founders to connect letters with figures are not so pleasing as periods placed one em apart. but the brace selected for this purpose should not be blacker than the type of the text. the two lines may be braced and the page number put at the point of the brace. ters any book with solid text. TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS This table. which may be in space and matter will permit. more irregular in its matter than the table of contents. When the words of a chapter heading are many and make a second line.

which is a repetition of the name first it is 1 rarely used now. but chapter of When a usually a 1 The half -title should not be confounded with the bastard . Roman numerals are used to specify its number. of the book. can be made clear without it. For the cheap edition a separate leaf for each part is not often allowed. and its name or number is put in the centre or a little above the centre of an otherwise blank page. the bastard title. and takes a separate leaf with blank verso. The back of this page is always blank. and if that page has a long synopsis. PARTS AND HALF-TITLES Each large subdivision of book or part or canto takes a separate leaf in the sumptuous volume. but to give it a due prominence and equality with the wider and bolder capitals in that rals II and III will line. was once put over the text every book. The repeatedly before the presentable. The type that defines the part need not be large.130 Half-title and bastard title may be required to keep the lines may have to be reset composition is matter straight. a hair-line dash may be needed under the line that specifies the part. . The number and name of the part may be ordered to be put at the head of its following chapter page. the thin types for numeneed a thin space between them. single line in capital letters. title The half-title follows the and begins the first page of cedes the full title. pre- title. but the dash should be suppressed when the relative importance of the different headings The half-title.

synopsis. with proper subordination of types to is usually set in capitals of the text type. The number of a chapter heading and relatively insignificant by the side of the letters in the word CHAPTER. and by the size of urement when it overruns on the the initial letter. that word is often omitted. . and the chapter is defined by numerals only. the first page cannot be composed in orderly manner. an engraved initial. There should be at least lines of text on the first page. half-title. CHAPTER HEADINGS A crowded title. subheading. 1 The space allowed for the first i The amount of blank often two and preferably four lines or has to be governed by the amount more of text below the large inof matter in the synopsis that itial. about half a page of blank space may be given to the chapter heading if thin-leaded. the half-title is impracticable. one fourth or one . if an initial is next page and prevents needed used. first page is as unsightly as a crowded If it contains head-band.Space needed for chapter headings 131 head-band. and initial. chapter heading. one third if solid and without a head-band. so that its top will register with the first line of text on the following page. The head-band that surmounts a chapter heading may be sunk two lines. number of chapter. . As the numerals I II III are thin show their distinction. The synopsis is a disfigmay follow. but the numbers only may be larger. and not with the running title. and a long synopsis have to be inserted. If the text is wide-leaded. fifth of the page.

To make the first line full. The words in this first line need not fill the measure.132 Types preferred for synopsis chapter heading may be used for all the following chapter headings. or larger. and should be distinctly marked on the gauge of the maker-up. and the lines may be arranged in hanging indention or in half-diamond shape. Small capitals on a body two or three sizes smaller than that of the text are a more approved selection. and the name of the chapter will and to make more than two lines. If its words are too many for one line. do not select black-letter or any form of condensed type. but shorten the first line and place the overrun words in the centre of the second line. may be if its letters will in capitals of the come in one or two lines. SYNOPSIS This abstract of the contents of the chapter is often set in small capitals of the text type. The type for the words that give name to the chapter (which should be the same in all the following chapter headings) text type. is no synopsis. put in the second line one word or will be a great blemish. but in this position the small capitals of a large body show too much space between lines and seem needlessly large and coarse. make two lines of the matter. although they are dense . When there syllable only. do not use capitals: small capitals or italic lower-case will be a better choice.

is 133 A roman lower-case set in small type more acceptable. and space will allow. in lower-case italic. Two or three periods a thick space apart and without any dash make a more pleasing mark of separation.Types for preface and introduction and too often indistinct. When these personal explanations are . less of As the preface often contains personal explanation. A may have more or its made distinctive by a change in book on a bibliographical subject preface in italic lower-case. matter lopsided. or in the type of the text its leading. PREFACE AND INTRODUCTION The size of type for preface and introduction is frequently determined by the author. when not be greater than that of the paragraphs of the Indentions of three or more ems make the text. Sentences in a synopsis are often separated by an em dash. but the period before the dash is not needed a thin space before and after is better. as was once customary. The synopsis is usually set in hanging indention. which should . When the printer has the right of choice. is sometimes put on a separate leaf with blank verso before the chapter. The long synopsis. which can be varied to suit the occasion. it needs some distinction of type. with its clauses separated by semicolons. the preface may be in large type. small size of plain It must be for the initial letter it crowds the space needed and the text type.

and the matter for the text has exceeded its intended limit. Careful composition is of importance in the first part of the book. if this treatment is A makes many blank short preface type. When head -bands have been selected for the regular chapters. it is necessary to give them separate paging with numerals of roman lower-case. a head-band may be used for the first page of the preface or introduction. but it may be narrower than the head- bands of regular chapters. have its chapter headings begin on odd pages. As the preface and introduction are usually set after the text has been printed. text is A solid introduction before a leaded unpleasing. pleasing when in large seldom ordered when the The long introduction is often set in smaller type and with thinner leads than those for the text. but large type is matter will make many pages. or left-hand page. and it is the general practice to give to each one its beginning on an A odd page. even pages. book of many editions may have as many distinct prefaces. the preface may be in small type. . for a neglect in workmanship is The sumptuous book must there most noticeable. but in a book without pretence to superiority each new chapter may begin on the verso.134 First part of look needs most care of minor importance. but its type should be of the same face and have similar treatment. The roman numerals need not be used for any reprint on which presswork begins with the preface.

Treatment of subheadings

135

The publisher may not consent to what he calls a needless waste of white paper. In some books the chapters are as brief as they are in the Bible, under
which condition the new chapter must closely follow the previous chapter. To prevent unsightly
gaps of white space, it is often necessary to overrun many pages previously made up. Paragraphs must be made longer or shorter by a wider or narrower spacing of lines, and an unequal amount of blank must be put between the chapters. Hymn-books

and

collections of desultory

poems

in

different

measures often require similar treatment. No fixed rule can be laid down for the amount of blank between chapters, but it must be large in the sumptuous and small in the compact book. 1

SUBHEADINGS
Subheadings, of the same
class,

intended to relieve

the monotony of plain type, should be in the same face and size of type throughout the book. For a subheading of one or two lines only, the small
capitals of the text are

commonly

used.

For sub-

headings of three lines or more,
1 The rule that requires every chapter heading to begin on the odd page often meets with un-

italic

lower-case of

ment

The proper treattirely blank. of this difficulty will be
considered in a future chapter on making up. The intervention of the author or publisher may be needed to add or cancel matter enough to make a sightly
page.

The end expected difficulties. of a previous chapter may overrun three lines on an odd page, leaving the lower part of that page and the page following en-

136

Paragraphs numbered or

lettered

the text in hanging indention of one em only will be a better choice. The indistinctness of compact

small capitals can be made less offensive by hairspacing the letters, but this treatment is not recom-

mended for subheadings
the
italic of

the text

is

of more than one line. If not large enough, use the

next larger size. The subheading in italic is also used in school-books or any didactic work containing rules or propositions that serve as texts for following remarks. In school-books these subheadings often appear in light-faced antique or title type, but this overbold display is not to be recom-

mended

in the standard book.

sired for a subheading is secured

The distinction demore effectively by

putting about it a generous relief of white space. In some books long subheadings are set in lowercase type two or three sizes smaller than that of the

Small type and abundant white space about the subheading are enough to arrest the attention of the reader.
text.

Paragraphs below the rule or proposition that numbered or lettered, but the number or letter need not be inclosed in parenserves as a text are often theses that lessen its prominence. Old-style figures are objectionable, for they are weak and of irregular form. The number or letter need not be fol-

lowed by a period.

The en quadrat

is

enough

to

show

separation, as in the versification of the Bible. Side-headings may be set in small capitals or

italic,

but they do not need an

em dash to follow the

Extracts need variable treatment

137

For dictionaries, gazetteers, or closing period. work of like character, that contains frequent paragraphs, the side-heading of title or antique type is
It is not necessary that the type for purpose should be very bold, nor should it have marked eccentricity of shape to annoy the critical reader, but it will present a much neater appearance when it is on line with the type of the text. Copy is sometimes formally divided into para-

preferred.

this

sions

graphs and sections, and the signs for these divimay be ordered instead of spelled-out words. The sign should be separated from its following

figure

by a three-to-em
is

space.

The abbreviation
If space

of

SEC. for Section
saved, the sign

not wise.

has to be

is better.

EXTRACTS
Extracts and notes should be leaded
is

when

the text

leaded, but always with a thinner lead for each decreasing size. The text that has six-to-pica leads should have its extracts in type one size smaller

with an eight-to-pica lead, and the notes at the foot of the page should have a ten-to-pica lead.

Short extracts and quotations may be run in the and yet be kept distinct by using the ordinary marks of quotation. When there are four or more
text
lines,

defined

the quoted matter can be by putting the reversed
line,

more

commas

distinctly at the

beginning of each

and apostrophes

at the

end

138

Quoting and indenting of extracts
is

of the last line, but this old fashion

used

now

precision is compulsory. The is to set extracts of four or approved practice more lines in type of the same face but one size

only

when extreme

smaller than that of the text.

Types two or three

When paragraph and in smaller type, it does not need the marks of quotation the change in size is a sufficient indication of a change in authorship. A new method of extracts indents them one em on each indicating side of every line. extracts that make two Long or more pages are frequently an annoyance to the
;

sizes smaller are objectionably petty. the extract is set in a separate

reader.

When it can be done, the verbose extract should be remanded to the appendix. Extracts in prose or long quotations of poetry in

smaller type are kept separate from the text by leads placed above and below. If the text is solid, two leads may be enough to mark this separation,
Italic is occasionally selected for poetry,

but not to

the overrunning of very advantage. lines of long poetry, always a blemish, a smaller size of type may be selected.
If the extract has been ordered in peculiar type or in the style of a document, it may be inclosed in a rule of hair-line face, which will show that it is

To prevent

an illustration as well as an extract. Another way, more generally pleasing and not so troublesome, is to begin the document with a plain two-line letter,
which clearly shows that
it is

not a part of the

text.

Variable treatment of notes

139

NOTES
Foot-notes usually appear in a type two or three sizes smaller than the type of the text. Four sizes
choice
smaller, but not less than 6-point, may be a better when notes are prolix as well as profuse. When the note is merely the specification in abbreit

viated words of an authority,

may be

set in

broad

measure

j

when

it is

explanatory and makes

many
of

lines, half-measure is better.

The two columns

be properly separated with an em quadrat of the type of the note. A brass rule to separate the two columns of a half -measure note,
this half -measure will

or a broad -measure note from the text above,

is

seldom used now.
of the text are usually

Side-notes in type three sizes smaller than that made up to a measure of

eight nonpareils, but they may be wider for notes that have many words. Sometimes specifications
italic is

of authority are set in italic lower-case type, but not a wise choice, for its kerned letters are

easily

damaged

in this exposed position,

upright arabic figures too often used with accord with inclined letters.

it

and the do not

Cut-in notes are in measures of variable widths, and they usually appear in small sizes of plain roman lower-case type. Light-faced antiques and

condensed letters are common in the texts of schoolbooks, but are not a betterment to a library book.

140

Photo-engraved plates need scrutiny
is

A modern fashion for cut-in notes
on the
first line

to begin

them

ment

of the paragraph, but this treatgives to that paragraph a ragged and un-

The page will be more comely if sightly outline. the first line of the cut-in note is opposite the third
line of the

paragraph.

ILLUSTRATIONS
Engravings on wood have practically disappeared. Plates of zinc or copper etched by photo-engraving
process

now

printing with type.
illustrations,

contain the illustrations provided for With the providing of these

the printer has
is

mostly furnished by the publisher, little to do, but to some extent he

made

print,

and

responsible for their proper appearance in it becomes him to examine the plates

the photo-engraver's proof on coated 1 be The plate to be examined paper may deceptive. should be proved again on paper that must be used
critically, for

in the

proposed book, and this proof will show whether the plate is or is riot proper for the paper. Common faults in process plates are lines broken
or thickened at their extremities, shallow etching, and imperfect blocking. These process plates are
l

Photo-engravings by the

so-

presswork.
disliked

Much

as

it

may

be
is

called half-tone process should never be selected for type-work

by the

critical, a

super-

calendered or a coated paper

that

must be printed on paper

needed for the
of the delicate

full

development
of a half-

with a dull or rough surface or that has to be dampened before

work

tone plate.

Placing of cuts by maker-up

141

often blocked on wood, but the wood may be soft, warped, too high, too low, out of square, or an insecure support for its plate. These defects must be amended before fair presswork can be done, and the amendments should be made before the plates
are sent to the press or to the electrotype foundry.

Hard type-metal is better than wood for a base. The cut of irregular shape should be nicked for the
admission of type before
it is

given to the maker-up.

Illustrations (or cuts, as they are oftener called
in the printing-house) that

come within the measure

can be placed by the compositor in their proper order on the galley that receives his composed type, but this cannot be done when the cuts are small or of irregular shape, and the types have to be rear-

ranged to conform to their irregularities and kept within the limits of the page. No one can foresee where the cuts will have to be placed. Lines of type can be divided almost anywhere at the end of the page, but the cut must be intact. It is cus-

tomary to

set the

type of every book to be

illus-

trated to the full width of the regular measure, and to have the maker-up put the cut in its proper
place after he has divided the type matter in pages. To do this neatly, the type previously set by the

compositor must be overrun and led down in a narrow measure by the side of a small or diagonal cut, and this overrunning may have to be done repeatedly before the type and cuts are fitted to each other and to the page.

142

To prevent changes

in running

titles

RUNNING TITLES AND PAGING
Small capitals of the text type, often thin-spaced, with arabic figures in the same line, have been for

many years an approved form for the running title,
but they are not in high favor now, largely on account of their pettiness. When the words for the

running title are few and repeat the name of the book or the heading of the chapter, roman capitals of full size on a body one or two sizes smaller than that of the text are often selected. If it has many words and defines the contents of its page, italic lower-case is to be preferred. A line in italic capiSmall capitals of the tals only is not so well liked. text can be used when the type of that text is large, but if the text is small and leaded, its small capitals will need hair-spacing, and its paging figures will Old English black-letter is somebe indistinct. times used for the running title, but this style is at A its best in a medieval or bibliographical book.
large size of

proved

style.

roman lower-case letter is another apThe running title in mixed capitals

and small

capitals is not a favorite. capricious changes in the capitals of a running title in lower-case, capitals should be

To prevent

1 confined to the initial letter and to proper names.

iThe earliest printed books repeat the number of the proper had no running title or paging chapter at the head of each page, figures. The first attempt to sup- and this treatment was then supply this need of the reader was to posed to meet all requirements.

Indention of running

titles

143

The running title is in an exposed position where shows the wear of the press. To withstand this wear, school-books, hymn-books, and all works frequently reprinted from plates often have runit first

ning

titles in capitals of

A new fashion in
spacing of their
it is

running

light-faced antique. titles is the very wide

letters.

This must be done

when

em

so ordered, but a spacing of single types with or two-em quadrats is no grace to leaded and

a real blemish over a text of solid composition.
text below

The running title is usually separated from the by one line of the quadrats of the text

type, but if that text type is of 12-point the blank so made will seem needlessly wide. new fashion

A

separates the running title from its text with two leads only, which may be satisfactory for solid, but
is

not pleasing for leaded matter. 1 Lower-case type of small size has been used for
titles,

running

but the general preference is for a than that of the text. type larger Sometimes the running title is not centred, but
at the

is set flush

up to the inner margin of facing pages, end of the left and at the beginning of the
rule has been used. The value of these additions to the page is not apparent, for a succession of unmeaning rules soon wearies the reader. For this purpose the hair-lines, as usually made

l The blank space under the running title seems to invite a meddling treatment. The hairline cross-rule, sometimes of half the width, but oftener of the full width of the measure, is the favorite, but parallel rules of full width are almost as common, For the page intended to be remarkably spruce, a thick double

upon single,
rules, are

parallel,

and double

annoyances to the electrotyper and pressman, and of
small benefit to the reader.

is a the paging figure is put in the centre of the head-line. . when that name is well wearisome and needless useful when it exis most This title formality. defines the matter on the some extent to or plains refer not to the should and this explanation page. but it need not be inclosed in parentheses or brackets. for a . dashes. The running title that consists of the very long name of the book is sometimes divided so that one half only of this name will appear on one page and the other half on the facing page.144 Page figures reckoned as of margin The chapter and the section of the book be specified in the running title. If the first line of type title. the chapter the left off right page. nor have attached colons. In pamphlets or books that have no running known to the reader. first but to the last paragraph on that page. Nor is this a commendable fashion. from the words of the running with brackets. one heading will be longer than the other. line of many words can seldom be evenly divided if it is not so divided. or any other attempt at finish. this first and the blank below it must be reckoned in the imposition of the form on the stone as a part If these practical of the head margin of the page. line contains nothing but the paging figure. This revival of an old fashion a now common practice. The continuous repetition of the name of the book in its running title. may name on title is each fenced and the section on the right page. but it cannot be con- sidered as a grace to any modern page.

and in many instances an unavoidable. They should be of readable size. and the page so treated will have an un- workmanlike appearance. i o i on one and like of page petty types irregularity 396 on another respects is offensive to every reader who type- symmetry and uniformity. margins. This omission gives needless trouble to the folder as well as to the reader. 1 It is the rule that figures for paging should not be smaller or less distinct than the figures used in the text. It is a mistake to assume that the early makers of books did not number or letter the leaves of their books to show their regular sequence. figures may be of small size.Page figures needed ~by the folder 145 blanks are reckoned as a part of the page of type. this i page have its proper paging figure to prevent tions to distinguish them from the figures of the regular signa- One of the novelties of re- formed typography is the omission of all paging figures. even if it is neces- sary to justify in the line figures of a larger body. 10 . Paging figures are guide-posts that prevent the folder and binder from making crooked folding and irregular Paging at the foot of a common. but they should be of a face that will enable the gatherer of the sec- med and that their marks were trimoff after all the leaves had been gathered and sewed. The Old-style figures are disliked for paging. In this position the practice. the page is The proper page figures should be put at the foot of every page that has a lowered chapter heading or a cut at the head of the page. the margin at the head will seem much too large in print. Paging figures at the head of a full-page cut are forbidden by artists and editors as derogatory to It is. a most diligent searcher. both at the head and at the foot of the page. has shown that the leaves were numbered or lettered at the foot ture. Some founders have remodelled these figures and made them uniform now in height and line. William Blades. necessary that its intended effect. however.

yet they are always reckoned in the table of contents . portraits. yet will serve as a guide to the pressman. and all additions to the text take arabic figures for paging. etc. the proper page figure on the plate so that it will not appear in print. index. Appendix. if they had been paged. or pressman. The matter before the text (as the title. If the page is paging figure remains. introduction. and there it remains until ready for press. The maker-up puts it in the foot -line. proof-reader. paging with arabic figures begins with the text of the book. and illustrations made on separate insertion in the leaves by copperplate or lithographic process for book never receive printed paging. . but the proof-reader marks it to be cut off the plate by it is to be electrotyped. with the bastard title or the first printed page of the book but neither on that nor on any other very open page are these roman numerals printed. preface. the He scratches or engraves the electrotype finisher. Maps.146 Paging of preface and advertisements a possible mistake by stoneman. which are printed last of all) is paged with roman lower- This paging is supposed to begin case numerals. This precaution will prevent delay and annoying blunders in laying plates. but publishers' advertisements at the end of the book should receive as their special paging in a figure of different face.. As a rule. when withdrawn by the stoneman. although they may be reckoned as pages in the table of contents or the index.

but its subheadings should not be too compact. The index breaks the rule of strict uniformity of treatment. may be set in the slightly bolder type of a light-faced antique. of persons should possible. extracts. In the copious index. and three or more of 8-point for a large octavo or quarto. documents. They should have around them enough of It may white space to invite the reader's attention. for it is set solid in small type. wherever a misleading direction. There need be no rule between the columns. even when every other part is leaded. old method of making a separate line for each sub- division of that reference. but the full names it is be spelled out. to prevent The hanging indention of one en is enough for an index in two or three columns. be set close and solid when compactness is desired. and of connecting it by leaders to figures at the end of the line. but the body of the The reference should be in plain roman lower-case. or the two or three words that follow.New methods for setting index 147 APPENDIX AND INDEX The appendix of letters. . some abbreviations that are improper in the text are permissible its in the index. is obsolete. As merit is largely in compactness. Two columns of 6-point type are common for the duodecimo. or tables that are too long for the text is usually in type one or two sizes smaller than that of the text. the first word of every reference.

and spaces of greater width are a A three-to-em To avoid the turning over of a positive blemish. POETRY space is wide enough for the proper separation of words of poetry in solid or singleleaded composition. but they are large. even when they mar the general uni- formity of spacing in the page. wasteful of space. is a greater misfortune than too thin spacing. Cross. but it is not an improvement. the word or syllable turned over may be put at the end of the preceding line or following line after a bracket. often unavoidable. very sionally. for the turned-over line of one syllable. vision of the general reference is not needed the semicolon is a better mark of separation.or treble-leaded matter. references and note-references should be in italic. For this purpose arabic figures of title type or light-faced antique should be The period at the end of each subdipreferred. When it is practicable.148 Turned-over words in poetry References in an index to different volumes are often put in roman numerals of capitals. . The en quadrat may be used for double. thin spaces have to be used occalong line. but it is not to be advised for open composition in a generously planned book. This may be done when the matter has to be kept on one page or in a specified number of pages. and not the clearest guides to the searcher. Commas before page figures should not be omitted.

give a similar indention to the lines that rime.Page figures not to be indented 149 The word turned in a separate line should be so deeply indented that it cannot be mistaken by the modern practice negligent reader for a new line. but it does not meet with general approval. the indention may have to be changed for each poem. The variable indention of different lines is usually determined by the author. so that the entire body of verse on that page. The running title is the one line that can never be changed with safety. artificially in Sonnets are sometimes indented the copy without regard to their rime. When his intent is not clearly expressed. Odes are another form of verse not to be controlled rules. shall be fairly centred. Lines from which words are turned over should never be spaced out to full measure. Never move it or the paging figure at the end of the line either to the right or the left to make the body of an irregularly indented mass of poetry seem in the centre of the page. in different metres. irregular Indention should be so graduated that there will by arbitrary seem to be an equal amount of blank on each side In making up pages of short poems of the page. and they must be set with the indention directed by the author. and not one or two stanzas only. The different measures on different pages of the same book of poems cannot be indented by any inflexible rule. The paging figures are often the only safe . A permits this turned-over line to be set flush with its preceding line.

to make use of the single quotation-mark for the quote within a quote. ere close of day We should have sacked the town. and should be used only in strict reprints or . and when they are treated as if they were. Do not allow the quotationmarks to make irregular the vertical lining of capitals." . the intent of riming indention is obscured. " Curse on him " quoth false Sextus " Will not the villain drown ? ! . In all made by stanzas put the quotation-marks in the space indention. But for this stay. and that the incautious folder of the printed sheet will so fold to make uneven margins." " Heaven help him. The neat making up of pages of poetry is always . as in prose.150 Capital letters to be kept in line guide the pressman has in making register when he prints the sheet on the reverse side. when especially ordered. If paging figures are put out of place it is probable that the pages will be badly registered. " And bring him safe to shore For such a gallant feat of arms Was never seen before. so that the first letters of each verse shall line vertically as they would line if the quotes were not used. but they are feeble they make unsightly gaps of white. The quote -marks are not integral parts of the sentence. it as Single quotations are a new fashion for poetry. It is the more acceptable practice in poetry." quoth Lars Porsena.

are faults to be avoided by overrunning and by increasing or decreasing the blanks in previous pages. the top of a two -line initial should line with the top of the types in its following first line . These are troublesome expedients. but it may be difficult to find one that will close the greater vacancy made by leaded lines.compositor often has to be conletter that is not an exact mate. An examination of the authorized edition of a gestions. Yet it is important that it should tent with one that fairly fill this vacancy. but perfect harmony is not always attainable. An initial spans two lines of solid composition is to be had of type-founders. the of study make-up poems in good editions of standard authors. or before the last line. hymn-book will give useful sug- INITIAL LETTERS Large initial letters at the beginning of chapters or important divisions of a book are old and useful devices for adding to the attractiveness of print.Initial letters should fit space difficult 151 when the stanzas are unequal. Fixed rules for preventing these irregularities are The compositor should entirely impracticable. or after its first line. Division of a stanza between its rimed lines. For the ordinary book the plain two-line initial of standard width is in most favor. Its form should be that of the type of the text. They should be used oftener. but they cannot be evaded. To be a real improvement to the page. and the .

The types that immediately follow a large initial may be small capitals or full capitals. and that do make ungainly patches To lessen this blemish in type a moderinitial is ately condensed letter may be selected. and the foot of that initial should also exactly line with the foot of the second line of text. but this selection is made troublesome by the steadily increasing width of large types. for they suggest newspaper advertisement display. An initial that made by lines of type is does not neatly fill the gap not a merit but a blemish.. with strokes that do not fill of white. unsightly gap is left and fairly fills the vacant at the top and above the third line. is on an T^HEN NOT ON LINE top and foot. INITIAL T^HIS line at This gap over the third line of text is often caused by unwisely selecting the broad-shouldered capital This fault can be prevented of a very large type. space. . by cutting off this shoulder when it has to be used as a two-line initial. etc. Small capicondensed tals lining. but an extranever a betterment.152 Capital letters follow an initial of text. L. a plain initial that spans three lines of text may be selected to advantage. Y. and in a narrow measure may compel hair-spacing. When the text type is small. and especially of types like A. should be preferred when they make perfect Full capitals of a large text-type after a large initial are not always pleasing. the body.

and are frequently used in England and Germany. as occasional capitals for the text of devotional and ecclesiastical books. that have curved strokes and claw-like terminations. A L HE jects high initial. They are preferred now in the reprints of old books. Black-letter initexts. that lines at the foot and pro- upward as here represented. When it has . in their smaller sizes. were com- roman in early books with texts in character. were not always used with black-letter for the curved lines of uncial capitals seemed better adapted for the decorative work about the initial.High i initials Medieval initials 153 If the first is word or italic. roman initial before italic letters is not pleasing. compact composition. was frequently used in poetry and open composition by printers It is not suitable for of the eighteenth century. For ordinary books the engraved initial should be on a square or right-angled body. or for paragraphs divided by lines of quadrats. but it can be selected with advantage for some forms of open catalogue matter. EDIEVAL mon tials initial letters of uncial form. ordered in first line following an initial the rule of exact mating may require the special engraving of an italic initial.

but it is distinctly unpleasing when these lines project at the right or at the foot. but fit does not when is it dis- torts the lines out of their proper places. with a hollow be placed. the lines of the types of the text can be kept trim and square. and give ragged endings to lines of type. . centre in which any letter can is a good substitute for the plain two-line letter. . When the initial is so drawn. The beauty of the initial is it in its fittingness. the upper part containthe lower part the decoration. and the initial will seem to be a proper mate for the type. HE pierced initial. It is an acceptable form for general service. and gram. but repetition makes it unpleasingly monotonous. The last novelty in designed initials is an upright parallelo- ing the letter. this irregularity is never rated as a fault. but at head and foot it should have true alignment with its corresponding lines of the text. as shown by the side of this initial E.154 Eagged and pierced initials straggling lines of decoration that project in the margin or toward the chapter head.

The connected lines easily made by the expert designer are rarely produced by the combination of movable types. but it is entirely unfit for any kind of square-set compoTo the critical reader its riotous sition. may be used now is with propriety in imitated reprints of the books of that period. initial letter inserted in a hollow square made from four corner flowers that fill a full circle may be quite as objectionable as the pierced initial. even when it has been most skilfully composed. straggling streamers of tracery. have now. or with long.Fac initials Floreated initials 155 fac initial. ! PROFUSELY ORNAMENTED INITIAL of black-letter with interfacings of flowers or vines. A pierced initial made up of small flowers of recent design is no better than the old fac. but it whimsically out of date in any modern book. is decoration a discord by the side of the trim formality of symmetrical lines of . the typographic substitute for the eighteenth . some fitness for the position of poetry or in of display where its streamers and may open coma very open piece It had. is now deservedly neglected. once in high favor. for it always has a mechanical appearance.century pierced initial. may stray into a blank margin.

with broad spaces belines. The initial printed.156 Initials often made too dense YPE-FOUNDERS' specimen-books have engraved initials of merit. but may has not been made be disappointing if the to be printed in red ink. should be adapted to the type with which it will be A text in 6.or 8-point type may be graced initial of by an letter good design that shows it fine and close engraving. TEXT in 12. tween lected the The se- engraving of the initial should mate with the type of the text in its color and general effect. OLD. but it should be black and solid when it is an initial for large type.FACED initials with a black background and white letter may be used with advantage for small or large type. it may be dense and gray when used with small type. but an initial surrounded with dense and delicate letter is lines that obscure the clearness of the all not at pleasing by the side of large type.or 18- point needs an initial of bold and firm lines.14. but in selecting a series for general use the closeness or openness of the engraving in that series must be considered. .

. The designer may do so with propriety when he connects it to the border or gives it a similar ornamentation. They nullify one another. and ecclesiastic manuals). Some of its merit will disappear if this decorative letter is reduced in size and used with large type. but the selection of two or more large decorated initials of the same size and style for any open composition. LARGE ORNAMENTAL INITIAL Can Seldom be used with good effect within a broad floreated border. nor is there any valid objection to small initials in a text under a large initial. as in a title-page. hymn-books. Two or more small initials may appear with propriety on the same page (as must be done in the Bible. but it will rarely prove satisfactory. but the compositor who has to make .NE much LARGE DECORATED INITIAL is enough for the gracing of a page.Initials within broad borders 157 with iNE LARGE INITIAL open decoration can be selected with good effect for a text in 10-point or of larger body. This method of treat- ing a title-page that seems bleak may itself to the compositor as a good filler of present vacant space. but it will be made more effective if the white within the letter is made red graved O to by the use of a specially encover the naked white. is a mistake.

158 Plainness needed in the letter selection from a type-founder's specimen-book will seldom find an initial that suits the border. Initials that are petty always give a petty appearance to the page. be considered when black ink onlv can be used. If the initial letter has been cut to show white. . When it does not suit. but the initial for the opening may of a chapter or for any important division should be large and rememberable. The size of the initial should be selected with reference to the size of the page : for it be small . and must be used with discretion. the white letter can be made red by special engravit about of full black. Good arrangements of composition are often spoiled by the too lavish sprinkling of initial letters and ornamentation of like nature that make the text insignificant. Ornament is the wine and spice of typography. for 8vo or 4to 24mo and 18mo it may must be large. itial A small in- be selected with pleasing effect for lines under subheadings. Distinctiveness of the letter always should ing. in overworking them with too many dense lines that put them in unpleasiug contrast to the clearness and openness of text type. Plantin had for his books in folio some that were nearly three inches square. the decorative lines should give the color effect of pale gray or If the gray so produced is too pale. [E fault of many initials is in what artists call their niggling. the initial should be omitted.

The . gray. The white initial letter in outline only is surrounded by decorative lines. and rude lines of decoration are lines on black. that the produce gray effect. They deserve study for their intelligent contrasts of black. that its made by white give the effect of dark-gray color. even if they do seem coarse as well as quaint. will be found sat- isfactory. In the specimen-books of type-founders are a few forms of small ornamented capital letters that may be used to advantage as small initials. HEAD-BANDS AND TAIL-PIECES After useless attempts at the reproduction in two or more colors of the elaborate decoration of the fifteenth-century illuminators. always has proper prominence. but The letter those that are too profusely ornamented or grotesquely obscure should be avoided. the early printers of books confined their attempts at decoration to designs that could be printed in black only. and white black letter is usually ringed with a thin color. and reproduced by the American type-founders. and the decoration is kept subservient. A band of white.Head-bands and tail-pieces 159 general adaptability the odd initials designed by William Morris for his Kelmscott books.

a head-band of brass rule or of type border was inserted. BS3*3*3*)3*)^^ When pages were small and the chapters were not too short. To up the blank space. Sometimes the head-band was designed by an expert who mated It also in style with the following initial letter. for they wasted paper and helped to make the book of high price. and the two meeting chapters were separated by a big initial or a line of large type as the first line of the new chapter.160 had Thin head-lands between chapters broad border and a centre-band between columns to be abandoned. Then came a simpler fashion of a plain or decorated band between the chapters as the proper mark of separation. This treatment left the fill head of the page disagreeably bleak. each chapter was placed at the head of a new page under a broad blank. for the method of beginning a chapter at the head of a fresh page was then almost unknown and seldom practised. Obeying the old practice. Some new form had to be devised. left at vacant fill the to became necessary space it . each printed chapter closely followed its predecessor. This did not seem to be enough.

which might be one half or two thirds blank. the head-band and its mated initial letter and tailpiece are type. Conforming to the old fashion of setting the last paragraph of a chapter in funnel shape. The head-band may be a pictorial illustration that fills 11 . with its broad side nearest the type-work. This method of decorating the book. or styles of these decorations. sizes. although it is seldom used now for books of When properly selected. There is no rule that arbitrarily prescribes the shapes. introduced in the sixteenth century.Tail-pieces of triangular form 161 the end of the chapter. For this purpose the tail-piece was devised. has never gone out of fashion. the tail-piece was made in the form of a triangle. fill welcomed clearly reliefs to the dulness of text divisions They mark important and space that might be unpleasingly vacant. serious subject-matter.

but there is a general agreement among designers that it must be the exact width of the page of type. The form now in fashion is an oblong strip of decorative lines that varies in height from a quarter of an inch to two inches. and should not be connected with the initial letter. for the presentation of a portrait. it does not seem an integral part of the book it does seem a added and superfluous patchwork. but the ends may be rounded with propriety. sketch. or it may have a rounded pro.162 Head-bands should be full width one third or sometimes one half of the page. It usually has square endings. but when it is very large the type. bit of jection at the top in the centre. It should be flat or nearly so at the base. When narrower or broader.work below must be correspondingly reduced in size. or medallion. nor should it have projecting lines that droop to interfere with the type below and make insignificant the type-work .

. Properly treated. they are a grace. Decoration drawn with pen and black ink on paper can be repro- emblems of special significance and instruct the artist to make the designs generally applicable. The beauty of the proposed book depends upon harmony in decoration as much as on uniformity in type. he can have emblematic devices appropriate to the book incorporated in the decoration but if he proposes to use them afterward for other books. initials. The sumptuous book always has its head-bands. they are positive blemishes. he must exclude all . who has not studied for decoration duced at small cost by the photoengraving process.Density and openness of the chapter heading. l The printer who is asked to provide a series of decorations for a proposed book should have its designs made by an artist who is qualified as a decorator. of different sizes and in various styles of engraving. decoration as an independent art. so that all shall show a general similarity of treatment and be in agreement with the subject-matter. 1 Grayness or blackness and density or openness of decoration are features to be pondered. but when headbands have been selected from those that have been made at different times by designers of unequal merit. and tail-pieces designed by the same artist. is an art by itself and cannot be done properly by any one. Head- bands and initials to be used with the types of or 12-point larger bodies should show some correin color with the types. to be considered 163 Straggling vines or lines of tracery may project from an initial letter into the margin. If the printer intends to make use of these designs for that book only. in the closeness spondence and fineness or in the openness and firmness of A text type in bold -face their engraved lines. however high his merit as an artist. but not from the head-band.

too dense or too coarse. When lines too coarse are put by the side of delicate types. or improper mates for the initial letters that may have been previously chosen. Sharp or dense lines in a head-band over types that are relatively coarse or open seem badly selected. may be foreseen and prevented by examining the design under a reducing-glass. . the effect produced is also unpleasing.or 8-point type of roman face.164 Head-bands should mate with types may have decoration in nearly solid black. but the sketch on a large scale with dense lines will be monotmerit onously gray when This disappoint- may make an reduced. and disappointing when it has been reduced by the photo-engraver to the size that is needed for printing. but if the text is to be in 6. but their largeness may be deceptive. as They are more serviceable marks of division in pamphlets that do not require a large number of similar size and design. 1 For a book of many chapters the engraved head- bands of type-founders are seldom suitable. The sketch on a small scale may be enlarged with some loss of delicacy. foggy. What is clear and entirely satisfactory in the drawing may be petty. for they may be found too short or too long for the intended measure. a closer style of engraving that matches the general effect of gray color in the type will be more pleasing. and unprintable plate. with touches of white-line ornamentation only. 1 It is customary for artists to make designs for decoration on a large scale. but with no loss of value.

and unsatisfactory. for the head-band so produced is always clever labored. but there are compositors who still take delight in making them from little bits of border. but the border selected should fill or nearly fill the body. The time spent in their composition is not justified by the result. for the reading . but a feeble rule is petty in that prominent position. A designer can produce in an hour a pen sketch of more pleasing decoration than can be made up by a compositor from bits of border in a day. Parallel rules. and should have no corner flower.Borders of old fashion to be avoided 165 Head-bands made from combinations of flowers engraving.to 18-point body can be used with better effect. on 6. Carefully avoid the selection of the overworked typographic borders of the eighteenth century. bands are rejected by all discreet publishers. or sometimes thick double rules. nor is it pleasing when it divides two short chapters on the same page. have been selected as appropriate head-bands for the chapter heading of a new page. For poetry and very open composition a border of light and open lines should be selected for solid or single. more generally leaded composition a border of strong contrasts of black and white should be preferred. or small borders are vain substitutes for special Their ineffectiveness as decoration is apparent in the facs made by French and English Made-up headprinters of the eighteenth century. mechanical. The blank made by lines of quadrats is Thin strips of border acceptable.

.Head-bands of type borders.

but are really damaged. and two-line initials or other trivial changes that will make added.Books not to be treated as jobs 167 world has had enough of the feeble gray effects visible in these old-time typographic decorations. of strong black and white. Borders in the so-called Elzevir style. but they are out of order in any book intended for . entirely free from dense lines and overworked gray shad. or science. The larger pieces are They are not improved. eccentric lettering. play. Its subheadings of prominence or its rules or propositions may be set in a bolder type. The typography of a book should show a visible agreement with its subject-matter. as is often done. with a narrower and lace-like border. modified. The borders now provided by type-founders are not yet hackneyed they have more grace. most satisfactory. as is the case in treatises on law. pense of special engraving. will be found useful material for typographic head-bands for books that do not warrant the ex. the severity of a too plain style may be . ing. Yet the text more comprehensible may be Bold disit does not need decoration. and fanciful arrangements are attractive in certain kinds of job-work. and show a proper contrast of light and shade. when surrounded on all sides. If addressed to the thinking and reasoning faculties of a mature reader. it needs no bold type and no decoration but if it has been prepared for the study of young students. theology. or in the Byzantine or Turkish style.

a book attractive. The great masterpieces of printing are the simplest. Yet books with decoration are needed. but for amusement or information. but he will see that the book so treated in strong black ink does show marked superiority in its workmanship.168 Profuse decoration of great cost a permanent place on the library shelf. may receive ornament in many forms.bands. avoid decoration and odd types that do not make the subject-matter clearer. is most prized by the reader who is It follows that the type-work of a book should be kept in strict subordination to the main intent of the author. patience. and not any grace of the decorator. that also a student. from occasional lines in red ink or border lines of brass rule to elaborately engraved head. clearly printed on unobtrusive paper with appropriate margins. It is the thought of the author. Plain types correctly composed and neatly spaced. broad borderings of flowers rules. have a charm that is recognized by an inexpert. In the ordinary book. explanatory illustrations. and expense that seems out of proper proportion to the result attained. and tail-pieces. Those that are classified under the name of light reading. inks of many colors. but most of them call for an amount of skill. or a text letter of some eccentric or peculiar deThese are some of many methods of making sign. inior tials. with strict attention to petty details. . He may not know why they are more restful and attractive than the profusely decorated book. not intended for study.

it may it is be the most hazardous. for the rule more prominent than the type of the text. and quite prohibitory. Yet he hopes to get the desired result by the selection of eccentric type for the text. of the book. or divided into panels with borders of brass rule. A page of print. The last line in every paragraph may be filled meet the need. When the decorations of type.Novelties in type a perilous experiment 169 An amateur soon finds that profuse ornamentation which must be treated in painstaking manner by every contributor from the designer to the bookbinder is too expensive. or it is fenced off from the text below with rules that annoy and do is sometimes demanded by the publishers of advertising pamphlets and ephemeral books. is filled with bits of border that make it and its paging figure insignificant. often made still more conspicuous with is many colors. and it is largely from examples set by men who do not see the full scope of the work and do not appreciate the need of general uniformity that the compositor receives bad lessons in decoration. recourse is often had to the pen drawings of amateur designers. in the belief that this treatment will make the book attractive and help speedy sale.founders fail to not help the reader. 1 In the narrow compass prescribed for this work impossible to describe with clearness the typo- graphic details that will be appropriate for every variety of book. like an engraving or a picture. . can be spoiled by fussy additions that divert the attention from the main subject. Even the title-page of the book may be filled with flourishes. but he who undertakes it should be sure that it is ornament and not pure meddlesomeness. It should be enough to offer this suggestion before undertaking the composition of : i Ornamentation is not to be undervalued. The common fault of the amateur is the filling up of blank space with needless with bits of incongruous borders. decoration. On the contrary. Ornament of this description. It often has to be abandoned. which seems to be the cheapest of all his attempts at improvement. to the The running title when not spaced out extreme width of the measure.

.170 Over-decoration a common fault any new book of their merit. there should much ornament be added. it is ordered and unless should be a leaning toward simplicity. and presswork of the book to be made will be of the best. It may be assumed by the novice that it will be safer to copy the best features of books of high merit than to attempt the invention of new forms. The designing of entirely new styles should be discouraged. Even when ornament is ordered. In no case unless especially certain that the type. book may be positively tawdry The young compositor is especially warned against the hackneyed decorations of the printers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centu- They may be used occasionally with advantage when the old designs have been redrawn and recut they will seldom prove of real value if not rieSo 5 mated with text types of their own period. and good features should be imitated wherever imitation promises to be of service. Appropriateness should be considered. paper. Eccentricities that are pleasing in one in another. Over-decoration is a common fault. the typography of good editions of similar nature should be studied.

GEORGE BRUCE

DIFFICULT COMPOSITION
Algebra
.
.

Tables and table-work

.

.

Music

.

.

Genealogies

ALGEBRA

HEN composed from types cast
upon irregular and unmatable
is emphatically a difficult form of composition, for it requires much time- wast-

bodies, algebra

ing justification with thin leads or pieces of thick paper. It

can be composed with more

facility if the

needed

types and rules have been made on the point system, but under the most favorable conditions al-

gebra will be troublesome.

It

has rules of

its

own

for spacing and division that must be observed, and the compositor needs some skill in the art of
171

172

Signs used in algebra

combining in a workmanlike manner, yet by new methods, the rules, fractions, and abbreviations of
different bodies. text in 10-point may require characters varying in height from 5- to 72-point. The following table exhibits the algebraic signs provided by type-founders as a full assortment for

A

ordinary work, but some of the characters are needed only in books of higher mathematics
:

+

plus

Hoots, parentheses, and brackets

173

they are provided in every complete font of roman and italic type. For use as exponents or indices, thus xn x (n \ xn italic lower-case letters are pre,
,

ferred. 1

Characters on 5-point body.

The signs on the previous page are on 10-point body, but signs are also made on 5- 6- 8- and 12point bodies.

Two

bodies are often used together.

The radical sign ^ is required on many bodies from 5- to 72-point, and the figure that defines its
power should be nested
in its angle.

Different sizes of parenthesis

and bracket, varying

from

12- to 44-point, will be needed to inclose the different divisions of a compounded formula.

BOOS
In some formulas there may be an occasional capital, or a let1

n

ter of the

ferior letters in

Greek alphabet, or inroman, but they

are used for superiors, the inferiors always appear in italic, or vice versa. The tendency now is to the selection of but few
alphabetical letters.

are rare.

When roman

letters

174

Braces, fractions, and rules

Braces of light but firm face, in sections as well as in one piece, are made of different lengths from 10- to 72-point. Like the parenthesis and bracket,
they are of different lengths, but on 6-point body.

Piece-fractions are often required, and special care should be taken to get those that are very distinct.

11312_L.3_5..7 T^'43'38888

JL13.i2.i5.5.I.

424338888

A
is

much-used notation for the fraction nowadays the " solidus," as 2/3, where 2 and 3 are printed in the same font as if integers.
Superior letters (usually in italic) and figures must be provided for each one of the two bodies that have been selected. Inferior letters and figures are not so common, but the assortment is not complete if they have not been provided.
a

b

c

d

e

a

b

c

d e

1

2

3

4

5
1

2

3

4

5

Superior and

inferior letters

and

figures on 10-point body.

The brass
line is

rule to be preferred for the dividing on 2-point body, for it will give the least

trouble in justification.

Labor-saving rule of this

Labor-saving rule of service

175

body cut to even ems and ens of the text type, and in abundant supply, will be a valuable aid to neat
composition.
1

Algebraic expressions that show the two lines and denominator, or of dividend and divisor, separated by the usual dividing line, may
of numerator

need root signs, braces, brackets, and parentheses twice and sometimes thrice the height of the text If the text type is on 10-point letter.

c^

body, the radical sign will be of 20point body when small figures are used

\9o?76

below the vinculum, as in the upper ex-

^127-96 ample. If figures of a larger body are ordered under the vinculum, then a radical sign of 25-point is needed for neat presentation of figures.
The characters needed for a treatise on algebra comprise sorts on many bodies that cannot wisely be stowed in one case, for which reason the diagram of an algebraic case is omitted. The laying
of sorts for the composition of algebra is governed by personal choice. The quarter-section case that

can be placed by the side of the italic cases most needed will be found of good service. The order of laying should be exactly the same for every size,
l It is not good policy to allow the compositor to cut rules as he needs them. Rules so treated are liable to be irregular as to length, with burs on cut edges or slight bends in the body, and these defects tend to insecure

justification,

and give needless trouble to maker-up, stoneman,
and
electrotyper.

With proper

forethought, algebraic composition can be made as solid and secure as that of ordinary roman
type.

176

Methods of spacing and

lining

and a clearly written label should be pasted on each box to prevent wrong distribution. The composition of algebra differs from that of
the ordinary text in
its

uneven.

The

italic letters

spacing, purposely made that serve as symbols

for quantities must always be set close together. Superior or inferior letters, figures, and fractions are controlled by the same rule. But the signs x -T- = > < must be treated as distinct words, +

and be separated from the context by spaces of
noticeable width
:

2 abx

- x2 = 14 ab - 1 x 3ax = 2bx + ab

Superior figures are always set close up to their proximate letters, but the larger figures of the text type should be separated from following italic letters

by a four- or five-to-em space. The space be omitted only in a very crowded line
:

may

In algebraic formulas that have mutual relation or dependency, the figures of whole numbers must be

kept in strict vertical line according to the rules of

Sx +
12 x

9# +
12 y
by
b'y

8z - 2700
3600

+ + + +

+ Wz -

ax
a'x

a"x

b"y

+ + +

cz
c'z

-

d

c"z

- d' - d"

Terms

to be

distinguished in text
In formulas that have

177

arithmetical notation.

many
\)e

consecutive lines with few or no figures, the signs

+ and

,

which separate distinct terms, must

kept in vertical line. This rule for vertical lining sometimes applies also to the sign x for multiplication and to
It often
-f-

for division.

happens that a long formula cannot be

put in one line of the type selected for other formulas. When great compactness is desired, as is

important in some school-books, it is customary to set this long line in types of a smaller body that will take in one line all the characters. When it can be done, it is better practice to put the matter in two lines in large type, but the composition cannot be divided arbitrarily. The place selected for division should be at one of the signs +, or =,
,

for they represent transition points at the end of The part turned over in a second distinct terms.
line

must be placed
ax2

in the centre of the

measure

:

-

bx

=

ex

- d

Expressions that would divide badly are frequently put intact in the middle of a following line.

Connective words like as, in, again, that precede the expression in that line, are placed at its beginor again

y

- x = 4

ning, and a broad white blank follows, to show that the connective word is not a part of the formula.
12

178

Decimal fractions lined

vertically

Figures inclosed in parentheses or brackets that are inserted to refer to other formulas or terms in

same book must also be separated from the formula in that line by the same method. They may be at the beginning or end of the line. If a mark of punctuation is needed, it must be put after
the

the bracket or parenthesis

:

or

ax

+

by

+

cz

= d

[1J

;

Whole numbers expressed in many figures are not separated by the comma in triplets, as is usual in arithmetical notation, but in a decimal number the
integral part should be separated from the fractional part by the decimal point. These fractions

and the decimal point that precedes them must be kept in a vertical line in all the rows of figures, without regard to the irregular lining at the beginning or ending of the lines
:

927.67892254 3643851.5468 22982.657462

When many

characters must be put in one line,

the spaces between terms and signs may be relaThe space before or after a sign tively thinner. like + or may be omitted when this sign is next
to a superior or inferior character, but it is better practice to use the space in all places where it will add to the clearness of the expression.

When

spaces are not used

179

A

visibly wider space must be presented between distinct expressions shown in the same line
:

No

space should be put between alphabetical letters and superior figures that are grouped in one term and inclosed in parentheses or brackets
:

28

aNPcdW

6 ab(a

+

&)

(6

a 2 &c% 5 ) 3

= 216 cPPW 8

When

an author wishes that an expression in the

text should have noticeable distinction, he orders or marks more space before and after that expression, as it

here appears

:

The quotient of 18

aW

2 by 6a bx

is

3a?x

.

As a term cannot be divided with part of its characters at the end of one line and the other part at the beginning of the next line, some irregularity of
spacing has to be tolerated.

Thus the quotient of
written

15

a?lfix

by

3 a2 5

is

5a6

;

tient should be

but we have seen that the quo56$ as the factor a does
,

not alter the product, since

a

is

equal to

1.

The points of punctuation that separate clauses in the text have a broad space before them in any clause that ends with an algebraic term.

occasionally x or -H : (am + a'n - a")x + (bm + I'n (cm + c'n - . the shorter than the second : may be made - 1 .180 Treatment of long formulas When a long algebraic expression cannot be put neatly in a single line. but the characters in a term inclosed within brackets or parentheses must not be divided at all. The arrangement of the terms within the braces considerations suggested partly by the length of one of these terms. n^l-v'O + N" + n'(n'n" . fraction at the left 2 n'(p" 1 + p'N") pll . it may be divided. and partly by is of symmetry. Observe that the is so placed that its dividing line meets the central point of the brace. the second.v") + N" + n'(n'n".N")+ ~\ A/ n?(l gf f (n - V)p'p" 1 _ v //) _ n _l)N ' // ] - ( (2n' - l)p p'p" .N") 7T"! In the following example the entire expression within the vertical braces is to be multiplied by the fraction at its left.V)y + c"}z = dm + d'n + d" To prevent the improper division of characters in first line the middle of a term. It may be again repeated that the proper place for division is at the signs of operation + or .

if one should be opposite the dividing rule of ordered. and must be 26 points in height. . x = before.Value of point system 181 The rule that separates the numerator from the denominator. two lines of 10-point and one dividing rule of 2 -point. and = 12 after (each on 10-point body). but the second formula in the line is of greater height. The characters that make its full height 22 points. for it has two lines of 10-point and three rules of 2-point. are easily made to centre with the cross-rule. first term : " i * z ? x "V V * ' b ~*~ 2a The preceding illustration shows the value of the point system in algebraic composition. these characters could be solidly justified in that position with an upper and a lower line of 6-point quadrats. In the first formula we have. and the shorter term must be placed over or under the longer term exactly in the centre : 2 15 268 10000 c-fa/ B 0. or a dividend from a divisor. must be exactly of the length of the longer term. the point of punctuation. in the middle of the term. If this formula were the only one in the mixed line. as is customary in arithmetical notation.00001 a is When one of two terms simple and the other is is double.

If text that begins the line is set in the first stick. this difference of 12 points 1 must be made up A second stick with will knee adjustable by a clasp (Grover pattern) be helpful in the composition of complex formulas. + cos* ( 2 . it is customary to begin the work by setting up this formula first. fication. /340'3"\ or ) (z) etc.182 Point system makes solid work To justify this second formula solidly with the first. = |/te)dt + Const. the text is of 10-point./3427'\ / j/sm> () . and the formula is 22 points high. The solid manner in which algebraic formulas If types is can be constructed plainly represented in the following diagram. Point bodies simplify justi- and rules are not on the point the exact justification of two formulas in system. one measure will be much more troublesome.^ f S H as: asa s| a B) 23 When a short but complex formula is incorporated in the middle of a line of plain descriptive matter. which is then temporarily 1 Then the descriptive put aside in another stick. . copied with slight alteration from the Katechismus der Buchdruckerhunst : 3 tang -ft I . an upper and a lower lead of 2-point must be added to the first formula. .

leads and cards must be avoided wherever it can be done safely. when N is 2 equal to n and when N - nearly equal to n 2 . To produce solid justification. and adding over that matter another line of 6-point. The two expressions 2 =^ . and the remainder of the text composed in like manner. =N 2 and N+n* 2 are nearly equal therefore their arithmetical mean is nearly equal to their geometrical mean. The vinculum that projects from the root sign must be of the exact length of the expression it is intended to cover : \162 . Then the formula temporarily put aside in another can be added. the expressions .Formulas incorporated in the text 183 by setting a line of 6 -point quadrats tinder the text matter. This treatment will bring the text matter on the central line of the formula. Some authors prefer have short expressions in the centre of a separate line. The incorporation of a short complex algebraic stick for that line can be expression within a line of descriptive text in plain roman type unavoidably produces wide blanks between the lines of that text. or two lines of 7-point can be used. where it should be. but this method cannot be resorted to when to they appear too frequently in the copy. N - and 2 are equal is .

as will be seen in the illustration that follows. but it will be made tools in a more workmanlike manner with proper by the electrotyper. the compositor must have them properly nicked for the insertion of the figure. Exponents. where the vinculum of one root overlaps that of the other root. line of the and be placed as superiors on the upper symbols that they define. but they should be in italic.n "p JT n A *-im. This nicking can be done with knife or chisel. whether integral or fractional. When the signs provided are solid and not slotted. are less frequently used.184 Exponents and inferior letters In an expression which involves two radical or root signs. the superior vinculum must show a visible separation from the lower one : Index figures are often needed as exponents.7 !* p v * ^m. al mp a nq amq Inferior letters. In either case the nicking causes annoying delay. if the compositor is handy with tools. or subscripts as they are sometimes called. should be in italic.n . Q *Jfn . and be placed below the line of the letters to which they are attached.

brackets. must not be separated by a Parentheses. including dividing or vinculum rules. space. cos. tang (for sine.. may take a letter at the foot and letters : Sometimes these have expo- nents or subscripts arranged thus . as it does = 0. This must be done if but one of the parentheses.t J I (T-R) / J log. comes immediately after It must also be done or before a fractional term. or but one of the brackets. cosine. . tangent) should be in roman character in all formulas. figure that cos. etc. and should not be fol- lowed by an abbreviating period.Height of parentheses and brackets will take W~ in 185 Formulas may be written in which the same letter an exponent and a subscript. as in tang oX m = Psi. and integral signs that precede or inclose a fractional expression must be of the exact height of the expression. Integral signs at the top. There are a few that require two Xj subscripts. may The superior follow the abbreviation of sin. logarithm. Vdx The abbreviations sin.

~ / p + ' p When many parentheses within another. the being integral. the parentheses should be of the same height as the radical sign : a <Va> ~~ . the stroke should overlap both. It is better practice to use a bracket for the exterior sign of inclosure. one be selected of different may heights according to relative importance.186 Marking of figures for logarithms or when one more of the intermediate terms of the first expression are fractional. In a logarithm the short stroke that overlaps a negative integral figure or "characteristic" must not be wider than the figure. as in n'n" and last terms . and this bracket need be no higher than the in- terior parentheses.N" ~ - y* But if terms only the brackets or parentheses inclose integral (as shown below). they should be on the of the characters within (n'n" same body as that n'\n them : + .1345769 2".N")p'p"\ When radical signs occur within parentheses. If the characteristic have two figures.3010300 . 15. but they make an awkward formula. they have to be employed.

sists of If this fractional expression con- two lines of 10-point . as is shown in the illustration. 4+ 9+ 2+ 1+ l_l_l Manuscript copy of algebra is usually prepared with care the writer makes clear the difference between the ordinary and the superior characters. where the spaces could be rearranged. It is a better way to begin and complete the composition of the fractional portion of the expression in a Grover stick. which readily allows a readjust- ment of the measure and of the spacing between and one 2-point rule. Will it come or not come within the measure without wrong spacing ? The old way was to set all the characters (those above as well as below the dividing rule) in one long line and put them aside upon a short galley. the figures selected for the divisors should be placed ex- actly under the figures =1H - used as dividends. Yet it often happens that the compositor may be perplexed by the inequality in the length of the characters above and below the dividing rule in a complex formula. and the divisor rule should exactly overlap these figures.Composition of complex expressions In the expression of fractions continued in 187 many different lines. terms or factors. and tries to put no : more letters and figures in the manuscript line than can be properly expressed in one line of type.

These clumsy tools are seldom used now. he had good cause to dislike table-work. Too many not fractional parts of the em. When these signs must have been reckoned. for labor-saving rule of many lengths and with right and left mitres is in common use. the compositor can mentally determine the spacing of the term that precedes or follows the complex part. have to be justified to make solid composition. make up their deficiencies. for neat angles can be . if they are needed. The machines are not always needed. TABLES AND TABLE-WORK When for a table with a tinman's shears the compositor had to cut the brass rules and mitre them with a file. Nor is the mitring of corners always obligatory on odd lengths. full He puts in the stick of measure two blank lines of 6-point quadrats (one above and one below the 10-point line). which also be the height of the larger brackets or parentheses. The building up of a formula of complex ex- pressions would be easier if the italic lower-case letters could be cast on adjusted sets with spaces that exactly letters.188 Tables and table-ivork the height of the formula will be 22 points. and then adds to them the complex part already set in the stick. for every modern printing-house has small machines that cut and mitre rules quickly and neatly.

the figures. but they do not materially change its nature. but this skill is not entirely that of hand. A table in manuscript can be properly set only when it has been wisely planned by previous head-work. The method to be observed in setting up the different columns of a table of words and figures is not unlike that practised in setting the columns of a newspaper. Each column that contains words must be separately composed in its own in length. and each column correctly justified. but when the table has been properly planned. Tables require more skill than plain type-setting. One column must be made perfect and blanking out before the next can be put by its side. as has been shown on page 53. the tables are not inclosed in a border. narrow measure. In many recent books of fair workmanship.Illustrations of simple forms 189 made on flat-faced rule by a simpler process. or figures of the same . headings. names. Work so done is often tedious. Words. Explanations of the methods now in use may begin with illustrations of the simplest forms of table-work. nor are brass rules put between the columns in any place where they do not give a greater clearness to . Thick borders are no longer in favor shrewd critics say that the border must not be blacker than the words and figures to be inclosed.work. much of its difficulty has been removed. Improved tools and materials and the tendency toward greater simplicity lighten the labor of tablework.

in ordinary paragraph style. but if the list of names is long and must appear on more than one page. but the rule is not needed. . Orr William Rockefeller James Stillman William K. make up a stick to one half of the broad measure. is confusing to the reader. for the columns and make reading easier and more rememberable. To set one after another the names of persons. as will be hereafter explained. : Edward A. Hewitt Morris K. the alphabetizing of the names may be faulty.190 Half measure for alphabetized names classify them. Gary Abram S. If a name is added or cancelled in the proof. and the fault will be hard to correct. or the specification of different amounts in certain years. and then make up to the broad measure. Adams George F. Jesup Pierpont Morgan Levi P. and set and justify each name Empty the lines so set in order on a separately. galley. Vanderbilt in vertical line To keep these names and in alphathe width betical order. It is possible to set the two names of one be lost in correction. thus J. practicable to set the able justifying gauge. for the white space at the ends of lines in the 1 first column is a sufficient separation^ line in one stick and in the broad measure by the aid of a remov- Yet a separating lead between the columns may be of service. Allowance for a vertical brass rule between the columns is sometimes made. Morton Alexander E. Baker John Claflin Elbert H. class are usually set in columns. for the second column will be more or in less out of vertical line. It is a much commoner practice to arrange them in columns. The time saved by the justifying gauge will two col- umns broad measure. the lead will lighten the labor of making It is not the needed change.

Broad measure for figures only 191 Columns of names were once set in full capitals of the type of the text.191.518.315.358.244.754. but this treatment makes them needlessly and offensively bold. but there of is no need of comma or period at the end names arranged in columns. Small capitals' with capital initials are preferred by many for a long list of signatures at the end of a document.443. that do not call for justification in separate measures.837. When figures are planned for many columns that must be kept in timely or numerical order.064.963 19.806 50.693 24. a work of great nicety it is customary to add the which may be of service in filling up the wide gaps produced by a succession of leaders.493.117 11.558.063 25.796 32.155. may be safely set in broad measure.354.242 Females 37.303. Population of the United States Year 1900 1890 1880 Total Males 39.783 38.321 1870 1860 16.820 19.660 15.216 1850 23.876 For the ordinary pamphlet a table of this kind can be set in broad measure without vertical rules. on the en-quadrat body.204 11.371 31.145 76. Columns of figures only.059.636. For rules.069.387 63.565 30.085. each . riods should be used after all abbreviated names. For a list of names inserted in the body of a text. Peplain roman lower-case is now in more favor.

so that all can be made up in order when the matter in the table has to appear on more than one page.15 to the linear foot American system .289.. Number of ems 3-point.192 Treatment of narrow tables column should be separately composed..

but it calls for care in full justification. After setting in a stick of measure the names in the first column.Justifying slugs in broad measure 193 by vertical column rules when the matter has been prepared to be read across the columns. A quicker method : is often adopted. as is shown Then cut the gauge B of the width B A Hoe & Co Lovejoy Company R. and justify the name column up to slug A. Then remove that slug and set the words for the second column. which should be That justified in like manner to meet the slug B. each column being separately justified and afterward re-made up to the full width of the broad measure. width of the second and third columns. Publishers 331 Pearl Street column only. 13 . This method saves time and makes unnecessary the use of three distinct measures in as many sticks and the combining afterward of the three lines in one full line. . Harper & of third Brothers . . m. . .m. slug justify measure. remove B and to the end of the done. three distinct measures can be made. Printing Presses 504 Grand Street 446 Pearl Street Electrotypers . put the long slug A in the stick. as is here explained Begin by cutting a gauge from a type-metal slug or a brass rule of proper thickness to the combined in the strip A. . . . When it is intended that the initial letters of each column shall be in vertical line. - un .

lining carries with it the apology for its unavoid ability. but they are not recommended when the words in any column have to be turned over and fill two lines of the column. simple or complex. Next in order should come the inquiry as to the space it may or must occupy whether it is to be in its height a part of a full page or a full page : . Small type that will prevent abbreviations is to be preferred. They can be used with most advantage for undivided matter The turning over of that reads across the page. Before he begins work on any table. they may be abbreviated or set in smaller type 1 if the author permits.194 To determine width of columns Slugs as justifying gauges can be used for more than three columns. he should know whether it is or is not to be set with dividing column rules and inclosed in a border rule. The turning over in a separate line of the excess of words should be the last resort. 1 The first difficulty met by the apprentice in trying to compose a table from manuscript copy that has many columns separated by brass rules and with cross-headings in small type is his uncertainty about the proper width of each column. A name or a business with words too long to come within the prescribed limit of a column may project a little in the following column. words in one column and the unavoidable insertion of parallel quadrat lines in other columns is always to be avoided. even if this projection does destroy the vertical An occasional projection of its initials. for the table so treated has a ragged appearance. When the words in any line of a narrow column are too many for the measure. .

This will compel the lengthening separate lines. not only of that column but of the entire table. for figures on en-quadrat body favor precise reckoning but if two or more columns show words. It will be required in narrowing a should not be pinched to make obscure . All these conditions must be known before he can determine. as to read the long way of the page. It often happens that the words in the different lines of this column some very short. or whether can be set in two sections to extend over two fac- ing pages. The first process is to count the number of col- umns and to determine the width of each column.To determine width of columns whether it is 195 regular measure it to be a part of or the full width of the whether it is to be set broad so . some very be necessary to narrow the measure by abbreviating words or by the use of smaller type. Much discretion column. the calculation will be more . width can be quickly ascertained. and its column determine is apparently the longer lines in that width. and the insertion of lines of quadrats in the parallel lines of its side columns. When the columns are of figures only. as has been advised for tables of simpler form. the size of the type that must be used. are of variable length long and it may Yet there are long lines that cannot be so treated they must be turned over to occupy two or more . for this width must column that let control that of other columns. Select the of greatest width. troublesome. even approximately.

a similar allowance must be made for the space that will be occupied by the words of that heading and its cross-rule. and a similar blank at the head and foot of the full column where it will be separated from the text by the broad cross-rule of the full width of the measure. Before a column rule can be cut. with a proper blank on each side of the cross-rule.196 Cross-headings of tables the words put in that column or in other columns. be as readily readable as the matter in the text its words or figures should not be huddled to indisj tinctness. Allowance should be made wherever it is possible for a space between rule and figure. the longest col- umn of type should be set. and this will narrow the space for the figures or words of the table by 20 points. or 20 points in all. this cross-heading should be set up. If this column is one of a series of two or more columns in the same table that is to be surmounted by a broader crossheading. or two long-primers. compute the width of the brass rules (including the border rule. the figures and words of a table cannot be got in This can be done by mental calculation: six 2 -point rules will make 12 points thick. two border rules of 4-point will make . as they must be when column rules are allowed to crowd too closely against the words or a common practice. It should Legibility is the great merit of a table. sure to produce configures fusion. 1 When 1 it is found after proper calculation that 8 points. Next. If each column requires a short cross-heading in small type. if one is required) that will be needed to separate the columns.

for it divides the table in two sections.Column rules and borders 197 the prescribed space without the crowding of rules close to words or figures. if one is used. Space should be preserved on each side of the column rule wherever More than any other characters in it is possible. Every column rule should extend from the broadmeasure cross-rule at the top of the table to the broad cross-rule at its foot. A table is unsightly when its crossrules crowd on letters it suggests neglected calcu: . two alternatives are presented a smaller type must be used. It should go between column headings in small type. It is a common practice but it is not good workmanship to use a broad-measure cross-rule below the column headings. The thick double-rule border around a table has been supplanted in most printing-houses by a firm border line of 1 -point face on a 4-point body. thereby making the table hard to read. lation. and this space is also needed at the head and foot of every distinct column. This 1-point face should be flush with one side of the rule. figures need space for legibility. so that a perfect joint can be made at the corThe upright colners of a table without mitring. or the table must be enlarged. umn and the cross-rules of column headings meet the border rule and prevent the unpleasing gap of white that was unavoidable when the face of the border rule was centred on its body. rules will fairly . so that it can be read the long way of the page or across two facing pages. the font.

may be of uneven thickness by more or less use. The leads may not be absolutely uniform in thickness they . and will give less annoyance to the maker-up and electrotyper. to even ems of the type that will be used in the table. In a table that has to be put within too small space. often necessary to extend the To cut short leads for lead- ing out figures in a measure of two. the figures is crowding of column rules against unavoidable. when it can be done. but in the occasional tables of good book. census reports. and the first column is of ten ems width. 8-point figures with fair amount of space between lines and rules are more readable than would be 10-point figures that had to be set solid and crowded close up to the In the table on the next page the columns of figures on 8-point body are each of three ems width. or they may be bent in cutting. as in time-tables. In some instances thin leads or 1 strips of paper have to be added to make solid work. three. for it is column by leading. The en quadrats or three-to-em spaces of the type selected for figures will separate lines with more evenness than cut leads. Columns made up of irregular widths and not to even ems of the type are leaded and justified with needless trouble. It is the legibility. They are more quickly and securely justified with en quadrats than with leads.work pains should be taken to prevent this crowding. or be cut with rough edges. The words and figures of a table should have at least as much distinctness as the roman type 1 of the text. or four ems is always a risk.198 Columns made up to even ems Each column should be made up. The column rules. and work of like nature. white space that gives .

5 1 CQ o 80 t^ CO ***^ Tt< o o O O ^ CM CO CM rH rH O O O O O CM 5 00 CO 5" rH ^H 1 1 1 1 * r^ CO CM 1 CM 1 r-i rH :l l IO CO * o i s CO rH rH rH T*< rH t^ CM O O T^ CO co e -S I rHCOCOOCOCOCOr-iCOOrHrH O5CCCOOCOCOt^O5rHlOOSTi< CClOCMOt~lOTt<COCOCMrHTH O IO <* OS O * t~ CO * OS rH oil H ti . 1 rH O CO 8 O O i rH -^ I - rH rH rH rH O PH CO CM CM rH I I 4 2 ^ J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I * I 1 * i * J * C^THOOJOOtAcOOlO^T^COCO .I rH rH I rt d 1C KO t** O O CM rH CO CO CO CO Tt< Tf< O O OS CO O5 CM rH CO CO t^ rH CO t^ CO OS CO CO rH CO CM CM lO * O O O Tji . o 2 OOfOO 222 ^CMScSSS "* ' lrt<~ CCOi: ^ ^ > rH rH rH rH rH ^ rH O .

and be arranged at right angles with the The length of the measure to be lines of figures. In some headings the words will be short and in others very long. They are made indistinct. They are read with most table. To do . fortune. the width of column headings of many words set sidewise should be tested in a stick made up to the exact width of the column. not down. side- Bold-faced figures need space for their distinctness. by the selection of too large figures that fill the body with a needlessly bold and black and that crowd against each other and the rules. The composition of column headings is always troublesome. the matter so set should be placed over the column to read up. face. in many instances. long wide and parallel to lines of figures are sometimes For headings of this nature the small impossible. small Very type is the preferred alternawords in but a column two or three ems tive. type must be set in a wider measure to greater length. abbreviations have to be used this treatment is always a misbut occasionally. facility when set to parallel the lines of the this. The selection of a smaller figure that gives a sufficient relief of white between the lines will make the table more readable. To insure exact justification.200 Treatment of column headings is Complaint often made that the time-tables of railroads are hard to read even when their figures are of good cut. In the ordinary table. used must be that of the heading that has most words.

9 I ^ G^l i i-t O O 00 t1-1 ( I 0-5 81 i II S25!^ IO tlO^OO^* 33S rH i-l rl 3! i-( i-H SSISS lOCOOOO <M( CO .na| ^^*55 Bi^ll ^l ^i *-8a!s lllll l-tll Sb!l| i | II K| JQ = ^5 W |5 ^=4! mil .jo anii? A CO^O IC pasn SIfJ9!}ai JO ^SOQ t- o t- ^ < t" SSSS i I t** to cc* co" cd't-i S3! O^HCDOd OSMCOWrH Oi iO 00 ^ *--tVwcTc CO <#< 1 .. rH f t I I 89WTO JrlSrfS ^Hl .

If figures of A useful case for tables of figures. .202 Tables on facing pages A for table in manuscript with columns too numerous its fair presentation in the type of the text and size. the table can be set to a wider measure to read the broad way of the page. It is will have to be repeated on the second page. but if the small type has to be used to get all the columns in the measure. It may be that the first column of the table. which explains the figures in each column. or to give unsightly gaps of space between columns. or it can be made up in two sections to appear on facing pages. better to do this than to bewilder the reader with no visible connection between the figures and thenexplanatory column. measure may have to be set in a type This is an unpleasant alternative. the text type are insisted on. the lines of figures will be made much clearer when they have been leaded with in its regular of smaller three-to-em spaces or en quadrats.

but it makes extra trouble for every following work- man. By the old method the column rules were not cut. Another troublesome variety of table is that in which column rules have to be cut in two or more sections to admit one or more long cross-lines of explanatory words. table occasional tables of a book. are always exceedingly difficult. and the table is made repelling to the reader. To insure to justi- proper solidity. rules. that are sometimes crossed by a diagonal rule.Tables should be made readable 203 In extreme cases. but each page must be carefully made up so that the two parts will be on exact line in the printed and This method is often unavoidable. or spaced out to make them fit in each colThe work could not be neatly done. Needless compactness is a common fault in the Figures. and single types had to be filed down umn. from the maker-up to the bookbinder. but the general heading and the special cross-headings of each column must be repeated on every page. Some tables are of great length and have to be continued on many pages. Tables that have columns of unequal length. each half of the table so divided may be made wider than the regular measure. A of 6-point figures in a text of 10-point may not be . and cross-headings are crowded in too small space. and have a smaller square table within the diagonal blank so created. folded sheet. and this tedious and clumsy method is now out of use. great care must be given fication.

nor does it Column rules improve the typography. firm-faced cross-rule under the general heading. always too easily compressed. there is more need of space between lines of figures than lines of letters. wherever it is their height An occasional table of two or three narrow col- umns does not need an inclosing brass-rule when this border is made bolder than the within.204 Column rules should meet border when the table rule avoidable must be on the same page as its descriptive text. border. lines of figures in its table should also be leaded As the figures occupy in possible. about two thirds of the body. . Wood reglet. Books of tables that fill without rules on the side or at the foot. To put a heading of one or two words in capitals or titleletter over the broader columns. the to cross-headings. and cross-rules should be cut so that they will connect with the inclosing border rule. but this glaring contrast of sizes can be made less offensive by leading the lines of figures and by giving a fair relief of white space When the text is leaded. The type used for column headings should be clear enough in plain roman lower-case letter. because there is plenty of space for the words. is a much more common method. figures A the page are now set up by many careful printers without any border. and to put other headings in very small lower-case letters makes a distinction of display that is not needed by the reader. while most lower-case letters occupy less than one half of the body.

. If to be used. that provide a more compression in locking up. the head and foot lines of the solid resistance to column should be of quadrats.Parallel rules to differentiate classes 205 wood has should not be preferred to fill blank columns. OBSERVATION DE L'INCLINAISON PAR LA METHODE INDIRECTE.

serves a better purpose. If one on the en body is not to be had. decimal A expression of point is measurements or values without its unmeaning. the pound mark. use the regular period of the font. and the decimal point is needed in every statement that calls for the expression of a decimal fraction. The en quadrat or the three-to-em space is It is a too thick and the four-to-em space is too thin. When a column has figures that require a point to separate dollars from cents or integers from their decimals. If the period is on the five- to-em body. and other signs occasionally used in narrow columns are often cast on bodies not easily justified. been used instead of braces and double rule. should be preferred. if on the four-to-em body. misfortune that the dollar mark. but the braces are not of benefit to the reader.206 Decimal points needed in tables connect the different columns of the subheadings shows ingenious composition. The practice of using a space instead of a period to separate dollars from cents is not to be commended. Cents are decimal fractions of the dollar. figures two sizes If hair-lines had larger could have been selected. justification will be troublesome. or the en leader. the table would have been much more readable. All . If the degree mark and minute mark had been put over their respective columns. the period on the en body. rules The plain hair-line The error made by selecting figures too small and and braces too large is evident in this table.

to set it up "out of his own head. A music compositor should have a knowledge of music. and also the proper place to each music sign. is apparently genealogical work. A knowledge of music . column." as it were. in order to give the proper space to each note on account of its value in time. or an expert tablehand. but an expert pedigree-maker in type.Knowledge of music is valuable 207 the sorts needed for table-work should be on bodies that favor perfect justification in the narrowest is one of the nicest of the composiacquirements. or table-work. would find himself puzzled were he to undertake the composition of music without previous knowledge. because it has to be cast off. MUSIC The composition of music types requires considIt cannot be compared erable skill and practice. should be lifted as securely as a page of text. Table-work tor's the necessity of accurate casting off and justification. for which exact knowledge of the proportions An imposed table of types will be of great help. as he would if he undertook parison a difficult problem in the manipulation of letterpress. in which columns have to be made wider or narrower. The nearest comwith other type composition. and needs careful study and Too much stress cannot be laid upon training.

the smallest The lines of the staff are an piece being an en. thereby reducing to a breaks. This used to be avoided when stereotyping by the plaster process was in vogue. and five ems. In music composition the lines should be crossed whenever practicable. it It is no more astonis not absolutely necessary. ishing than the fact that there are a large number of letterpress compositors who have not been properly taught grammar. two.208 Breaks in lines to be avoided would seem to be an absolute necessity. half. The music published by London (England) firms has often been admired for its even joins. four. and yet can set a clean proof from manuscript improperly prepared. A brass rule the length of the line was deftly impressed in each line of the staff in the plaster mould. when cast in metal. an one and a en. three. If they are set like . em. Intuition governs them. while knowledge of music is a great help in the setting of music. With the advent of electrotyping the practice seems to have fallen into disuse. Yet it is a fact that some proficient music compositors have no knowledge of music. The object of having long lines is to have as few joinings as possible. Music type is cast on an em basis. which gave the plate an unbroken line in each staff. but brass lines are now supplied in any length required. This is mentioned to show that. which appear when minimum unsightly the edges of the lines wear away. to avoid the appearance of breaks as much as possible.

the other is of no use. The clefs that are fixtures are called F and G. which are cast on a single and a double body. or tenor. There are three clefs in music two are fixtures and one is movable. It is now in two divisions of five lines each. back in showing open spaces when worn. alto. and the movable clef is called C. lines. . which makes up the complement of eleven and this line is called C : DEFGAB CDEF --*- GAB CDEFGABC The C clef represents either soprano. fonts of music have two lines cast on one body This facilitates the work. represent a character called a clef is placed at the beginning. besides which. The lengths of the lines have their duplicates in quadrats. . The staff is composed with five lines and four spaces. but has its draw- - . called the bass and treble staffs. if one line is damaged. The clef determines the names of the tones on the staff to which it is affixed. divi =i == they are more likely -~ zn sion than this way = Clef the key to the tones 209 = : -- to show the -- Set your lines crosswise.this. Originally the staff was composed of eleven lines. Slugs are generally used for over five ems. made by the shoulders of the lines and in order to tell the names of the tones which the notes . with a line between.

It is generally made of two bars with two lines on each side. The bottom clef (bass) is called F. The space or line between the bars is called C. which also determines the names of the other tones on that staff.210 Names of clefs on clef is called G. and 4 differ in their tones. and which also determines the names of the other tones upon that staff. 3. for example. 3. because bounded by the two dots. and the rest of the tones on that staff have their names fixed accordingly. because the curl of the character encircles it. There . These two clefs always occupy the same position. It will be noticed that 2. but the position the second line of the The top C clef varies with voice or instrument tenor or alto. 4. the staff which gives that name to from the bottom. which gives that name to the fourth line. while 1 and 3 appear to be the same.

4.-6.Signature and time of notes is 211 an octave difference.-8J two sound functions and time. The signature indicates flat shall upon the line or space of the sharp or be performed sharp or flat accordingly. and when 1 is represented by 3 clef it should be played or sung an octave The F and G clefs are cast in one piece. The The figJQ is two ems long and three lines deep. but a line sharp is three lines deep. The key to fl the music is called the signature. This would require only half the numfl ber of pieces - tt . an en only being required between B and A flat.. but the C clef is of different pieces: In some fonts the double bars on each side are cast in one piece on a two-line _ HI. sometimes on a two-em kerned body. while three flats take up only two and a half ems... which is composed of either sharps or flats. The note occupying the longest time (used : . Next to the signature comes the time-mark. each two lines deep. unless the order is countermanded by a natural t3 that notes : Three sharps after the clef take up three ems space. ^L -j^j body fl . with a line through them _ The notes have -t -2. I] ~\ \. and is placed next to the clef. higher.-3._ I I . ures are two ems long on a single body.

A and a space note occupies two lines and takes eight pieces. those of greatest value being placed on the under or bass staff m Each additional one half. and is called a whole note. two of which are of the same value in time as the semibreve. This note. line note occupies three lines and takes thir- teen pieces. This note is the foundation upon which time is based.212 Time values of notes : mostly in recitative) is called a breve ~ This is made up of separate pieces. played sung . with the addition of a stem. except as shown in preceding page : The note next breve breve. The notes following are black. Below are given : the time values of the notes. The note next in order is called a minim. tail -V- decreases the value of the note Allowance will have to be made when A brace is more than one line off brace. a casting A dot added to a note or in unison. like its predecessor. is white. or half note. : in duration of time is called a semi- i a I being half the value in time of the as its name denotes.

and The noteheads occupy one line.Difference in B and D noteheads 213 increases its time value one half. r -0- Leger notes. the notes are the exception of the semibreve (or whole composed of different pieces ties. the space notehead being kerned and resting on the shoulder of the line next to it. An name distinguishes it. and a second dot is half the value in time of the preceding dot : With note). except a unison notehead in the space. note in the first space outside the staff. name to its tone. on a two-em body without the top Note the difference line. Noteheads in the space. tails (sometimes called hooks). The en line extends beyond the note each way. staff. . : n B I note- D notekead . and are distinguished by a thicker line in some fonts. with the stem outside the Its and its position gives the notes outside the staff are called leger notes. stems. which are generThe B notehead is the ally cast on a double body. and a B and D notehead in the space. a connecting notehead in the space. are called D noteheads. heads.

*' Together. Cut. and are manipulated in quite a number of different ways Full. em. IS MADE Line. The space notehead has part of the stem attached. The singlebody stems are called angles or T pieces. . : Cut. . and longer. B steins: _| J Plain stems: | HOW A NOTE Space. The double-body stems begin at an em and proceed bodies. -* Full. -. and are joined to the stems of the notes. Line. one and a half ems. and are en. and this equalizes the length. Double body: ij J Full. two ems. _j Full. ( Cut. The ties are both straight and slanting. I] Angle: H Full. The stems the same as the single body. and this is accomplished by making a sustained passage begin with an unaccented note and finish on an accented one.== Space. The bind is to prevent accent. When notes are grouped they are either tied or bound by a curve. They take different forms for use inside and outside the staff. -I A line notehead stem is longer than a space notehead stem. Cut.214 Tying and binding of notes of the notes are on single and double sometimes three bodies deep.

accent. depending upon Apart. double slants are used. inside and outside the staff. two. the slope being more acute. and join each other in diagonal line when up or down. three ems. 1 . is one of the most important features in music. if Apart. : Accent. Accent. time. They are up.Accent and syncopation 215 which prevents or destroys the accent. be made by using two the space and note occupy three ems : Together. This is called syncopation. Bind. the skill of the compositor Apart. the line notehead ties being kerned or overhanging. if not the most important. one and a half. as important as punctuation in reading-matter or Take a passage in common inflection in oratory. and combinations can be made Together. i 5EJ=iEE * * notes ascend or descend in thirds or more. are cast for line and space notes. of : ways. r? : . Ties range one em. Accent. Accent. they can 1 slants. Good rendition cannot take place without its being obIt is It is equally important with time. the accent being on the first No Accent. and straight. and third beats Accent. served. When When not provided. down. in a number Together.

two. Down slur. and six ems. in difficult parts. the last one being tapered for the purpose : Up slur. They can be made to extend any length and are in one piece up to six ems two. Binds are sometimes called ties and straight slurs. when required. : Music composition cannot be set at random. gives the compositor an opportunity to onstrate his ability or show his lack of it. End pieces are two and four ems long. they are cast with the line and without . three. one. The word bind is used because they do not touch the notes the ties touch the notes. four. It has to be cast off before it can be constructed. Like other sorts. When slurs longer than those furnished are required.216 Casting off music composition Together. notes glide into each other. 9 the use of slurs. four ems. and six ems. four. and By made longer. by using combination pieces. dem- . the middle pieces ranging en. the end of a bind is used. They are cast in two. the work of which. like type composition. three. three. can be middle pieces being added to make it of the required length.

Hoiv casting off can be done

217
music

The preceding

illustration

shows a

line of

copy that ends at the last bar but one. Music is cast off by ems of its own body. The first thing to ascertain, on taking copy, is the length of the
line in

music ems.

forty-five

make

it

The foregoing line consists of ems of music. In order to find how to come out even, and at the same time to be

correctly spaced, find out

how much space your noteheads, signature, time-mark, and clef will take up, and then properly distribute the rest of the space.

In casting off, give most space to the notes of long duration and economize on the ones that are tied. For example, more space should be placed after a half note than a fourth, etc. In the preceding line
the clef is three ems, signature two ems, time-mark two ems, and ten noteheads of one em each. Thus
:

This accounts for thirtyfive, leaving ten ems to be
distributed.

Ems
C) ? Signature,
ef

One em put

beforethetime-mark,two after it, an em extra in
front of bars, and three ems after the last note, , , including the end bar,
.

Time-mark,

Ten noteheads,
Qne

>

em

each
-^

.

Nine spaces between

will

make up the required number forty-five ems.

^

)

noteheads>
*)

18

two ems eacb>

When
most

np-

possible, have the space in front of the bar.

Another way to

cast off is to set a guide-line of noteheads, making the spaces between with lines or quads. This is

218

Eests and grace-notes

easier than mental calculation

and

is

done as

fol:

lows, the noteheads being at the top of the staff

3

2

1

2 2

12111112111112111112111112121

five

sometimes used for bars, as seen in previous examples. Bars can be ordered from the type-founder or made in the office. Equivalent spaces have to be used to justify when the bar is not length of line or brace. They are made of various lengths, and should go the depth of the
is

Brass rule

line or brace.

The rests are in one piece and are cast without and with the lines of the staff. The bar or wholenote rest is a straight black line, and is used downward on the top line but one. It is also used for the half-note rest, and is then turned upward and The rests are rests on the third line of the staff.
:

Bar or

Half
rest.

Whole

Quarter
rest.

8th
rest.

16th
rest.

32d
rest.
I

rest.

^^

a

I

rfc

Grace-notes have a smaller face, are duplicates of the other notes, and are manipulated in the same

way, many of the sorts, such as accidentals, etc., being on an en body. Where terms are expressed in words they can be

any type and justified. When expressed by characters they will be found cast with the font.
set in

Cases for music composition

219

The following plans of

cases provide for all the

side sorts that are necessary for general use. box for double quads will be necessary, and also a

A

rule case if brass lines longer than five ems are used. Music fonts vary, and the lay of the case

has to vary with them, but the accompanying plans will be found to meet all needs, so that the encumbrance of a third or side case
is

obviated.

The

va-

cant boxes can be utilized as occasion requires. An extra case can be used for the overflow or surplus
sorts.

All the characters treated are in

all

fonts

by American type-founders. Different plans The cases here shown of music cases can be had. can be had through any type-foundry, but special
cast

care should be taken to obtain the ones here illustrated.

An

ordinary lower case and a triple upper

case can be arranged for the purpose. Fonts vary as regards number of characters. Cases also vary
in the
his

way they are laid, each compositor having own method. The accompanying plans are made to facilitate composition noteheads, stems,

The binds, slurs, lines, etc., being grouped. aim of the writer has been to simplify the instructions needed. If these instructions are studied and thoroughly understood, the minor difficulties that appear in practice can be readily overcome by a
ties,

compositor of ordinary ability. Gregorian music, so named after its founder, St. Gregory, and used for chanting, is composed of one staff of four lines. It hardly comes within the

'ttr

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*- -L S 8 OM^ot-^oo' <o <o <c o <c
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224

Gregorian music

Tonic sol-fa music

category of music composition as generally understood, having none of the difficulties of building or

ranging that are encountered in the old notation. The compositor sets up the line of words first and ranges the notes over them. No casting off is required. It is comparatively straight matter. Previous knowledge is not necessary, and any average compositor can set it. The noteheads are diamond and square shaped, and the ordinary music stems
are used.
staff is used, letters the of notes. Each place taking part occupies a line, the pulses or beats being divided by colons,

In tonic sol-fa music no

and the subdivisions by periods and commas, except where the accent occurs, when an inverted one em dash is used. When more than one part is engaged, the beats have to range. Brass rule the depth of
the vocal parts is used for bars. Thus, do, re, mi, r d do, in common time, would be d The inferior stroke at the first d signifies an octave
:
|
|

m

'

:

.

|

lower, and the superior stroke at the last d an octave higher. Music character expressions are used.
It is

intended only for the voice, the instrumental

accompaniment having to be set in the old notaThe characters are on en and em bodies. tion. Having no staff, the difficulties of building have
not to be contended with, making the casting
off

comparatively easy,

virtually straight matter, like setting a line of figures across a table, through which may be inserted the column

and the composition

Genealogies and pedigrees
rules. It

225

can be done by one who can set a table. The following is an illustration and will speak for itself
:

s
ll.Gen
|2.

:

fe
tly,

I

1

:
-

s
tly
sic

s.d'rr'.d'ld'
morning
like

:

t
ing,

-

gen

light is

break
-

-

Mirth

and
:

mu
|

-

a fountain flow
:

ing,

n
d

re

f

:

n

:

d

|

d

:d

m.n f .m d.d :d.d

|

m

:

r
S|

Is,

:

Diamond and
for book- work.

excelsior music type are best suited

Diamond has
and
3.

Excelsior occupies the least space. three sizes of noteheads, Nos. 1, 2, Other fonts are also supplied with dif-

ferent sizes of noteheads.

GENEALOGIES AND PEDIGREES
The
of descent
intent of the genealogical chart is a synopsis and of mutual relationship that will be

understandable at a glance. The lines that show connection with near or remote ancestry should be
plain hair-line brass rules;
if,

now and

then, a

brace

should be of light face. The words are of most importance, and should not

may

be needed,

it

be made insignificant by blackness of braces.
present each

member of the family

in

To column form,

and to preserve a proper parallelism of columns, these columns must be of unequal width, some very
three or four words, and another
15

narrow and some very broad; one may have but may have fifteen

.PEDIGREE OF THE Jataka (lost).C. Pali about 250 B.

750. 1873. BIT and 1 I.BIDPAI LITERATURE. Pancht (2 edns. II ? i Tibetan. Schiefner.. DAMANAKA (lost). .. Jew. 1 rab. 300 A. i luidi. 1875. 1 pt. Sanskt.. abt. ed.D.

by M. that no form of typographic composition is more 1 From Joseph Jacobs's Earliest English Version of the Fables of Bidpai. on a long sheet 9Vfc x 20^j inches. . and kept dampened so that it can be easily handled. accurately justified. by Alphonse Willems. Each member of the family is speci- rable as illustrations of difficult composition. 1888. which Each are usually at or near the foot of the chart. For obvious reasons. A more carefully elaborated genealogical chart is that of the Estienne (Stephens) family of Paris. but the braces that show connection are in red ink. 8vo. and is printed in red and black. but the Pedigree of the Bidpai Literature.228 or more. All are admi- The composition is apparently in type on 4^-point body. the building of a long genealogical chart cannot begin It must begin at the beginning of the manuscript. 1 which is a story of the origin and descent of a famous book. London. fled within a border printed in blue ink.Didot. only of that family. A simpler form of chart can be seen in Les Elzevier. and is continued through sixteen genYet it is compacted erations. the matter first written being the last set. for interlockings and rearrangements are The process of building up separate unavoidable. with the columns that occupy greatest width. Paris. 1851. post 8vo. Ambroise Firmin . rows of matter for different generations has to be done in reverse order. the genealogy of a family is not offered as an illustration. The chart is inclosed in a border of fifty-eight heraldic shields. Illustrations of genealogies Unlike all other forms of type-setting. which begins with Pierre Estienne (1270). 1 upon a sheet 13 x l? ^ inches. fairly shows the method used in the composition It may be added of the genealogies of families. as it is presented in the Essai sur la Typographic. 8vo. column should be separately set. each one presenting the peculiar device of a different member of the family. It is for five generations 1880. Brussels.

. The genealogical chart in manuscript that has to be kept within a prescribed limit cannot be properly set if the copy has not been prepared in an orderly manner. The matter should be rewritten. and the relation of members to their co-relatives and to the common ancestor is not clearly denned. 1 I Christine 3006 and the names of his descendants usually are composed in separate columns with proper separating blanks. The column that contains the end of the measure is last generation at the often . and it may be prudent to rewrite it more than once before the mutual relation of the different mem- bers of that family can be fairly presented. it will be a waste of time to try to put in type copy so negligently prepared.) BELL Bellman 6968 Bellman's Boy 14003 Bellman's Dolly 77601 . (See Lot 15.10) f Duke of Onaquaga 2840 Dolly Crary 13117 . If a distinct column has not been made for each different member of the family. after the fashion customary in some tables of figures. In the pedigrees of animals the name of the progenitor is at the set Pedro of Terrace Hill 39514. In genealogical charts the name of the ancestor head of the page. MADESSA 157294 \ Grinell Lass 11859 (16..Pedigrees of domestic animals 229 troublesome or more expensive than that of the genealogical chart. and the descendants are below in rows that are nearly parallel. detachable braces being substituted for plain column rules.

not by the construction but by the combining of its to try to do materials. It is a mistake by typography anything that can be done more neatly and quickly by photo-engraving. The method makes the subject-matter much more intelligible. head-bands. but not so practicable on the ordinary page when the columns are continued at great length. Some tion have been discarded of the older forms of troublesome composithe chronogram. It is also used in botany to show the classification of species derived from a common stock. letters turned sidewise. . in which : dates were suggested by roman capital letters arbitrarily arranged as numerals acrostics with initial . . Some text-books of chemistry make use of this method of composition to illustrate the compounds and subcompounds of elementary substances.230 The proper field of typography j very compact the left in the first column above and below. and initials of combination bor. Prints from these compositions suggest skill and patience. literal or verbal puzzles produced by signs diagrams toilsomely constructed from brass rules ingeniously curved and twisted facs. with a broad blank This method of treating a pediis name is sufficient for three or four generations. ders or capital letters. stigmatypes of portraits made from periods of different size. but the general effect is not pleasing. gree it is of the progenitor at the open. Composition should exemplify its etymology.

French. or in any other language that uses the roman character. . for each one of these languages has its 231 own peculiar alphabet. one language is not to be expected of the ordinary typeor clear Reprint manuscript copy in Latin.SAMUEL NELSON VI FOREIGN LANGUAGES Accents . Spanish. German OREIGN languages will be set with most correctness by the compositor who clearly understands the meaning of his copy. . Hebrew . but a knowledge of more than setter. . but the difficulty of preserving accuracy increases when the copy is in Greek. . . Hebrew. or German. can be decently ren- dered in type by a careful compositor. Italian. Greek . .

To employ them acceptably. Drugulin of Leipsic. 1 English-speaking compositors are apt many. and other Oriental languages. W. Syriac. the National Printing De Propaganda Rome. but they are used infrequently. It is only in dictionaries or elocutionary aaaaaaaaaaaaae'eeeeeeeeeiiiiii 166606 5ooooOiiiiTluuuuuuuyyyyyy9cdnnnstzT Century Dictionary accents.232 Accented letters for roman types Yet Greek. and House of Fide of Paris. treatises that accents are freely used to guide pro- nunciation. England. There are but few printinghouses of polyglot capability. Russian. the Imperial Printing House of Vienna. ACCENTS One peculiarity of printed English language is the absence of accented letters in an ordinary descriptive text. and the ordinary book-printer has to decline the purchase of types that will be rarely used. The characters required for the languages that have distinct alphabets are seldom found in the ordinary book-house. In all large cities may be found occasionally printinghouses that have one or more fonts of Arabic. Coptic. Turkish. Ger- . and German characters must be provided for the proper rendering of quoted words to or lines in every printing-house that undertakes do miscellaneous book-work. and they should be handled by compositors and supervised by readers who have at least some 1 superficial acquaintance with the languages. Those that have justly earned a world-wide reputation are the University Press of Oxford. Sanskrit. fonts of many faces and sizes must be provided. Hebrew.

these accents 1 for roman letter : Bohemian : ACDEEINORSTUUYZ acd'eeinofsfuuyz : Danish and Norwegian Flemish E E E e e e 6 : French: German Italian: : A AfiEEElOUUgaaeeeeiiduuuQ AOUao ii Hungarian Polish: :AEl6o6uUUaei666uuu AEIOUaeiou : 4CELOSZZ^ce<. but their alphabets have some letters that are intelligible to educated readers only. where used in treatises on etymology. They are occasionally distinct. The roman character predominates in Saxon and Irish. accents and points are not sufficiently Rumanian needs many accents peculiar to that language. . of The Masoretic points Hebrew and the breathings of Greek are relatively feeble. In many fonts accents for capitals have to kern or overhang the body. where the same word with or without an accent to underrate the may convey a different meaning. but only on special request.16sz AAEl6OUUNQaaei66uiin<? Portuguese Spanish Swedish Welsh 1 : :Afit6UUNaei6uuii AAOaao W ^ and the ordinary accents : This list is incomplete. American typefounders provide and furnish. Some forms of Italian poetry require a special accent known as trema. but as yet not made in this country. established English type-founFor the most part. This feebleness seems unavoidable in accents that have to be attached to roman capital letters. dries.Accented letters for foreign languages 233 importance of a proper placing of accents in the composition of foreign languages. and are to be had of the old- the character extends to the extreme top of the body.

Savage's Dictionary of the Art of Printing (pp. plete lists. Extracts pencilled in Greek books printed before the eighteenth century are bewildering to the modern compositor by reason of their frequent use of the sigla and ligatures that are no longer made in type. All fonts of Greek made before the eighteenth century contain many doubled letters. but he says that he has not made as many as his predecessors. but the Greek grammars of the eighteenth century have more com- dictionary professes to treat of Latin abbreviations only. Fournier shows seven hundred and seventy-six distinct characters in his provision for a perfect font of Greek type. 1 A manuscript in Greek calls for careful penmanEach letter should be formed with distinctship. p.234 The sigla and ligatures of Greek GREEK The Greek alphabet has twenty-four capital letters. it is of some service for Greek. 248). Although this more common ligatures. These ligatures are not made by modern type-founders. then known as ligatures or tied letters. by Adriano Capelli. Some European type-founders provide a greater number. An explanation of many of these ligatures will be found in Dizionario di Abbre- lln his Manuel Typographique (tome 2. Many of the Greek capitals are of the same form as roman capitals. 300302) gives a table of some of the viature Latine ed Italiane. . but the ordinary working font of Greek type has one hundred and seventy-four distinct characters. but the accents and breathings are still retained as indispensable parts of the perfect font. but the lower-case letters differ seriously and are not easily understood by the novice. ness and the accents unmistakably placed over their proper vowels.

Names and values of Greek letters 235 The Greek alphabet Capitals .

. sometimes reversed. The Greek mark of interrogation is the English The Greek colon semicolon. with subscript iota indicating the suppression of a following i. a 1 c. lower-case letters 6 #. and exclamation -point perform the same function in Greek as in English. The final at the end of a word. period. Greek accents ' lenis e " ~ ' asper acute asper grave circumflex circumflex lenis T T grave " circumflex asper dieresis lenis acute * lenis grave dieresis acute ' asper acute v dieresis grave The comma. is an inverted period. but they are also cast on separate bodies. even if he needs knowledge only for one paragraph. p has been suppressed. The characters 6 and # are s. may be considered distinct characters. should be as an initial or medial letter it should be a. not often required. A study of the Greek alphabet and of a few rules that control the use of accents and breathings will this 1 be of service to the compositor. An old form of $ . so that they can be put before a capital letter. The vowels a ^ GJ.236 Accents and points of Greek Accents and breathings are attached to the lowercase letters where they are needed. There are also two forms of (3 ft. but they are seldom used.

will be found diagrams of Greek and Hebrew cases on an improved plan. page 55.Cases for composition of Greek 237 page is The plan of the Greek case shown on this the one most used in the United States. In the Katechismus der Buchdruckerkunst. . but a larger case that contains boxes for more characters is the favorite in England and on the Continent.

. It is also (under the name " coronis ") used to mark the consolidation of words. Every vowel or diphthong that begins a word has either the rough or the smooth breathing over it. The acute accent may appear only on one of the last three syllables of a word. but this is most common in poetry. under certain con1 ditions." but and. word is written pp. breathing upon the second vowel. some cases. The vowel upsilon admits of the rough breathing A diphthong takes both the accent and the only. before an enclitic). and the grave only on the final syllable. by elision. but it has no more than one (except. Accents that cannot be put over a Greek capital are on separate bodies and put before the capital. Initial p always has the rough breathing double p occurring in a . as in dvr' eKeivTjg for dvrl eKeivrjg. in it is lost by enclitics and pro- clitics. rdyaOd for rd dyadd. as in w 'yaOe for G) dyaOe. The hyphen is never employed in Greek for the compounding of words. except to replace the acute accent in a final syllable before another word in the same sentence. 1 Theoretically " every word. as in rdvdpi for r& dvdpi. the circumflex only on one of the last two syllables. Sometimes the apostrophe marks the elision of a vowel at the beginning of a word. The apostrophe is used to mark elision. with elision.238 Rules for placing accents Nearly every word in Greek has one accent. The last is seldom used.

Greek types are made of many faces and on many bodies from diamond to canon. known as the Porson. and consisting of Inscription Greek. on the next page. but without the dieresis av becomes a diphthong and makes of avrr) two syllables. of the Greek of Sel- wyn Image was made i for the Macmillan Company. of rude form capital letters only. is used for the proper rendering of old lettering cut on stone. The form of Greek character preferred in many European countries is compressed a little. and almost vertical in shape. . The rules that regulate accents are complex and not to be briefly explained. finds its greatest use for the index words of dictionaries. in two volumes.Different faces of Greek 239 The dieresis accent separates two vowels. but equally famous as a penman. so that : they will not be pronounced as a diphthong di>TTj with a dieresis is a word that makes three syllables. with quaint forms of lower-case characters that are now disliked by the critical. Pickering's edition. or thickened Greek. yet its presswork is wonderfully clear. The fat-faced and bold-faced Greek. of the Iliad and the Odyssey in diamond Greek is a remarkably beautiful specimen of typography. The facsimile. It is probably the smallest form of Greek type ever printed. who was not only great so as a scholar. or lapidary Greek. Oldstyle Greek has a relatively small face. the same In different positions word may take different accents. The Greek made by Baskerville is not at all approved by Greek scholars. 1 The face most approved in England called is from its designer.

240 Different faces of Greek Person Greek. AMIAI EY4>ANIIDI<AIA/ ..TANYMOYAIPE0EK ... ABrAEZHGIKAMNHOnPCTTOXYQ 'Opcb JULCN o> aNdpec 'AeHNaToi rd nparuara KOI no\\HN duacoXiaN rapayHN...... YAA Inscription or lapidary Greek of capitals only... Title or fat-faced Greek...AI<AEY .nSITPATOCTEl^ .. PPIHNEI . The Greek type Selwyn Image. ABrAEZH0IKAMNHOnP2TT*XYQ a/3^5s ( ?'y]$SixX|ULv|-o'7rp0'crTti(p}(4/cj Old-style Greek. .INOYKAGYO IANAENII<AlAAMOYArHIANAPO . ... . ou JUONON TW noXXa of Mr. NAPO^P . Continental Greek.YAAMOYTIMArOPAn.

Names and values of Hebrew letters 241 HEBREW The Hebrew alphabet consists of consonants only. italic. without the power of vowels. placed the lines. and has no need for small capitals or for the letters are varied in shape Its Some of as finals. when used arbitrary powers given to letin are the following table at the end of ters. made by The Hebrew alphabet Letter . difference in form for capitals or lower-case. opposite their proper letter. numerals. but the addition of points gives to some of them It is in one series.

MEM has right stem curved base. but it does not project at all over the stem. . MEM AYIN has two knobby stems sloping to a base-line inclining to left. rests on a long. VAV 1 also has a short top line. with similar knobby stems. but on a higher plane. The * same in is the letter point Mappiq (of form) put JTJ (He final) to consonant. meets a base-line that is horizontal. Maqqeph .(of same is used as a form) hyphen to join words together. has a rounded angle at the nTAV and a knob upper right at lower I end of side. left line. left is base joined to at right. FINAL is nearly square at the base-line at right hand. BETH. with a the disconnected at the knob at the top. ZAYIN has a short top line that projects slightly over the long stem. These are all the characters absolutely needed for . with a rounded stem at the upper right angle. flat base which projects on the right. TSADHE FINAL two stems. TSADHE.242 Points as guides to pronunciation some features of characters of similar shape may be confounded. SAMEK has a much shorter base-line. TETH has a flat two lines. make it retain its harshness as a " Eaphe is a small dash (rarely used). tical stroke at the has a long verjunction of The point Daghesh * is cast within the body of certain letters to modify their pronunciation. J NUN FINAL is unlike Zayin in having a very long and slightbent stem and no projecly tion. difference are explained in the following remarks. that gives an aspirated sound to the letter below. KAPH has a curved line at the side that rests on a shorter base-line that does not project to the right. a curve a knob at left.

Munach. < Mahpakh sarqatum. or within the consonants. ten in number. > Qadma. 9P Qarne-phara. Rebhia.'.Maqqeph. ACCENTS PLACED ABOVE CONSONANTS . ACCENTS PLACED UNDER CONSONANTS I Silluq. always in the midst of a verse. Examples . MASORETIC POINTS OR VOWELS The Masoretic points or vowels. sign of tone (to Tiphcha initial. Pashta. hyphen. v Paser. or imperfect. but for grammatical and theological works many accents must be provided. (to single verses. Tiphcha final. between the words. . therefore always followed by : Sophpasuq. Zarqa. Double-Merkha. Segholta. which stands between the ) J Merkha. separating verses. < Yethibh (always to the right of the y f < Mahpakh the left of the vowel). | Shalsheleth. and five short. ACCENTS OF TWO PARTS THAT BELONG TOGETHER: ONE ABOVE AND THE OTHER BELOW CONSONANTS Merkha mahpakhatum. five long. $ Darga. below. A Athnach. only at the end of the verse. the left of the vowel). aloft. ^ Merkha sarqatum. 9 Little-Telisha. f Garesh. > 9 Great-Telisha. ( I vowel). Tebhir. are represented by small strokes or points placed above. These accents are cast on small bodies and are placed above or below the type of the text. Pesiq. v Yarach. or perfect. : i: * <\> Zaqeph-qaton. between the words.Accents and Masoretic points 243 the proper rendering of an ordinary word or line of Hebrew. Zaqeph-gadhol. Double-Garesh. MARKS OP PUNCTUATION : I Soph-pasuq. Metheg.

pronounced like i in bite 3 is a Pathach occurring only Pathach furtive under the letters H.244 Vowel-points and consonants of their uses in connection with the letter Beth (33) are given below. Segol = e as in bet Chirek (short) = t i as in bin 3 3 Kamets Chatuph T = o Kibuts = u as in bull . . According to German pronunciation. as in son or bone 3 3 1 2 According to Spanish and Portuguese pronunciation. an d J?/ when the letters occur at the end of a word. Long Vowels under the Consonants Kamets = a as in bar l 3 or o as in bone T = a as in bale 2 3 or e as in bed l Tsaray a> 2 Chirek (long when followed by Yodh) in bijou = m i as 3 1 Long Vowel above the Consonants Cholem or ] = o as in bowl ^3 or ow as m bow =u 2 (curtsy) "> Long Vowel within the Letter Shurek !) as in Buddha } 2 Short Vowels under the Consonants Pathach _ = a as in bar. *> When an unvocalized Yodh it forms with the followed by latter the diphthong ai. The other vowels are pronounced alike. and is pronounced before the consonant under which it is placed. H.

If accents are to be added. justify them in a separate line in their proper places. vowels to which the Sheva and are known as compound Hebrew is read from right to left. .The lay of cases for Hebrew SHEVAS 245 The following Shevas. the types must be reversed after they have been set. as H = o The last three are short [*] ) (simple Shevas. _ as as Chataph Kamets . used. broad and letters with points are in the upper case. is joined.. Hebrew is laid in the cases by many different schemes. most America. used here beneath a Cheth (J"j). finals. The compositor begins as he does with English. turn the line in the stick. turning rule. To give to the characters this sequence in print. denote that a vowel is wanting. as Sheva (simple) H H H =a = e _ Chataph Pathach Chataph Segol . the nicks of the type inward to face the composingWhen the line has been spaced and justified (wide spacing is preferred). but the scheme here exhibited is the one generally accepted by most of the compositors in The characters without points. by setting the characters at the left hand of his copy. accents. are in the lower case letters. ..

246 Cases for composition of Hebrew .

To prevent this fault. but it can be read and put in type by those only who understand the language. and the use of italic is obviated by the Q f f hair-spacing of emphasized words. . in with curved lines are substituted for the angled letters. known as Rabbinic and German-rabbinic. is of much simpler form. There are other forms.The letters of the German language 247 A word in Hebrew cannot be divided by a hyphen so that one part shall be in one line and the other part in the next line. The capitals $. attached to indicate the sounds of ftC. A font of German has no small capitals. but the same character serves for I and U have the umlaut and J. OC. or by selecting for these words a type of a much bolder or an entirely different face. and to maintain more evenness in the spacing of words. and UC+ The lower-case series is increased by a distinct character for \ and by the addition of thirteen double letters. six Hebrew letters are made of greater width : Aleph He Cheth Lamedh >* n n San Mem Tav The characters here shown are the ones used all for ordinary printing in Hebrew. Hebrew running-hand which letters GERMAN The German alphabet has nominally twenty-six capital letters.

248 German upper.and lower-case letters The German alphabet Capitals .

has a curved hair-line pro- has three stems also. Although t and { are of the j same form in capi- projects below the foot-line.Distinctions of shape in German letters 249 To the hasty observer some German letters are not sufficiently distinct. 33 B has a central cross-stroke that connects the two stems. S is another rounded letter. but not at the foot. R has its two stems connected r in the middle. and shows an open space between stems. ft K jection at its top. but the latter two are connected at the foot-line. has a projecting spur on the left side only of the thick stroke. low the hair-line that projects befoot-line. f s E has a short side-stroke projecting from the middle of this short stem. has two rounded stems connected at the base-line. at the its right stem projects below the foot. The lower-case f is used at as it does in English. 3R M SB W has stems that are connected at the head and not connected on the foot-line. has a short central stroke that crosses the upright thick stem. at the right. . To prevent mistakes in selection. r has no hair-stroke at the left side of the stem at its foot. has stems that are connected on the foot-line as well as on the head. y has stems connected top only. G f m n> m has w three stems connected at the top and disconnected at the foot-line. tals. the beginning and in the middle of words. and its two stems are connected in the middle. but the the lower-case final $ is always of short form. r 9? N has two stems connected at the head. stroke. v has its at the top two stems connected and at the foot. but the curved stroke within has a horizontal extension and does not connect. the differences between similar characters are here pointed out. and a curved upright stroke between them. 6 b has its shorter stem united to the longer foot-line. x has a long left side of hair-line r on the its the stem at foot. stem at its V has no connecting cross- h is not so united. from its shorter stem. and has a * f e e C has no projection. which the has not.

250 * Cases for composition of German .

eng0. begins but the person addressed. 16mo. ich. . Germany the characters for a complete font are 1 laid in one broad case of peculiar construction. common as well as take capitals for initial letters. see Weber's Katechismus der Buchdruckerkunst. first personal pronoun. Sie. English. The accent most used is the umlaut over vowels In Cl. The words frankfurtisch. and Prussian. takes a capital. Words are divided with the same irregularity that now prevails in English.Peculiarities of composition in German 251 In the United States the ordinary upper and lower cases that are used for English are made to serve for the casing of German type. For the plan of this case. as in lisch. The scholarly writer prefers to divide a nary writer. and IU preussisch. p. tives derived from proper nouns. but when such adjectives form part of compound proper names. German nouns. do not take the capital. but adjecproper. for Frankfortish. by fixed : its word by its derivation the ordipronunciation. do not take capitals. . as in fyet*ffett or 1 3Mfe f is always put over in the second line. 1901. 53. as a rule. The scheme pre- sented on the preceding page is that of the arrangement in many book-printing houses where German is used only for occasional words or quoted lines. Schwarze Meer (Black Sea). some double letters cannot be divided the doubled consonant at the end of a line. they do take a capital. or you. The with a small i. Leipsic. One practice is . Frederick the Second takes capitals in Friedrich der Zweite.

which are then at the top of the line. to indicate a suppressed vowel. but for emphasis the italic character is studiously avoided. especially in poetry.252 Faces of German type Hyphens are employed in great profusion for the compounding of words when these words are used as a long phrase or a qualifier. abcbefcjfyijflmnopqrstuptt) Schwabacher. The apostrophe is frequently used. The apostrophe is never used for a quote-mark. yet is sometimes used as a mark of reference. Arabic figures are as common in German as in English. and at its end by the same marks inverted. Quotation-marks in German are made at the beginning of the quotation with two comma-like marks that project below the line. Fraktur. a6c&0fgljtjK German mno text. .

used in newspapers and for ordinary books. have always been in favor with job-printers everywhere. Modern Flemish black. which other forms. The regular German letter. books. A broader and simpler form of German character is known as Schwabacher. many produced by German founders for 1 See Chapter X of Plain Printing of the faces recently text types are Types. known in Germany as the preferred for the printing of scientific The lower-case characters of the Fraktur are : the ordinary lower-case alphabet measures only about ten ems of its own body roman lower-case of the same body by British and . The roman is Antiqua. character. much compressed American standards measures thirteen ems. QK & (B* Qt <D 4f0tuf>tPt Old Flemish black used by Caxton. 1 Flemish black-letter is occasionally used for display lines in some kinds of book-work.Use of r oman letter in Germany 253 These characters are strictly and almost exclusively German. . This tendency to simplification is increasing. is known as Fraktur. but German type-founders make many The spurs and angles of black-letter favor the invention of eccentric variations.

the for its script is A unusually bewildering. careful compositor who does not understand German alphabet can fairly represent it in type when he has printed copy. GERMAN SCRIPT A a BbCc Kk ^x DdEe LI Ff Gg ? HhliJj OoPp Vv / Mm Tt Nn Qq Rr Ss Zz On Ww Diphthongs XxYy ch Joined letters ss st sz .254 German script much more distinct than those in fashion during the last century. but it is not wise for him to attempt to set type from German manuscript.

which should be pendrawn upon a regular section. the maker-up should have for his instruction a diagram of one page. VII MAKING UP The running title . JR.DAVID BRUCE. and all other details about which there may be uncertainty. . the sinkage of chapter heads. Signatures . . . the blank space above and below extracts. properly folded. . 255 . subheadings. title. of the paper that will be used for printing the book. types for running . This diagram should be approved by the author. On the first leaf of this section should be outlined in exact position the length and width of the page to show the margins required written directions should be added concerning signatures. Notes and illustrations EFORE the making up of type from galleys is attempted.

including head. tables. extracts. 33 lines of type. ascertain the length of the furniture in stock that will be needed for the gutters of the back margins.lines. but when the gutters in stock are only a trifle longer. or if the author chooses to add new or to cancel old matter upon the proof of the made-up page.256 Gauge for first length of pages is to The duty of the maker-up cut and notch a gauge of cherry reglet to the length of the page ordered. This means an unnecessary waste of time and serious expense. . but this nicety may not be attained divisions if the proper marking of important on the gauge has been neglected. every page following in that chapter will have to be re-made up. Each page of type should be a little longer than the gutters. tended to be printed direct from type. the foot-line should be set in a larger size 1 book or pamphlet ordered in great haste may have to be A made up before its reading and correction. If any compositor has made a very long out or doublet. The gauge should be a full page of the regular text type only (without cuts. Gauge for making up pages. upon which should be written the number of regular lines. In most printing-houses making up is done from the type that has been read and corrected on the 1 Before cutting the gauge for pages ingalleys. or blank lines). but this method is not to be recommended.and foot. The lines on every page should be in exact register with corresponding lines on the back of that page.

When there are no such irregularities to an even make-up as are produced by cuts and tables. or any other irregularity that may be needed in the form. tables. the maker-up can approximately measure and mark off on the proof the proper length for each page before he begins to separate the composed matter. explanation must be made to and permission for change be had from the foreman. These galleys should be accompanied with the copy and proof. and the matter must be arranged l See illustration on page 63. When scribed it is required that a pamphlet of one or two sheets shall consist of or not exceed the pre- number of pages. forethought may prevent beyond the needless cutting of furniture. but he must regulate its division so that the last short line of a paragraph in a descriptive text shall not appear as the first line on a new page. 1 The galleys of for the making composed type that will be needed up of a full form of letterpress should be assembled in front of or near to the maker-up before he begins his work. In this position the short line is a blemish to be prevented.Measurement of matter comes first of quadrats that will 257 make the page project a trifle the This gutter. For this possible departure from written instructions on the folded pattern sheet. Poetry and short dialogue matter are unavoidable exceptions. 17 . maps. as well as the cuts. The space occupied by composition must be carefully computed. it may be necessary to shorten or lengthen the page.

The running titles. The page cord. j when is measurably responsible for the of justification composition passed by him. without some previous calculation of the space to be occupied. he should return the galley to the compositor in fault. or if type The maker-up has been set up in an unworkmanlike manner. quadrats of different bodies. foot-lines. and blanks that are required for one full form should be set before making up begins. quarto galley of brass with a low rim should A be preferred for making up and tying up the ordinary page. or electrotyping bearers.258 Needed materials to be accessible and divided so that it can be kept within the limit. they will have to be made up anew. arately during the process of making up. brass rules of graduated and require him to amend it. The maker-up should be in an and to quotations. is first placed at the outer lower corner of the page. and is there tightly held by a finger of the left hand while it is successively stretched with . alley where he has ready access to leads of different thickness. and all needed kinds of blanking -out materials. or they can be withdrawn with facility when the matter has to be taken in but if pages are made up unthinkingly. In matter on galley. and be placed on small galleys within easy reach. It wastes time to set them seplength. and long enough to surround the page four times. strong. If he finds that it has been slackly justified. leads or blanks can be added it is necessary to drive out. which should be thin.

and drawing the loop tightly toward The free end of this cord must the near corner. so that can be easily seized and unwound by the stoneman when he has protected each page in the form with be it surrounding furniture. Quadrats with nicks at the ends of the foot-line should have the nicks turned inward to allow a free up-and-down movement of the page cord. in a loop at the place of beginning. left exposed upon the face of the page.Composition to be on its feet 259 increasing tightness around the four corners. The free end of the cord is made secure by thrusting it between the tightened cord and the type with the its nib of the composing-rule. the type may be tilted slightly or made . Each lift of type put upon the make-up galley should be pressed upward and compacted sidewise to is make the composition square and solid. If this not done. The nib of the composing-rule can be used to push the cord up and down at diagonally opposed corners to increase the tightness of the cord and give it a broader bearing against the centre.

tables. etc. with their figures. To neglect this precaution is to hazard the risk of an omitted or a transposed Making up includes much more than the division of matter in pages of uniform length.. The makerup is required to set the running titles. and foot-lines. 7. The page of type off to make a faulty electrotype plate. blank lines. sure The copy and the proof should be continually before the maker-up. 4.260 up Odd and even pages is " off its feet. THE EUNNING TITLE The pages known to bibliographers as recto and verso are respectively called by printers odd and The figures for odd pages. to adjust the variable width of the blanks. 8. are set at the end of the line the even pages. . extracts. line. and finally to put the made-up pages in proper order upon the stone. but when the running title has been ." This fault hard to rectify on its feet is stone or press. paragraph.. 2. as well as the foot-line at the is title The from the end of the page. etc. are set at the beginning of the even. 3. who must see that the beginning of each paragraph in type tallies with the same paragraph in copy. 5. illustrations. as 1. often composed with quadrats of the type of the text. properly to place paging notes. 6. In some printing-houses he is required also to set chapter headings and subheadings. white line that separates the running text.

and In some a narrower blank will be more approved.Paging figures the white line so 261 ordered in small capitals over a text of large type. It is not an improvement to inclose them in brackets or parentheses. The words and the type for the running title at the head of every page are usually determined by the author. Some books are ordered without paging figures in the running title. When it can be done. distinctive figures should be selected. where they may be an annoyance to the gatherers of the folded sections by confusing the figures of the signature with those of the page. The thin figures that are cast upon the en body may not be sufficiently legible. 16- (362) is HI468*- [17] When there ures may be no running title. When this running title is a summary of the contents of the page. recent books of good workmanship two leads only are used in place of the white line. which cannot be written before the page has been made up. Paging is made with small figures in the foot-line. it is customary to set up a quadrat line with paging figures only and to ask the author to write the running title on the proof of the made-up page. . made will be found too wide. that cannot be confounded with the signatures. or to add to the figures dashes or decoration of any kind. the paging figput in the centre of the head -line in the type of the text.

paging figures must be rated as blanks or quadrats. who should find enough roman and italic variety letter in the different sizes and faces of Black- capitals or lower-case. or. Quadrats are better for the blank line below the running title . the running title in this style was feeble. make composition spongy. Some pages need no running but the paging figure that is needed should be put In centring a running title. For dainty little books very small capitals were once in high favor. . It is never over a or over a full. but ornamental types and pen-drawn lettering are never acceptable to the discreet publisher. but three or more tend to title. ning title is left to the maker-up. but when the word was short and over a page of type of a body three or four sizes larger.262 Illustrations of running titles Paging figures on a smaller or larger body than that of the text type may be justified in and made solid with the quadrat line below them by the use of a properly selected thin space. The large figure for paging is generally preferred.width placed chapter heading illustration that appears at the head of the page. In some books the selection of type for the runin the foot-line. may be occasionally selected to advantage. two leads may be allowed. Monotype and light-faced antiques are permitted in running titles that may receive undue wear.

. In the running title is of many impossible. but it is not commendable in the the measure VOLTAIEE Running titles running title of any library book. but an italic of smaller body than the text type is never pleasing.Illustrations of running titles 263 Thin spaces make the running title of small capitals a little clearer. thin spacing of small capitals capitals are not easily read. Italic larger than the text may be used with advantage on a large page. and the cross-rule underneath does not compensate for this feebleness. but not as emphasis for important words. but the figures for pages are usually too small. and unspaced small words. nor is the effectiveness of a running in small capitals improved by selecting full capitals as initials for important words. title of one word only may be in capitals of the text or of one or two sizes larger. that indicate the subject-matter of each page are most acceptable in the lower-case italic of the text. Capital letters may be used in a running title of lower-case for its first letter and for strictly proper names. 64 The spacing out it fills VOLTAIRE of the letters of a short is word until one of the many freaks of modern practice that have been found attractive in advertising pamphlets. Small capititle tals of pica are The running small enough for an octavo page.

. MOLINOS THE QUIETIST Another novelty in running titles is the placing of the words close up to the back margin of each page. 66 A SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY When the text type is leaded.264 Illustrations of running titles 64 THE INVENTION OF WRITING A running title with more words than can be crowded in one line must be divided to appear on two facing pages. and some letters do not neatly mate with other letters. 78 BABYLONIAN LEGEND Italic capitals are not a wise choice. or canto is made a shoulder-note to line with the first line of text. XXIII In other histories the mention of the chapter. 462 HISTORY OF ENGLAND CH. but this is done to best advantage on pages that have side-notes. book. a condensation of the title matter should be supplied by the author. When the chapter ends upon an even page. Specifications of chapter or of date are sometimes added. XV Standard histories often have their running titles in full capitals on a body two sizes smaller than that of the text. the running title may be thin-spaced with good effect. 176 ZEAL AND IMPRUDENCE CH. but avoid em quadrats. for some of their types are kerned and liable to break. They often show gaps and unequal inclinations that are unsightly.

THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY A wide-spaced text 67 running title over a compactly set page of makes an unpleasing contrast. If it can be done. It should never be forgotten that spaces between letters should compel wider spaces between words. to 79 MOLINOS THE QUIETIST This method of treating the running with black-letter. A wider spacing is not recommended. Closely related words should be kept together. keep the specification of chapter it over the side-notes. even if one word only appears on one page. A long word should never be divided with a hyphen. OF THE CREATION In this illustration the unsightly gaps have been concealed some extent by judicious spacing. 65 The 1689 WILLIAM AND MARY 463 Sometimes the specification of the number of the chapter. is needlessly fenced off with brackets. at the end of the line.Illustrations of running titles 265 EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHICS division of over-long matter for the running title should. the page figure should extend over them. 362 OF THE CHRISTIANS 177 If side-notes are used. but it is not an improvement to separate from notes with a three-em brace or dash. title 87 may be used . A.not mangle phrases. book.D. or canto in the running title.

They seem an attempt on the part of the printer to compel attention to subjectmatter that would otherwise pass unnoticed. and afterward more boldly by the Lee Priory Press. . title 242 $ ^uef to ffle Confe00ton0 Black-letter in the running title should be always a face of true old style to make it acceptable to the bookish reader. in which the orator was taught to change his voice from whispers to shrieks. It is the imitation in print of an obsolete school of elocution. and to give the greatest emphasis to 74 Whoever selects brass rules as cross-lines for the running must be prepared to meet unexpected difficulties in the making of electrotype plates and largely increased expense in the securing of uniform presswork. 1 8 MODERN PRINTING Thick-faced rules. have been recently revived. apparently first used by the Strawberry Hill Press.266 Illustrations of running titles 833 The MEMOIRS of BooKVIll This facsimile of the running title of a London book of the early eighteenth century fairly exhibits the taste of early printers in the selection of type and the use of rules.

The eye is wearied with their continued monotony. but he soon tired his hearers. ornamented or with marked eccentricities. and small capitals are here needlessly combined. small capitals.Illustrations of running titles 267 Chap. Black dashes ordered by the publisher must it irritates. but they are of doubtful value in a serious book. VI. >imon *9o0tre 75 and plain The modern amateur who prefers straight lines types should not authorize in one line a mixing of capitals. Italic. but the compositor will make a serious mistake if he inserts them without order. and lower-case types that would not be tolerated in one line of descriptive matter in the text. but lar. dashes are commendable. lower-case. The Correct STYLE trivial ig words. This attempt at display. be inserted as directed. are forbidden by publishers of library books. is not really needed in any book. The speaker compelled attention. 833 In the displayed circular or advertisement. of an (gmgfiefl 4)ptutn. PHILIP de Co MINES. (Safer 243 Modern designs of black-letter. entirely proper in a handbill. . or tradesman's circuIt may attract. advertisement. italic.

as well as for the width of blanks above and below a table or a quoted extract in the text. It is not improved by hair-spacing. ter When great compactness is ordered. and driving over the last lines of paragraphs. wider spacing. but there are occasions when this treatment cannot be avoided. yet they may make a new difficulty in the compactly set book of short chapters. it will be necessary to make more lines in previous pages by overrunning. as practised in making up the Bible. is but should be narrow in solid matter. These methods will bring the end of the faulty chapter to the foot of the page. fairly indicated by the general direction to set Blanks may be wide in leaded solid or leaded. If a foregoing chapter ends a few lines above the foot of the page.268 Make-up of short chapters of a chapter The space to be allowed for the sinkage heading. or by a new re-making up that slightly increases the blanks between the chapters. 162 Trimalchio's Dinner Lower-case of roman has some favor as a proper selection for running titles. When this happens. To begin a new chapter flush with the first text line of the page does not make that page pleasing. a new chapmay closely follow the end of the preceding is chapter. The size selected is usually larger than the type of the text. it is customary to emphasize .

but consistency requires that they should be obscured with side decoration of similar peculiarity. A running title with When a new maker-up has work to continue the un- finished of a predecessor. They require the continual and no more. to fill neatly adaptation of means to ends in the first page of the chapter if many ways that cannot be prothere were words enough to vided for by any arbitrary rule. This treatment compels the paging figures to be put in the foot-line. . 1 269 line more blank H5E5H5H5H5H5 ARCHIV FUR BUCHGEWERBE ffiffiffiffiffiffi black decorations on either side and with cross-rules above and below is thereby made insignificant. . and make -sure that the to do is its proper continuation. These are a few of the many annoyances that delay making up. without head-band. It would be simpie if the copy had words enough the page did not seem to require the division of a cut or a table. or initial. work he is about SIGNATURES Bookbinders need signatures as guides to the orderly arrangement of the different sections of the l To the inexperienced the making up of composed type in pages of uniform length seems simple work. exercise of forethought and the synopsis. . .Usefulness of signatures the irregularity by putting one over the new chapter. . Decoration pleases more when it is lighter than letters. he must carefully examine the proof and copy of the type already made up. who often has to add the head of a new page if the new lines or cancel lines already gauge that defines the length of set to make a sightly page. allow that chapter to end in the Some of these irregularities are middle of an even page if the too difficult for the maker-up last short line of a paragraph they have to be adjusted by the did not occasionally appear at author.

and their insettings of eight pages (usually a cut-off. or seen than the sequence of page figures that have to be compared with the pages of a preceding section. The double twelves of twentyfour pages can be used with safety only on very thin paper. for when the letter has to be repeated. with intent to show to the folder the proper position of consecutive leaves. B ii for the fifth. who needs the guide at the foot of the where the section is first seized. for the ordinary thickness of book paper. the letters J. sixteen pages. inserted as helps to unpractised folders. The sequence by figures following in numerical order. . and add to them a new specifying tures. Signatures governed ty sections Paging figures in the upper corner of the leaf are unhandily placed for the convenience of the gatherer. 1 figure W its The number of pages allowed for a section and signature is governed largely by the thickness of the paper to be printed: for very thick paper. Sheets of four pages folio and of twelve pages are selected only when the form 1 In many old books the signature of a section of sixteen pages was repeated on some of the following leaves. Followthe ing usage of earty printers. B was the proper signature for the first text page. V. of guide-marks made by alphabetical letters. B iii for the seventh. These additional signatures for the inner leaves of a section. is more quickly leaf. American printers prefer arabic figures for signa- they can be protracted indefinitely for the largest book. B i for the third page. separately folded) take a star after each repeated signature. but British printers prefer alphabetical letters. are no longer used. and are never selected for signatures. eight pages.270 book.

the number of the volume must be specified in the signature-line. as in poetry. thus: outset 2. . When the book makes two or more volumes. as in forms of prefatory matter. i One of the new fashions in binder. Some authors order it in a separate line about an inch below the regulation foot-line others omit it entirely. If the section has an inset. with the addition of a star. especially so when paging figures also have been omitted. and too few pages in a section of thin paper make the back bunchy with thread. as in Vol. 1 so that they may not be confounded with the arabic figures of the signature. makes added expense and gives needless trouble to men ftom all the workcompositor to book- is admitted that the appearance of the page is not improved by the signature in the foot-line. inset 2*. Too many pages in a section of very thick paper create wrinkles in the central folds. but its entire omission is dangerous. and blanks are of uneven height. Publishers and bookbinders prefer size. or shape. The numerals defining the volume should be in capitals. cut off and separately folded and inserted. 2. More than ordinary care will have to be given to the gathering of the signatures to prevent disorderly arrangement. but this omission book-making is . sheets of eight or sixteen pages.Unwise neglect of signatures 271 has to be printed upon a paper of peculiar quality. Every book of more than one sheet has a signature-mark in the foot-line of each completed section. this cut-off inset should take the same figure as its outset. When page figures and signatures cannot be used. all the customary guides for exact folding have been removed. for they permit neater folding and sewing. It the neglect of a signature-mark in the foot-line. II. and when the text lines are of uneven length.

272 Numbered signa- Table of signatures and folios tures .

Table of signatures and folios Numbered signa- 273 tures .

274 Pages should be symmetrical guides for exact folding can be produced by inserting in the centre of the gutters (as between pages 1-8 on the half-sheet of octavo. he puts them them A in a wrapper of stout waste paper. the maker-up should plainly mark on the proof and on the copy before him the last word in the form. or will be cut off at by trimming. This mark is needed by the reader and by the maker-up who may follow him. When the number of pages for a full form has been made up. and stows in piles as may be directed by the foreman. The printed guides so made will be hidden in the book by sewing. A table of signatures is of some service to the maker-up. . the maker-up puts his made-up pages thereon in proper position for the stoneman. If the stone is not free. The short line that ends a paragraph is tolerated at the 1 See Scheme 19 on page 353. square. but it must not be trusted unthinkingly. The book made up. and in the head-bolts between pages 1-4 on the same sheet) a short bit of hair-line rule. or by the use of a different kind of paper for maps or illustrations. the head or front 1 When the imposing-stone is free. page of text is trim. and symmetrical its first when and last lines are of full width. so made by printing one section out of order. for the greater part. in sections of sixteen pages may have here and there sections of more or less pages. which will definitely New mark the places where the sheet should be creased for folding.

(3) Reverse the process: overrun a previous paragraph with wide spacing that will make a new line. and thereby provide the room for a new line. and so drive over the objectionable short line and make it the second line on a new (4) Make the -page.Treatment of hindrances 275 foot of a page. at the foot or the head of a page is rated as a fault by the critical. with its slight indention of one em. As the maker-up cannot add or cancel words or transpose lines. ginning of a new paragraph. and re-make up all the following pages until the objectionable line falls at the foot of the page. . (5) Ask the author to add or cancel a word lar . by the obser- a line from the space allowed for the chapter head. in short dialogue matter. but it is a blemish when it appears Even the beas the first text line of a new page. vance of the following methods. (2) Pick out a paragraph in any preceding page that could be spaced thinner. page a line short or long but the two pages that face each other should be treated in the same manner. or in any kind of composition that has to be made up in haste. This is a tedious method. these expedients are often adopted: (1) Take out can be amended in some kinds of when time is allowed. and it may cause a simi- bad break upon another page. it is impossible to avoid these faults in some measures of poetry. in any paragraph that will prevent the short line. Yet this fault composition. so as to make it one line less. To prevent a short line at the head of a page.

it is the . often puzzled to decide The last line of a regularly made-up page may contain the referencemark for a long note. NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Pages that must contain illustrations. and must overrun on two or more pages. and the note is large. as it is in some of composition.276 In the Management of irregularities strict reprint the last it When forms expedient is impossible. clearly unavoidable. who many impossible to do can be corrected wisely by the author only. as in an ode or in short diais logue matter. the note and the text interfere. or tables of irregular size present many difficulties. can add. cancel. Another alleged fault in make-up is a divided word broken with a hyphen on the first or last line of a page or a paragraph. but there are few authors who will take this trouble. Author and reader prefer that these additions shall be on the same page as the explanatory text. or substitute words that will lines it is In prevent the use of the hyphen. no attempt should be made at change. long notes. or at When the page is small least on a page facing it. which cannot appear on that page. so. and the maker-up is the problem of precedence. When obstacles like these are foreseen. for the apparent fault carries with it its proper apology. To try to correct this fault by It thin or wide spacing will make a much greater fault.

marked to show the limits of each page and the obstructiveness of the note or illustration. His order for a make-up of matter is unavoidably and experimental. but he can give a clue to orderly treatment that will be helpful. but tables. for a hair-line rule of any length is objectionable because it is seldom properly electrotyped and printed with uniform thickness of face. He is expected to cut up the proofs and paste them in the order he prefers on the prepared paper within the prescribed lines. He may not be entirely successful. It is to be expected that the author will add new matter to close a gap. . They can be separated from the text by a white line.Placing offoot-notes 277 custom to send to the author clean galley proofs. tentative Foot-notes are often more annoying than cuts or They must begin at the foot of the page that contains in its text the mark of reference. The maker-up is often obliged to make up the matter in a way differing from that of the author before it is finally approved. The white line is to be preferred. they may overrun two or three pages. When the irregularities in the text are tables or notes of full width. the new arrangement desired can be made by the author but when these irreguj small size and odd shape that compel an overrunning of type that must be led down the side. the author's calculations of the larities are illustrations of space to be occupied by the type are seldom correct. or by a short or long brass rule. or cancel matter already set to prevent an unsightly break.

and be separated from them by a thin white line. but the superior figures frequently used in their stead may be so small as to be objectionably indistinct. and that is further elucidated by thirty-four subnotes set in a diff erent measure. Foot-notes should follow one another in the order indicated by the references in the text.278 Foot-notes that overrun When the width will permit it. This unfortunate alternative is a clumsy procedure. 1 In a page of two or more columns the notes of Prosper March and's History of the Origin of Printing (Paris. . The marks fur- nished with the font of type are ungainly. but its overrun must be transferred to the foot of the next page. but this treatment should not be attempted without the permission of the author. third or fourth note following a very long first note. but it can be avoided when the author rewrites or rearranges the text and notes so that they can be kept near one another. The first line of the first note must be kept on that page. the general appearance of the page will be improved by setting the rule. Long notes that overrun one page and appear on more than two pages can be avoided by giving up the page that follows the reference entirely to the note. can seldom be inserted on that A page. all referred to on one page. notes in half -measure without the dividing brass Each note should begin with the repetition of the reference-mark in the text. 1740) has in its first chapter one overrun note that appears at the 1 foot of the six following pages. and this transferred matter should be placed over the regular notes for the succeeding page.

more picas. papers. The names of books. . both on the odd and the even pages. When these notes are too many and too long. A side-note its letters should not be indented. Side-notes are usually set in type three or four Four picas is sizes smaller than that of the text. This is not a wise selection. the may be put in the first column. for italic letters have many kerns. but capitals should not be used to give distinction to the initials of important words that are not proper nouns. and documents cited in the text often appear in side-notes in italic. allow. but when notes the measure are frequent may be five or and margins are wide. the side-note should be at a visible distance from the text. nor should be hair- spaced or its words wide-spaced to make full lines. Composition should be even at the beginning of every line. and the kerns may break off in this exposed position. a favorite width of measure for side-notes. A side-note in the margin should begin opposite first line of the paragraph referred to. superior figures or letters have to be used to indicate the When the margin will relation of text to note.Side-notes and abbreviations 279 a column are may many be kept at its foot. Abbreviations are tolerated in side-notes that are not permissible in the text. but when there notes in the last column that interfere notes the with the placing of a cut or table on the page. but may be irregular at its ending.

Cut-in notes are placed at the extreme end of the second. One of the features of a profusely annotated old book was the inclosing of its text with notes on the top and side as well as at the foot. An old method set the legend in small capitals of the text type (often too large for When small capithe words) in one or two lines. often set by the maker-up. When they begin on the first line they give an unnecessary raggedness to the outline of the page. the legend so became indistinct. but a critic may say that the change spots the page unpleasantly. this minuter description may be artreated is ranged in columns and in a very small size of roman . The legend line or verbal description of a large illustration. but this can be done with satisfaction only when the copy has been very carefully prepared by the author. tals of a smaller body were selected. The bolder face of these types produces the desired distinction. but the white space about each one should seem the same in all notes. can be in many styles. To arrest the eye. For general use the ordinary cut of roman lowercase of small body will prove most acceptable. or third line of the paragraph. When the legend line followed by a more particular description. the cut-in notes of educational works are sometimes set in small sizes of antique or condensed title.280 Legend lines of illustrations first. The width and height of a cut-in note must vary with the fulness of the note. as in the numbers or letters that refer to anatomical illustrations.

Legends for full-page lower-case. but all types of display are of doubtful propriety in a library book. but can be damaged. with capitals only for proper names and for the first letter of the line. are occasionally selected to give to the legend line increased distinction. illustrations 281 A very long legend of two or three lines may it of small capitals When fashion. be indented in half -diamond exceeds three lines hanging in- dention is a better choice. The reader who does not fully comprehend it with an unobtrusive legend line will not be aided by bold type. In sumptuous books the legend of a full-page illustration is often printed on a separate leaf of transparent paper. for there are many . to be attached facing the illustration. in capitals or lower-case. words is To capitalize its apparently important to invite from author or publisher repeated changes of these capitals. Italic lower-case. Roman lower-case should be clear enough for the legend line without trying to aid that clearness by means of petty display of It is largely to prevent capricious capital letters. The significance of the illustration it cannot be improved. fill Illustrations that an entire page seldom need to be described in bold types. alteration in capitals that the printer prefers small capital letters for this descriptive line. with black or eccentric lettering. and thin-faced antique. gothic. A more approved style for the roman lower-case of small legend line is plain size (about three sizes smaller than that of the text type).

below. the legend line in very small type is sometimes put over a cut that must appear at the end of a page. but when the illustration is of irregular shape. composition of roman type that always needs much openness for its fair These remarks do not apply presentation. Legend lines are usually centred. which favors the jamming of type close to the initial and even against a broad engraved border but this contraction of the relief of a needed white space should never be allowed in any . An illustration is j . ostensibly in the Morris style. 2 to composition in black-letter. they see no impropriety in affixing to the half-page illustrations of articles in magazines descriptive lines in letters of large size and uncouth form that belittle the cut as well as the types. To prevent wear of type in this exposed position. and the plate may be slotted or mortised for its insertion. or by the side of cuts or narrow tables must be governed by the general openness or closeness of the composition. . damaged in appearance when it crowds the type is of the text. its legend may be placed in a lower corner within any vacancy that promises a proper relief of white space.282 Blank space about 1 illustrations engravers who protest against the insertion of any type-work below the cut. For double-leaded type the blank should be not less than a great primer wide for very open composition two or even three picas may be used for solid composition about one pica. 2 When 1 the cut is very small and compactness Although illustrators protest against explanatory legends in type at the foot or head of a fullpage cut as damaging to their work. The blank space to be allowed above. Over a cut at the head of a page the customary running title of that page should be suppressed.

A centring in exact position of pages of different width can never be done quickly. . upon the stone. If the 1 i See pages 73 and 74 of this book. off their feet.Treatment ofprojecting matter desired. the j wood may warp. type 283 may be overrun and arranged on one or both sides. pages are to be electrotyped. liable to and the types inserted in them are work is One of the modern methods of make-up the placing of very small cuts or illustrations entirely in the outer margin. the notches will be out of square. but the setting of type in measures too narrow should be avoided. Illustrations of irregular shape should be blocked on metal bodies and notched by the automatic machine recently invented for this purpose if blocked on wood and notched by the hand-saw and file. This can be done to best advantage on the make-up galley. When it is ordered that two or more illustrations shall project beyond the regular measure of the page in the margin of a letterpress form. in which uneven spacing cannot be prevented. the blank and below an illustration or a table above spaces (and indeed all the blanks) should be filled with bearers to insure the making of a good mould. all the pages of that form should be made up to the full width of the widest page. as in any blank less than eight em quadrats of the text type. where they will not obstruct the text. and rarely ever accurately.

put the cut at one end of the measure. all alterations desired in the text should be made on the galley proof. The position of illustrations on a page is a question of taste usually determined by the author. To preserve decent uniformity in spacing. not dependent on one another. even after overrunning. page If the cut is wider and will not permit decent spacing on each side. it may be necessary. to read down the and not across the cut. To add or cancel words after the type has been fitted to the illustration and made up in pages-will cost more than the original composition. Before overrunning is attempted. for the lines so treated must differ in length to be rearranged about and may have to be repeatedly changed to prevent bad division or uneven spacing. but there is a general agreement as to the propriety of the following rules very small and narrow cut : A may be put in the centre of the measure. . treated as should be kept far apart. so that the type will be on one side only. to ask the author to change one word for another to make a line longer or shorter.284 Treatment of irregular illustrations Illustrations of irregular shape that require types them necessarily compel the overrunning of the composition. This process is always more tedious than the original composition. with the type rearranged on each side. Two or more cuts. appearing on the same page or on pages that face. but the type so rearranged should be two distinct columns.

for this backing of 011 two cuts against each other increases the labor of press work and may produce a "set-off" of black ink where it is not needed. A rule with face about one point thick is better than the hair-line rule. and .Position of cuts on the page 285 When it can be avoided. been prepared as mates to face one another on opposing pages should be made up to face with exactness. may have its appearance improved by surrounding it with a rule border. an illustration should be the page so that it will not back another illusput tration on the following page. especially if it is intended for a red-ink line. for red ink. is not wide enough to fill the meabut that is too wide to have type put on one side. When a table or cut of full broad measure must appear in a page of two or more columns. each column of type must be made up to read continuously from the head to the foot of the page. one for black and one The cut that sure. When a cut of full width is put at the head of the page. Parallel or concentric rules. and the folio of the page may be put in small figures in the foot-line. are finical niceties it is difficult to them on a in sheet exact print large parallel. the running title and the folio figures should be suppressed. to avoid the appearance of monotonous uniformity. Two illustrations of the same size that have . to the damage of each illustration. Cuts that are not mates can be placed at the head or side or foot of the page.

some. but of one it will prevent the unsightly appearance column huddled by the side of its mate that has a long gap of unbalanced white space.cuts. In poetry. umns should be made If this treatment is contains the excess matter not possible. The type. When the gauge shows that the chapter will end with two or three lines only on the last page. so that the two columns will end on or near the same parallel. l To an impatient author the time taken for making up the illustrated pages of a chapter will often seems unreasonably long. lines that rime should not be put on separate pages. Quoted lines of poetry should not begin a page when it can be avoided. he must ask the author to add more lines to give a decent fulness to that page .286 Parallels in columns without regard to the separation made by the cut or table. and he may have to undo repeatedly what dummy before the practical work of making up is attempted. or he may ask him to cancel some lines on previous pages. for illustrated pages can be made up by he has done. When the words are unequal in number. and notes for each page should be cut out of an extra proof and be arranged in page form on the pages of a one person only. and the maker-up has been ordered not to lengthen previous pages. but it is unavoidable. 1 long quotation in a foreign language with its A translation in a parallel number of words for each column should have the column carefully counted. so that the chapter will have a neater ending. . the column that may be put in broad This is trouble- measure after it passes the parallel. Yet forethought prevent some wasted labor. the colof unequal width.

has to be set in a nar- rowed measure. the more important divisions separated by wide. as in a long motto to or quotation of importance. The adjustment of blanks before and after extracts. These blanks may be of irregular width. the appearance of the composition will be improved if all the lines are made full. and minor divisions by narrow blanks. when two facing cuts are intended to explain or supplement each other. When a large piece of matter. an extract. from right to left for the odd page and vice versa for This arrangement must be varied the even page.Position offull-page illustrations 287 The way line full-page illustration that occupies the broad of the page often has its legend or descriptive near the gutter or back margin. It is difficult to maintain this appearance of uniformity when blanks have to be increased to drive out. They should face one way. cuts. so that they can be read from the same position. or diminished comes to take in. It will be necessary to overrun . or quotation that at the head of the page. and regular or irregular subdivisions of the text is another duty that calls for nice discretion. but the blanks assigned to each class should be of uniform width as far as is possible. It is expected that the reader will turn the book half-way around. In this as in other cases. subheading. change words or lines that interfere with orderly arrangement. the best help is to who should be asked be had from the author. without indention in first line and without break of white in last line.

Type for the pages of a book should not be made up while it is wet or even damp. The maker -up can then see the proper position of the red -ink lines. of the entire page face downward on the make-up galley. will be swelled this When by contact with moisture. and of the same length as the page of black. a dash is used for a subdivision. on thin paper. If this color page is made up solid. one or more added The shoulder leads must be put below the dash. of the last lower-case text line must be reckoned in blanking-out as one lead or more. The exact placing in an open page of one or more lines of type selected for red ink upon a page in two colors will be made easier by putting a clean proof. and even the wood furniture that meets wet type. It is not practicable to give suggestions for every may present itself.288 Management of dividing dashes the matter repeatedly in different measures before can be done properly. to make that dash seem in the centre. . The workmanship of wellprinted books should be critically examined for a peculiarity that study of the best methods. for make-up is a study without end. The woodblocking of electrotype illustrations. the pressman will be aided in making register. avoiding a too free use of leads that yield under pressure.

a thick. Taking proofs . bonded with an iron tire. or with racks for chases. 19 289 . . Stones can be had of supply houses in from 18 X 23 inches to 38 X 96 inches. . or bedded on plaster in a frame of oak wood. smooth slab of hard marble. . . . many sizes. . and for locking up and correcting previously made-up pages of books or jobs. The space unused below the stone is usually fitted up with drawers for the stowage of furniture. Adjusting margins Locking up Corrections Clearing away . . . It is used as a table for making up newspaper forms that have to be printed on flat-bed presses. for adjusting book margins.IOMAS MACKELLAR VIII STONE-WORK Stones and chases . . NE of the most conspicuous pieces in the composing-room is the imposing-stone.

It is made of cast. but it is . Imposing-stone with drawers and chase-rack.290 Imposing-stone and appurtenances The larger sizes. so made to give to the galley a needed rest when pages on the slice galley are launched upon the surface of the iron. so that it can be lifted from the stone and carried to the is The chase is press. The best iron tables have the edge rabbeted to the thickness of the ordinary brass galley. a square iron frame in which comlocked posed type up and kept secure. to suit the construction of a printing-machine or the shape of a form.or wrought-iron. have been supplanted in many houses by tables of iron. that are of truer surface and every way stronger. The cast-iron chase is cheaper. which are weighty and liable to be broken or gouged by shooting-sticks.

Williams recommends that " a smooth board which will extend fully across the form and chase may be nailed securely to the furniture near the centre of the chase. that are too heavy to be made properly together (as and sometimes from the stone large and heavy forms of type that have not been strengthened 1 It is difficult impossible to lift with cross-bars in the chase. it is known as a skeleton chase. The cross X marked in one corner indicates the corner against which the head and one side of the page should be laid. but it is form of great weight. Forms in hundred pounds are not uncommon newspaper work. When two very large pages have to be printed of four is customary in the ordinary weekly newspaper). the heavy form 1 sags in the centre. Wrought-iron chases are sometimes selected for large and light forms. When tightly locked up.Chases of different styles relatively weak. This serves fairly well for posters that have much wood type. but I should recommend screws instead of nails. In his Hints on Imposition (page 91). for patent blocks and not serviceable for any large open forms. but they have to be handled at great risk. and the chase bends outward on one side. which seems good. . Its greatest defect is 291 and serviceable for small jobs only. incomplete squareness. planed and squared to a true right angle on one of its inner corners. usually of cast-iron. One hundred and forty pounds isenoughwithinaskeletonchase. putting the form more or less out of square. When the chase is a plain iron frame without cross-bars or dovetailed slots for the bars. The [face of the] type should be protected with soft paper." I have never tried this expedient. The space at each end and between the board and the chase should be tightly filled up before lifting the form. The is stereotype or electrotype chase.

the long cross is a narrower bar of iron. but fit is sometimes welded in the frame. Twin chases. It is known as the short cross. which is firmly connected to the outer frame by the same device of slots and dovetails. oftener a movable bar of iron.work. Twin chases with one cross-bar. the tendency to bow outward on the side is prevented. it is the bowing outward on the narrower and to insure accurate register on book. To prevent ends. known as the long cross. but the sides of these chases are often made thinner on the meeting side. twin chases are made with one cross-bar.292 Chases with cross-bars secure in one chase. The side-sticks and . necessary to use another bridge or connectingrod. This variety of chase is known as the shifting- bar chase. or the book-chase. As it has less resistance to overcome. twin chases are preferred. The twin chases give additional safety in handling. cut with projecting dovetails on either end that accurately The cross-bar it is in slots of similar form cut in the chase. For large pages of quarto form. So made.

nor be fairly fitted to other chases apparently of the same size. and 32mo. and should be removed and inserted As they cannot be transposed end for end alternately. Once made entirely straight or square with some difficulty. that require a fold- ing of the sheet in three parts. . The accuracy of a book-chase largely depends on the care given to the shifting bars. and 24mo. and the pressure on the pages of type. forms of 12mo. This illustration shows the position of the bars as they are used for ordinary forms of 8vo.Chase-bars need special care 293 quoins are placed nearest the chase-frame. which are made to with caution. the long cross (and sometimes the short cross) has to be put in another position. each bar should have an arbitrary number punched on one end with steel fit exactly. when properly locked up. the pressure should be made equal from each one of the four sides toward the twisted. 18mo. the shifting bars are common centre. For 16mo. is evenly resisted by the truly squared crossbars. Book-chase with two shifting cross-bars. To prevent the bars from twisting in the process of locking up. as is indicated by the places for slots in the illustration.

screw-chase is made for locking up the forms of daily newspapers. which quoins and The small screw-chase not in favor uneven pressure of the screw will twist the type off its feet. often to the damage of the machinery. They are sometimes used on the beds of printing-machines as a better substitute for many Pieces of wood furniture. Carefully treated. press against the stout iron bar that forces the type The object sought is the locking up of a tight. large is form in a small chase. for side-sticks cannot be used. Under no circumstances should the bar be put in any other place. and put away in a place where the edges of the dovetails will not be hacked or bruised. cleaned. . which has a to bow or spring upward on always tendency the bed. . Long and narrow chases are supplied for headings and bill -heads. and the screws often Another form of rust and become immovable. for a chase is is when the bar permanently injured forced into a slot for which it was not originally fitted. and this number should be repeated on the chase in the place where it meets the bar. Screw-chases are sometimes provided for small Two sides are pierced for screws which presses. Bars taken out of a chase should be dried. oiled.294 Long and narrow chases punches. they will do good service for more than a lifetime.

usually of wood. low quadrats.Tools used about the stone 295 The shooting-stick is a short bar of wood. wood. or bevels. . which can be used with propriety making level a form of type only before the form for locked up. iron. to lock metal. Side-sticks. it is face the stone. they forms. all light and for that reason forms. made in of chases that have been forms or secure type up typeto the height of or Planer. may become The proof-planer with thick elastic felt. are inclined planes of . iron. It is used for taking pounded proofs. is The planer is a stout cube of hard wood. The stick of hard wood wears out quickly. . ^^ Mallet. heavy The mallet provided to strike the shooting-stick. more efficient tools. or brass that is used to wedge quoins in the process of locking up. it When used to level type after locking a tool of damage. is the ordinary planer covered up. but it does not de- ^ ^^ >> "' "^^^^^\ preferred for Shooting-stick of iron. Brass or iron shooting-sticks are and are really necessary for all but require careful handling. is sometimes covered with soleleather and sometimes ferruled with an iron band.

and some are protected by The iron quoin most approved of is in two pieces. Quoins are the blunt wedges of maple. or boxwood that are forced against the side-stick by means of shooting-stick and mallet. have been invented. A key-wrench. Its liability to warp is another objection. A tongue on one half of the quoin. sides. hickory. vent this accident. ally tightens the type in the form. To pre.296 The Hempel quoin of iron properly wedged with quoins. prevents either half from being twisted out of line. The power that can be exerted by this wrench is greater than that usually obtained . Quoins and side-sticks of wood shrink after they have been wet and dried. commonly known as patent quoins. iron quoins. that grips the interior cogs or teeth. each having two small inclined planes of equal length. fitting in a corresponding groove in the other half. with cogs or teeth on the interior in many patents. For newspaper forms and book-work the metal side-stick is preferred. expands the two pieces to a wider parallel and gradu- The Hempel quoin. They are made styles. and gradually relax their pressure this sometimes causes a piing of the form. as well as to put a stronger pressure on the type. but it necessarily receives hard treatment and is soon worn out. Wood is cheapest and most used.

These patent quoins are better than quoins of wood in preventing the slackening of pressure after the form has left the press. ADJUSTING MARGINS One of the duties of the stoneman is the making In some printing-houses it is the cushim determine all margins from scant verbal instruction without a plan. This custom is not to be commended. made on some A Hempel iron quoin with strip of thick blot- its turnkey. for it leaves too much of margins. but they are not so efficient while is the form on press. The jarring kinds of cylinder-presses tends to their gradual loosening. tom to have to his discretion. As the margins on three sides of the proposed book may be unequally reduced by . Another variety of iron quoin consists of two stout cubes of iron that can be pushed apart by working a ratchet against the nuts of a right and left screw fixed between the cubes.Adjusting margins 297 with the mallet and shooting-stick. ting-paper or of thin pine reglet between a Hempel quoin and the chase may prevent the loosening of pressure produced by the continued vibration.

centre- Before any attempt . These mated pages will be 1 and 8 in the half -sheet of 8vo. and a piece of this larger size must be cut down to the exact size of The paper for the paper needed for one section. but it may be only four leaves (eight pages) of thick paper. about which he is seldom fully advised. For this purpose a pattern sheet should be made with carefully drawn pen lines that describe the width of back and head margins upon the leaves of made any two mated pages of the paper that will be used in printing the book. If paper of the prescribed size is not in the house.298 Pattern sheet needed by stoneman trimming. a larger size may be selected. this model should be folded with great accuracy to make even folds without waste. for the head is made to draw the lines and back margins. which consists of as many leaves as the binder folds together at one operation. or 1 and 16 in the half-sheet of 16mo. The pen drawing should be made upon the outer leaves of a full section of the book. It is usually eight leaves (sixteen pages) of ordinary paper. it should be known whether the intended book is to be sewed. So folded. and on one side by some methods of sewing or stitching. it will show the leaves as they will appear unsewed and untrimmed. it seems proper that the determination of head and back margins for every page should be in the counting-room by the person who has taken in the order for the book and has explicit instructions from its publisher about the margins.

for the front margin one quarter of an inch. whether it is to be trimmed or little. the outlined square in the centre of each leaf. the black connected line near it. For the head margin of an octavo allow for waste one eighth of If the it book may an inch. the leaf as it will appear after trimming . is to be trimmed (or. even if untrimmed. front. and tail of the leaf the paper that will be wasted in trimming. or taken up and concealed by different methods of sewing or sidestitching. Outer dotted line indicates the full size of the untrimmed leaf. afterward be rebound). or all around. or side-stitched. the position of the page. at head and tail only. as may be more apparent in this diagram. Fair allowance must be in the pattern sheet for the paper that will in the back be wasted in trimming. begin by marking off at the head.Paper wasted by trimming 299 much made stitched. or left with uncut edges. and for the tail margin three eighths of an .

mark on the leaf. be roughly expressed by these figures for the plain octavo for visible back margin (after sewing) 4 : most acceptable to The proportions may to 5 picas. it being understood that these will be the measure- after sewing and trimming. The paper taken up in the back by binding will be variable in some kinds of sewed books it will be too small for allowance in the side-stitched book it will vary from one sixth to one quarter of an inch. the size and shape of the page in exact position. and most of all at the tail.300 inch. the binder as to the loss of paper taken up in the back by wire-stitching or sewing. with clear pen lines. a reckless binder more. Custom requires that it will the margins of a page shall be uneven : least at the back. much more at the front. A page so placed on the leaf will be publisher and book-buyer. These apportionments will be satisfactory for the ordinary book. but a publisher. are many sections in the book. Margins must be unequal j These are approximations a careful binder Then consult less. The width of the paper lost by trimming or concealed by sewing must be estimated and allowed for in the proposed margin on the pattern sheet. for tail margin 8 to 9 picas. for peculiar reasons. may ments of the leaf . for head margin 5 to 6 picas. Having determined the dimensions of the leaf as appear after sewing and trimming. for front margin 7 to 8 picas. and mark off the width of the paper so concealed. but little more apparently at the head. or more if there takes : .

up to fit the paper. they will be correct for all the pages in the form. require margins to be wider or narrower. margins in all sections will be exactly uniform. and greatest at the tail. The head and back margins should be If mined. for they cannot be prede- termined with precision by guesswork. If correct on the pattern sheet for the two mated pages of a section. So adjusted. they must be changed to meet his wishes. increasing at the front. The pages in a form should be so disposed on the stone that they will fairly fill the sheet. without any waste of paper. and yet present the needed inequality of margin about every page when the sheet has been In other words. beginning at the back. whether that form is an 8vo of one section or a 64mo of four sections. is seldom departed from in the first deter- ordinary well-made book. . but under all conditions the blanks must be so adjusted that the front and tail separate folding.How to adjust margins to paper 301 If so. they have been considered with relation to their waste by trimming and sewing. but the rule of a steadily increasing width of margin. the form must be made printed. Front and made by tail margins can be most accurately the stoneman. every section can be folded evenly. It may have sixty-four pages. they will be seldom changed. to be divided by the binder in four sections for For the form of many pages more blank must be put in the places where the sections have to be cut.

proper front and tail margins for the 16mo begins with accurately folding a sheet of its own paper to a section of eight leaves. i One method of ascertaining vals through the folded section. service to a novice in marginmaking. Give to the front margins all the blank not already covered by type or by the furniture of back margin. The front margins for the form of eight pages can be determined by taking two leaves of the pattern sheet previously described on page 299. in this For the instance. and pencil a line all around the page on that leaf. which. fore edge It does not sufficiently indicate the proper margins between meeting fore edges or meeting tails in the form of many pages. With a sharp penknife stab each line in two places at wide inter- That done. 24. The diagram on page 299 is useful as a guide to the maker-up. has its disadvantages. The form of 12. The tail margins will be regulated by the pressman. and lapping them over any two mated pages so that the edges of in different quarters of the chase. . 16. but it is not enough for the stoneman. leaving unopened all its folds or Then place a page of its bolts. unfold the paper: the distance between parallel stabs will show the width of the blanks needed for proper marThis method. For the half-sheet of 16mo use the same method for determining the front margins. type upon the first leaf of that folded section. of some gins. as is the paper shall accurately meet similar sides of pages shown in the opposite diagram between pages 1 and 7. or 32 pages needs a surer guide. The adjustment of margins by measuring pages from extreme points with the paper to be used is a more common method. will be between pages 1 and 13.302 Margins determined by paper 1 without waste or protruding bolts or edges at the and tail.

and to tail front margins for a form of eight pages. all margins will be correct. The sheet printed therefrom can . all the surplus of blank must be given margins on each side of the short cross-bar. When the pages in other quarters of the chase have been margined in a similar manner. accurately meeting the extreme ends of full Making pages.Adjusting margins for eight pages 303 tail margin take a quarter-sheet of the paper. which must overlap from the tail of page 3 to the tail of page 5.

has been properly folded. for they are usually combinations on Making tail margins for a form of sixteen pages. much to the annoyance of the reader. The ream sold as of 20 x 30 inches may have some sheets that are one eighth or one sixth of an inch longer. Margins approved for one must be correct for all. This slight excess in measurement. . may be a real annoyance in bookbindWhen an over-long sheet ing. Short sheets are rare. lit may happen that all the sheets of the ream of paper to be used are not of the same size. one sheet of different sections of 8 or 16 pages. its excess on some leaves of one eighth or one sixth of an inch will project ragged leaves beyond the folded bolts.304 Adjustment for a form of sixteen Forms the be folded correctly by print or by the edges of paper. of more than 16 pages must be treated in same way. disregarded in ordinary 1 newspaper or job work.

It can be " rough-cut " by tearing each sheet down against a sharp straight-edge. but never by the scissors or knife . the excess of one sixth long of an inch will be fairly divided in folding and apportioned to each half of the sheet. by rasping off in the folded section the ex- cess of paper with a rotary haggler it off with a rotary circular knife. This means putan added ting nonpareil reglet by the side of the cross-bar. To them the protruding leaf is a serious blemish that must be removed.To prevent protruding leaves 305 In the book intended to be trimmed upon two or three sides. to the finished book the desired neatness. But there are buyers who insist on uncut leaves of full size. Make the distance between pages 3 and 15 in the half -sheet of 16mo 10 inches. How to remove it neatly after printing is a puzzle. take the largest sheet as the safer guide for making margin. for the cutting machine that trims off the bolts also cuts off every other chance excess of paper and makes all the leaves of uniform size. methods by grinding But all these and none of them . So treated. gives is better to prevent than to correct. the leaves that are slightly over. It If the ream of paper sold as 30 inches long and 20 inches wide contains occasional sheets that are 20^ inches wide. call for needless labor. with bolts unmarred by the knife.wide or over-long may not be rated as faults. The sheets that are but 20 inches wide will have leaves that are one twelfth of an inch shorter than sheets with 10-jV inches instead of .

When faults have been dis- covered. the pages should be sent back to the galley. Locking up calls for unusual discretion in the selection of the quoins. the fore edge. The readjustment of make-up on the stone is always difficult and is seldom done in a satisfactory manner. and the mould taken from types of uneven height will produce uneven electrotype plates. Before made-up pages are laid down. as well as in the graduation of pressure. .306 Locking up work of nicety which must come flush up to bolts of folded leaves In the form so made up there will be no ragged or protruding leaves. LOCKING UP The locking up of pages in a form of type seems work to the unpractised as the driving of as simple wedges. Particles of dust adhering to the stone will prevent an even planing down of the type. but the stone is not the place to remedy the grosser faults made by the compositor. or belated corrections in justification are required after imposition. chases. Correct stone -work depends primarily on properly justified lines and exact make-up. and side-sticks. the imposing-stone should be made perfectly clean. This common belief is a serious error: pages cannot be truly squared and properly prepared for printing by brute force only. The deficiency in the short leaves will be almost imperceptible.

and produce bad register. . so that the pressure of the quoins had to be resisted by the unsquared inner angle of a cast-iron chase in others. If it is not truly square. out-of- enough when many plates were squareness was produced by locking up the form against the wrong corner.Steel square and straight-edge It 307 The chase needs an examination. of jobbing electrotyper New York every day ers forms varying in dimensions from five to one hundred square inches. In some of these forms. so that it does not entirely rest flat upon the stone it . be out of square. with bent or sprung crossbars or bruised dovetails thrust in badly fitting may slots. The chase should be selected to fit the press upon which it will be printed. large enough to give free play to the quoins. exact is register is made difficult and often impossible. reports that many forms delivered to him were not truly squared and properly locked. not to be noticed in a print on one side only of the paper. but noticeable City. Chases with crooked or twisted bars often cause types to get " off their feet " they work up j spaces.work by the stoneman as l A steel much A as they are by a carpenter or a machinist. by too much pressure on one side and too little on another. may have on the cross-bars blotches of rust. Its corners in the angles of the frame and in those of the bars should be tested with a steel square before it is accepted. The deviation from a true right angle was usually slight. . 1 square and a long straight-edge of steel are needed for exact book. who received from different print- printed together upon one sheet and the pages backed each other. or by worn and warped furniture of wood. but not so large as to compel the use of an excess of interior wood furniture. . or adhering cardboard put there by the pressman as a makeshift aid to exact register it may be warped or twisted.

but the form of twelve or more pages of 12mo or of larger size needs a wrought-iron chase with true cross-bars. whether of wroughtor cast-iron. While a tight locking up is large A great mass needed to prevent the sagging of type in the centre of the form and to provide for its security in transit to the press. and is greater in one half or one quarter of the chase. too strong pressure is sure to bend the chase and to bow outward the type in the form. where pressure is great and resistance is small. will bend outward in the centre. all-around pressure of locking up. Cross-bars are added to the chase as a means to maintain a uniform resistance on each side of the bars against the even. A book form of many pages can be and should be prepared on the imposing-stone to produce perfect register. form of one page only that contains a of heavy type needs a chase with frame of extra thickness. the cross-bars at the overis Slots are cut in the chase and tight part will bend. If the pressure unequal. dovetails are put in the bars to prevent this outward bending of type and to aid in giving squareness to the form. the . To keep all lines of type square or in parallel. A form of four or eight small pages may be truly locked up in an ordinary cast-iron chase. The chase without cross-bars.To prevent chase bowing on press The pressman who has to print a letterpress form 308 should not be required to correct the skewing of pages by inserting bits of cardboard between the chase and the furniture.

The fudging of two or more small pieces of wood as resists to the quoins. The stiff resistance of the centre clamp on the bed of the press is needed there to prevent the bowing outward of the chase and to preserve the straightness of the lines of type. or the selection of two small quoins. to put a thin reglet between the chase and the centre clamp on the bed of a cylinder-press. The outer furniture between the side-stick and the chase should be of one piece only. fully as long as the resisting sidestick or foot -stick. and not to the quoins. they will present the longer side to the type. should never be used. frayed at the edges or rounded at the corners. and then relock the type in the form as well as relock the chase upon the bed. wood should be cut diagonally at the so that ends.Furniture to be carefully selected 309 pressman may have to unlock the form after it has been placed on the bed of the press. A Side-sticks of side-stick properly cut. Furniture of wood that has been water -soaked and warped. compels needless labor and makes unsatisfactory work. This will prevent the use of the side provided for quoins against the type. The side-stick or foot-stick at its nar- rower end should be as long as but no longer than . and will preserve the smooth side for the type only.

some risk of squabbling the type.or foot-stick. the form is locked and unlocked with difficulty. or any other piece of furniture in the chase be so long that it will bind against the side.310 Relative merits of wood and metal : the type it presses against neither one should cross the other. The relative length and bit of furniture in a form of 8vo suitable position of each may be seen in The accompanying diashows an selection of the side-stick. are better than those of wood. piece bolts Metal furniture in one only should be preferred for the headas well as for backs or gutters. gutter. Guttered furniture for . nor should the head-bolt. sticks of iron. or Side- even of type-metal. gram improper When one bevelled stick crosses another. and always at /- the diagram on page 63.

The planer side-sticks down. the form may be planed Before this -operation the face of the planer should be examined and brushed off. When the page-cords have been removed. so that the side-stick be kept close to the type and prevent the thin letters at the ends of the lines from hanging or dropping. Some printers wrap its face with smooth clean paper. for much wrong locking up is caused by the forcing of quoins into positions for which they are not fitted. At this stage the mallet should not be used the pressure of the fingers is sufficient. Any quoin selected that does not rest flat on the stone and that will not move snugly against the side-stick should be reIt is bad practice to allow quoins jected at once. A As by the pressure of the will fingers. to project at an angle so that they can be struck direct with the mallet. the cord that ties the page is gradually unwound. They should be selected with care. to change the quoins first selected for thin side-stick will need others of larger size. The flat side of quoins should always rest upon the stone. and the pages have been cautiously and securely pressed by be exerted than and quoins. The quoins j should be equidistant. the quoins should be gradually tightened. and not by the shooting-stick. When the side-stick is thin and has a slight bevel. it will be necessary. and no more force should is needed for a gentle pressure. as increase of pressure may require. the quoins may be put in.Pages to be tightened gradually 311 adjusted. more quoins than a thicker one. .

In forms that have been locked up too tightly. especially so when the striker A works rapidly and makes his blows fall upon a planer which may be occasionally held at an angle that does not give it a full flat bearing on every part of the type. and taps with the end of the handle are enough for the purpose. very little force is needed to press down the few types that may be too high. so that it cannot be moved side wise by the blow of the mallet. When the planer is struck by the head of the mallet. is needed. and the far-off side When the blow is struck vertically gets but little. the type will bow or curve upward slightly about the centre of the form. not with the head but with the end of the handle of the mallet. and never be allowed to hang over the side or over an open page that offers no resistance. In composition that has been fairly prepared. It should always have a full bearing on the type. less force is more equally diffused.312 Violent planing a mistake should be held firmly in the left hand. it is usually struck at an fused angle. by the handle. Violent planing down is wrongly supposed to hide some of the mischiefs produced by all loose justification and over-tight locking up. so that the force applied is unequally difmost of that force is exerted on the side of . It should be struck in the centre. The form that is so locked up may be . and that force violent planing down of the form is always damaging to the type. and will not rest fairly upon the stone. the planer nearest the striker.

uneven many Bottled types are not so were. where the bottling is apparent. but they will spring back again in this or in another quarter. The slightness of the pressure needed to secure a properly justified form is fairly illustrated by patent iron quoins. a rough remedy may be devised by inserting a strip about half an inch high of thin. the pressure there will be unduly increased. but if the type is in any way bottled. Slight twists of the wrench on the will quoins tighten the type more securely than blows with the mallet. the bevelled cardboard should be used on the opposite end of the page. It makes less the greater pressure at the base that tends to thrust types upward. provides a more even resistance to the pressure of the quoins. The pressure of locking up is consequently greatest at the foot of composed type. and will soon carry upward with them the spaces that blacken the sheet. bevelled cardboard between the side-stick and the lower part of the body of the type. Types are about eleven twelfths and side-sticks about five eighths of an inch high. When the bottling is conspicuous. The increasing thickness of the cardboard near the lower part of the body of the type.Faults produced by bottled type 313 repeatedly planed down until the types meet the stone in the centre. at the side will be an aid . but common now as they when they seem to be the cause of the bowing upward of type in any part of the form. to The bevelled cardboard more even pressure.

In every form too tightly locked up the types are sure to bow upward j .314 Equality ofpressure of importance In this diagram the outer black line represents the outline of a page before locking the inner dotted . but those in C will be diagonal line properly. in a long page of leaded type. When the pressure is not even and gradual. usually greater from the head to the foot than from is side to side. If the quoins at the foot of the form are made put on the only. the any pressure is types will give in that direction full tight before have been made needlessly much too tight by pressure at the foot. line. the same page after locking up. one page or one quarter will moved much more. or the chase may be strained or cracked. To lock up hang or crook. The types in the corner single are A but the corner slightly moved by locking up. and in a toward that corner A. the pressure applied to the type must be gradual and even on each side. sure. the types will Under this unnecessary pres- bow upward or hang in one quarter. the cross-bars may be twisted. side. The distance between these lines indicates approximately " " or the give compressibility of the type. twice as much force must be exerted to move them in the If the types contrary direction. which.

. The difficulty of locking up is always greater in forms that contain tables with brass rules crossing Forms full at right angles or with brass borders. The pages should be next tightened on the side in the same manner. it may be necesaround to the form two or three times. by the fingers. it Careful pressmen often find of importance to slacken the quoins of a too tightly locked form as soon as it is laid on the bed of the press. Each quarter should be sepa- When the quoins cannot be moved rately treated. and should be given in regular order to the quoins in each quarter of the chase. if the presswork begins before the types in the form rest on their feet. In any form that has been truly justified and evenly locked. The first strokes of the mallet should be light. The stoneman should try to lock up type continuously and slowly . the pressure required will not be great. so as to allow the types curved upward in the i this precaution is neglected. If work will be delayed. sary go gradually increasing the pressure. the shooting-stick and the mallet may be used for this purpose. Types will receive injury. it should be tested by straight-edge and square. 1 of pages 315 down The tightening of quoins should begin at the tail by pushing up the quoins with the thumb. spaces will work up. and the centre to rest on their feet.Faults of over-tight locking up then follows a violent and needless planing in a vain effort to keep them on their feet. the form is supposed to be tight enough. an even impression cannot be had. to do it When hurriedly or recklessly is to do it badly. which will show where there may be too much pressure. to be locked For a large and heavy form of many pages up against cross-bars.

are always troublesome. metal furniture for all divisions inside of the type- work. Bent leads and foul or badly washed types are other hindrances. perfect justification. with crossjustification. Even when the there will be difficulty if the rule mitring is too thin. and patent quoins. The side-sticks will then have an even and solid bearing against the guards so provided. or that are comparatively solid and on one side and open and spongy incompressible on the other side. In forms with careless justificabut is sometimes increased by badly cut and crooked brass rules that have not had the bur relike these the fault begins tion. To these must be added extra care on the part of the stoneman. When mitred brass rules do not join. the accuracy of the mitring should be tested. is exact. large form A of pages with mitred brass-rule borders can be truly locked up only by making use of an accurate chase. a line of properly matched quadrats or quotations should be put on each side of the form as a guard. If a form has one solid and one spongy side.316 Faults produced ~by brass rules of thin leads. as may happen in the ordinary form of bank-checks. The art of locking up may be summarized in a few words Justify and make up accurately with : . or if the form is locked with wood quoins and a thin wood side-stick. and will not bend the types at one end or in the centre. moved from the cut edges. or that have columns of types set to different measures and at right angles. iron side-sticks.

and the chase. not to beat down a few types that are supposed to be over-high. it will be useless to try to put types on their feet by more planing down. I have humped upon the back of each body in this body opposed the nick of the types where places seen types in a preceding line that relieved this pressure. Lock up slowly. faults in justification or make-up should be searched for. if this makes the form insecure. When that will be readily recognized in the shock of a firm resistance. The hollow sound produced by the planer over any portion of the form is evidence that the type has sprung upward from over-tight locking up. and avoid a too free use of Use iron side-sticks and patent quoins. and the form that gives this sound and touch seldom needs any more planing down. solid. Locking up is done for newspaper-printing machines by means of a wrench applied to screws in The pressure so exerted is great. and not too tightly. A solid sound. . Make composition leads. Use strong and true chases.Locking up tested by the planer 317 types squarely on their feet. gradually. Prefer metal furniture for all interior work. is always produced when types are on their feet. may make the form has been finally locked up. When this hollow sound is heard. the planer may be gently used. but to ascertain whether the types rest truly on their feet and do not bow or curve upward. the types half a point higher. for the bowing upward will reappear in another : The only remedy is to slacken the quoins quarter.

Pages intended to be electrotyped are usually imposed in small chases of cast-iron. type-high on one side and of variable typers. A page of type and a full-page illustration should not be moulded together when they can be moulded separately. Patent quoins of iron. guards are provided by electroThese guards are rudely cast slugs of type-metal. truly squared. for The large 4to or 8vo. sometimes work slack or loose by the constant jarring of the printing-machine. ful A care- pressman tests their tightness repeatedly. It is possible to mould type without any bearer or . Small types and half-tone photoengravings need more pressure than large types. the gradual shrinking may of the wood may cause the form to fall in pi. If this precaution is neglected. is most each page requires different pressure. or large illustration. the form of guard is changed so that the plates made therefrom can be separated with ease. but large enough to hold four or more pages of ordinary 12mo. any page that contains a satisfactorily moulded in the chase of one page only. firm as they may seem in their hold on type when the form is laid on the press-bed.318 Safeguards for electrotype forms Forms that of type surrounded by furniture of wood be kept in the chase for many days will require a frequent retightening of the quoins. chase. cut to suit the size of page reWhen two pages are imposed in one quired. To prevent the spreading of the wax over the sides and ends of pages. width and length.

and to assist in forming the needed bevel that is afterward planed on the side spread of the finished plate. The guards of metal furniture provided by the electrotyper to surround every page are intended feet to confine the moulding wax so that it will not outward. but the plate so electrotypers will 319 made When proper guards have not been stoneman. The best electrotype plates are made from types set up with high spaces and quadrats that are of even height with the shoulders of the types. the electrotyper be imperfect. as shown on pages 73 . attached by the tries to lessen this de- _. further safe- A guard is provided against imperfect moulding by inserting in every open space on the page type-high bearers or resists to pressure. and that prevent too much of a downward escape of the moulding wax. but they never do the perfect work of guards or bearers.Guards used by guard. with hasty indentations in the wax. Guards for electrotype work.

TAKING PROOFS Pages to be electrotyped should be proved on a hand-press one with a bed-plate of 13 X 16 inches will be strong enough for two pages of large 8vo. Beginning at the nearest corner. bearers will lighten the in off the plate when they have served formed with electrotyper The page so work of the producing a and materially aid him printable plate. . Proofs on press. : A dampened on a clean stone by sponging it evenly on one side. is carefully laid upon the previously inked form of type. From that page he moves the planer to other pages. taking care not to the planer or to wrinkle the sheet. planer after this manner press. The taking ofpounded proofs These bearers are routed this purpose. too large for the small proofhave to be proved by beating with the proofsheet of sized paper. are by readers to those taken by the proof- Letterpress forms. or to beat . that do not damage the type. Then the stoneman takes the proof-planer in his left hand and lays it down squarely but quickly upon the inked form. renewing the striking until he sees the print of the types faintly indenting the moist sheet. with the end of the handle (not with mallet head) he strikes a quick blow usually in the centre of the planer.320 and 74. In like manner he beats slip all the pages. preferred planer.

The reader or foreman who first examines the of paper. so proved. The dirt of half-dissolved ink. Beaten proofs are wearing to the type. The type is not clean even if the face shows fairly white. It is fairly cleansed a mistake to think that proved types have been when ink has been wiped off their faces with benzine. 321 too violently on blank pages or exposed lines to Proofs of large forms are sometimes taken by beating the sheet with a stiff brush. This duty of the stoneman is often half done. and afterward sops out with a wet sponge the undissolved residuum that if clings to the shoulders and counters of the type. With the folded proof should also go to the reader's desk all the copy for that sheet laid in regular order. should be carefully folded by the print. The surplus The sheet if any. then cleans the type with a brush moistened with benzine. The blanket on a proof-planer needs frequent renewal. and the gummy matter always left after 21 . This he cannot do it for correctness the bolts have been opened. so as to show uniform margins on each page. but the brush wears more and does not give so fair a print. The stoneman. at the ends should be torn off with a straight-edge. for it becomes hard and inelastic after continued usage. but the bolts that close the paper at head and fore edge should not be opened.Proper cleansing of types their injury. proof unfolds the sheet and tests of margins. when dry enough to handle. or the boy that helps him.

322 Types often need alkaline water benzine has been swept from the face. Al- moistened with oil. and the pressman for his muddy and overinked presswork. Instrucammonia were the only cleansers tions like these have indirectly allowed. The photo . s will fill up. is an excellent cleanser of choked-up photowill engravings. His purpose was served when the ink was rubbed off the face. l 1 clean type and wash forms began with the more extended use of engravings on Neglect to wood. Benzine is a useful Caustic detergent. fearful of the fragility of his lines. and the shallower The eleca. gradually up the counters of all the letters. advised that the surdifficult plus ink left upon an illustration be wiped off with soft flannel the durability of types for an immediate benefit to the cuts. This treatment made taught compositors to sacrifice the proper cleaning of the type near the engravings. e. Type that has been treated so repeatedly will show raggedness fill and counters of letters like dirtiness about all its lines. shaved or in powder. cleanser can be a perfect substitute for alkaline water. potash. but not removed from the form. when the fault has been created by the stoneman's neglect to keep the types perfectly clean. No . The form of type intended for the foundry or for press should be drenched with water. Engravers forbade the use of water that swelled and of lye that softened the wood.engraver of halftones. Type often is condemned as worn out when it is only filled up with accretions of hardened dirt. slowly dissolved in alcohol. but it does not supplant lye. He could not foresee that the residuum left would in time damage cohol and a weak solution of type as well as cuts. trotyper will be censured for faulty plates. Types so neglected that have received a bath of boiling lye (which softens the dirt so that it can be brushed out) and a thorough rinsing with water be restored to usefulness.

yet all correcting- tools will be destructive unless they are carefully The correction of turned letters or substitutes of one letter for another of the same thickness can easily be made. but when the marked letter is of a 1 The bodkin and the tweezers most frequently used are too f rail they often slip and bruise . The tools preferred for correction are the bodkin and the tweezers. is required. with his name marked in the margin at the begin- ning of each take. and he is required to correct it immediately. sharp. 1 Some compositors use the point of a penknife and the nib of a steel composing-rule. Little ink. the straight. put at opposite sides of the body. tacky. and evenly dampened. to the compositor. thin -nosed pliers preferred by jewellers are better tools. a proof that is a trifle pale in color is always helpful to the reader in his search for bruised type. Proof is returned. Proofs taken on dry paper are not so satisfactory to the The roller should be kept clean and proof-reader. but much rolling. but they are mean substitutes handled. well-sized. when read. will enable the corrector to lift one type or an entire word in a vertical line.Correction on the stone 323 The paper selected for the proof should be thin. Two bodkins with . Types need not be seri- ously damaged in correction at when they are pulled up squarely and are not pried out an angle. for it is a general rule that corrections take precedence over all other work. An overinked or strongly indented proof prevents the finding of bad letters. When a letter has to be withdrawn from the form. curved points. smooth. adjacent letters. . and evenly coated with a film of good ink that has been protected from dust.

and sometimes the re-making up and always the re-reading of the form. who does not read the matter in his must not only make his work corbut he must pay for the added cost of the recorrections have been made.324 to be When a reader can be helpful when one or more letters are added or withdrawn. for they require the overrunning of the paragraph in which they occur. the line in which these changes are needed should be taken out and put in the stick for correction. but the penalty he has to suffer is severe. and should notify the compositor whose work follows to go on with his share of the work. but the work may be lightened by carrying corrections to the stone in a paper tray which contains an assortment of justifying spaces. stick before he puts it on the galley. but this liberty can never be taken in a faithful reprint or in any text of importance. Justifying on the galley or on the stone should never be attempted. Correction on the stone is always an unpleasant duty. When new proof 1 On hurried newspaper work the slow correction of an out or a doublet may be evaded. shooting-stick. and mallet different thickness. a to 1 make-up and re-reading. if the reader can supply words enough make the lines come out even. In many offices it is a rule that he rect. or should never be laid upon the face of the form. These errors are usually caused by the carelessness of the compositor. Each compositor should remove rejected type as soon as he has finished correction. The composing-stick. Outs and doublets are difficult of correction. .

This proof. . or if corrections have been made in wrong places. and signs faults in margin. which is intended to be and should be literally correct to copy.Preparing forms for press taken. Preparatory work that can be done on the stone should be done there before the form is ordered to To allow the pressman. known as the first author's proof. after it has been annotated with queries made by the proof-reader. whose time is more press. compares the first proof with its revise. is not far-seeing management. They are not needed for trimmed paper. it has taken and with his initials. valuable than that of the stoneman. is 325 The reader If marked errors have not been corrected. or spacing has been made uneven. these errors are marked on the revise and sent back to the compositor in fault. The author's proof is corrected by a careful time-hand. or lines have been transposed. or to insert the points that may be needed for register. The author's proof often comes back marked with from copy. which is called the first revise. As these alterations are not caused by the negligence of the compositor and alterations have not been provided for in the price agreed upon for composition. to correct gross who marks on the proof the time it the date. Points for type forms should be inserted on the stone. After they have been corrected a new proof is taken. is sent to the author with the copy. to alter the position of pages. the expense of making the changes becomes an additional charge to the author.

1 The common form of point is a short. round iron wire. disturbance. Forms to be printed on a cylinder-press should have the type at a fixed distance from the edge of 1 When crookedly cut paper guide. . but they are needed for hand-made papers of rough edges and of irregular size. and on the second side to cannot be retrimmed. fair register may be had if the paper can be fed on its first side to the left the right guide. as Properly used. and may be needed for machinemade papers that have been unevenly trimmed. the points insure Points should be placed in the form may be directed by the pressman about fifteen inches apart. pointed on one end and a little more than type-high. The perforations made by them serve as guides to the feeder for the placing of each sheet upon the spring points attached to the feed-board. which is usually inserted in holes drilled in the centre of the cross-bar of the chase. so that the same edge will always be presented to the guide. exact register. the points are withdrawn.326 Points often needed for register as an expert feeder can make register by carefully laying the sheet up to the side-guides. When the first side of the paper has been printed. For paper intended for a foldingmachine. and points must be made immovable by accidental Exact register may be impossible if the marginal furniture is rearranged and the points are moved while on the bed of the press. exact position is of utmost importance. Another kind of point has a screw base that allows it to be inserted anywhere in the wood furniture of the form.

and foot-lines and other blanks that may be needed for future use on the same work. but its furniture and quoins are carefully An away removed and kept together in good order. The half -inch allowance is needed for the grippers that seize the sheet. . The stoneman should have a gauge made by the pressman that accurately defines the distance. The its large form is usually laid upon the letter-board. according to the set of the cylinder. The electrotyped form is unlocked on the stone. The paper provided for a form should have at least half an inch of margin on all sides of the It is practicable to print type on the extreme type.Breaking up dead matter 327 the chase-frame. The form that has been electrotyped or printed and is ordered for distribution comes back to the stoneman or his helper to be broken up. The distance will vary from two to three inches. so that they can be used again for other forms of the same size. CLEARING AWAY important duty of the stoneman is the clearing of all dead matter. To allow the type to come within this distance is to expose it to the risk of being crushed by the iron grippers. as well as for the bands that keep the paper close to the cylinder. Its type is put upon the standing galley reserved for distribution after it has been relieved of head. on the gripper-edge of the chase. end of one side only of the sheet the side opposed to the grippers.

A better method would be to put all tied-up or standing jobs on the top of the table of a low caserack. the matter saved should be re-made up in paper packages. which under the frames of stones or stands. rats. where they can be seen the placing of dead type in dark corners or on an obscured letter-board : delays new composition and promotes disorder. lines of quad- display letter. and unusual sorts of every kind in masses should be laid aside for immediate distribution by time-hands. and everything but the ordinary text type. intended to hold dead type after the chase has been removed. After the have been culled. without danger The paper wrapper should be plainly of breaking. This work begins by taking out lines of quadrats and capitals. capital letters. Forms of small pages not intended for immediate distribution should be tied up as soon as they are put upon the letter-board.328 Papering of dead matter is is a movable board of wood. For posters containing much wood type and forms of patent blocks the letter-board is useful. but for forms of small type the it is a mischievous device. Leads. uniform as to either length or width. marked in ink with the proper name of the face rejects . so that they can be neatly piled one over another in the type-closet. It is made to slide upon cleats The letter-board. >ead matter that will not be distributed soon should be prepared at once for papering and storage in the type-closet. for it gives no proper protection to composed type and invites making of pi.

with special sorts from the storage case should return them to that case. figures. Materials for regular use should always be made accessible.Useful sorts not to be papered 329 and the body of the type. that these sorts should be returned at once to case. distributed the time-hands. quadrats.. is no longer enforced. and body of the type. and any sort in limited supply. and not be too punctilious in refusing the distribution of a moderate amount It is to the interest of all persons of unusual sorts. accents. as is usual. and to distribute large masses of strange types that were not immediately needed. . that the piece-compositor will distribute type taken from the closet. A printed label should be affixed on each compartment with exactness the name. how- ever. for it is but just that the compositor who has been provided. each compartment firmly braced and fitted to sustain heavy weight. A package so made up and labelled need not be opened for a reexamination. It is expected. not omitting the number of nicks. for them should never be papered when there is room in the open cases. display letter. Display letter. It is now the custom by to have dead matter that is overetc. face. The old rule that required piece-compositors to clear away all the matter in the dead form. full of italic. small caps. The type -closet should have separate compartments of stout wood for each face and body of type that may be kept on storage or out of case. in proper place. specifying and the number of nicks.

where the forms must be examined with inconvenience and possible injury. the chase-rack could be advantageously placed against a dead wall. from publisher to bookbinder. and is not content to work by rote and rule only. to the floor and to the bottom of the imposing-table parallel rows of stout oak cleats about two inches broad. if that dead wall receives a fair light. put . tiers. In some book -printing houses the different duties of the maker-up and the stoneman are made interchangeable so that they may be done by one perIn all houses the stoneman should be a comson. for he can help or hinder them in many ways. For all chases of irregular size illustration on page 290. If space will allow. the same a chase-rack can be it is necessary to attach the upper cleat to a frame that has diagonal divisions and inclined shelves or Small chases can be arranged in two supports. He should work in concord with every contributor to the book. It is a mistake to it in any dark place. who knows how to adapt means to ends. It is often placed under the imposing-stone.330 Places for chases and chase-racks The chase-rack is reserved for forms of type that await reading or distribution. The chase nested to stand upright without other support will slide and be secure in the grooves made by the cleats. positor of experience and intelligence. as may be seen in the For electrotype chases of made by screwing size.

. . . phlets . He may learn to impose by imitating the practice of an expert or by copying schemes from some printers' grammar. . . . Large sizes and strange shapes of paper. . Folding-machines Concluding remarks ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES IMPOSITION novice. . 331 . . New method of collating . . . . .eight pages Inset forms The leaflet Small pamOblong pages . . .IX IMPOSITION Schemes for various forms from Elementary principles two to one hundred and twenty . . . He a puzzle to the does not see why is pages apparently laid out of order on the stone fall in order on the printed and folded sheet. but knowledge so acquired has limited application. .

and new forms of folding. but when paper is thick and the page The is small it will be noticed. angle that and that they are thrust outward at an makes the type. 16. but the margins of the interior 16 pages must be narrower. The sheet so treated when unfolded will show the relative position of mated pages. Making up the form in two sections of 16 1 The central double leaf (pages 15-18) is unavoidably thrust outward by the thickness of its pre- ceding seven leaves. Whoever tries to fold correctly by one operation 32 pages of paper in one section will find that the paper buckles at the head fold of inner leaves.work 8 pages are enough for thick paper.work seem crooked. and 16 pages for paper of ordinary : thickness. The first lesson to be learned is that too many pages cannot be properly folded together in one section for correct book. 1 rower than that of the outer leaf.332 Number of leaves to the section combinations of two or more sections for printing on one sheet. It is better to begin with the study of customary methods of folding. . On a large page this difference in margin maybe unnoticeable. the front margin on this inner leaf must be nar- pages will prevent the crookedness. Begin with folding blank paper for three different sections of 8. When stitched and trimmed. rotary printing-machines. and 32 pages (without cutting open the folds or bolts). inner leaves of the section must be crooked. but it is thrust outward at tail more than the thickness of the is preceding leaves.machines compel the occasional devising of new schemes. This leaf held tight at the head by unstretchable paper where it has been creased for the head fold. and this will give insight into the rudiments of imposition. and by pencilling upon the leaves so produced the numbers of pages in proper order. narrower at the top than at the bottom.

to stop buckling on the inner fold. 64. the section consists of two un- equal parts. sewed. and each part is separately folded. folded.work can fold the outset that in book-work an imposition of many foldpages in one form is not for one consecutive more or of two it is a combination portions to . 48. Even in the ordinary sewed section of 16 pages. It should be The secutively folded together by one operation. but each portion receives understood at separate treatment. The double leaf that permits the binding-thread to pass through the fold of each section in the creased centre of the back i Sometimes.work a section of 32 pages may be made by insetting one subsection of 16 pages within another section of 16 pages. each and is subdivided. When the different sections of a book have been is gathered. The library book must be sewed with thread. . This prevents wrinkling. one of 8 and one of 4 pages. each section resolved into a combination of double leaves to other sections nested one within another and held together and by thread. In cheap pamphlet.Sections always of double leaves 333 Sheets of 24. 96. and often are. but these thick sections are not tolerated in book-work. and sections must not be too thick in the back. either by hand or by machine. but it does not entirely prevent an appearance of slight crookedness in the margins of the inner leaves. 32. printed the sewed book they are never imposed to be con- can folding-machines a form of two or more portions simultaneously and inset one within another. so that the smaller can be inserted in the larger part. and trimmed. ing be separately folded and afterward united. but for be. it is often necessary to slit the paper on the cross-fold at head before the last fold is made. as in the 12mo. printed sheet of many pages 1 The newer styles of section is separately folded. and even of 128 pages in one form. made for pamphlet.

It may be assumed that in all schemes of book imposition (the halfsheet of 18mo double leaves. : . but it has serious defects it reduces the width of the back margin. but pasting or tipping on is always regarded as a misfortune to be avoided. and the number of pages in approved schemes of 1 imposition are always multiples of four. It is never used for library books. A closer study of the different schemes yet to be presented will show that these pages and other pages have relations to one another that cannot be disturbed by any variation in the scheme of imposition. The double leaves in each section show that they bear relation one to another. first two and the i The single leaf of two pages that may appear in the pamphlet of a half -sheet 18mo is pasted down on an adjacent leaf. pages 1-2 stitute the outer double last leaf.stitching with wire or thread through the back margins of all the sections. not side-stitched margin is the most approved method of giving proper security to the binding. and a narrow lap is creased on its extra width. so that it can be great haste. To prevent the neatly fastened by the sewingthread through the centre of the Single leaves of two pages lap. In the ordinary 8vo. and pages 15-16 conSchemes for laying but the relative position of the two pages of a section is unalterable in any scheme. excepted) each section must contain The leaves are always in doubles. can be securely fastened to other sections by side . pages differ greatly. it is often printed separately on a wider paper. and prevents leaves from opening flat.334 Books are sewed. pages 1-2 and pages 7-8 constitute the outer double leaf j in the 16mo. This single leaf also has to be accepted for inserted maps or prints made by different processes of printing. Sidestitching is a method of binding at present unavoidable in magazines of large edition or in pamphlets that have to be made in bad workmanship produced by pasting down the single leaf of a map or print.

Printed sheets of these forms have one fifth of the paper cut off from one end of the sheet. as in 48 and 72. 16. The consecutive folding of a sheet. usually imposed to be folded together as one section. in these four classes Forms of 8.Folds of paper control imposition All schemes 1 335 : may be grouped 4. the sheet of 32 pages is often cut to make two sections. 32. 36. The 18mo of one signature. 96. contains a single leaf that must be tipped on the section. Preference is always given to the 16mo section wherever its use is practicable.work. In forms of this class one third of the paper is cut off and folded separately as an inset to be nested In the form of 12mo the in the two-third portion. 4 Forms of 20 and 40 pages. and 72 pages. 2 Forms of 12 or 24 pages. Sheets printed on forms of this class are usually cut in unequal sections taken respectively from the broad and the narrow end of the paper. but forms of duplicate twelves. never used in careful book. first through its narrower diameter and next at right angles with its previous fold. and their multiples. as is done in 8vo and 16mo : . cut-off is on the narrow side in the 24mo on the j wide side of the sheet. are seldom imposed for offcuts and insets it is customary to impose them as sections of 16mo. and are separately folded by hand. 3 Forms of 18. 64. The sheet of 16 pages is and 128 pages. and that of 64 for four sections. and this one-fifth subsection of the sheet is separately folded for an inset.

336 forms. Schemes of imposition are also known as sheets The pages of the sheet are always imposed as two forms in two chases. Forms of the third and fourth classes are rarely used. for they have been used too long. It is im- by specifying the number of pages to the form and the number of sections to the sheet. and this method of doing presswork is known as sheetwise. The side that contains the first and last pages of the section is the outer form or half -sheets. is The pages of the imposed in one chase. but they have to be used when paper permitting the 16mo folds is not to be had. and each form is separately printed. but are needed for pages or paper of unusual shape. Sheet and half-sheet misleading words is the simplest method and produces the best work. practicable to ignore them. half-sheet imposition are always The paper selected for it is consequently twice the bigness of the sheet printed from two forms. Forms of the second class are more troublesome. 1 . and when a press to take on 16 pages is not available. It is called half-sheet because this larger sheet must be cut in halves before either half can be folded. The printed sheet made perfect by two forms known as a sheet. the side partly concealed by the folding-bolts is the inner form. Sheetwise printing was unavoidable when sheets were of small size and presswork was done on small but I shall try to prevent any misunderstanding in description l Sheet and" half-sheet are misleading words: they should be sheet and double sheet. . and its printing on the two sides of the paper from the same pages necessarily makes two copies to the sheet.

down on the stone As printing reverses position form in print. Each method has advantages and disadvantages.Some rules controlling imposition 337 hand-presses. 1 Inner form. but it also allows Half-sheet presswork on short editions may not allow ink to dry thoroughly. and to make sure of full count before more trouble in making register. The first page is usually laid at the left corner. to front 1 odd pages are imposed to read from back even pages from front to back. but it gives to the pressman at the outset more con. however large that form may be. has made the half-sheet method more common. . This scheme exemplifies rules that control imposition in every form. the left-hand page of type in the will be the right-hand page of print. Four pages in two forms and two chases. . 22 he lifts the form from press. and gives maintain more even color. Sheetwise presswork allows the printed ink of the first form to dry before the sheet is backed up on the other form. but the cylinder machine. trol of register it enables him to wet paper to shrink. that prints 16 and 32 large octavo pages at one impression. 1 FORMS OF FOUR AND EIGHT PAGES The four pages of the folio newspaper put in two chases and are laid down in are usually this order 2 : 1- 4 3 Outer form. to The and All last is page of every section its first is always nearest the mate of page.

. To must be put print four pages by one impression.. the result of this addition is one more than the total number * of the pages in that section. After e P aP er nas been printed on one . one more than the total separation of a section of several number of pages in the section. and vice versa. pages Take an ordinary quarter The relative position of the quire of six double leaves and mated pages cannot be changed page them consecutively as if in any scheme of imposition. An understanding of the double leaves and add together the paging figures of the mated pages : this rule will often prevent the 10-15 223 520 B 17 1114 322 619 916 1213 novice from laying down a page in a wrong position. because it produces. 1 !! i:=r printed on both sides.338 Relations ofpages one to another When (those side the page figures in every two mated pages by side and nearest to each other) are added. the pages in one chase to be printed on paper of double size.. If in the half-sheet of 24mo he has laid down 15 or 17 by the side of 9.. when the sheet has been riri. .. he wiU know by mental calculation that the page is wrongly placed.. Then separate be mates.. the upside . or duplicates of the four pages in the shape of two half-sheets. The sheet so imposed is known as a half-sheet of 4to. down and pressman turns the sheet " end for end.. they were the cut leaves of a they are mates and always must sheet of 24mo. may be : The operation of this rule The result of each addition will seen more clearly in the be 25." '""" which operation puts the edge A in 2 in one chafe!* the position before occupied by edge This makes him B.^:. . print page 1 1 upon the back of page 2. eight pages of print.m ^ side.

When printed on the second side. To impose with propriety any form that has to be made perfect upon pages in the same chase. it is sometimes of advantage to put solid pages at the ends of the form. This half-sheet of quarto can also be printed in one form from a long and narrow strip of paper by imposing the pages in this manner : 1- _4. long way. . but it collect at the rollers. the sheet is cut in two. 1 4 Four pages in one chase. 1 imposed from the centre. The turn on the short cross is will 1 Scheme 4 is not so generally acceptable as Scheme 3. 339 Paper so 7 and page 4 upon the back of page treated is said to be "turned on the short cross/ or the short cross-bar of the chase. ends of the inking and as excess of ink on may be used with advantage when the inner pages 1 and 2 are open and the outer pages 3 and 4 are solid. and each half-sheet is the duplicate of the other half. As ink tends to open pages is a trouble to the pressman.3- -2 3 Four pages in one chase.Turning on the short cross 3. it should be known at the outset whether the sheet be perfected by turning it on the short cross or the long cross.

2 Scheme 5. and these sections are not always printed on separate sheets. for it allows the pressman to 1 keep the same edge of the sheet to the feed-guides. is unwillingly accepted by the pressman. the thickness of the paper should be known. If too many . and the third in the second. 2 but their folding. Books or pamphlets to be distributed gratuitously. trade catalogues.340 Thick sections a fault always preferred. sewing. as a rule. library feeding-edge may compel him to register by points. and the inner leaves will protrude unequally and have margins askew. pages are put in a sec- tion. and the book will be made bunchy at the back by excess of thread. and that must be made at the smallest cost. . 64. Even in the thick pamphlets of 48 pages intended to be centrestitched in one section. A . Before any scheme of imposition is determined for a large form. like almanacs. shows that this form of 64 pages. making three sections of 16. on the next page. a much slower process. Sections of 32 and 48 pages are not uncommon. are often made up in thick sections to save expense in sewing. when backed on itself. section of 16 pages may be a part of a form of 48. the pages are. Thick sections are never to be seen in the books made for the ond side. sometimes unavoidable. there will be too many sections in the bool?. A new by reputable publishers. Although sections of 16 pages are more used than any other. of the innermost fold showing the sewing-thread. The turning of the on the long cross. the cost of sewing will be largely increased. or 96 pages. Each section is separately folded the second is nested in the first. has to be cut in eight sections to 1 make four sheet duplicates of 16 pages. for it compels him to present another edge of the paper to the feedguides when he prints the sec- trimming are never so neat as those of sections of 8 and 16. and advertisements of patent medicines. laid so that the sheet will be cut in thirds. the sheet will buckle or wrinkle at the head all leaves will open stiffly. If there are too few pages to a section.

ei tt 11 te 39 At 42 43 10 81 18 08 27 61 OS 55 89 23 26 22 58 59 85 j^ IS 9S 49 LQ 8S 61 29 20 64 52 8 1 6 16 31 13 ot 33 It tt 45 Z-8 48 36 1 3 5 Sixty-four pages in one chase : four sections of 16 pages. 341 .

A sheet of the paper to be printed should also be furnished to the stoneman. The furniture should be selected before the pages are laid. The even page will back an odd page j when the odd page sheet has been turned. and the following will face the even page when another regular fold has been made. actness in measurement by this sheet is of great importance. This diagram sheet should be prepared in the office or by the foreman before the pages are made up. This repeated crossfolding of the sheet brings the innermost pages within the interior of the section. so that the backing of the sheet bring page 2 on the back of page 1 and the folding of the sheet at a right angle will bring . and 304 of this book. however peculiar the scheme or however large the " number of pages in the form. That done. the pages must occupy the same relative position one to another. so that the last four leaves will be mates of the first four leaves. whether in the " usual way n or from the centre. 3 opposite 2 and the last cross-fold will bring page 9 opposite 8. 1 not be accurately measured or specified on the diagram are the thin pieces nearest to the crossbars. . all intermediate pages are in order. In every imposition." long fold or cross fold. The proper ad- 1 It is to be supposed that a diagram has been previously given to the maker-up to define the shape of the page and to specify the width of the margins about the pages. page 2 put in an opposite corner or in a contrary direc- tion will first from page 1. The headbolts and thin cross-bar pieces can be put in their places af terward. which will be of varying width to suit the variable thick ness of the cross-bars. To require the stoneman or the maker-up to cut furniture and determine margins will be found wasteful of time and productive of error.342 Furniture for marginal space is In ordinary forms of half -sheet presswork. The only pieces that can- justmentof margins by this sheet has been illustrated on pages 299. Ex303.

the furniture selected should be put next to the pages. the first leaf of the bolted half is thereby made page 1. six. These chases should have in The odd page put down an ordinary scheme of imposition of 16mo as 3. and that all will yield gently to the pressure of lock- ing up.Chases to be carefully selected 343 In the ordinary imposition of 16mo. When pages have been so placed and the sheet is folded in this way page 1 can be reversed way. 7. so that no piece will interfere with another. or 9 can if be used to place the first page. 5. Page 1 in the outer corner of the sheet is most acceptable to folders by hand. page 1 appears in print upon the first leaf of the first half of the sheet that has opened leaves on the front. But the pages can be imposed to be folded in another : placed on the leaf taken by page 9 in the usual scheme of imposition. following pages are put in correspondingly reversed positions. or eight 1 12mo pages. It should be clearly understood that a changing of the position of page 1 to the place usually occupied by some other odd page will compel corresponding changes of position in every other page. The selection of the chase is next in order. (See Scheme 18. Pages to be electrotyped are usually imposed in chases of cast-iron that hold two or four 8vo or three.) This method of reversing is called imposing from the centre. and page 9 upon the first leaf of the other half of the sheet that is closed by the bolts of folded leaves. 1 When the pages have been truly laid on the stone. It is to be supposed that the length and width of each piece have been previously determined. . but the makers of a few of the newer folding- machines have to put page 1 in some other position to enable them to make use of proper mechanical motions in the machine.

is When not to be trusted for any large book the form is locked up. . the wrought-iron chase. is needed now more than ever. If the dovetails do snugly. putting line and making register difficult. with slotted and dovetailed cross-bars. to enable the iron fairly to resist the great pressure put on the form by the moulding-press. these faults should fit not l Trustworthy apparatus. For out of pages all forms containing many pages. made up for letterpress. but is a hindrance to the pressman and binder. The old cast-iron chase for plaster stereotype.344 Cross-bars need testing iqith square frames about one and a half inches wide and three quarters of an inch high. out-of-squareness in a page or a form often passed un- deviation from squareness repeated on the pages of a large form is not only offensive to the reader. is liable is to crack under this pressure. The chase selected should be tested by a square on the interior angles made by cross-bars. should be selected to prevent the outward bending of the chase frame and to provide duced with right-angled sides as resists to the pressure proside-sticks and quoins. but cast-iron form. with frame one inch wide and two thirds of an inch high. 1 The form of four or eight small pages. If the chase not square. When presswork was done from small forms upon small handfirst A slight noticed. the plate will not be square. presses. that still survives in some houses. or if the slots at the intersection of the bars are loose and wabbly. the frame will bend outward in the middle on each side. may be imposed in a cast-iron chase. Authors and publishers of to-day are much more critical. the condition of good printing. and even for forms of few pages that call for exact register.

many many of the same size. for this change damages two chases. The methods that are customary in the imposition of large forms are sometimes unwisely neglected in small forms. . should be imposed in one form as four pages of 4to.Stamped numbers on cross-bars be corrected at once. l Chases with shifting crossbars seldom receive proper care. third pages. Under this the time spent by the numbered. where they are bent by the superincumbent weight of other chases and bars piled against them. When many are provided. The bars are sometimes used as system there need not be sizes. chases of one size and each chase is altered. The chases and their detached bars are usually stood up against a dead wall. nearest to its pokers or levers.with furniture and by the pressman in adjusting margins will ed than the cast-iron chase. They are often allowed to get bruised and rusty. slots and dovetails may be reflled and corresponding slot in the chase. As cross-bars are not made interchangeable. circular of A two pages. Chases should be bought with be sensibly diminished. Bars made for one chase are sometimes violently forced into another. clumsily rough treatment the chase may stoneman in fitting new forms be twisted and made more crook. Two pages of blanks should be i made up to repreand be imposed 6 sent pages 2 and as if 4. 1 345 They cannot be corrected properly after the form has been locked up. The blank pages are really needed as guides to correct position. To impose the third page by guessing at the blank required for head and A circular of p^nf onTrs^' and back margins is never a safe process. they were pages of type. Under no circumstances should the cross-bar made for one chase be forced into another chase. each bar should have its own number stamped on and on the frame its dovetail. to be printed on the first and third pages of the sheet by one impression. but there should be .

with dates and figures following one another in proper order. 1 20 Second 3 sheet. An inset folio of 20 pages in ten forms. Fifth sheet. Signatures at the tail of each sheet are seldom made. 5 16 Fourth 7 sheet. . paged in writing. should be made on leaves of blank paper. and larger paper may not be weight. a dummy of each section folio. L\ 7 9 QT 01 Inner forms. properly fold. The sheet of small size is selected because editions are small. Sheets so treated are usually made up in sections of fives. had of proper size. and are sewed in the usual way through the longer The heads of pages must be kept in parallel but the arrangement of pages in other features does not differ from that laid down for the legal To prevent error.346 Small sheets with insets INSET FOLIOS OF USUAL FORM Account-books and diaries are sometimes printed on single sheets of flat cap (14 X 17 inches). and proof-reader. 18 Third sheet. line. so that the dummy will serve as a guide to stoneman. but they may be helpful to an inexpert. For the first section the order will be : First sheet. and quality. 14 9 12 Outer forms. pressman.

16 X 26 inches. - . Its leaves are fastened at the heads of odd pages the heads of odd pages are backed upon the tails of even pages . The number of than at the right of the page. and legal folio 347 legal folio is preferred is by lawyers for docu- usually printed in four-page forms the long way on the size of paper known imposed as double legal-cap. This cut should be made with precision. even when there may be six or more sheets for the document. stitched. customary in the ordinary imposition.The The ments. the furniture selected for the * gutters must be about twice as wide . its print is read by turning the leaves the long way on the short fold it has a wider margin at the left . copies ordered is usually too small to warrant the imposition of more than four pages to the form. whether that section contains few or many pages. Each sheet turns on the than is ""' '"'"^ 8 Legal folio long cross. It reverses the usual methods of book-work. for the margins will not permit retrimming. To produce the wider margin required at the left of each page. the head-bolt should be much wider is g"" 1 j . or eyeleted together in one section only. . It is always imposed to be sewed. As the sheet creased or folded at the head. as that given to the ordinary sidesewed book. the duplicates so made of 4 P a g es being separated by cutting through the longer fold. The pressman can keep equal outer margins.

... imposed for insets.. its ..348 First sheet. Third sheet. . but the relative position of the pages to their mates and to one another must be the same as in . broad way of the print on second. L. |...n. Fourth sheet. known as of oblong shape. 10 Eight pages in one form. the narrow way. requires a different imposition of the pages and ad- justment of margins. ..... treated.. ........ Eight oblong pages Second sheet.J the ordinary method of impoThis sheet has to be sition... MUSIC OR OBLONG WAY Some books of music and of maps or illustrations are planned for a short and broad page that must be sewed on the narrower side The section so of the leaf..:.... . folded for its Illllil iillllll! first fold the ..... oblong way.. 16 14 12 10 SI 81 tt Z 9 t 9 Legal folio of 16 pages. ... . ..

one half (no more. lected. for each side. It is frequently practised z - to utilize a large machine. The 11 pages in each quarter are precisely the same. the When se9 Scheme 12 has been - - white margin G 8 of paper on the outside of 7 _ 2 i _ pages 8 and 7 must be. The first and last four pages . " 12 Eight pages imposed from the centre. In Scheme 12 the right and left halves of Scheme Eight pages in the usual way. Two on" (Scheme 13) is a phrase often used to describe the filling of a form with two (and sometimes more) duplicates of the same type or plates. no less) of the blank between pages 1 and 2.Duplicates in the same form Eight pages imposed from the centre differ from eight pages in the only in the transposition of the two usual 349 1 e 8 9 7 - way _ - halves of the form. to lessen the number of impressions and to save needless expense. 11 are transposed.

to be inset so as to _ make 24 pages to one section. forms . Note total Outset of section. always 25 (2) that the twelve pages which constitute first the 8 5 half of the sec- - LI 8119 L 6 tion are at the ends of 20 each sheet and the other half in the centre.350 Three octavos in one section The triple scheme 14 ex- emplifies three half-sheets i ~IZ 24 \ ZZ~ 23 8 2 of octavo. be done 14 Eight-page forms in three .1 ordinary octavo (4) that first four pages of . (1) that the sum of of every is pair mated pages . but they are imposed in three forms. f a Diagram Out the aid chases. this order is well understood. many withmay. When Second inset. tively the same position as pages 5. . one section of 24 pages. imposing of inset sections in . 7. . 81 16 tl 15 IT the first inset occupy the 9 10 position of the first pages in the ordinary octavo. previously prepared. 6. (3) that the last pages of the outset occupy relaFirst inset. 8 in the the 7. . to be inset to make .

. although not often used. 2 wide. This scheme. may be needed for offcuts and long pages on a sheet of odd shape.Sixteen and thirty-two pages 351 Eight pages may the page after also be imposed the long way of Scheme 15. This is another scheme for eight pages. 1 _ _8 5- 4 3 6 7- -2 16 Eight pages for an offcut of paper. Jill! 15 I IlIIIllL Jill! Eight pages. SIXTEEN AND THIRTY-TWO PAGES 8~ 1 _ 6 Z\ Q 9 3 IT 01 15 L _ 16 13 4 14 -2 Outer form. Inner form. which also shows the unalterable position of mated pages. 4 high. which is sometimes used IBB. 17 Sixteen pages in two chases for one section. to utilize offcuts of paper.

) The outer and inner forms of the same sheet should have the pages laid down in the two chases at the same time and in consecutive order. in one chase. (See (page 2 in the upper left-hand corner). the arrangement usual form of sixteens. and for illustrated work in which the ink on the cuts printed on one side of the paper should be entirely dry before the second When an unusually large numside goes to press. liability to when there is a shrinkage its Another is greater unevenness of color or of impression when the two forms are done on different presses and by different pressmen. and all were would be that of the Scheme 19. Pages 4 and 5 will next be put in the outer form.352 Advantages of sheetwise presswork In Scheme 17 the outer and inner forms are laid down side by side but if the pages of the inner form were placed at the top of the outer form . This successive alternation of two consecutive pages in each chase will be continued until the last page mated with the first page of the outer form. pages 2 and 3 should next be put in the inner form. to be followed by pages 6 and 7 in the inner form. But it has to be used on rotary and perfecting presses that have been constructed to deliver the sheet perfect on both sides It is also used with advantage at one operation. ber of pages has to be put on a sheet (as in three . for very large pages. Beginning with page 1 of the outer form. One of the difficulties of sheetwise imposition that of is is making register of furniture in either form.

the form that can be printed perfect on itself as a half-sheet is printed with more ease than if the pages were 5113 - 6 16 imposed in two forms. but. page 1 will be the outQr page of the section. but the pages from 2 to 8 will be closed by bolts at head and side. as a rule. When the sheet has been perfected and cut in till z SI -10 z 7 8 18 Sixteen pages. 19 23 Sixteen pages as usually laid. two. .Sixteen pages sixteens to ~by two methods 353 a 48mo in two chases) the sheetwise method is of service. Another method of im- posing the 16mo from the centre can be followed by transposing in a body the pages entire on each side of the short cross-bar. Imposing from the centre reverses 51 13 - Q -4 the position of the bolts. imposed _ _io ii- - 6 from centre. Sixteen pages are also imposed from the centre.

20 Sixteen pages. or four - - 2 duplicates. The sheet when i G 8 9 7 - - make 8 perfected will 32 pages. . as two sections of 8 pages. but their relative position to each other is not changed. so that the is duplicates can be printed together on a large press. In this scheme the paper can be turned on the long cross or short cross. z 3 si 9 7 - -IT -10 In the usual way of im- posing sixteens the long bolts or closed leaves are those that come between pages 9 and 16.354 Sixteen pages with' an inset For a very long the section of 8 z edition pages - - L 6 8 - ~ I 3 5 - 4 often duplicated by electrotyping. 8 pages each. 21 Sixteen pages in two portions of 8 pages for inset. It should be also noted that in the two schemes 18 and 19 the mated pages of each quarter are alike j SI 1 8 - - 6 -16 5 - -12 their position together upon the sheet is different.

. The sheet of 16 pages can be . Each part can be to i ""- -"i"i vi 01 folded..... Or these 4 pages can be utilized to be added to the preface matter....... that a It may happen book of 16 -page sections closes with 12 ^ Sixteen pages in two pages only for the last sheet.... print a special form of 12 pages is both inconvenient and wasteful... one of 12 one of 4 P a Ses and form of 16..... It is customary to impose the 12 pages for a - To portions.. it is cus.. but not too thick to be single section.. This is another scheme to utilize large IA ^ | 8 - '"~ (22) to save 'extra press- '"_ 9 _ 4 work and presses. if a similar irregularity is there presented. This prevents separately and ~ T 7 _ the buckling of the paper between pages 8 and 9. and it saves the cost of extra sewing for another section. sewed as a tomary impose the full sheet of 16 pages in two/ parts. and to treat the excess of 4 pages as a part of the end papers in the book. Scheme 22 shows an imposition for one section of 12 pages and one of 4 pages.. one part can be inset in the other..Sixteen pages for two sections 355 too thick When the paper for a 16-page section is to be folded.

. repeat on the left side of the long cross the arrangement of 4 pages " " i A 23 sections : B" for the two sections here 4. two :. music way folded at the same time. and 33 36 3 afterward put them in their proper places in the front part of the book. and the binder can then L cut out the four pages v-viii with the folder. Sixteen pages in three one 8.i ghown on the right .356 Sixteen oblong pages. Scheme 23 when printed on both sides will be cut in six pieces. For a form of 16 pages in four sections of 4 pages 8 each. to make g 1 ?e ss three sets of duplicates.

a right angle. With paper of ordinary thickness it will cause wrinkling. Inner form. f 13 - 63 20 8321- - e LZ 22 os 19 12 91 1 LI oi 7 S3 81 SI - 32 - 26 31- - 2 Outer form. and margins will be askew. to fold as one section. 25 Thirty-two pages in two chases. This arrangement of pages when put in one chase is usually described as a half-sheet of 32 pages. Scheme 25 is entirely impracticable for a library book.Thirty-two pages in one section 357 Scheme 24 provides for duplicates of 16 pages The first and second folds of the section are each. Buckling of paper may be lessened sheet half-way on the second fold the by ripping with the bone folder between pages 12 and 13. the narrow way of the cut sheet the last fold is at . . and is of doubtful value for a cheap pamphlet on very thin paper.

26 pieces. Inner form. This arrangement should not be selected for a library book. rearrange the lay of pages so that the sheet . Thirty-two pages in two forms: two signatures of 16 pages. for the section so treated will be too thick. imposed for two separate foldings and one section. The sheet printed by Scheme 26 is cut in two making two distinct portions of 16 pages. The imposition of the pages in one chase for paper of double size is usually known as a half-sheet of 32 pages.358 Thirty-two pages with inset oi 15 18 zz 19 13 20 16 9 29 3 30 Outer form. For 32 pages in one form as two sections of 16 pages. The section containing pages 1-8 and 25-32 is folded as the outset. to be separately folded and inset to make one section. the section containing pages 9-24 constitutes the inset.

Sixty-four pages in four sections of 16 pages each are shown in Scheme 5. even if made with two or four insets.Thirty-two pages of four sections 359 can be turned on the short cross in backing up. keep1 ing each section distinct on its side of the long cross. Sixty- four pages in one section is another impracticable 2 imposition. on page 341. 05 17 IZ ! 8Z 25 63 32 : 08 31 LZ \ ZZ ! 61 18 24 ! I 26 23 "4" ? 1 - - s -8 .

360 Ninety-six pages in one chase = to = IT 71 i if ii ||| ||||||i = fi i Cq i o _ ^1 1" = = == = = = HIM! 01 iiiiifiiliito 01 n iiiiiir IIHII i fl i !i A! liif ?: . This form . is more practicable with plates than with Exact register will be facilitated if the four mated pages are cast together on one plate.:: I iw 28 iiiii- 1 ini aiir : iHiii air Ninety-six pages in one chase six sections of 16s. : r r:. type.

When there are illustrations that may require special treatment in making ready. the so 128-page scheme is more manageable. and especially when the outer form contains the illustrations and the inner form has plain type only. The scheme of 128 pages in one chase is possible for very small pages and thin sections only. the smaller form of 64 . outer and inner.One hundred and twenty -eight pages 361 OI 90t 113 801 TOl | OSI 113 ISl Sl All 116 811 116 SSI SSI 127 611 501 AOl 110 901 111 01 97 109 100 128 138 128 114 99 98 Si 8L 80 9A 69 68 88 68 86 88 98 16 06 18 6S 77 == = t 5* 66 64 61 62 61 62 63 46 47 34 6 SC 32 85 29 15 II 14 01 15 17 20 29 One hundred and twenty-eight pages in one chase : eight sections of 16 pages each. of 64 pages each. In two forms.

direction and the book of thick sections will be condemned as unworkmanlike and may be entirely unacceptable. Separate sections of 16 pages. as shown in Scheme 5. but they would prove of no service for a neat book. who tries to reduce the cost of manufacture by printing many pages in one form on a large sheet. will be more useful for small editions. .362 Advantages of thin sections pages in sections of 16 pages only. Forms of many pages are not economical for small editions. Even when the pages form are not too numerous. will be What may seem to be saved in one more than lost in another. Thick sections will not save time or ex- pense. For the large sheets printed on rotary or flat-bed perfecting presses. these schemes will not serve. for machines differ from one another in plan and construction. the unskilled compositor is specially warned against making too thick in a sections with intent to reduce the cost of folding and sewing. are preferred by binders. when paper is of ordinary thickness. Pages must be imposed by the schemes of the manufacturer of the machine. cannot be safely imitated in strict too book-work. The smaller the leaf the more the need of thinner sections. all printers and in- The schemes of this book could be creased by presenting others for sections of 24 or 32 pages. The methods occasionally adopted by the publisher of cheap advertising pamphlets. and by folding the sheet so printed in sections of 32 or more pages. that will be folded by the newer styles of folding-machines.

10. as marked in scheme. the place . at the tail of pages 4. unavoidable on rough paper.Twelve pages in one chase 363 TWELVE PAGES AND THEIR DUPLICATES 5 8 6 Scheme 30 is an 8vo with an added 4-page inset. made with rough edges. 7.. By this old method the running title and its folio figure were always placed This treatment. The black dots in Scheme 30 mark the usual place of points for hand-press the +. . 1 in 30 of ten called the off cut. jiiii MIMMII t i 6 12 i + i 01 ii - 8 2 The sheet is _ made perfect on the second side by turning it on the long cross-bar 1 " """"J of the chase. mm. If the paper is crooked or if it is handside. 9. 6 are and separately folded to be inserted as an inset between pages 4 and 9. of points for cylinder. within which octavo part this inset can be folded by the same operation... or can be cut D off for a separate folding and subsequent insertion.. often produced uneven head margins and a crooked inset. This fault can off 1 In presswork the first side of the sheet is laid up to guides the second against edges AB . 8. points To get correct register by feeding... 3. for its repointing on second side. should be inserted on the first side. one Pages 5. the sheet should be trimmed accurately square on all sides. against edges BD. because in old methods of imposition they were cut chase. Twelve pages Turns on long cross.

When these precautions have been taken. Twelve pages can be imposed from the centre by transposing in a body pages 4. 11. has greater liability to untidiness yet it is a form that must be used often. 3. On hand-made papers with rough edges. On smooth-edged paper the turning out of the heads for the offcut is a better practice. Offcut pages need no change. 12 with pages 10. 9. In a bindery where . At the tail of page 5 in Scheme 30 appears 1*. but points must be used. cut edge and give to its head margin one half of the blank provided in the head-bolts of the octavo part of the sheet. 1. The star indicates an inset 1* for the first and : 1** for the second inset of the complete section. by putting the heads of the so-called offcut pages against the edge of the sheet. The purpose of the repeated signature figure with its star attached is to identify the offcut and to show connection to the outset. Pressmen dislike the 12mo because its turn on the long cross causes delay and trouble publishers dislike it because it is expensive in folding and . 2. and by giving an increased amount of blank where the tail of the offcut part meets the tail of the octavo part of the The pressman should feed paper to the offsheet. and the points may be omitted.364 Insets and signatures of 12mo be prevented by the use of truly squared paper. the heads of the offcut must be j placed after the old method at the tail of other pages. the head margins of an inset offcut can be made as true as those of a folded 16mo.

as one section. Every . 31 Twenty-four pages in two chases.Twenty-four pages in two chases this inset will be cut off this 9 365 and may be misplaced. must have two successive folds on same parallel. 13 12 16 14 15 10 8~ 1 LI OZ 21 9 61 81 L 2 24 4 3 22 23 Outer form. which should be folded separately. contrary to the order of Scheme 19 (4 pages high. The offcut. but this part of the sheet can be folded in the same way at successive right angles. In Scheme 31 the 16-page portion of the form is imposed 8 pages wide and 2 pages high. Inner form. 4 pages wide). but this is not recommended. 11 mark of identification is of service. Thick sections produce outer margins of unequal width when the book has been trimmed. The arrangement of the pages in Scheme 31 will serve quite as well for the imposition of 24 pages in one chase.

the back margins of leaves inner must be narrowed with system. one section. The back margin of the outer double leaf needs no alteration. in the rule-bordered 32mo of small size. The third double leaf. in all cases depending on the thickness of the paper. This readjustment is exceedingly troublesome. To prevent this fault. planned for margins of one-third or one-quarter inch. a difference in width of two or is unnoticeable and may be disregarded . the stoneman being notified of the paper that will be used and of the scheme of In the ordinary scheme of 16 pages in imposition. should have a narrowing in the same proportion.366 Narrowing of back margins ward a double leaf following the outer one is pushed outlittle more than the thickness of its paper. and it increases uniformly with every added leaf in the section. . This outpush varies it is about a lead more on the second leaf. The blank taken out of back margins must be restored in two equal parts to the front margins of the leaves from which the blank has been abstracted. variation becomes a serious fault which will require much care for its prevention. and every added one. but that of the second double leaf should have about one lead less. In the book planned for three leads wide front margin. the two pages 1-16 should be prepared for electrotyping upon one plate with the regular . It is better practice to have this readjustment done on the stone in forms that are being prepared for electrotyping.

not bevelling an outer margin too close to typework because the margins have been made intenPlates so made will seem out of tionally unequal. Twenty-four pages can be imposed to produce two sections. that back 1-16. should have the same back margin. also in one plate. All the outer margins will folded. be of uniform width the abstracted blank in the back margin will not be noticed. and 7-10 and 8-9 of the fourth leaf. : .Adjusted margins for plates 367 back margin. and trimmed. and by putting pages 17-24 for the other section in the j . one of 16 and one of 8 pages. two leads less. This method of electrotyping two and sometimes four pages upon one plate has this additional advantage it saves the time of the pressman and improves the register. Pages 3-14 and 4-13 of the second leaf should have one lead less in the back margin pages 5-12 and 6-11 of the third leaf. even when the margins of the 8vo part of the sheet remain undisturbed. but the pages will be in line when the book has been properly printed. The electrotyper may need the caution to bevel all these double-paged plates to uniform size. line when adjusted upon blocks. by putting pages 1-16 on the two-third part of the sheet (making it an independent section). This change can be made in the offcut with little trouble. Pages 2-15. The appearance of the ordinary 24mo of one section can be made more sightly by reducing the width of back margins of the offcut by this system. three leads less.

in a form of similar triplicates of 4 pages each. as here shown. Thin sections are sometimes unavoidable. must be folded the long way. chase. A book that has uneven sections stiffly is rarely ever neatly sewed and show unsightly gaps at . for the paper must be turned on the long cross. See Scheme 16. but they should be prevented when prevention is possible. similar triplicates of 4 pages each.368 Sections should be uniform This also one-third or offcut part of the sheet. Care i_ 4 3 2 and folding. its leaves open its joints. are often used for the printing of pam- _4 i 3 must be taken to have truly squared paper and exact cutting phlet covers. the gatherer may overlook the thin section. Schemes for sections of unequal thickness in forms of many pages are most useful when the additional small . The heads all sections can be laid one way. When a section of 16 pages is followed by another of 8 or of 4 pages. Twelve pages. and the sheet must present different edges to the feed-guides. i 4 2 of 32 Twelve pages in one Sections of the same thickness favor neat binding. Twenty-four pages can also be imposed for three sections of 8 pages by treating each row of pages as an 8vo to be folded the long way.

." ::!!. 24 of the inset.. between pages 3-2 and 10-11...... ..... have to be made.'"!... often inaccurate as to margins...........!!!:!!!!!! Pages the fold is 5... central imposition.a. 8 turn in on *~~ ~G | first fold.~. for they lead him to use call for 1 1 schemes that .. In Scheme 34 that follows fa e sh eet turns on the long parallel cross.....!"!.: .. is too .!! complicated folding... The sheet is cut in halves see rule between : pages 1-2 and 11-12. the six pages that come last are on the other side but the ... i 33 Twelve pages of" oblong shape...... i"...... no inset. but to no advantage. They could be largely increased in this book.... which makes duplicates of them.Twelvemo of oblong leaves 369 sections save presswork or waste of paper... 7. Last fold is on the narrow way of the paper.!::.. is and two parallel folds inset. !:!!:!!:!'. It intended to have the offcut (pages 9-16) sepa- rately folded and The folding in unavoidable in cheap and hurried binding.. made on The second the same . sheet it perfected by turning over the short cross in the is IT 12 usual way. 6... The six outer pages that Siiiiji 9 3 ~^ come first left side of and appear on the Scheme 33 are on -10 one side of the long cross.. to They are not helpful but confusing the young compositor..

Regular or standard Broad or wide Height. some publishers specify the paper -trade name of the paper used before they add the name of the shape or the fold of the leaf. Name of leaf. ... inset. but this practice is not general. The figures give relative proportions in inches. .370 Names and proportions of leaves 01 11 91 13 1C or. 1 inset of 8 pages. oblong shape.. Sizes of paper differ and the names of leaf -shapes It differ in different countries. The pages could be laid for a folding in of the but its separate folding will make a neater section.. 9 6 . 20 19 LI 24 34 Twenty-four pages. follows that the descriptive and names of sizes shapes are often confusing and may be use. 9 9 9 9 6*& 7 5 13 misleading. but they are not so called everywhere. 9 Quarto shape Long or deep Extra long or narrow Oblong or music way . The table annexed gives names that are in frequent Variations of a half-inch in the height are seldom explained by any change in name. 1 In advertised descriptions of books.. Width. ..

offcuts to be separately folded and inset. for two sections of 12 pages each. 17 20 i 19 18 I 7 91 \Z ZZ 23 si 01 11 - 8 2 12 13 24 14 36 Twenty-four pages in one chase. . with offcut of 8 pages to be inset and make one section. 5 _ 8 .Twenty-four pages by two impositions 9 371 10 16 13 12 : 11 14 15 OS 21 9 3 ~ 61 81 - L 2 22 23- 35 Twenty-four pages in one chase.

the square shape. 23 X 41 inches. Sixteen-page impositions. 5 x 7| inches. and is usually preferred. For long editions the 32-page form on paper 30 x 40 or 31 x 41 inches is selected.for which the pages must be imposed 4 pages high and 6 pages wide : made the long shape. the x 30 J inches. to be inset to make one section. are best fitted for hand folding. 16mo fold z - 85 18 zz 19 - 8 j 01 11 fil 7 _ 6 ! 14 os 21 SI 81 16 _ 4 9 1 1* 37 Twenty-four pages on the square sheet. The long paper. 3 pages high and 8 pages wide. an awkward shape. For the ordinary 12mo leaf. square paper is 30 . For the 24mo are in one chase. for cross folds and without insets. is handier.372 Twenty -four pages. . two shapes of paper . with offcut of 8 pages.

Twenty -four pages on square sheet 373 _. M | mmm ..

374 Forty-eight pages in three sections For twenty-four pages in one chase. usually 23 x 41. is to be preferred for the ordinary duodecimo of 5 x 7f inches. the long shape of paper. oT 33 "it 48 .

It is never selected for a library book. A section of 32 with inset of 16 is clumsy. for it cannot be folded neatly or be trimmed with true margins. for printing on the second is compels a new feed-edge of paper to be presented to the grippers a treatment always objecTo impose the pages to tionable to the pressman. repeat on each half of the short cross the imposition of Scheme 37. The sheet for Scheme 39 turns on the long cross. or treat them as the lower two thirds of Scheme 44. to fold by consecutive parallels. It is not an imposition to be recommended. folded as a regular 16mo. scheme for 48 pages in one chase. For all side-stitched little pamphlets prefer thin sections. and risks imperfect workmanship: the upper and lower tiers of 16 pages each must be treated as widely separated but regular sixteens. cut at the head. as marked. When perfected it is cut in six pieces.Other plans for forty-eight pages 375 Twenty-four pages in three separate sections of 8 pages each can be made by triplicating in one chase Scheme 15 or 16 for 8 pages. Its cross. to be folded together in one section. is quite impracticable even A common pamphlet on very thin paper. For 48 pages in two sections of 24 pages each. The paper cover . but in one chase. one to be inset. turn on the short cross gives extra trouble to the binder. and each section turn on the long side. as in Scheme 19 the middle tier of 16 must be . It is for a better to put the pages in two parts of 24 pages each.

376 and Seventy -two pages in one chase can be pasted on the back of sections more firmly. making . it will not sprawl outward at the fore edge. but not to advantage for a library book of neat binding. : Scheme 40 is practicable for very small leaves only. It turns on the short cross and is cut in twelve equal parts. The form could be divided in three sections of 24 pages. In adjusting margins and making register it will be more manageable if divided in two chases as an outer and an inner form of 36 pages each. duplicates of each section. 43 -42 = 0* 37 Q* 48 B go40 ig CO fll_ 01 J ! 8959 19 _72 71 62 50 47 38 T 17 E= B * 1 -6 12 | 91 13 15 83 I C8 36 I *fi- IS 26 ! S3 23 91 OT11 S 24 25 35 14 2 40 Seventy-two pages in one chase six sections of 12 pages. 63 68 67 66 66 64 .

It requires two insets. 1 The 18mo of paper 19 x 24 is 4 x 6Mj inches. papers are wider and shorter. It is occa- sionally selected for single-sheet pamphlets. and are sepages. and that of paper 22 x 28 is 4% x 7Mj inches. The regular 16mo foldings of these . for in one signature is an imposition to be it compels a transposition of pages on when the it is first printed. and transposed pages. lected size by publishers only when paper of suitable and quality cannot be had for sections of 16mo. and it troublesome to side of the paper has been fold. because makes a shapely leaf for the common sizes of 1 paper 19 X 24 and 22 x 28 inches.Eighteen pages in one signature 377 EIGHTEEN PAGES AND THEIR DUPLICATES The 18mo press avoided. a tipped leaf. do and 72mo not The 36mo require a transposibut of tion they delay folding. for one section. and to many readers the square 16mo of regular fold is a squatty and objectionable shape. 5 12 17ilS 11 6 81 1 15 e 2 16 41 Eighteen pages in one chase.

The two outer tiers of mated pages are at the ends of the sheet. The transposition of pages in the form produces the same result as the turn on the long cross. The inconvenience of transposition is not so great as that produced by the handling of three single leaves and the insecurity of an unworkmanlike binding. for the sheet has to be cut in eight pieces and requires 1 special care in folding. the centre tier of pages : is cut through the back margins. inset. It may be tolerated in the side-stitched pamphlet of one sheet only. but pages 7-10 and 8-9 would be wrongly backed by this turn upon the short cross. page 7 must be transposed with page 9. Other schemes for the 18mo in one section are equally troublesome. it is 17-18. as In folding. pages The centre tier is then cut in three and pages 7-10 and 8-9 make another necessary to cut them through the centre and paste them down on page 16 at the end of the signature. where they back one another So do pages 17 and 18 in the offcut. and page 8 with page 10. properly. and they should be accepted only as a last resort when no other imposition can be used.378 In Transpositions needed for the 18mo Scheme 41 the paper turns on the short cross. When the sheet has been printed on the first side. making three single leaves that must be pasted down in the centre of the complete section. marked with dotted lines in the scheme. i The 18mo without transposition is laid down in some manuals page 7 lines with 8 and page 9 with 10 . It is not an imposition to be recommended. the sheet is cut in three long strips. equal parts. but not as a section of a book for the library. Pages 5-12 and 6-11 are in an offcut that is inset in the larger folding. This leaves one third of the centre strip with As they have no mated leaf. .

The pages in the middle tier must be transposed for the second side pages 7-10 and 8-9 are changed in the same way as was directed on page 378. The heads of the pages in the offcut are reversed so that this part can be turned in and : folded will up with the body of the sheet. one leaf cancelled. Scheme 43 imposed practically three series of 12 pages together to produce small sections of a is convenient thickness. 379 In Scheme 42 the objectionable single leaf is cut This permits a more shapely leaf than can be had from the ordinary fold of 16mo on paper of regulation size.Eighteenmo folded as 16mo out. . but the work be neater if the offcut is separately folded. 5 - 12 11 (5 t 81 ! 8 - 6 10 15 2 1_ _16 ! 7 i 42 Eighteenmo fold of 16 pages only. satisfactorily treated if The it is offcut will be most separately folded.

: three . Thirty-six pages in two chases sections of 12 pages each.380 5 Thirty-six pages in two chases 8 17 20 29 32 -6 12 I 91 13 IS 85- 88 3(3 24 25 1 Outer form. IT j tl ! 83 22 I 93 27 S8 10 15- j 34 943 -A I 81 61 j 08 18 Inner form.

: Thirty-six pages in two forms can be arranged to an outset of 24 pages and fold up as one section. but the greater cost of folding sidered.. even : its if folding will be unusually trouthe 12-page inset has been sepa- It is here mentioned because it is rately folded. an inset of 12 pages. . :=:=::: 8 1 LI Co 21 2 SI 9 81 tl IT 9 61 81 L 2 24 4 16 15 10 3_ _22 23 44 pages.. by hand should be con- . but it is a scheme not to be recommended blesome. sometimes selected for a cheap pamphlet.-as j os 27 st zi is 45 28 33 40 46 47 26 ::._. 71 49 -72 69- 52 57 64 L 70 50 SS 25 -It tt 6Z 88..Seventy -two pages in three sections 381 99 S9 89 Sfl 09 1 1 S9 63 ^ 58 51 .::. Seventy-two pages in one chase three sections of 24 Each section will be a 16-page with 8-page inset.

382 Twenty pages in one section TWENTY. FORTY. with an z ~ 61 14 81 added inset of 4 pages. as has been indicated in a 8 1 ~ _ previous scheme. and the sheet after printing must is be cut in six pieces. 10. i position offcut of by putting the 4 pages at the extreme end of the form and turning the sheet on the long cross. Twent y pages can be imposed Without a trans. to turn narrow way of paper. 7 by putting 15 the 4-page inset in the centre tier and making the two upper and the two lower tiers the halves of a regular 9 12 11 10 this centre tier 16mo. The four pages of must be transposed when the sheet ready fpr printing on the second side. 45 Twenty pages in one chase. as one section. but this method of turning the sheet may be as objectionable as the . 11. AND EIGHTY PAGES Twenty pages can be imposed as a 16mo. 81 91 Trans- 20 17 4 posed pages 9. 12. can then be inset in the centre of the 16 -page part. making the complete section of 20 pages. -.

of 20mo Scheme 47. one without a transposition.) of Scheme 45 can be rearranged to make two sections: one of 16 and one of 4 pages. the 20-page form will be long and narrow and not properly adapted to the shapes of paper kept on sale.Twenty pages without transposition transposition of pages or plates. practically a sheet of 32 pages with an added inset of 8 pages. avoid waste. paper has to be made to order of prescribed sale are size. pages are in the customary proportion of width 1 to height 1. To When 8 1 81 L 19 2 20 1 I 46 Twenty pages chase. as in one section. first cut the long way. or one of 12 and one of 8 pages. The sheet. Papers on adapted only for the small quarto shapes forms. Turns on the long cross. may serve for a cheap . In Scheme 46 a transposition of the inset is pages of the avoided by turn- 81 - 8 5 16 15 - 6 ing the sheet on the long cross. 9 12 11 383 _ _ 10 The pages (See Scheme 46. has two parthe narrow allel folds way before the inset is inserted.

calls for paper that is nearly square. . this imposition. 8 pages wide. For pages of regular shape. 5 pages high. Either method will make uneven and troublesome folding.384 17 Forty pages in one section 24 21 20 ! 19 22 23 18 98 13 S ! 9 fig 88 27 ~ 8 28 29 12 i 11 30 14 91 1 QZ 58 ~ 6 8 01 IS 9S SI - 40 33 7 - 34 39 - 2 47 Forty pages in one chase : one section. The imposition could be varied by making up the form in two sections of 20 pages. pamphlet on thin paper. but not for a neat book. and that may have to be made to order. inset of 8 pages.

These pages are to be printed on a long slip of paper. 48 Six-page leaflets in strip 1 page high. A rule border about every page is common the space between pages is narrow but uniform in width. for produces a bunchy back and uneven margins. 5 4-3 2 First page at left in print. for a more shapely sheet of paper. in five sections of 16 pages each. THE LEAFLET Leaflet is the it name given or . to folded but unsewed leaves of 6. First page at right in print. to the left. more pages. can be imposed. There is no arbitrary rule about imposition the first page may be : to the right. 8. 8 pages high and 10 pages wide.The leaflet 385 Eighty pages in one chase. but the pages following page 2 are laid down in any way that establishes their relation one to another. The insetting of many sections is to be avoided. 25 . and to be turned on the short cross to make The leaflet of 10 or more pages is duplicates. or in the centre.

iiiiii jijiiii' Illlilii iiiiiiiii m "z '""s" t" fi" . work of leaflets This treatment makes the presson small presses more manageable. so that the sheet can be cut through its longer diameter. to turn on the long cross.386 Small pamphlets generally imposed 2 pages high.

Trimming of small pamphlets 387 Small pamphlets of 8 pages can be printed and bound with neatness and economy by electrotyping the pages to make four or more duplicates. and without any allowance for the waste of paper in trimming i : _ 8 5 4 3 6 7 2 1 5 4 3 6 7 2 1 _ 8 5 - 4 3 6 7' 2 1 . . which may be imposed after this scheme with heads one way.

This method saves time. and trimming for each pamphlet. and this will but save the expense of a separate folding. effecand tails. " pamphlets can be imposed three or four on. and may tend to mental confusion from its monotony when the work is collator done in haste. . Each half of the sheet may then receive a separate sewing or stitching for each single pamphlet. stitching. the folded work may be put under the smashing-machine to reduce the paper to a manageable If the head and flatness for the cutting-machine. tions causes some delay. A NEW METHOD OF COLLATING A gathering of the different sections of a book that has its signature-marks at the foot of the page unavoidably conceals all these marks but the one on To make sure that the gatherer first section." so that each half of the perfected sheet can be folded together and stitched and cut apart. tail margins have been accurately adjusted. Thin it is not practicable for thick paper. A gathering may be passed that has a section doubled or transposed or omitted entirely. This done. the knife that cuts tually trim heads them apart will. the the must quickly but somewhat imperfectly separate the sections and verify their order by This separating and counting of the seccount.388 New method of collating in one piece by edges of paper and not by print. has assembled the sections in consecutive order. by the same cut.

a white gap a section misplaced will break the regularity . FOLDING-MACHINES Many of the schemes in this chapter are suitable for the old forms of folding-machines that still keep in favor. a section omitted. they are no disfigurement to the bound book.Folding -machines 389 To prevent this fault a new system of collatingmarks has been devised that enables the collator to check the sections rapidly without separating them. The new marks are bits of flat-faced brass rule. the collator can see at first glance whether all the sections are or are not in numerical order. and binding. by sewing. Each bit of brass rule is placed in a different position on its own section. For thick pamphlets to be bound in haste this new method is of value.of the diagonal line. A section doubled will line j show a noticeably thicker black . There are. so that the combined rules shall present the appearance of a diagonal black line with breaks at graduated distances. So treated. about one quarter of an inch long and three points wide. however. that are printed exactly upon the central folding of the back margin of the outer leaf of each sec- tion. machines for which they are not fitted. As these narrow black lines are completely hidden gluing. To meet increasing demands .

They are made by different manufacturers from different plans. the sheet is first cut in parallel strips. but they have little flexibility rule. In the hands of careful operators they can do accurate folding. imposition only. mated pages must be one more in number than the entire numpages in that section. and lastly cross-folded to produce four un- separated sections of 16 pages each in another. is impracticable for In one variety of machine. For i The schemes shown in the guide-books of the manufacturers appear strange to the inexpert. overlapped by another and again cross-cut by the last operation of the folding device. and folding. the imposer of pages or plates has studied the scheme.390 Folding -machines for greater speed and reduced cost. . printing. 1 These machines are most useful for magazines and -work of like nature that must be done quickly and at small cost. he will need the manufacturer's guide-book for a first ber of When always one odd and one even page the sum total of any two . 64 pages are first folded alter. and knows how the sheet will be turned or how the pages will be lapped. but for general service on short editions bookbinders prefer handwork or the older and simpler forms of folders.and folding-machines have been introduced that take on sheets of unusually large size. nately forward and then backward in four parallel strips. and one strip is . the bolts of folded leaves are at the tails and not at the heads of pages in another. The scheme required for one another. pointing. they can fold sheets in one way $ and no as a general other. but they all conform to the general rules that must govern all impositions: the first and last pages of each section must be mates these mates are . with new devices for automatic feeding.

that the sheet will be accurately cut in halves by the circular knife attached to the printing-press. the act of impression but if set too high they will blacken the sheet. the points are usually put fifteen inches apart. For a form of many pages on the double sheet. and to depend upon a pasted overlay attached to the tympan for a perforation . It is to be supposed sheet. It is customary to set them a trifle lower than type-high. The cut edge The so produced will be the feed-edge of the folding-machine. slitter is an inch face (to a bit of brass rule. must They perceptibly stab through the paper in .Folding -machines 391 this reason it is not practicable to present a series of schemes of imposition for machine-folding that would prove generally useful. the form for these devices varies in different machines. The forms for some kinds of machine-folders need points or slitters (and sometimes both) as The proper position in aids to accurate register. five eighths of be had of the manufacturer of the folding-machine). cut the tympan. and gash the inking-rollers. and special direction for this purpose should be had from the binder who will fold the sheets. The attach- ment of the slitters is a work of nice discretion. one tier or row of pages distant from the centre of the full When the sheets are printed on the reverse the side points will appear in a similar position on the other half of the sheet. which is screwed down immovably on wood furniture in the form.

CONCLUDING REMARKS The schemes of this chapter are for books to be sewed and not side-stitched. This treatment that one fault make An overlay another. The cutting of the tympan must be avoided. allowing but one pica or two picas more for front margin. margins of the side-stitched pamphlet nearly equal in width. Experience is needed for the proper adjustment of the slitters. Some printers make the front and back for cloth cases. This concealment and waste of paper is too variable to be provided for by an arbitrary rule. The adjuster of margins should consult the binder as to the probable loss of paper. and regulate his margins accordingly. . but exact register must be had. The widths of margins size of the (but imperfectly presented by reason of the small diagrams) are those of books planned For pamphlets or magazines to be side-stitched with thread or wire. This is done in the belief that the wire stitch will conceal as much paper in the back as will be wasted in the front by the knife of the bookbinder when he trims the fore edge. the back margins should be much wider and the front margins narrower.392 Concluding remarks of the paper to be printed. may prevents too thick will cause the sheet to stand off too far from the tympan and be the cause of bad register.

page 1 is put where page 16 is placed in the printed scheme page 2 displaces 15. cut. Thick sections should be avoided. The increased width that should be given to the back margin of a pamphlet with a paper cover should never be determined by a guess as to the probable thickness of the sections. In Hebrew and other Oriental languages. This suggestion applies to thin paper only. proceeds from right to left in every line . This treatment does not conduce to cheapness. and every page fol. In a form of 24 pages on thick it will be better practice to impose for two sections of 12 or three sections of 8 pages.Concluding remarks larger part of the sheet 393 Offcuts should be inset in the central fold of the from which they have been section of the offseparated. but the change is quickly understood. but it paper does produce better work even for the side-stitched pamphlet. lowing pursues the same order. the first page of the book is on the leaf that Western usage This reversal of our order gives to our last page. compels a similar change in the imposition of pages of Hebrew. in opening stiffness and make improper sewing To plan a separate the leaves of the bound book. In the 16mo. especially when the leaves are small and the paper is thick. A dummy of all the sections properly sewed or stitched is the . and does not require special schemes. The paper cover is seldom neatly pasted over thick sections cover and leaves will yawn. will to follow the compel needless larger part. reading .

It A leads to the making of faulty margins." this irregularity must be For pamphlets trimmed on three sides. so that the printed pages can be folded with proper margins by the edges of the paper as truly as by print.394 Concluding remarks only certain guide. the print of cover may be ordered with even margins all around. the more the need of exactness. folding The blanks about pages should be calculated with exactness. sheet with overplus of paper on one or both ends is always inconvenient to feeder and folder. but in no case should the back or head margin be enlarged. If the excess of paper is trivial. the adjuster of its margins may add width of the blanks prefor the front and tail margins. to improper and reckless trimming. The purposed irregularity of margins in the pages of the text (least at back. For a book of prescribed dimensions. more at front. The more pages in the form. circuit style. For much excess (and even for small excess) it is better practice to have the surplus cut off before the margins are adjusted. which should be used as is shown in illustrations on pages 303 and . so viously provided that it can be trimmed off by the binder in the this excess to the gathered sections. When the cover paper " is intended to overlap all the edges in increased. its A true sheet of own paper is the best guide for determining the proper distance between pages. and most at tail) is usually preserved on the outer pages of the cover. paper of too large size is sometimes furnished.

In forms of plates laid on blocks. 304. always useful. They divert the eye from the order of pages. The lines of dotted rules in the schemes. This grouping together of the pages of separate sections facilitates the study of their .Concluding remarks 395 304 of this book. For the ordinary form of type. To the novice in imposition they show the correlation of pages that must be kept in distinct sections. when these pages are laid down in different parts of the sheet. are attachments of importance. care being taken in all cases to have the exact size of the average sheet. 303. are not always possible. they may have to be rejected or be placed in different positions from those in the diagrams. quoins. that indicate where the printed sheet must be cut by the hand-folder. and even in some forms of letterpress. the furniture of each form must be accommodated to the chase of the schemes. and furniture have been omitted as not helpful to a clearer understanding of the orderly arrangement of pages. a measuringrule may be used. the customary disposition of its furniture is indicated in the illustrations on pages 63. cross-bars. In these schemes the representations of chases. or when a form has to be made up before the paper is in the house. and its types. To repeat these adjuncts in every scheme is not of any advantage. which is the chief purpose Cross-bars. When the paper has rough or unevenly cut edges. As every printing-house has chases of various sizes and shapes.

for thick sec- make mean bindings. .396 Concluding remarks arrangement. Some by the exhibition of too many are obsolete and others impracti- It was the intent of the writer to present only the schemes that are in regular use for the ordinary sewed book of thin sections. but the frequency of positive orders from some economical publishers of pamphlets for one thick section has led me to add a few schemes that are not recommended. The study of imposition has been made needlessly repelling schemes. so that he can fprmulate new schemes for emergencies. Suggestions and explanations that may be helpful accomthis chapter is . however. It is believed. In Scheme 5 (page 341) the relation of pages to one another in different parts of the sheet is made plainer by color. cable. This is done reluctantly. that the increasing use of wire-stitching machines will lead to a general preference for thin sections tions and a more tidy binding of the cheap pamphlet. The purpose of pany many of the diagrams. not to present schemes that will be copied unthinkingly by a young compositor it is to lead him to an understanding of elementary principles.

of spaces . . . operate ture of metal . and many have been in America and granted Europe on machines for this purpose.ERGENTHALER 'MACHINE-COMPOSITION A The General organization review of methods Learning to assembling and keyboard mechanisms . . . . of the machine Treatment of matrices . . . and to transfer the print so made to a patents hundred . . . Correct keyboard fingering A REVIEW OF METHODS OR many years dream a it has been the of inventors to provide mechanical substitute for hand-composition. The melting-pot elevator . in transferink on paper. . . Management . . . . . . . . . TemperaTreatment Mould and disk . An early method proposed was to print the matter by a machine similar to a type-writer. . The assembling . . .

which were divided into shorter lengths by a second operator and justified by hand. lead. Many machines have been proposed and con- structed for setting ordinary founders' type. Certain of these machines. standing magazines. was of It composed the type from automatically inserted the spaces necessary for justification.398 Experimental machines lithographic stone. originally constructed in Hartford. were adapted to set the type in continuous lines. such as the Thorne and the Burr. The same machine also received the dead matter and distributed the type into the channels on the machine. thus forming matrices for lines or pages. etched in order to leave the transferred characters in relief. Numerous patents have been issued for machines adapted to compose ordinary founders' type and automatically justify the lines by inserting found- ers' spaces. or equivalent material. and delivered the matter leaded or unleaded. Many experimental machines have been con- structed for impressing type-characters in the required order in papier-mache. galley. or a plate of zinc or other metal from which printing could be done by lithographic In other cases the metal plates were processes. which was successfully operated for a time in the office of the Chicago Herald. The celebrated Paige machine. from which stereotype plates were cast. as required. The machine failed of commercial . into the this character.

.FIG. i.

This line. by which the type was distributed into tubes adapted for application to the composing-machine.400 Cox and Simplex machines its success because of extreme complexity and con- sequent high cost. and justification was secured by commatically. advancing through a suitable guide. which are justified by hand. . after which the matter was transferred to a third machine. The upper portion of the grooved barrel revolves intermittingly. These lower grooves have at the upper end small teeth arranged in various combinations corresponding to the nicks in the various types. > pressing it endwise. the effect being to flatten and reduce the thickness of the spaces. the lines of the dead matter are inserted into its grooves and are carried around step by step over the upper ends of the grooves in the lower part of the barrel. is divided by hand into shorter lines. The Cox machine. of which a considerable number are used in the United States. The Simplex machine. The spaces were removed from the dead matter by a special machine. which are delivered by means of keys from the lower ends of the grooves to a revolving disk. as usual. so that the types stowed above in the upper . consists of an upright rotary barrel or magazine having vergrooves to carry the types. by which they are assembled in tical a continuous line. was adapted to compose and justify the matter autoCorrugated spaces were inserted in the line during composition the line was set to an excessive length. exhibited about 1899.

one for each letter. or feelers. The distribution into the magazines to be used on the composing mechanism is effected in a separate machine in which the nicked types are carried successively past a series of small slides. In the Empire and other machines the types. machines was designed to cast each character singly and assemble them in line. In the McMillan machine the types. carried in vertical magazines.Empire and McMillan machines 401 revolving cylinder are permitted to enter only those nicks. This line is divided into shorter lengths by hand and justified as in hand-composition. cooperating with the nicks to deliver the types to their appropriate channels. matically rejected in succession and thicker spaces inserted until the line was the required length. Distribution was effected by an independent rotary machine which delivered the type into single tubes. were automatically composed with tentative spaces into lines of approximately the reThe original spaces were autoquired measure. They slide down through con- verging grooves to the assembling-point. in the order in which they were to appear in print. its grooves which have teeth corresponding to their In this manner each letter is delivered to proper groove. where they are assembled or composed in a continuous unjustified line. are released at the lower end by finger-keys. these tubes being subsequently transferred composing-machine. when full to the Another class of 26 . carried in separate tubes.

402 The Lanston mechanism this class. The last three machines are based on the use of the group of matrices representing the various . justification being subsequently effected by hand. The Lanston mechanism perforations being made dicated to the operator the various characters and spaces. The Johnson Tachytype and the Goodson Graphotype are machines on the general plan of the Lanston. S. The casting operation is performed in the reverse order from that in which the matter is to be read. exhibited at the Centennial Exposition of 1876. A machine of by C. In this ma- chine the finger-keys representing the letters caused the corresponding matrices to be transferred to the mould which was automatically adjusted to cooperate with the matrix and produce each letter of the required size. being controlled by perforated paper ribbons and acting to cast the spaces and the type in the i required order. a casting mechanism. : by the perforated ribbon and serving to cast and assemble individual letters in the required order. cast and delivered the type in unjustified lines. the justifying by touching the keys in- by a scale which auto- matically calculates the size of spaces necessary to justify the line second. : consists of two parts an independent keyboard by which a paper ribbon is provided with perforations representing first. and also to cast and insert in controlled in its action each line the spaces to effect justification.Westcott.

are used in the same manner as other type-forms. and the mould adjusted for a body of corresponding size. The matrices are automatically moved. whether for direct printing or for electrotyping.The Mergenthaler Linotype 403 characters in connection with an adjustable mould similar to that of the type-founding machines. automatically produced and assembled by the machine. This machine differs widely FIG. GENERAL ORGANIZATION The general organization of the machine will first be described. from all others in that it is adapted to produce the type-faces for each line properly justified on the edge of a solid slug or linotype (shown in Figure 2). a modern example of which is shown in Figure 1. THE MERGENTHALER LINOTYPE The Mergenthaler Linotype machine. appeared in crude form about 1886. 2. after which the details will be more . so that each letter is presented to the mould. These slugs. and are remelted after use.

as the vital element.404 The matrices and actions which require fully explained. 3. There are in the machine a number of matrices for each letter and also matrices repre- senting special characters. in rices after use to their as hereinafter explained for distributing the matproper places in the magazine of the machine. The machine contains. and the machine is so organized that on manipulating the keys it se-* lects the matrices in the order in which their char- acters are to appear in print. used proper. Figure 3. special FIG. about sixteen hundred matrices. and attention plainly directed to the various parts consideration. and assembles them . There is a series of finger keys representing the various characters and spaces. etc. and spaces or quadrats of different thicknesses for use in table-work. such as are shown in each consisting of a small brass plate one having edge the female character or matrix in and the upper end a series of teeth.

or. 4.The matrices assembled in a line. A represents an inclined channelled magazine in which the matrices are stored. is on a slug After the matrix line automatically transferred to the face of a slotted metal to the delivered to mould into which molten typeform a slug or linotype against the matrices. Each channel has at the lower end an escapement B to release the matrices one at a time. the matrices are returned magazine and distributed. Each of these escapements is . as 405 shown in Figure 4. This done. to be again com- posed in new relations for succeeding lines. Figure 5 illustrates the general organization of the machine. with wedge-shaped spaces or justifiers between the words. to mould or form a composed is it is line of raised type cast against the matrices. The series of matrices thus assembled in line forms a line matrix. a line of female dies adapted FIG. in other words.

406 General organization of machine connected by a rod C and intermediate devices to one of the finger-keys in the keyboard D. . These FIG. 5.

by which they are carried downward and delivered successively into a channel in the upper part of the assembling elevator G. When the composition of the line is completed. Within the pot is a vertical pump-plunger which acts at the nicates with . in which they are advanced right. as shown in Figures 5 and 6. by a star-shaped wheel. so> pass downward and assume their proper positions in the line of matrices. which the characters and spaces are to appear. seen at the The wedge-shaped spaces or justifiers I are held in a magazine H. and the matrices. first to the left and then downward to the casting position in the assembling elevator transferred. the characters on the front of the slotted matrices standing directly opposite the slot in the mould. The back of the mould commu- and is closed by the mouth of a meltingpot M. as indicated G is raised and the line is mould seated in and extending through the vertical wheel JT.The spaces or justifiers 407 keys represent the various characters as in a typeThe keys are depressed in the order in writer. from which they are delivered at proper intervals by finger-key J"in the keyboard. as shown. The line of matrices is pressed against and closes the front of the mould. containing a supply of molten metal and heated by a Bun sen burner thereunder. descend between the guides E to the surface of an inclined travelling belt F. released successively from the lower end of the magazine. that they may by dotted lines.

forms a slug or linotype bearing on its edge. the perforated mouth of the pot into the mould and into MOLD NO.2 FIG. type-characters produced from the matrices. into the receiving galley. 6. all in relief. which trim the sides to the required size. as shown in Figure 7. After the line of matrices and spaces has served . The matrices and the pot are immediately separated from the mould. and the mould wheel rotates until the slug contained in the mould is presented in front of an ejector blade.408 Formation of linotype slug proper time to drive the molten metal through. The metal. the characters in the matrices.l COMPOSED MATRICES MOLD WHEEL 10. solidifying. where the slug is ejected from the mould through a pair of knives.

horizontal teeth to engage the teeth in the upper end of the matrices and hold them in suspension. known as the second elevator. it is raised from the casting position and moved to the right. and having along its lower edge. The teeth of the matrix for each letter differ in number . as shown in Figures 5 and 8. upper ends of the matrices are engaged with a toothed bar R. MOLD EJECTOR PUSHING LINOTYPE FROM MOLD TO GALLEY ARM TO CARRY SLUGS OVER IN GALLEY RECEIVING GALLEY LINOTYPES READY FOR USE FIG. lying in a horizontal position above the upper end of the magazine. 7. and leaving the spaces or justifiers behind to be transferred to their magazine H.The its distributing mechanism 409 purpose. The distributing mechanism consists essentially of a fixed bar T. as shown by dotted lines. as shown by the dotted The teeth in the lines and arrows in Figure 5. This elevator swings upward. carrying the matrices to the level of the upper end of the magazine.

410 Travel of the matrices or arrangement. 8. from the teeth of matrices bearing other letters. or both. where for time its the first teeth bear such relation to those . which are extended parallel with the distributor bar and constantly rotated. until it and over the mouths of the channels in the Each matrix is held in suspension arrives over its proper channel. and the teeth on the lower edge of the distributor bar are correspondingly varied in arrangement at different points in the length of the bar. The matrices are moved forward and into engagealso into en- ment with the distributor bar gagement with the threads of horizontal screws U. so that they cause the matrices to travel one after another along the dis- FlG. tributor magazines.

6. vent its escape. but which has reached ten thousand and upward in competitive trials. suspended from the rear end of the escapement By tends to hold the lower pawl & in an elevated position. This permits the composition of one line. . which is commonly from four to five thousand ems per hour.Assembling and keyboard mechanisms of the bar that it is 411 released and permitted to fall into the magazine. so that it engages under the upper ear of the foremost matrix to preity. the casting of another. passing thence to the line and to the casting mechanism. and the distribu- tion of a third to proceed simultaneously. as shown in Figure 9. Under each channel of the magazine there is an escapement J5. ASSEMBLING AND KEYBOARD MECHANISMS The matrices pass through the magazine by gravTheir release is effected by mechanisms shown in Figures 9 and 10. the keyboard and intermediate connection s. The key-rod 0. which are vertical sections through the magazine. leaving the magazine at the lower end. consisting of a small lever rocking at its centre on a horizontal pivot. and carrying at its opposite ends two dogs or pawls &. is due to the fact that the matrices pursue a circulatory course. and finally returning to the top of the magazine. The speed of the machine. which are projected up alternately into the magazine by the motion of the lever. as shown in Figure 8.

as shown in Figure 10. at the same When .412 Figure showing vertical section the escapement B is rocked it withdraws the lower pawl b.

so that it engages and momentarily arrests the next matrix. 10.Figure showing vertical section 413 time raising the upper pawl. the upper pawl falling. . the first its sumes matrix has escaped. As soon as FIG. the escapement reoriginal position.

spring Each rod C terminates directly over one c2 . which stand normally as shown in Figure 9. out of contact with the roll. the cam-yoke is sustained at its free end by the yoke-trigger c6 and a . A constantly rotating rubber-covered roll c 5 is extended across the entire key- board beneath the cams. c2 is slotted vertically to admit c3 turning on Each of the yokes an eccentric c4 turn- ing on a pivot therein. the mechanism shown in Figures 9 and 10 is introduced between the finger-keys and escapements. Moreover. It is evident that the escapements could be operated directly by rods connected with the finger-keys.414 The escapements while the lower one rises so as to hold the second matrix. are guided in main frame and each urged downward by a c. but this direct conto escape is objectionable because of the labor required on the part of the operator. the which actuate the escapements. For these reasons. end of a rising and falling yoke-bar a pivot at the opposite end. . of the Thus it is that the alternate rising and falling two escapement pawls permits the matrices one at a time. When the parts are in this position. The vertical rods (7. it is nection essential that the escapements should act individually with moderate speed to the end that the matrices may be properly engaged and disengaged by the pawls. and to secure easy and uniform action of the parts. which assumes the position previously occupied by the one released. and the danger that the keys may not be fully depressed.

at the same time disen- gaging the cam from the stop-pin c7 . . 4 thereby lowering the cam c into peripheral engagement with the rubber roll. 11. Each tical bar of the yoke-triggers c6 is connected with a verc8 which is in turn connected to the rear . whereby the cam is prevented from falling on to the roller. the roll c 5 turning freely under the cam without effect thereon. end of a finger-key lever D. permitting the latter to fall. the finger -key is depressed it raises the which in turn 6 trips the yoke-trigger c from LINE ASSEMBLING MECHANISM FIG.Depression offinger key 415 c1 on cross-bar in the cam engages a vertical pin the frame. The roll. When bar c8 . under the cam-yoke c2 . The parts stand normally at rest in the position shown in Figure 9. as it has a tendency to do.

to release the matrix. its ro- tation while resting on the roller causes it to lift the yoke c2 above its original position. so that as the rotating cam lowers the it is again supported in its first position. While sumes Figure yoke.416 Action of the cam engaging frictionally with the cam. 13. this is taking place the yoke-trigger c 6 reas shown in dotted lines in 10. causes the latter on its centre in the direction indicated by the arrow in Figure 10. lifting the same and causing it to reverse the position of the escapement JB. to turn FIG. as plainly seen in acts Figure 10. 12. FIG. its first position. the . Owing to the eccentric shape of the cam. so that it upon the escapement rod (7.

se- resistant . slide g2 the purpose . magazine H. and a 12 FIG.Descent of the matrices out of engagement with the roll 417 cam at the same time turning forward by momentum and until arrested . number of escapements at different stages of their action at one time.wheel in the same manner as the matrices. 14. The line in course of composition its front end by a yielding finger or cured to a horizontal assembler 27 is sustained at g. in its original position by the pin c 1 It will be observed that the parts between each key lever and escapement operate independently of the others. on which they are carried over and guided on the upper rounding surface of the assembler entrance-block/ 1 by which they are guided . The matrices falling from the magazine descend through the front channels and are received on the inclined belt F. released from their . downward in front of the star-wheel / 2 which pushes them forward one after another. so that a number of cams may be in engagement with the rollers at one time. as heretofore described. descend into the assembler G in front of the star. The spaces or justifiers J.

as shown in Figure 11.418 The matrices held by spring of these parts being to hold the line together in compact form. is. As the matrices approach the line. the assembler face-plate from the rear. their upper ends are carried over a spring </3 projecting through . FIG. its purpose being to hold the matrices forward and prevent them from falling back in such a manner that succeeding matrices and spaces or justifiers will pass improperly ahead of them. The descending matrices also pass beneath a long de- .

as shown in Figure 14. the elevator is raised as shown in Figure 13. thereby bringing the line into the first elevator 0. After the composition of the line is completed in the assembling elevator G. which then moves to the left to the position shown by dotted lines in Figure 13. 16. to its .Action of transfer-carriage pending spring g 4 . so as to present the line between the depending fingers of the transfer-carriage N. which then descends. as shown in Figure 12. 419 which should be so adjusted as barely to permit the passage of the thickest matrix. FIG. carrying the line of mat- rices downward.

mounted in the main frame. P. Figures 15 and 16 show the casting mechanism in vertical section from front to rear. as just described. which determine the length of the line. While this is taking place. The mould -carrying wheel is sustained by a horizontal slide. as shown in Figure 16. 17. as closed tightly against the shown in Figure 16. the pot. having its supporting legs mounted on a horizontal shaft. When the first elevator lowers the line. as mould and the pot stand in their rearward shown in Figure 15. the . a cam at the rear pushes the slide and mould wheel forward until the front face of the M mould is rear face of the matrix line. swings forward until its mouth is closed tightly against the back of the mould. FIG. the positions.420 The mould in position position in front of the mould and between the confining jaws P. and as soon as the matrix line is lowered to the casting position. While the parts are in this position.

and the mould. P. 18. the plunger 2 in the pot descends and drives the molten metal before it m through the spout or mouth of the pot into the mould.Alignment of the matrices 421 justifying bar Q is driven up and pushes the spaces or justifiers upward through the line of matrices expanded or elongated to fill comgap between jaws P. and the line is slightly unlocked endwise and relocked. the matrices may tate the accurate the elevator. and its mouth breaks away from the . repeatedly on the spaces. While the justified line is locked fast between the jaws. which is filled under pressure. the bar Q acts until the line is pletely the FIG. so that a solid slug is produced against the matrices. This is done that be temporarily released to faciliadjustment demanded. In order to secure exact alignment of the matrices vertically and horizontally. The pot then retreats.

then drawn horizontally to the right until the teeth of the matrices engage the toothed elevator bar R. into their magazine. which swings upward with the matrices. whereupon the ejector advances and shown in Figure and drives the slug between two side trimming-knives into the galley at the front. thus separating the matrices from the spaces or composing is justifiers J. as shown in Figure 17. not shown. at the same time. as previously described 7. The mould wheel now revolves. so that they may be pushed to the right. carrying the rear edge of the slug past a stationary trimming-knife. This is accomplished as shown in Figures 18 and 19. DISTRIBUTION After the casting action the first elevator rises and carries the matrix line above the original or The line level. it is necessary that the matrices shall be separated and presented one at a time to the distributor bar. between the threads of the horizontal carrier-screws.422 Distribution back of the slug in the mould. and around to the position in front of the ejector. When the line of matrices is raised to the distributor. which remain suspended in the frame. while. as indicated by the arrow. the mould retreats to draw the type-characters on the contained slug out of the matrices. A horizontal pusher or lineshifter 8 carries the line of matrices forward from .

wardly inclined inner ends of the rails. as shown in Figure 18. 19. further advance of the line.Ascent of the matrices the elevator bar 423 R into the so-called distributor box. so as to push the same upward until its upper ears are lifted above the detaining shoulders M2 so that they may ride forward on the up. The matrices thus lifted are engaged by the screws and carried forward. A vertically reciprocating lifting finger F has its upper end shouldered to engage beneath the foremost matrix. FIG. 2 having near their forward ends shoulders u against which the forward matrix abuts so as to prevent . and as they move forward they are gradually raised by the rails until the teeth finally engage themselves on the distributor bar T. from which they are suspended as they are carried forward over the mouth of the . DISTRIBUTOR FROM BELOW. which is urged constantly forward by the follower or line-shifter 8. containing at its opposite sides two rails u.

as Trimming -knives fall into their respective magazine. The distributor box also contains on opposite sides shorter rails. and 19. This adis justment is made by the knife being seated at its outer edge against a supporting bar or wedge. forces the knife inward toward the stationary knife. 8. outer knife commodate adjustable in order that it may acslugs of different thicknesses. until they chan- shown in Figure 19. when moving in one direction. having at opposite ends two inclined surfaces seated lever engages a pin against supporting screws in the knife-block. as shown in Figures The inner knife is stationary. to hold them in position as they are lifted. and when moved in the other direction it . TRIMMING-KNIVES In practice there is occasionally found a slight irregularity in the thickness of slugs. The lifting finger V is mounted on a horizontal pivot in one end of an elbow lever mounted on pivot v* and actuated by a cam on the end of one of the carrier-screws. as shown in Figures 5. they are driven on their way to the galley between two vertical knives. w 4 adapted to engage the lower ends of the matrices. on the wedge for the purpose of it A moving it endwise . but the 7 and 23.424 nels. For the purpose of reducing them to a uniform thickness. and thin fins are sometimes cast around the forward edges. .

The right-hand knife. It trims the side of the slug on which the ribs are formed. but acts only to re- move any slight fins or projections at the front edge. The stationary or left-hand knife should be so adjusted as to align exactly with the inner side of the mould.Adjustment and treatment of knives forces it 425 to retreat under the influence of a spring seated in the block. Particular attention ming the base of the slug as knife should be paid to this feature. and it serves to bring the slug to the exact thickness required. whereby the wedge and the knife are stopped in proper positions to insure the exact space required between the two knives. should stand exactly parallel with the stationary knife. should not be made too sharp. should be kept moderately sharp and adjusted so as to fit closely against the back of the passing mould. The back knife. adjustable by means of a wedge and lever. Under proper conditions this knife does not trim the side face of the slug. . edge advantageously removed by the use of a thin oilstone appli ed against the side face the slug . The front knives. series of teeth The wedge is provided with a engaged by a spring-actuated pin or dog. that is. secured to the it is frame for trim- carried past by the revolving wheel. The edge of the must bear uniformly across the face of the mould. between which the slug is After being ejected. can be the thin sharpened. against the face past which is carried.

The very speedy operators are. The keys in the first two rows should be lingered mainly by the left . violent or very forcible depression of the A objectionable it prevents high speed and impairs the action of the mechanism.426 Learning to operate LEARNING TO OPERATE It is of first importance that the operator should learn to finger the keys with a soft and speedy The key should be instantly released and touch. nothing is gained by a violent stroke. who finger the keys swiftly and at a uniform rate of speed. The best position at the machine line of the is to have the centre body nearly opposite the lower-case m. Anything in the nature of a spasmodic action. As the keys key is j simply act to release the power-driven devices. is to be avoided. High speed is not to be expected in the first few weeks. or of a rapid operation of several those keys followed by a pause and a repetition of the first action. the finger carried to the next with a gliding movement. The operator is advised to study his board carefully and to select and finger the keys slowly and deliberately. as most of the work is done at the left end of the The first and second fingers of both keyboard. and the thumbs and other fingers occasionally. hands are generally used. in order that he may acquire the proper touch and the best distribution of work between the two hands. almost without exception.

should he attempt to increase his speed. they hand. much time ceeding letters are represented on adjacent keys. The space-bar can be advantageously operated by the little finger. Unless a proper metal is employed. then study the manner of reaching them with the least movement of the hand. 1 MANAGEMENT OF THE MACHINE thing of importance in the use of the the employment of a good linotype metal. and after this has been accomplished. and unless. 1 The metal is to be composed of pure For additional remarks on this subject see Correct Keyboard Fingering. Where the same letter is to be used twice in succession. and not before. the metal is kept in proper condition. on pages 447-459 of this chapter. it will be impossible to secure first The machine is good results. one with each The beginner should first learn the location of the keys. are to be struck in quick succession. . will secure the result. In a short time he will unconsciously memorize the location of all the keys. 427 Management of the machine which should leave them only when the right is hand reaching for distant capital letters. as in stereotyping. If the letters of a word are far apart on the keyboard. a slight dwell on the key. and the action of the hands will be as automatic as in writing. is saved by a gliding or wiping action of the finger from one key to another. readWherever sucily acquired.hand.

TEMPERATURE OF METAL It is important that the temperature of the metal in the melting-pot shall not materially exceed 550 Fahrenheit. it may be purified by melting it in a suitable pot and immersing in the molten metal a stick of green wood. and when the metal becomes hard or brittle a small percentage of tin should be added to increase its fluidity and the sharpness of the type-faces. When the metal becomes exceedingly foul or brittle. which at the proper temperature should slowly assume a brown color without burning . or by thrusting into the pot a sheet of paper. or until the boiling ceases. The temperature can be readily tested by one of the special iron-clad thermometers made for the purpose. This dross should be skimmed off and removed at reasonable intervals. Temperature of metal and antimony. in proportions known to the experts. Speprepared alloys for doctoring or restoring may be obtained from nearly all dealers in supplies. or is in such condition that it does cially the metal not melt and flow readily. tin.428 lead. The remains of the wood should be removed and the metal thoroughly stirred and skimmed. The addition of a few ounces of rosin to the molten metal before the introduction of the wood is recom- mended. From repeated use the metal is slowly oxidized and dross appears. This should be submerged in the metal and permitted to remain about twenty minutes.

TREATMENT OF MATRICES The perfection of the type-characters produced depends wholly on the condition of the matrices. which may be loaded to a greater or less extent. contain a diaphragm or float. thermometer shows that the metal is at the proper temperature. for use on the main supply-pipe. the slugs are caused to adhere tightly in the mould. it rises in the glass tube and checks the flow of gas to the burner. The load should be regulated so that the governor will permit the flow of gas at moderate pressure only. If the 429 temperature is raised above the proper point. the metal is speedily impaired. controlled by regulating the mercurial governor at the side of the pot. so that ejection is difficult.the governor. If too high or too low. The temperature is and the matrices are injured. the bodies of the slugs are rendered porous. As the column of mercury expands with the increasing heat of the pot. with a pressure governor or regulator. When The pressure of the gas received from city mains varies widely at different hours of the day and Each machine plant is therefore provided night. These governors.Controlling the temperature or smoking. The height of the mercury is adjusted by means of a small stem or the spindle in the side of . . the mercury should be at the foot of the small central gas-tube. adjust the spindle to bring it to the proper level.

430 Treatment of matrices which are made with great precision and require to be intelligently and carefully treated. and to prevent the molten metal from flowing between them. very slight amount of finely pulverized graphite is of advantage. The continued use of the matrices causes a fine film or oxide to be formed in the characters. but care should be taken to avoid using it in excessive quantity. in order that they may be locked tightly together in the line. . and it is this breaking down of the walls. and in the course of a few days burnished surfaces. They should be removed from the machine when necessary and carefully rubbed on their side faces on a soft pine board. They should never be washed The use of a in benzine unless unusually foul. so that the metal may be cast freely and sharply into them and the typecharacters easily withdrawn. Under no circumstances should the matrices be thrown loosely into boxes or tumbled together. a sheet of canvas. which causes fins or hair-lines on the slugs. so that metal may flow between the matrices. A minute amount applied in the magazine or on the matrices will be will give slowly distributed. It is of importance that the side faces of the matrices shall be kept clean and free from foreign matter. The result will be to crush or break in the verythin side walls of the characters. taking care not to rub them so hard as to round the corners. or like material.

The short wedges are held fast in the line. FIG. so that they present always the same point at the casting level.The spaces orjustifiers 431 TREATMENT OF SPACES OR JUSTIFIERS As consist of a short previously mentioned. The molten Showing how typemetal on neglected space destroys adjacent matrix. so that when . 20. type-metal therefore tends to accumulate on the side of the short wedges or sleeves and to build up projections. as shown in Figure 20. the spaces or justifiers wedge and a longer wedge having a sliding connection therewith.

the projection will crush in the side wall of the adjoin- ing matrix. see that . as originally made. It cannot be wiped off. Every running or wearing part of the machine should have its surfaces carefully wiped clean at short intervals. or treated in any other manner which will remove the corners or round the faces. others. This metal should be removed daily. Under no circumstances should oil be applied within the magazine or to any of the surfaces against which the matrices travel. will contribute to the speed more than all and endurance of the machine and the excellence of its product. They must be left flat and true. filed. the side wedge should be rubbed on the surface of a board. The attendant should go carefully over his all oil-holes maare chine at short intervals. face of the or similar instrument.432 Cleaning machines a space is locked up in a line of matrices. Graphite may be sprinkled on felt The spaces or justimust not under any circumstances be rubbed on emery-cloth. coated with graphite or hard soap. firmly tacked to a board. or like material. and all surfaces excepting those with which matrices contact should be moderately oiled. It should be carefully scaled or peeled off with the edge of a knife-blade the wedge. taking care not to scratch After removing all the metal. fiers CLEANING MACHINES Cleanliness is the one thing which.

which.Oiling the parts clear. so that the rolls will Watch particularly the roll behind the melting-pot. is more The liable than others to become fast on its pivot. 433 and supply them to a reasonable extent with lubricating oil of good quality. but particular care must be observed at this point to limit the amount of oil so that it will not flow out on to the adjoining parts and reach the matrices or get into the magazine. The journals of the distributor screws should also be watched and lubricated from time to time. becoming heated. turn freely. and a very small amount of watch-oil applied with a broom straw. and dirt should be brushed out of the keyboard. or like means. rolls small brass cams of the keyboard above the rubber should be watched From time to tim e the dust . 28 . The mouthpiece of the pot should always close tightly against the back of the mould. It is very important that the operator should at reasonable intervals remove the mouthpiece and see that the throat is clear. will of the machine should be kept hard oxide of lead and anti- A sometimes form in the throat of the pot mony and obstruct the discharge of the metal. to the cam-pivots. THE MELTING-POT free The melting-pot from dross. Special care should be taken to see that the pivots of the rolls which travel on the large cams at the rear of the machine are oiled.

so that the holes may be brought into proper relation with the mould. but little at a time. but excessive pressure should be avoided because of the needless wear on the parts and the increased power that would be required to drive the machine. and any metal or other foreign matter removed. and keep the face of the file square with the mouthpiece. The ink will be transferred to the high points on the mouthpiece. Attention should be paid to the spring at the back of the pot. which must be carefully dressed down with a fine file until it is perfectly flat. . so that there will be leakage of metal between the mould and the pot mouth. Take off. Occasionally the mouth of the pot will become slightly warped. and tipping the pot. The adjusting screws in the lower ends of the pot legs are for the purpose of raising. so that there will be contact over its whole surface with the mould. lowering. The holes fully to the in the pot mould cell on the bottom of the mouth should be exposed and show full and round slug.434 The melting-pot carefully. taking care not to use emery-paper or any other material or instrument which will scratch the surface of The two surfaces should be watched the mould. through which it is pressed forward against the mould. In such case the back of the mould should be inked and the mouthpiece closed against it. The spring should have such tension as to carry the pot tightly against the mould.

If the corners or surfaces are rounded in the slightest. there will be leakage of metal and imperfect slugs. the corners of which must remain absolutely sharp and square. be taken to see that the ejector and is always accurately it will be certain to so that closely guided. and the . The ejector blade is guided on one side by the slide which carries the mould wheel.Treatment of the mould 435 THE MOULD The mould should be kept scrupulously. and the mould cell cleaned and polished. If at any time it presents any roughness. Neither files nor emery-paper should be used. The mould should be taken apart occasionally. This will permit the slugs to be ejected easily. fatal injury to the Carelessness in this respect will lead to mould. enter the mould without striking the corner of the latter. and on the op- posite side by a cushioned ejector support to guide the blades of different thicknesses and keep them Care should straight and in line with the mould. clean on both the front and rear faces and in the interior. it should be very carefully and skilfully burnished. It should be secured tightly to the carrying disk or wheel. THE MOULD DISK The disk in which the mould is it carefully watched to see that carried should be runs true. and the trimming-knives set properly.

so that there may be no rotary motion of the disk in either direction. which may be adjusted inward and outward. They will some- times wear and allow the mould wheel and mould to fall below the proper Adjustment screws are provided for raising the guides when this occurs. If the hub is seriously worn it should be removed and replaced by another. to compensate for the wear of the hub. come worn and elongated in time. This is very important. slide carried should have its wearing The guides in which the moves should be watched. . and whenever they are worn the bushings should be unscrewed and new ones substituted. at the point of bearing. between which the slug or studs on the frame. and when in the casting position tion of the slug. This is due to the wearing away of the square hub on the rear end of the mouldturning shaft.436 slide in Correct position of mould disk which it is surfaces occasionally oiled. it and in the position for the ejecmoves forward over stop-pins These pins enter removable bushings in the disk. level. The operator should examine them from time to time. The holes in the bushings beis driven. Occasionally the mould disk will fail to stop in the proper position. This square hub bears against the side face of the adjoining cam. The mould disk turns intermittingly. a hardened steel plate. and they should fit snugly therein. in order that the mould may align exactly with the pot and with the trimming-knives. The cam contains.

will sometimes wear at the point where the matrices and spaces enter and strike.The assembling elevator 437 THE ASSEMBLING ELEVATOR The assembling elevator. The pawls or dogs at the entrance to the elevator should be examined from time to time to see that they engage the edges of the incoming matrices. Above the star-wheel. If the assembler is of the solid type. in which the matrices are composed. In the modern machines there are removable plates at this point. immediately above the star-wheel. so as to prevent them from falling to the right. they should be replaced by others. without When removable plates. its matrixsupporting shoulders should align exactly with the shoulders in the stationary line-delivery channel. a new elevator may be necessary. This spring should project forward sufficiently to catch each matrix as it passes and hold it forward in position to enter the line. The lower end of this spring should be in such position that there will be just sufficient room beneath it for the passage of the thickest matrix in the font. Transposition of matrices in the line will sometimes occur. This is usually due to the failure of the small spring g3 (Figure 11) which projects through the assembler throat from the back. worn. . When the assembling elevator rises. there is a long pendent spring. between the passage for the spaces or justifiers and the path of the down-coming matrices.

It is of vital importance that the first elevator shall carry the matrix line downward until the ears at the lower ends of the matrices are in position to permit the mould to slide forward freely over them. serves first to lower the line to the mould or casting position. The descent of the elevator is controlled by a screw in its top which bears upon the top of the If the elevator is stopped at a high vise frame. If the parts do not should be attention align. and thereafter to lift it above the original level. and level. the matrices between them. by The jaws of the first elevator should be carefully watched to see that they are not mutilated and that they are parallel and at such distance apart as to permit the free movement of The pawls at the open end of these jaws should also be carefully noticed to see that they are in operative position and that they retain the incoming matrices with certainty. through any cause the vise automatic fails to work. to which the composed line is transferred. the sharp corner of the mould. given to the adjusting screws. THE FIRST ELEVATOR The first elevator. advancing .438 The first elevator line is transferred to through which the matrix the left. to the first elevator. so that the line may be transferred to the right preparatory to the separation of the spaces or justifiers from matrices and the further elevation of the latter to the distributor the second elevator.

When the assembling elevator rises to its upper position. to change the vertical movement of the elevator. carries a toothed or ribbed bar to engage and lift the matThis bar should be watched to see that its rices. Either of these wear or to cut away the teeth of the matrices and cause bad distribution.The second elevator 439 over the ears. These parts should be kept scrupulously clean and should be watched to see that the toothed bar carrying the matrices . with the result of destroying the matrices and the alignment of the type-characters on the slugs. It will be observed there is also an adjustment between the two parts of this lever. An adjusting screw at the lower end of the elevator slide serves to give it the required position. it is very important that it should align horizontally with the channel into which the matrices are transferred to engage the second elevator. THE SECOND ELEVATOE The second is elevator. outside of the frame and near the cam. defects will cause the bar to When the second elevator lifts the matrices to the top of the machine. to which the first line of matrices transferred from the elevator. which acts on a roller on the end of the lever. it comes to a rest against a solid support or banking-piece. This elevator is raised and lowered by the large cam on the outside of the frame.. teeth are not rough or mutilated. will shave away their upper edges.

and when appreciably worn they should be replaced by new are rails. In the later machines the shoulders of the rails made removed in separate pieces. The rising matrices will gradually wear away the vertical shoulders of along which the stop-rails in the box. clear of the shoulders and in engagement with the feed-screws. it will be carried. The matrix will thus be carried along with its shoulders riding on the inclined ends of the rails. and its actuating spring should be adjusted so that it will force the line horizontally with moderate pressure. as detailed on page 423. so that the matrices may be pushed forward smoothly from one bar to the other and into the box. by which they will be bent. The forward matrix of the line will bear against the vertical shoulders of the rails in the box. so that they may be and replaced by others without renewing rails. This finger will push the matrix upward. the entire . The slide which pushes the matrix line forward from the second elevator should move freely. until it is lifted into engagement with the teeth of the distributor bar. so that the matrices will be lifted to an improper position and against the threads of the screws.440 Replacing the worn rails comes into exact alignment with the corresponding bar in the lift-box of the distributor. The rails should therefore be carefully watched. and the matrix will be held in position directly over the upper end of the vertical lifting finger.

rails. FIG. Failure to do this will result in damage to matrices. . When the box is restored to its position. should be so adjusted that it will in every case lift the matrix clear of the shoulders on the side WHEEL > RST ELEVATOR. The matrix-lifting finger It also requires attention.Adjustment of matrix-lifting finger 441 The distributor box may be removed by releasing the one large screw. 21. care should be observed to force it upward as far as it will go and until it is seated firmly in place. but should not be permitted to lift a maits trix any farther than is necessary to secure release.

see that the space between that only one matrix will pass upward. On this depends the free delivery that is needed for securing speedy composition. or become shortened. should sink until its upper end is exactly flush with the bottom of the groove or channel in which the matrix ears slide. The object of this to prevent the lifting of more than one matrix at a time. In the distributor the centre of the front matrix. so as to permit the lifting of two thin matrices.442 Care of magazine channels lifting finger The shoulder of the on which the matrix bears should be kept clean. If dirt is permitted to accumulate in the angle. the finger will slip off from the matrices and fail to lift them box the bar overlying the line provided at the inner or front end with a thin vertical blade to enter the vertical slot in of matrices is properly. At reasonable intervals the escapements should be thoroughly brushed out. The escapements at the lower end of the magaEach pawl zine should work freely at all times. a new one should be inserted or rails substituted. new The magazine channels should be brushed out from time to time and kept scrupulously clean. or to the wearing away of the stop- shoulders on the rails. is examined to They should be carefully them is such If the blade too short. It will sometimes wear away on the blade is end. it is due either to the wearing away of this blade. If two matrices are lifted at one time. .

Cleaning channels offace-plate 443 An exceedingly slight amount of fine graphite may be applied to the escapement levers to ease their Great care must be exercised not to apply action. The channels of the face-plate in front of the magazine should be kept clean. If not. . the escapements should be carefully examined to see that the pawls rise and fall to the proper extent. If there is any failure to deliver matrices. partitions do not overlap the ends of the matrices or the matrix channels. 22. so as to obstruct the out- coming matrices. zine In the older machines the lower end of the magais adjustable vertically and also laterally. Time must be relied upon to secure its proper distribution. and great care should be taken to see that the upper ends of the OLD WHEEL RRST ELEVATOR FIG. an excessive amount.

444 The distributor feed-screws the action can sometimes be corrected by slightly raising or lowering the end of the magazine. The back feed-screw can be raised by releasing the spring latch on right-hand end. The channel entrance or magazine entrance below the distributor bar contains a series of vertical partitions. piece of soft pine wood with a little black-lead is an ex- A cellent thing for this. as the soft wood cuts its way bottom of the teeth of the bar and it polishes thoroughly. The distributor feed-screws should occupy proper For this relations to each other and to the bar. These partitions are sometimes bent to the right or left. after the screw has been raised. it will speedily destroy to the down the teeth of the matrices. When replacing. . If from any cause the ends of its teeth become rough. by which the matrices are guided down- ward into the upper flaring ends of the grooves or channels in the magazine. care should be observed to reset the screws in the proper relation. purpose is orie of the gear-wheels at the end has one of its teeth partly cut away and the companion gear provided with a stud to enter the cavity. They should therefore be carefully watched in connection with the falling matrices to see that the latter enter freely between the partitions. so that the falling matrices will strike upon them or be deflected into the wrong channels. The distributor bar should be kept very clean and in a burnished or polished condition.

away The machine should not be permitted to remain at rest with the pot against the mould.Cautionary remarks 445 CAUTION There are a few important errors against which operators are particularly cautioned. The effect will be to overheat the mould. This should never be done mould wheel is first moved rearward its from stop-pins. nor should two be to placed together in the line. Access is had to the casting mechanism by unlocking the vise frame and swinging it forward unless the away from the mould. Under no circumstances should pounded the magazine be or subjected to harsh or violent treatment. . MOLD WHEEL FIG. Spaces or justifiers should not be used at the extreme ends of a matrix line. soften it. and cause it warp out of shape. 23.

is attended with filed many dangers. it is because the parts are not clean and because they need oiling. and other serious evils which cannot be corrected line except by a skilled mechanic. The metal-pot should not be half an inch filled higher than from the top. If the parts fail to or other- move easily.446 Cautionary remarks line will fail to The matrix length that it should never be set to such descend between the vise 110 jaws first easily. either because they are not clean. the bending of the jaws. Under circumstances should the to carry a matrix elevator be forced downward between the jaws. so as to drive the machine forcibly. The metal should never be permitted to run to a low level in the pot. or fail to perform their functions. This action will cause displacement of the matrices. machine fails to run easily. Good results can be obtained only by filling the pot at short intervals. or because they are in need of adjustment. it is . No part of the machine should be wise altered in shape. so as to maintain a substantially uniform If the level of the metal therein. The tightening up of the main clutch.

noticeable increase in the operator's output in recent years ? The machine itself has not undergone hour any material change. It has been witnessed time and again that a slow operator will suddenly blossom into a full-fledged swift. It is not accountable on the assumption that the operators are becoming more proficient with practice. An operator nowadays is not designated as "swift" unless he can strike a seven. and the reason therefor to this mystery is ? not apparent.Correct keyboard fingering 447 CORRECT KEYBOARD FINGERING That the average speed of operators of the LinoThere type is steadily increasing is undeniable. What is the key on the theory that these some truths about operating the keyboard not universally known. and the . Indeed. ten thousand ems an hour has been averaged on the old-style squarebase machine. tors are setting no more Many of the oldest opera- than they did in the first year or two on the machine. They have It is explainable only swifts have discovered devoted themselves to a painstaking study of the keyboard and its proper manipulation. Some swift compositors failed to become fast operators. are to-day divers ten-thousand-an-hour men. while many type-setters of mediocre ability at the case have developed into swifts on the keyboard.or eight-thousand-an- What is it that is responsible for this gait.

it no longer is necessary to read ahead of what one is setting. Of course speed cannot be attained on illegible manuscript or unprepared copy of any description. It is possible to set fifteen thousand ems an hour on the Linotype. and the eyes be devoted to the continuous reading of the copy. The keyboard must of necessity be operated without question looking at it. and no operator should be content until he reaches the limit of his machine's capacity. To is fatal stop operating while memoto the acquirement of moving which demands that the fingers be kept The fingers travel over the incessantly.448 Correct keyboard fingering results are apparent in the records being hung do. Certainly one cannot be shifting the eyes to the keyboard and back to the copy without danger of losing one's place. rizing a sentence speed. the sense of what is being composed being kept by glancing ahead while sending up the line of matrices. Therefore it is apparent that. up. the location of the keys must be so fixed in the operator's mind that the fingers seek them mechanically. but if no time is lost in fingering the . If this is so. as was customary with the hand-compositor. in order to avoid the necessity of looking at the keyboard. keys as the eyes travel over the lines of the copy. It What lies these few have done the many can with themselves to make the effort. The first is thought to occur to a student of this that to set type at such high rates of speed requires incessant reading of the copy.

If the keys are to be operated without looking at the board." This is an important advantage fast operators have in keeping ahead of the machine. are not swifts. "be reckoned with. make a correction. may be acquired by any indeThe proof-reader. Accuracy should be esteemed above mere speed. There are some general rules which may be laid down as essential to the acquirement of speed in operating the keyboard of the Linotype. and as a single error in a line renders the whole line worthless it is important that few errors be made. it is All good printers. but safe to say that all swifts are good printers. the hands must assume some fixed relation to the keys in order that the fingers may unhesitat- ingly and unerringly reach for the letters without the guidance of the eyes. Speed will come with practice accuracy only with painstaking endeavor. Speed in operating fatigable student.Correct keyboard fingering 449 keys when the sailing is fair. however. or study their copy. They actually lose no time when it is necessary to hand-space a line. perhaps. must . the hands must be placed so as to economize to the utmost the distance necessary to travel in order to 29 . Assuming that the location of the keys has been so memorized that they are indelibly impressed on the operator's mind. It is only errorless type which is printable. the operator has time to decipher the cryptography of the scribbler while the elevator is "hung up. and their proofs are therefore cleaner by reason of their swiftness.

By this method the entire attention can be concentrated on the finger motion. and when the proper combination has been determined. Wherever such combinations as sh. Stretch the hands out and spread the fingers over the keyboard. at is any rate. quick. ch. In this manner practise on all ordinary prefixes and terminals and the common words. reach any key. and they perform no slight portion of the work of operating. so each must modify the general rules to suit his individual case. A light. Move the hands as little as you may. occur. but firm touch to practice. lithe-fingered chap will be impossible to the stubbyfingered operator. Now as The best possible practice for the one ambitious to be a swift operator is repetition of certain words or phrases.450 Correct keyboard fingering Seated at the keyboard so that the is directly before the operator. etc. There should be no set rule as to which finger should strike a finger. This should be the general position of the hands. in. Use every finger you can controlall except the little finger. This position will place the thumbs in control of the lower banks of keys. A system of fingering which will suit the long. sliding off . lower-case side spread out both hands so as to cover entirely the lower-case keys. the most effective. practise it over and over until it becomes mechanical. The object of both will be to avoid wide jumps of the hands in fingering the keys. make them with a single stroke of thumb or one key on to the one below..

the key is to be held down instead of making two strokes. The accompanying diagrams are therefore submitted. Two or more letters connected by a ligature indicate that these should be struck with a wiping motion with the one finger given. and illustrate what is meant by economy of movement. it may be well to demonstrate the fingering of certain words. and as the location of the letters forming the word becomes fixed in the mind. is To practise word a half-dozen times not sufficient. up fingers not at . and do not double the moment in use. In order to establish a system of fingering. In doing this. The finger nearest to any key should be the one to use. Where double letters occur. These combinations should be practised over and over. In these diagrams the letters on the fingers show the preferred method of fingering the word. and do the moving with the fingers instead of the whole hand.Correct keyboard fingering 451 certain key under all circumstances. look away and continue the practice. Bear in mind that repetition of words or sentences the is of the utmost importance. and this will vary according to the needs of the follow- ing or the preceding words. Keep wrist and fingers flexible. however. Prac- with the eyes on the keys. Do not withdraw the hand or fingers after tise it at first striking a key. and enlarged upon as proficiency is gained. keep the rhythmic beat of the fingers without actually raising them from the key.

the them then.452 Correct keyboard fingering calling. .

Correct keyboard fingering 453 charming. been. .

government.454 Correct keyboard fingering unless. .

Correct keyboard fingering 455 formation. punishment. .

which. .456 Correct keyboard fingering and man demand many.

Correct keyboard fingering 457 great. would could should. .

458 Correct keyboard fingering list : The following with advantage of words may be practised on making taking each shaking doing striking choking hardly truly surely kindly friendly much such rush crush must strike .

provided you can hang her up " at the speed.Correct keyboard fingering this time. not strike two or more keys simultaneously. The more space-bands in any line the less full it need be set. em quad. In quadding out lines use the en quad. and the proof-reader's pencil is the tor only thing that can stand in the becoming a swift. and space-band alternately. two hundred and seventy-five revolutions per minute and the machine to any number of lines " per minute up to nine. certainly will clog or transpose before Speed the keyboard rollers They almost to reaching the assembler. way of any opera- . follow the system of fingering here expounded. Operate the Do space-band with second or third finger of left hand. 459 The pump-stop will prevent short lines casting.

.

INDEX .

.

in title-pages. in subordination to intent . 281 Appendix. 236 Advertisements. when required. 95. Baskerville. 132 ning titles in. versification of. proofs withheld by. 29 . 94. 53 Black-letter. case in two parts favored in. often at inconvenient distance. in electro typing. 97 . 321. description and use of. aid to correct distribution of. setting of. alterations by. work of. 297-306. 268 Bidpai Literature. 108 . 3 (note) . 126 (note). spurs and 253 com253 . most approved method of . 239 Bastard title. 233 (see also note) . 55 Bodkins. 323 (see also note) Bodoni. nicer attention to accents insisted on by modern. 232. (note) Authors. 76 . 172 . patent. 325. 4 . 284 22 . 332 . 228 (see also note) Binding. proper placing of. a difficult form of composition. and have no period. 138 . Giambattista. 171 . 96 . accents used in. weight of. 227. paragraphing of copy by. in algebra. real sponsors of books. brief chapters of. 233 Book-binding. John. William. . use of. angles of. 135 . 147 Arabic. 55 . on the composition of. 232 . 146 Algebra. verbose extracts in. 226. 397. 85. paging of. type- (note) . 322 Bible. copy calling for. Accents. paging of. 172 . not suitable runfor chapter headings. . in Century Dictionary. adjustment of margins suitable for. tion of illustrations usually decided by. 45. 78 . in foreign languages. braces used in. position of. one or more fonts of. See Guards Benzine. 282 (note 2) Blades. 31 . 146 . machine patents granted in. for running titles. See also United States Antique. See Book-binding Blacklead. 142. as distinguished from half-title. 84 (see also note).HORACE GREELEY INDEX Abbreviations. 276. . Greek. how make-up may be helped by. signs used in. 145 (note) Blocks. 30. 130 (note) Bearers. a most diligent searcher. for legend lines. 280 . safe leadership of. in font. agreements on style with. 112 (note). 84. 14 (note) . composition of books of. 110 Bohemian. combinshould be in roman ing of. 261. tray cases serviceable for signs of. Pedigree of. 277 posi. definition of. 185 16 168 running titles usually determined by. 5 . 262 for cut-in notes. type kept standing by delays of. 172-188 America. 136 close succession of chapters in. 262 . Flemish. capricious taste of publishers and.

334. tools needed by stoneman for exact.. 2 . 51 . 378 (note) mean. 130 titles. .464 sewing in. adjusting margins of. 91 roman. types needed for composition of. 180. brass braces selin. 167 of. . 29 large types and borders often required in. 396. use Burr machine. 19 . 52-55 . 60 making up in. 12. 128 . 33 . fractions. 334 (note) . 132. 160. dedication. . 11 . 340 (see also note 2). 9. ad- Cabinets. faces of brass rule most used dom used in. increased supply of. types for running titles of. profusely annotated old. 407 342. 375. tables in good. sumptuous. . 167 . Index 333. 170. of good workmanship. 55 .. 186 Bruce. 398 Byzantine style. overworked typographic. 4 . thin strips of. 1. preface and introduction. See Chases Book-houses. 21 . brass. title-pages of. sometimes needed. 80 characters seldom found in ordinary. 334 (note) neat. 67 . 2 printed from type. 366. 127. defects of side-stitching in. solid and leaded. spacing and leading of. miscellaneous. 130. . 134. 35. 129. 288 locking up and correcting madeup pages of. French method of using. . 171 . 185. in algebra. folding. 132 . signs. method of decorating. 161. 18. . . arrangement of. 32 . broad. 297-306. chapter synopsis. from electrotype plates. cases with unequal compartments needed for. freakish placing of. 168. unworkmanlike.. 163 (note) . schemes for sewed. for cuts. side-stitching never used for library. 32. 47 . and. 85 . gathering. 365. 68 . twisted and fantastic. 3. petty fonts of display types seldom needed in. 167 . 389. without running title. 77 . uniformity in use of. sorts needed in. . lengths of furniture rarely required in. brass rules of plain face now more needed than. Flemish black-letter occasionally used for display lines in. 168 . 76 et seq. descriptions (note). 167 . 129. sectional supplanted by solid.. 280. 16. time-hands and piece-hands in. 313 Box-fasteners. 396 Book-chases. 88 et seq. 281. 112 for chapter headaccented. 233 (see ings. 368. workmanship of well-printed. should be made by qualified artist. 55. of type. . 297306 . and trimming sections of. . 388. small capitals. 38 . 376. 75 stonework in American. 316 Bottling. 160 . case for lower-case. adjusting margins in. table of illus- trations. 289 . 255 Bruce. 332-337. nary. 167. 234 (note) Capitals. 35 triple case for. 198 . 332-337. 73 . 10. 225 Brackets. 307 . 392. scheme formulated by. weight of leads required in. 180 . hair-line rule. Borders. 11 . 108. in type cases. in type cases. 169 (note) . 16 Bunsen burner. 16 . with decoration. George. in the so-called Elzevir and in the Byzantine or Turkish style. 132. 18 . leads for ordi- . 131. should agree with subject-matter. 206 . 2 supply of printing-material needed in fully equipped. Jr. table of contents. 128. decorations for. chapter headings. vertised 370 of. should receive two readings. 133. v characters needed in mathemati172 recent. 73 . Adriano. and reference-marks in. 29. 57. 173. sewing. one 144. spacing of. petty cabinets not desirable for. 165 . 179. 131. Bruce Type Foundry. 35 Capelli. cal. 178. weight of. 253 how to insure accurate register on. in font. 376. how to remedy. 145. of regular form. improved form of. parts and half- 131 . 133. . preferred for titlepages. methods followed in production of. 205. 31 Braces. job cases for lower-case and. now provided by type-founders. . 232 . 174. 28. David. in steady request. 315. typography of. 362. used in algebra. weight of. often needed in book-houses. Kelmscott. for job cases. proposed arrangement of lower case with. 22 . 90. copying best features of. difficulty of locking up forms containing brass-rule. large. in font. 232 Books. 165. 292. 159. . 262 . odd and plain types in. 261. 111. folding of sections See also Composition in. See also Pamphlets Book-work. 111 et seq. ephemeral. 168. in genealogies and pedigrees.

294. 130 parts and half-titles. . 23-27 . 187. small. fitting of. Hebrew. use of im35. 90 adjustment of blanks or white lines in. proper method of emptying. 306. 290. 4. 253 Centennial Exposition. great defect in. open. 14. 5 how to secure orderly arrangement of. . 38 .. 91. 292-294. for electrotyping. 15 . 92. in title-pages. 36 . 102. accepted form of lower. projecting kerns in electrotype. 232. unusual. 220-223 . 131 (see also note). 23-27. by time-hands and piece-hands. for labor-saving rule. 330 Chases. or heading-. 57 . 182 (see also note).. 55. of title-pages. 245. new. 101. 246. for display type. 63 . for music composition. genealogical. triple. correct manner of holding. . for quadrats and spaces. 291. to measure. 187. 37 Case-rests. 32 Citations. 314 . old Flemish black used by. 75 et seq.. 38. 14 (note). 4. .. care of. capital. 36 planning a. 317. wrought-iron. stands for supporting. different styles of. algebraic. after distribution. 262. 49-52. screw. 32. 324 Composition. See the vari- ous qualifying names Composing-room. 330. 11 et seq. 294. publishers'. job. 38 waved. in type cases. 33. long and narrow. 232 Chapter headings.Index for running titles. types needed for different kinds of. for display type should be numbered. exact register im316. . 100. 29. 31.. 290. with furniture. 129. 96. 327 . 54 made spongy by treble-leading. See also Capitals. 465 . 18 . 62. 101. sinkage of. 289. surface of. table of illustrations. Hebrew. 35. 28. in one piece. 10 et seq. 259. 330 for. for lower-case. . 2 . 46. 92. and music. common fault of novice at. 44 (see also note) . 78. for composition of Greek. 345 (note). common form of quadrat. of. 343 possible with unsquared. 34 . of Greek. 36. for composition of Greek. readjustment of boxes of. 22 . 22 . now made as strong as they are light. 127. 308. Greek. 34 . 175. 307. insufficient provision of. 45 (see also note). 75. . selection of. 343. 345 (note). and German. See also Letters and Small capitals Capitals. 255. 228. 237 . 129. description use of. for leads. type cases most noticeable objects in. 31. dedicatable of contents. routine of plain. Hebrew. combination of quarter. . 250. shiftingbar or book-. 81. See Extracts and Quotations Code. disadvantage of shaking. 176 . 1. . 98. importance of keeping materials accessible and in good order in. also note). 262. special stand made for composition of. 323 Composing-stick. too much room occupied by. and of. should not be laid on face of form. influence of type-setting machines on. 31 . should be numbered. for composition of algebra. gripperedge of. 229 Chase-bars. description 44. for Hebrew. 83 racks cast-iron and in. 99 Composing-machines. See Cabinets and Stands Cases. 37 . tion. 95. 292. itals Charts. 135 (see also note) . 86 solid and thin-leaded. 251 (see also note) Catch-lines. Letters. 402 Century Dictionary. 35. how to prevent bowing 309. 2 when it can be economically done. 38. and musio. and ornamental rules not used in needless delay and plain. and Small capitalic. 4 et seq. 103. made for composition of Century Dictionary. how they may be . for algebraic formulas. See also Cross-bars and Imposition Circulars. 219. See also Cross-bars Chase-racks. for German. 37 . roman or 344 pages imposed . 289 Composing-rule. 268 Characters. on style. 128 128. 67. 77. posing-stone in. 134. 21 . 130. 47 trouble in. 10 et seq. also note) of. accents used in. 88 . aids to. 97 . 17. forms of type in. setting of. of old manufacture. strained or cracked. 3 (see also note). and smallcapital letters. 102. 310. 344. 175. cases for ordinary. . . 111 et seq. 2 . tray. triple. 30 . 307 (see . for ordinary composition. William. 114 (see also note) Caxton. arrangement of. 318. 33. adjustment . 343. 100. See Small capitals Case-racks. on odd pages. twin. 132 . old-fashioned.

376. 171-188. 112 et seq. 29. study of Greek alphabet of service to. single. 23-27 . 22 preliminary examination " short and long " takes of. . 3 (see also note). hackneyed. 246 on German. . 123. 159 should be designed by qualified artist. . 171. in type cases. 108. mechanical substitutes 397 et seq. on table-work. . See Notes Cuts. 188. half-tone. 137 . 23-27 Diacritical marks. See Accents Dickinson. 11 weight of. 230 Greek. 121 paragraphs and sections in. 91. rnaker-up responsible for justification of. and double. 134 appendix. 164 (note). for algebra.. 79 Cross-bars. 30. accents and display letter. for music. 236. 353. 329. . 234. 315. how to place forms on. . 323-325 distribution of unusual sorts by. Dictionary Dictionary of the Art of Printing. German. 395. . 37. 232 (note) Copy. in title-pages. when out of use. 217 . 245. 364. 314. ornamental. chapter headings. Theodore Low. by. skill required by. setting of table of. use of thin space on each side of. 363. 129 Contractions. 133 preface and introduction. . 75 et seq. 369. dictionary stand and cases designed by. . 38. 345 (note). . for algebra. . 231. 258 . 231 Dictionaries. marked vowels of. 55. 27 helps to new. also Chase-bars and Chases Cut-in notes. use of. labor-saving.. in German. . 194 et seq. music. needs Cox machine. 188-207. 306-320. 208. 14.466 131 . 232 Dictionary. 33 (note). 147. See also Job-printers and Printers Contents. poetry. . 385. 63. 118. tables and table-work. 33 See also Enoffice. 132. 247254 computation of space occupied by. 92. 5 . 363 (note) . 216-218 on foreign languages. older forms of troublesome. 127. 109. 89 . (note). 324 on setting of title-pages by. . 169 . 125 Dates. Samuel Nelson. and Photo-engravings Cutting-machine. 132 chapter synopsis. made square and solid in making up. 77 methods of handling. in font. . between short articles or paragraphs. 128. setting of. 4 . 38. minor or extra sorts rarely called for by ordinary. 168. 233 pencilled Greek extracts bewildering to modern. 288 . 382. 291-294. parallel. on a large scale. 131. 344. 378. 229 in foreign languages. Manuscript Counting-room. cases with unequal compartments needed for. Hebrew cases used by American. 297 . for hand. .. material must exceed daily needs of. use patent quoins on. 133. 2 De Vinne. 33 cabinet case how to keep. 167 books with. stands for supporting type ca of. 170. gravings. Illustrations. 15. 303.one ormore fonts of. 147. 30. 258 . Index . . . 307. Danish. . . 77 seq. index. . 225-230 . 3 (note) safe-keeping of. 124 Decoration. spacing of. 12 requiring roman and italic. . side-headings of. See also Type-setting Compositors. 388 of Cylinder-presses. 207. 96. 148-151. 137 . 172 former difficulties of. Century. 234 (note) . 55. 112. genealogies and pedigrees. 241-247. 32. See Abbreviations Coptic. 339.. 340 (ncte I). genealogical charts. 163 (note). . See Century . old-time typographic. See 375. 400 of. 232. . 260 how to amend fault . 104. 373. freakish placing of. by early printers. 234-240 Hebrew. 207-225. See also Ornamentation Dedication. 326. 77 et of. 148. See also . pen drawings of amateur. locking up. 10. 5 et seq. 282. 76. 308. algebra. judicious and injudicious. 187 rcomposing a table from manuscipt. 275 cuts or narrow tables in. 231. 128 Designers. for title-pages. 16 . . 103. accents in. 233 Dashes. bad lessons in. . . 327 place of points for. 254. 224 casting off of music by. 254 correction of proofs by. in some kinds of. working with insufficient light. 125 attempts at. type-setting on piece . 97 reading of sticks by. 169 (note) Devices. 347. irregular or insufficient supply of. hand-travel of. special stand and cases designed for. 219. in title-pages. effect of type-setting machines on employment of. 257. grouping of space boxes approved by. music. in printingfor. 259.

breaking up of. 2 . 178. of leads. 185 . 366. printers of northern. . 137 . 4.. 447 et seq. 29. in printing. 208 English. use of. Illustrations. 174. 179.Index safe Firmin-. safeguards against reckless. 252. . 228 (note) Estienne family. correct method of. 14 (note). use of See also arabic. 272. 327. 63 Drugulin. absence of accented letters in ordinary. placing of. inserting points in. 359 (note 2). 346. 1. 325. 137 . 273 . 228 (note) Europe. 322 (see also note). 320. preparforms for. 99. W. in German. letters needed for. 73 . . plates in hands of. disadvantage of shaking cases after. 63. 115 et seq. index. See also Cuts. 5 . genealogical chart of. spacing of tables of. 261. 38 . bold. increased supply of. 329 process of. 397 Extracts. guards provided by. . 401 England. standing galley reserved for. 173. large and small. new method making up. so-called. . begun with plain two-line letter. See also Electrotypers Firmin-Didot. locking up. spacing of. 138 . folios for different. different forms of. 367. Foot-sticks. verbose. within rules of hair-line face. 306320. 176. 97 . Facs. 2 arrangement of. and mak- ing front margins for eight-page. 30. types needed for. 304. 92 complex tables of. 318-320 . 138. 100. in display lines. 278. cleaning. 93-95. 15. quadrats. See Guards Electrotypers. . cases with unequal compartments needed for. 344 . sometimes needed. correct keyboard. 326 . 91. should 53. 232. 21. 54 have blunt angles and high shoul53 chases for. 343. 22. 195 et seq. 92. in font. 101 . in algebra. 172. 124 . . See also Job-work Distribution. 16. 219 small. in text. tions driving out or getting in. Numerals Fingering. 332. 328. music published in. 74. 3 (see also note). 123. 232 (note) Dummies. polyglot printinghouse of. See also Finishers Electrotypes. in text. 228 (note) Estienne. 123. and unusual sorts. 176. sizes of type useful for. 149. 232 Engravings. 326. aids to cleaner. 333. 110. 287 . hair-line rules for. leading of. 12 weight of. schemes of imposition grouped in four classes of. use of medieval initial letters in. types for. 343 (note). 2 . in appendix. 177. set hours for. 138 . leadership of. tray cases for. 268. on cylinder-presses. 321. 327 . iu text. 153. 35 faces and sizes. 291. machine patents granted in. 422-424 Dovetails. 167 Empire machine. Electrotype guards. Pierre. superior and inferior. 17. 91.. See Plates Electrotyping. scheme for. rules controlling imposition of. 327. 184 in tables. Forms. 303 making tail margins for sixteen-page. when See also Quota287. 321. See Side-sticks table of signatures . 165 Figures. referencemarks supplanted by superior. and Photo-enby. 32 . 277. composition not economically done with small. 139. 38. 387 ing Elzevir style. 150. . French and English eighteenth-century. 262 . old-style. approved practice of setting. 467 Ambroise of indicating. in title-pages. 191. 389-392 Fonts. 337. See Didot Flemish. with forms. copy calling for. 145 paging. 144-146. 2 . 140. See also Notes . in type cases. 77 . 255. See also Letters and Types Foot-notes. taking proofs of. in Mergenthaler machine. 233 Folding-machines. Didot. genealogical chart in work by. . use of guards in. 318-320. furniture preferred hair-line rules objectionable to. Finishers. case of two parts favored in. 228 (note) Display. . 335. 279 setting of. printing of. 338 . 14 (note). hand-travel in. gravings Essai sur la Typographic. wood-. 307 (note). 362. 143 (note). 1. 138 . experiences of. 138. accents used in. often at inconvenient distance. ders. 136. 11. need of many of many music. 328.. 16 . 167. 37. short. rules unsuitable for. 12.

. (see also note). for composition of. 70. note)-10 (see also note) Furniture-drawers. 71. copy in. on use See Indention of. 289. 219 Guards. 235. 7 . 231. . 234 (note) Fractions. preferred for making up. from forms. quotation-marks and arabic figures in. 66. 71. combination 317. 289. 71. 233. James. algebraic. 310. . quadrat cases made to rest upon. 65. 31 description and use of. side-headings of. . placed underneath cases. 395. working font of. 288. and slice. . type read and corrected on. Harper. alphabet of. . combining of. how to prevent needless cutting of. taking proofs on. 40. 8. . 318 . 176. 187. medieval initial letters frequently used in. . of composed type. 137 . Horace. 367. legend lines in. rules for placing accents in. 234 (see also note). metal. 290 Furniture-racks. accents and Masoretic points or vowels . 250 . 75 Head-bands. . 172. 71. in type cases. 233 Furniture. 64 (see also note). 345 (note). breathings of. 347. 63. Side-headings. 344 (note). 74. 178. 327 when to select and put in place. accents used in. 34. 402 Gothic. 2. 26 . cases for composition of. reserved for distribution. metal preferable to wood. 251 (see also note). in algebra. dention See In- Galley-racks. Half-diamond indention. 236. 366. 343. fantastic borders in fashion in. and Subheadings Hebrew. proper distinguished from improper use of. double letters of. in font. 63 orderly storage of. 252 . 310. 281 Greek. proving of. of capitalization 251. in bookwork. 41 . Pierre-Simon. 236. 72 . 64 et seq. shrinkage of. 38 aid to correct distribution of. 256. 130 See also (see also note). broad standing and movable. See Chases See Chapter headings. accents of. 318-320 Gutters. 97 et contrasted 96. 253 Goodson Graphotype. purpose of. 363 (note) Hand-work. . guards of metal. with maproper meth- Hanging indention. 238 different faces of. with fixed arms. description and purpose of standing. 2. 39 wood. 237 . ods of. 70. 176 Frames. 290. 252. usual place of points for. See also Imposition Formulas. 274. 251 . 324 . 259 effect of moisture upon wooden. in. chine-work. presswork done on. 463 Gregory. 39. 257 pages protected by stoneman with. quarto. 10. 364 Heading-chases. See also Side-sticks also 67 (see Furniture-cabinet. 5 chase. composition of. of. 225-230 German. 153 . 247-249. adjusting margins of. 241. cases for composition of. 250. brass. 342 (note). 173 (note). 185. alphabet of. 42 Galleys. 108. fitting new forms with. 257. 242. 257 . description and use of. characters of. weight of. 41. 72 . 71. 42.. 168 Head-bolts. 239 Greeley. umlaut over vowels 251. with low rim. copy in. St. 11 rarely needed. 70. sectional cases for. cases 38. 1 French. 231 alphabet of. 242 points as guides to pronunciation of. 73. and compounding words 252. 186.. 337. 253 Germany. 316. justifying on. aid to correct distribution 95 copy in. 62. 310 . materials for making up should be placed on small. Benjamin. 327 Gazetteers. 231 accents used in. wood and metal. retightening of quoins in forms with wooden. 16. 97 seq. 234. 159-167.468 Index Genealogies. 18. 68. 258 . . Headings. 66. division in. 63. copy in. with inclined shelves. 231 . . 258 . 320 . for electrotyping. 243. 43 . 181-183. Titles and Title-pages Hand-presses. 131. 63 old and new forms of. stands made with supports for. 319 removal of. electrotype. for gutters of back margins. freakish placing of. 95 . in algebra. 64. 233 (note). setting of parts and. 80 et seq. 41. use of. . 177. 64. 309. . 256. with swinging arms. 336. use of roman character in. cases for composition of. Half-titles. 256 . in. 316. See Stands Franklin. 188 Fournier. 12 . standing. 352. .

in one chase. 365 . 280-282 (see also note 1). 243. the print on first and third pages. twenty-four pages on square shape of sheet. text led down at side of. triplicates of four pages. offcuts separately folded and inset. 347 . 338. dimensions of. fitting of chase-rack under. on. 324 325. as one section. in pages. . 368. four pages . 297 Hints on Imposition (Williams's). cases for composition of. 141." 349. 311. 354 . 291 of. See Imposing-stone Imposition. one of eight and two of four pages. twelve pages of oblong shape. no inset. of running titles. 284. . 351 . to fold as one section. sixteen pages in two sections of twelve and four. separately folded and inset as one section. 356 sixteen oblong pages. eight pages. 371 . locking up. 289. legend lines of. . 349. correcting and justifying preparatory work on. forty-eight pages in one chase. 330 Imposing-table. Engravings. legal folio of sixteen pages. . 245. 337. 331-337 . Vienna. wood-blocking of electrotype. words in. twelve pages in one chase. placing of. elementary principles of. 371. . 232 (note) Imposing-stone. 358. sixteen pages as two sections of eight. 274. 306. imposed for insets. eight sections of sixteen. . 106 . two sections of twelve. 90. 277 .. 356 . eight-page forms in three chases. twelve pages in one chase. 141 of. electro typed. 289 many sizes of. four pages in two forms and two chases. 353 . on. 287. 239. 283. sixteen pages as usually laid. Ill Hungarian. 245. Image. 2. 346 legal folio of four pages. twenty-four pages. Pickering's (note) 239 Illuminators. thirty-two pages as four sections of eight pages each. 269 . (note) History of the Origin of Printing. 361. sixteen pages in three sections. adjusting margins in. 247 Herapel quoin. imposed from centre. made-up pages on. 353. 350 . inset folio of twenty pages in ten forms. 355. Greek type designed by. music or oblong way. 351 sixteen pages. 393. with offcut of eight inset as one section. twenty-four pages in one chase. one section. eight pages in two sections of known as " two . 297-306. 372. twenty-four pages on square sheet. two wide. . 245. 290. four pages in one chase. eight pages imposed from centre. flat side of quoins should rest upon. imposed from centre. 306-320. 233 Hyphens. 339 sixty-four pages in one chase. 351 . 363 . 362. 81 . in composing-room. 296. thirty-two pages in two chases. Henry 0. 312. fifteenth-century. scheme for moulding of. cannot be divided. 284-286. lifting device described in. 469 . inset of eight. twentyfour pages in two chases. read from right to left. central imposition. use of thin space on each side of. See also Cuts. sixteen pages in two chases for one section. 370. 369. 88 in German. 348. music way. 80. 278 (note) Holy Scriptures. 348 eight pages in one form. 360 one hundred and twenty-eight pages in one chase. . sixteen pages in two portions of eight for inset. 32 furnishing of. Selwyn. 264-267. setting of table testing of. relief of white needed by. eight pages in usual way. two sections of twelve. 354 . four pages in one chase. four sections of sixteen. 339 . See Bible Honghton. types too tightly locked up spring from. 373. accents used in. 357 thirty-two pages in two forms.Index 244. 67. six sections of sixteen. of irregular shape. 276 edition of. long way. 129. inset to make one section of twenty-four pages. 252 faulty . . should be cleaned before pages are laid down. 240 Imperial Printing House. . 318 printing. twenty-four pages in one chase. 313 . . Shevas used in. 276. 246 . three sections . 361. 140. . 349. use of. 359 ninety-six pages in one chase. eight pages for offcut of paper. 341 circular of two pages only. 130 placing of. 159 Illustrations. use of. and Photo-engravings . Iliad. 345 . 288. four high. oblong shape. 268. with offcut of eight inset as one section. four.

study of. avoided in German. 33 . 86 (see also note). in font. often. for running titles. for side-headings. 77 . 120. 150. 228 (note) Job-printers. facilities for. 55. 31. new form of. 171. 339 (note) Ink-table. 2 Lanston machine. 159. for legends. Insets. out of place in title-pages. 316. thirty -six pages in two chases. removal of. 22. 60. plain. for inferior letters. 57-59. copy in. 81 . 160. 87. in chapter headings. for long synopsis. 322 (see also note). at inconvenient distance. setting of. 281 Index. 56. Languages. tends to collect at ends of inking-rollers. time-wasting. half-diamond. 87. treatise of. 228. 111 . for subheadings. in algebra. 167 . 38. 134 Irish. Charles T. 194. square shape of paper. ten-page leaflet. 396 Imprint. on printing. above. 312. for. capitals of. 377 . 147. high and low. by gauges." 387 . 34 . 281 Jacobi. lower-case of. 30. de. 16. 2 . 132. eighteenmo fold of sixteen pages only. 402 Latin. 447 et seq. 383 forty pages in one chase. 133. three sections of twentwenty pages in one ty-four. spaces repeatedly changed in. Lead-cutters. in font. for preface. 382. . 127. 46. for one section. setting of. 59 Leaders. 262.. 231 Law cases. 289. on use of. 61 Leads. 402 Justification. accent case for. 93. eight pages in quadruplicate. run- 38 Leading. or subscripts. Job-work. 136. 133. weight of. 316. inset of eight. 184. 35. 34. copy in. sis. 142. three sections of twelve. occasionally selected for poetry. 376 eighteen pages in one chase. See Imposition Introduction. weight of. 252. one section. in title-pages. 57 (see also notes). 105. 112 (note). 385 . of poetry. . legend lines in. use of. locking up and correcting madeup pages of. two pages high. 233 Italic. 104. accents used in. from face of type. 386 . 167. 60. See also Morris. accents and signs required in foreign. cases with un- equal compartments needed for. 379. 125. correct fingering of. 380 seventy-two pages in one chase. tolerated style for title-pages. Lead-rack. seventy-two pages in one chase. sometimes needed. unsuitable for side-notes. twenty chase in one as one section pages without transposition. 233 (note) Italian. 114 Indention. 135. uniformity in use of. in title-pages. 317. See also Compositors and Printers Job-stick. 32. 15. . or " four on. Joseph. 317. play Johnson Tachytype. six-page leaflets in strip one page high. 133 149. lower-case and in 374. 173 (see also note). 146 . 136. 306. 193. 231 . See also Dis. 133. 61. 147 . 384. . paging of. 70 See Composing-stick furniture-rack devised certain kinds of. slight unevenness in. and sizes of.470 Index ning titles in of sixteen. 91. made needlessly repelling. increased supply of. 16 tray cases for. of genealogical charts. 263. mischiefs produced by loose or careless. of synopof index. See also Spacing Kelmscott books. 161. 14 (note) Jacobs. 92. for cuts. should be ordered with system. 1 . 321. use and omission of. 139. spacing and. for long dedication. 88 et seq. scription. . 138 . 2. 35 cases with unequal compartments needed for. 58. different sizes and faces of. 2. black-letter not suitable broadest blank for. 128. 21 of algebraic work. 5. very thin spaces used by. half-diamond and hanging. 279 . unsuitable for side-notes. different methods of keeping. copy requiring two or more sizes of. importance of exact. 148 Initials. usually of brass. special cases provided for. 163. 168 Ink. William Keyboard. 381 chase as one section. 151-159. use. . composing-rules of. alphabet of. case for. when required. six sections of twelve. one leaf cancelled.

120 . weight of. 28 spacing of capitals and. Bidpai. 394. 76 . first strokes of. 173 . should have a diagram. 324 Mannerisms. copy and proof should be continually before. 330. 255. Literature. 390 side-stitching . 345 (note). Pedigree of. 15. 255. quarto galley with low rim preferred for. Linotype operator. 16 . 342 (note). 429. 403 et seq. 322 titles. for chapter synopsis. the mould. 429. 306 . spacing of capital. 395 Matrices. . 176. 106 uncouth. for cutin notes. superior and inferior. 404 et seq.. 96. 306-320 London. search for faults in. should be should not be laid on light. 386. 288. 90. small capitals. running 263 . 208 Lower-case. 151-159. 430. 401 Magazines. . 429. treatment of spaces or justiflers.. 84. 202. 274. . difficulty of locking up forms full of thin. 258. 295.. for running 143. 385. 132.. 90 dense huddling of capital. 332 . pages on. . 93. temperature of metal. not paid for by piece. spaces furnished with ital. a study without end. See also Capitals. 258. 84 (note). 315. correct stone-work dependent on exact. 260 . 16. 107 (see also note). 283. 99. double. how to acquire skill in. 432. 258. 228 (see also note) Locking up. amendment of fault by. 434. methods of. responsible for justification of composition. treatment of matrices. small-sized. tables in. 260. 258 of . 288. and. 435. . Manuel Typographique. 226. 347. 297 improper use of. 133. Characters. 312. should have raised rim at extreme end. 281 Lye. . 348. 227. 254. 229 . 184. folding-machines for. See also Copy Marchand. subheadings of. See Making up Maker-up. 78 et seq. table of contents in roman. Prosper. 260. recent. . 367. gauge used by. racks for stowing. 280 . 436 . the melting-pot. job cases for capitals and. 431. condensed. 433. Machines. weight and proportion proposed case of. 258. 128. description and use of. 385. 78 et seq. See Pattern sheet Margins. 426. 286. 427. 52. 257. 471 of. rules most useful for. 432. in font. for cut-in notes. 139. description of. 433. 275 Making up. 327. linotype. 427. 426. 392. hand-work. 256. 316 Leaflets. . Thomas. initial. small fonts of two-line cap2. required in book-house. different thicknesses. 445 et seq. 234. (note). 62 . and Types Linotype. 22. 342 (note). 234 (note) Manuscript. 19. tying up page in. 141. Mergenthaler. and imposition 262.Index weight of. 366. 302. of. 94. duties included in. font of. 433. 299. 53 low leads used for. 334 (note). Letter-boards. 403 et seq. legend lines in roman and in italic. setting genealogical charts from. 14 (note) Melting-pot. 142. compact arrangement of cases an advantage to. type for distribution on. diagram needed in. 428. 269. titles in italic. addition or withdrawal of. gauge for. 257 Letters. 19 arrangement of case for capitals. measuring and marking Small capitals. in Greek. 43. 280. 430 Mechaniek Exercises. 328 Letterpress. in font. 392. 256 off by. treatment of. management of. 434 Mergenthaler Linotype machine. pinched. 16. boiling. 296. learning to operate. 10 duties . 97 Mackellar. 228. 289 Macmillan Company. in German. cleaning. 315 face of form. should have ready access to needed materials. 107. roman. treatment of. of pages in two colors. 43. 146. 277. 278 (note) Marginal sheet. 61. 435 the mould disk. 428. music published in. ing See the various qualify- names with contrasted Machine-work. 17 for capitals and. 317 Mallet. 258 . how to become an expert. 269 (see also note). 262. adjustment of. . cau. 313. 311. . 172. 4-27. 386 Make-up. 429. 174. 173 (note). 297-306. 139 . one of the modern methods of. . 259 of chapters. 428. in typography. full form of. 104 et seq. cut-in notes in small sizes of. 433. 364. 56 . 60 should never be pieced. in algebra. 239 McMillan machine. 268.

232 (note) Newspapers. 169 (see also See also Decoration See Imposition Planer. in lines of capi- for parts and 124. complete series of. composition done by. 110 edition of Iliad and Odyssey by. . making of. 97. used in book. smooth-edged. 137. See also 384. . 377 cheap. 426. 108. See also Cuts. 2 Operator. 93. 174 Piece-hands. long. 289 . 141 type off its feet a cause of faulty. adjusting margins for. 136. 126 Paper. 1 . 50. title-pages in. placing of. 374. 355. of one or two . single-sheet. how to prevent or lessen buckling of. 433. 134. 342 (note) Pedigree of Bidpai Literature. paper for. method of. testing accuracy of. 357 handmade. thin rule not suitable for. safe leadership of. the spacing of dashes between. 145 advertising. Numerals. 277. title-page of. disciples of. 276. the overrunning of. etched by photo-engraving process. 188 Monotype. cleaning of.472 Index Paige machine. in title-pages. Engravings. how to become an expert. side-stitching 334 of. pages 207-225. 375. 38 348 of books . 324 (see also . numbered or lettered. on the composition of. 340 (note 2). upper case shown by. composition in style of. 386-388. 239 (note) Piece-fractions. 92 . 383. machines . improved method of setting. 227. pressure of. . 48 . correct keyboard fingering. 105. See Black-letter Old-style. 364 Paragraphs. See Magazines Photo-engravings. 257 . 48. imposition note) National Printing House. 317 Plantin. print made more readable by. 55. 109 . 279. 76 Odyssey. 54. profuse. electrotype.work. unwise fondness note). 130. See Imposition Old English. 333. 225-230 Periodicals. 53. use of guards or bearers in. 44. See also Foot-notes and 278. 45. 173. typography and. 397 Mitring. 139. See Lanston machine Morris. 280. Oriental languages. 186 Pattern sheet. for running titles. and Illustrations Pi. 73. Paris. 77 . 318-320. setting 97. sizes of. setting of. 381. 344 Moxon. placing of. 54. 123. 318. 331 how to utilize offcuts of. imposing-stone for making up. Mergenthaler. (note). 158 Plates. Joseph. new styles of foldingfor. . 291. twin chases preferred for ordinary weekly. weekly. Side-notes Parentheses. 140 (note). use of guards in moulding. Munsell. 124. 49. form of composing-stick preferred on. types for.and cutin. 295 . treatment of. 140. 260 uneven electrotype. 378 (note). 279. 317 Notes. composition of. side. 226. pamphlets and books printed from. 125 (see also note). 377 (see also note). in algebra. Joel. for adjusting margins. William. . 169 (note). 282 (note 2) Motto. 185. 140. 239 (note) Offcuts. 394. cases for. 230. William. the indention of. 297-306. 351. paging with. 372. roman. sheets. 306. 297-306. 90. 14 (note) from electrotype plates. proper distinguished from improper use of. locking up. 383. 228 (see also note) Pedigrees. 364 . large initials of. Outsets. Christopher. . 366. 262 Monotype. 435. 331 of. 178. 139. 436 Moulding. leading of. M usic. 104 Pickering. 323 large sizes and strange shapes of. value of time given to. 73 without running title. 315. Ottmar. 316 Mitring-machines. odd initials designed by. 144. 445. 446 . 287 Mould. See also Figures 75.232(oe) Ornamentation. 445 et seq. printed from type. of of. 396 small. 179. for proofs.fonts of. 159. 311-313. 78 . 322 (see also note). 398 Pamphlets. 180. 73. 318-320 Moulding-press. tals. 49. . 278. 370 (note). in algebra. for. half-titles. 447 et seq. 125 . halftone. 92. 292. Pickering's edition of. tionary remarks. Books Panels. description and use of. 140. 55. 108. . 392 centre-stitching of. 96. 367 . 427. 131 .

2. 308. common form of case for. 82 Proof-readers. 342. . 143 making register. schemes of imposition from the grammars of. 297-306 . 346 . 108. 326. in font. 233 Person. 74 Pressmen. 111. sheetwise. 34 . 352. 232 (note) Publishers. faces of roman types provided by. 170. 76 valuation by. pressure of. in presswork. 391 Point system. in type cases. in type-setting. on linotypes. 148-151 . . setting of. needed in. 20. leads for blanks. 324. . John. 96. half-sheet. 309. 133. to designate brass rules. 334 (note) Proof-paper. 134 Press. 256 (see also note). contracts of. weight of. of different bodies. 306-320 . 337 (note). use of dummy as guide by. preparing form for. not always responsible for imperfect printing of brass rules. 80. 85 capricious taste of authors and. Rome. 74. arrangement of. 83 . 16. Greek type designed by. margins regulated by. 73. 78 of northern Printers. type bodies measured by. 449. should be in groups in lower case. 340 (note 1). 76 Proofs. moulding. tray cases for. 83. 331. 32 . how to aid. 332. Europe. rotary. undervaluation by. case for spaces and. 96 real sponsors of books. See Printiny- presses Printing-presses. 73. 92. 337 (see also note). 390. 320. 33 . 108 . accents used in. 76. in making ready. 35 preferred for electrotypiug. See also Compositors and Job- title-pages by. 85 . 325. 240 Portuguese. 337 (note). 239. 168. . 336. 321 Proof -press. 259 . 362 Prints. in to. value of. 315 (note). master. the facs made by French and English. preparing forms for. some attempts at decoration by early. 3-20-327 Propaganda Fide. 159. other duties of. not paid by piece. . 84. the methods of early. 321 . 1 et 337 (see also note).Index Poetry. 294 . 318. characters needed for miscellaneous book-work in. concerning margins. pography Printing-houses. treatment of forms by careful. hair-line rules objectionable 87 (note). changes in proof by. style code of. 54 . 1. . 82 Proof-planer. with index. accents used in. 47. setting of. 302. 323 . increased supply of. how to save extra. 232 making up many . revising and querying by. 16 . 7-9. . . 298. 473 See also Tyof. 346 Press-room. 2 . with emunderploying printers. 15 . the hackneyed decorations of. 54 . copy and proof passed to. in algebraic composition. proper equipment for. 181 Polhemus. 315 (note). 262. 14 (note). 363 (note). 326. 233 Preface. 165 . 80 . 19 Points. 81. their contracts with publishers. boxes for. 83. 47 . 11. 54 . supply of type must largely exceed demand in. adjustment of mareins in. 288 . 2. 286 Points. 79 Presswork. 75. 391 . dummy of service to. 258 . 262 . 340 (note 1). use of. sheetwise. 290. 355 Print. reckoning with. in font. use of points in. 76.. with nicks. 318 advantages of half-sheet work to. sometimes needed. 171 brass rules rolled to conform to. 325. Printing-machines. chases used as substitute for furniture on bed of. proof returned to compositors by. taking proofs with. roman capitals preferred for . 390. 325. names used by. 459 Proof-reading. 1. 2 arrangement of. making up of. to make form solid. 297-306 in. rude types that deform. 80. masterpieces of. 295 . adjustment of margins in. Richard. sometimes needed. quoins loosened by jarring of. corrections by. instructions from. double stand designed by. aid to. 10 Polish. increased supply of. 316. in type cases. 99. 99 printers Printing. 300. 3 . use of paragraphs in. irregular use of large. 84 . 21 . preferable to . 12. ornamental types in running titles not acceptable to. locking up forms for. chases made to suit. . tipping on of. 11. taking and correction of. 336. 75. equipment seq. Quadrats. 301 Punctuation. needs of. 127 . 3 cabinet case for cuts. needless delay and trouble in. 345 (note). 12 weight of. 171 . second reading by. 363 (note).

. Racks. 190 et seq. See Bible Sections. gather- . . with supports.. 83. . 18.. 126. 174. 326. 287 . 188 . uniformity in use for short extracts or quoof. 232 (note) Sanskrit. placing of. best electrotype plates made from types set with high. for bars in music composition. 47 faces . 258. 63. 289 Readers. 296. 51. variations from standard of 2 . accents used in. 34. 106 Russian. See also Proof-readers and Proof-reading Reference-marks. 35. cases for labor-saving. long and short accents used in. 233 . now more needed than flowers or borders of type-metal. 67 Reglet-rack. . 315. 325. 233 (note) Schemes. . one or more fonts of. for galleys. . 314. on use of black and white. 30. 53. 307. 352 Reglet-case. . 165 . in font. under standing galleys. 12 weight of. 15. 54. 173 (note). 317. brass. 313. . for running titles. 313. 2. availability of sorts in. of. lower- Savage. 22 . in electrotyping. 54 made of type-metal. 281 Rooker. 171 names used by printers to designate. 47. 19 . combining of. 111 lower-case of. tightening of. 309. See Proof-readers Reading-room. shrinkage of furniture an obstacle to. 52. See Imposition School-books. 262 legend lines in. cases with unequal compartments needed for. 311 providing even resistance to pressure of. plain. 287 improved method of setting. 65. 323 tendency of ink to collect at ends of. 34. 66. 360. 392 . 138. 47 bevelled or flat-faced. 137. 2 tray cases used for. 175 (see also note). freakish placing of. . folding. 7. 30 Scriptures. patent. 49. 67 Reglets. 108. 26. short. in algebra. panels of. 1 . 49-52. when making up. 52 . . selection of. 11 supplanted by superior figures. accent case for. 18 for long notes. . slackening of. 367. strict. many faces of. 10. needs of. more modern. 55. . 34. 327 Quotation-marks. 23. 79. 297 Reprints. copy requiring two or sizes of. 285 difficulty of locking up forms containing. Holy. . needed by large printing-houses. 87. 53. 318. from forms. 315. alphabet of. sometimes used to insure accurate. John. forms of metal furniture. . 286 driving out or getting in. Thomas N. how to keep. for leads. for letterpress work. job cases fitted to. 344.'. one or (note) more fonts of. 43. 142 use of. most used in .474 Index case of. . 48. in tables. 35. 150. . 73. 169 (note). tolerated style for titletable of contents in pages. or extracts. . 16 in book-work. 68. 325 Rollers. 344. 67. 389 Rumanian. method followed by. in type cases. . 48. removal of. 316 use of bits of flat-faced. . in text. 276 of notes should correspond to those in text. 31. 54. . 128 capitals of. 53. single. 232 (note) Roman. labor-saving. 72. 252 Quotations. in genealogies (note) Ruskin. 96. William. Abbreviated Quads Quoins. plain faces of. . should be bought from same foundry. See Composing-rule Rules. 137 long. 276 Revisers. 258 cuts surrounded by. 77 tations in text. 32. 150 in German. for chases. 64. advantage of patent over wood. 316 Quotations. in algebra. 278 . . . 319. 46 rolled to conform to bodies of point system. use of. 317. retightening of. 6. old fashion of using. cutting and testing of. how and pedigrees. 234 (note) Saxon. 293 et seq. parallel or double. 218. 83. cutting. book-work. different sizes and faces of. 297. labor-saving. for running titles. case of four sections for. as collating-marks. as head-bands. mitring and proper joining of. 292. in composition and presswork. 172. 49. 316. 137. 391. 306 proper distinguished from improper use of. 38 usually furnished in strips two feet long. 225 of graduated length. 339 Register. 23 Rule. 318. 47. 63. makeshift aid to exact. uneven justification prevents joining of mitred. case invented by.

proper placing of astronomical and other. 108. 136. ing. 432 Spacing. 296. 15 . type-founders'. 95 . 16 discarded in many books and newspapers. of prominence. treatment of. in stone-work. accents used in. 344. 284. linotype. cutting of. 34 . 16. in font. for side-headings. See also Justification Spanish. 292. 317. 404 et seq. small cases for orderly keeping of irregular. 12 . 2. 316 effect of non-use of electrotype guards by. proper placing of minor. 425 Small capitals. for legend lines. of poetry. distribution of unusual. and. 424. setting of. 22 . grouping of boxes for. 172. 316. type and measure of. 80 . 422. ' and adjustment ing-sticks. . 171. use of. types for. 279. trimming proofs with. 20. on practical printing. 328. 22 . 173. 29 tray cases used for. 77 (see also note). when making up. in panels. See Estienne Stereotyping. 62 . 18. 128." how to become a. 346. 135. 272. 307. 12. 401 Slitters. types without. 30. . Synopsis. use of. 340 (see also note 2). 18. 148 . 315. 139 . 20 . 231 . 136 John. even. 291 Sticks. additional. See also Furniture cases. . cleaning of type by. 18. setting of. 137 . 368. 290. 184. 319 . 135.\ treatment of linotype. 385. Stone. 306-320. use of. 255. 315 Stands. 396. in. case for quadrats and. 15 . most needed. 311. 136. 175. adjustment of margins. case for lower-case. should not run over on . 297-306. for supporting type cases. description of.. 329 . See Composing-stick. 408. 38. 342. See Pattern sheet 475 and sewing Shooting-sticks. 19 old-fashioned. 324. capitals. 12 extra. 21 . should lock up type continuously and slowly. music. types 136. 88 et seq.313. algebraic. 185 Swedish. chases for. 324 Side-headings. 233 "Swift. 132 for subheadings. 120 for dedication. 178. when in limited supply. 183. driving out or getting in. 87. 87 . 400. 307. 405. 393. 185. and leading. 315. 11. 297-306. 17 . square and straight-edge needed by. 386See also Imposition 390. Sheet. 14 (note) 56 Space-rules. 139 . 1. 262. 281. not paid for by piece. of algebra. See Imposing-stone Stoneman. Spaces. 137 Side-notes. 176. 322 clearing away of dead matter by. 297. . 76 . in stone-work. availability of sorts in racks under. weight of lower-case. . made for composition of Century Dictionary. 186 . 345 (note). in book-work. 159 Square. in American book-houses. 269-271. at tail of sheet. etc. 403. . linotype. 332-337. 309. locking up. line of capitals and. 311. treatise of. 23-27 Stephens. 315 . . for running titles. form with mitred brass-rule borders needs extra care by. 2 minor. 64. 319. Imposition in book-work. 135. in type Southward. 365. 63. . 388 Sorts. 176 prevention of uneven. See also Imposition Straight-edge. boxes for holding. nonpareil and thicker. 375. 376. use of dummy as guide for. 307 . placing of. . 391. weight of. arrangement of. 136. 136. 310. 27.Index of. See also Capitals and Letters Smashing-machine. 76. not pleasing in title-page. of. 321. copy in. 306. 279. 287 Subscripts. 59. See aleo Signs. 2. 14 (note) . 431. 366. in font. types needed for. 295. 156. 233 Specimen-books. Signatures. 13 scheme of. adjustment of margins by. and Side-sticks 392 Slugs. 184. aid to correct distribution of. 16. 273 . abbreviations. 279. 342 (note). 346 Stone-work. best electrotype plates made from types set with high. 280. 77. for chapter synopsis. 362. 127 for table of contents. 2. . Shoot. table of. use of. orders for.. 207 Simplex machine. in algebra. 447 et seq. 177. 296.. 31 . 16 . See also Notes Side-sticks. 295. 263. 4 et seq. marked vowels of. facilities for even. for. 327-330. weight of. . in font. . justifying. 142. 321 Subheadings. as guides to bookbinders. 29 . setting 167 .

129. 315. 147 . 91. 328.. 225 . broad measure. guards provided by. borders in style known as. or propositions in bold. 159. 47 . 285. 31 . 133 Syriac. uncouth letters of. 53 . 2 . 329 Type-founders. SeeLanston and Mergenthaler Type-closet. odd. Hebrew. single.. 316 Tail-pieces. 145. algebraic signs furnished by. leading of. 55 . correct method of setting. similar styles of. 17 . See also Half-titles Titles. Titles. 74. See Title-pages . rules most useful for. music. furniture of.. 97 et over. borders needed for composition of. theology. in titlepages. . 273. labor-saving rule furnished display. description and use 46. . orders for . Treadle-presses. 132. 169 (note). type bodies for larger sizes of. proper method of storing type in. 127. 328. 232 (note) Tweezers. 233 (note) Type-metal. 234-240 . 107 (see also note). diamond and excelsior music. 149. 2. 255 . 107 . in text. rules made. index. 172 . 91. 247-253. 159 et seq. 168. 171 . made seq. 167 . 323 (see also note) of. 73. 135. 129. on the setting of. 198. 112 . decorations of. brass rules designated by arbitrary numbers of. for parts and half-titles. 133. distribution by. one or (note) Index more fonts 232 by. 97 of contents. 164. 2 . 329 75. 200 Title-pages. 131. 260-269 142-144. 14 (note). 280 Thomas. 36. spacing and leading of. for appendix. on the use of. 48. 137 inclosed with notes at top. 128. 2 . 167 . 167. for chapter headings. selfspacing. 49 . 131. locking up forms containing. 1. . 188-207 of irregular size. without small capitals. flower* and borders of. for subheadings. types for. general effect of. 207. side. for notes. . 132 . must exceed daily needs of compositors. judicious decoration of. for side-headings. 90 . 171. 108. for running titles and subheadings. Text. 136 . borders now provided by. 134 . two-line capital letters for. . 169 .wide spacing of seq. Isaiah. one or more fonts of. small forms on. Morris's odd initials following page.. spacing of extracts and tables in. old-style figures remodelled by. on law. . 87 . 276. galleys of composed. 175 . 76 Time-tables. 92 . 129. See Point system reproduced by American. sectional cases furnished by.476 of. German. 140 . 128 . Greek. of illustrations. 64. 128. on the composition of. analysis of font of. 130. 4 . for table of contents. 130. 120. 92. roman capitals of regular form preferred for.. 255. large and heavy forms of. 208 . 169 (note) . 398 Time-hands. 35. accents and signs required in scientific. 77 spacing of. for preface and introduction. 241247. 115. 168. 386 Treatises. 87 . 272. caseracks for display. 219. rules. setting of.of. 111. schemes of. 52. 91. of signatures and folios for different forms. 51 . for dedication. 277 of full. See Racks Types. old-established English. 16. fonts of. for title-pages and publishers' circulars. 3 (see also note). and foot. led down at side of illustrations. justification of large. 136. 62 electrotype guards made from. 2. accents in elocutionary. made on point system. crowded setting of. condensed. 111 et need of many small fonts of display. stands for supporting cases of. 39 Thome machine. 253 " sorts " Type-foundries. from. supply of. 137 . cast upon irregular and unmatable bodies. 233 German. 139. for all kinds of book composition. . 282 complex. accents furnished by American. to be grouped together. not exactly alike. 131 (note). on algebra. for subheadings. or science. 4 et seq. Type-casting machines. 16 (note 1). 35. plain. petty fonts of . 167. 257 . 112 et seq. 172. 148. eccentric. pamphlets and books printed from. 133 . Tables. for chapter synopsis. 29. composition done by. 37 . System. 132. music fonts of American. engraved head-bands of. 73. 258. 88 et seq. 32 . 286. running. 232 Turkish. 147. 32. filled with flourishes or divided into panels. 318 Type-racks.

228. 230.Index up off 477 running . of good editions should be studied. Job- and Printers Vinculum. C. bottled. See Authors . 402 Whittingham. Engravings. genealogical charts unlike all other Wax. 322 . distribution and storage of dead. 259. and Illustrations Writers. Oxford. forms tion of. 183. 327-330. 290. Gothic. 73. literary side of. 292. 232 (note) 80. 189. close-spaced and solid. B. 319 Welsh. a novelty of reformed. 397 et seq. 395. printers. 104 et seq. See also Antique. the various qualifying names Typography. Lowercase. 288 locking up composed. longer practised in. England. in algebra. furniture must be accommodated to chase and. Letters. See Cuts. regulating price of. 76 (note). safe leadership of. moulding. accents used in. should not be made up while wet or even damp. 145 (note). See also ComposidevelopSee also 110 Type-setting machines. 76. 184 Type-setting. reformers of. to aid in lifting large forms of type. 99. Italic. tables require more skill than plain. T. of. ment Willems. punctuation in. S. 233 Westcott. 167 . 321. their feet. 74.. Capitals. Charles. photo-engraving and. See Compositors. See also Print- ing United States. 105. 53. See also America University Press. working in companionship no. for titles. and Small capitals of books should agree with subject-matter. 291 (see also note). 110. Alphonse. cleaning of... 313 . device of. 291 (note) Woodcuts. machine invented by. 170. 228 (note) Williams. Roman. 96. recent mannerisms in. 262 . Type-setters. 318. Initials. 75. 306-320. 260. 106.

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