The Catacombs of Rome

The locations of all places are shown on my Google-Earth Map Google-Maps (increase the magnification, this map is in 3-D)
The Catacombs of Rome are underground necropolis related to the Etruscan underground cemeteries. There are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades. Though most famous for Christian burials, there are Jewish and "heathen" graves either in separate catacombs or mixed together. They began to be dug in the 2nd century AD as a solution to overcrowding of cemeteries and shortage of land. While past students have written, and much of the public today still thinks, that catacombs came about to help persecuted Christians to bury their dead secretly, this myth has been debunked: Among other reasons, catacombs always were placed along major highways (which would have meant they couldn't be kept secret for long), pagans also used catacombs although their religion was legal, and most catacomb building took place after Christianity's legalization. Their art (frescoes) are rudimentary and primitive compared to Roman painting, or the older Etruscan necropolis, but they depict the slow emergence of Christian themes and symbols, and therein lies their art-historical importance. There is a northern group on or near Via Salaria and a better known southern group along Via Appia Antiqua. - Not all are accessible without special introductions.

Northen Catacombs along Via Salaria
Catacomb of Priscilla
430 Via Salaria, 2nd-14th cent AD The Catacomb of Priscilla on the Via Salaria is situated in what was a quarry in Roman times, currently located beneath the basilica San Martino ai Monti. This quarry was used for Christian burials from the late second century through the

fourth century. Some of the walls and ceilings display fine decorations illustrating Biblical scenes. Access to the murals may require special permission

Ceiling fresco in the Cemeterium Maius, part of the large Catacomb of Priscilla, painted c.320-40. The central figure of the Good Shepherd is surrounded by images of Adam and Eve, Moses striking the rock, Jonah under the gourds, and a woman at prayer. Text and photo from churchtimes.co.uk

Agape feast or Last Supper (3rd cent)

One of the earliest Madonnas, 2nd cent. Photo from Wikipedia The wikipedia article is full of errors. Via Salaria 430 (enter through the cloister of the monastery of the Benedictines of Priscilla. Buses 86, 92, 310 from Termini station), ☎ tel.: 06-86206272 fax.: 06-86398134, [2]. 8.30 - 12.00 and 14.30 - 17.00 closed Mondays. Euros 6.

Mausoleum of Lucilius Peto
Vis Salaria 125, across from Villa Albani, 1st cent AD temporarily closed

The tumulus

Tomb chambers below

Catacombs of Sant'Agnese
Via Nomentana 349

Chapel of St. Sabina in the catacombs. The catacombs of St. Agnese are below the church of Sant'Agnese fuori le mura. (see there) Via Nomentana 349 - tel. 06 861 08 40 ( closed on Sunday mornings and on Monday afternoons) Buses: 60 (from Piazza Veneizia) and 90 (from Termini)

Southern Catacombs in the Vicinity of Via Appia Antiqua
See my Google-Earth Map for Locations in the Campagna

Mausoleum of St. Helena
Via Casilina 641 Built 330 byConstantin for his mother St. Helena

originally as a tomb for himself. near the church of Santi Marcellino e Pietro a Duas Lauros.access by Regional Trains: San Marcellino Station . next to the Catacombs of Marcellinus and Petr. . Helena. who died in 328. was built by Emperor Constantine I between 326 and 330. 00177 Roma Far out .Roma Pantano Line Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter Next to St. In 2006. Tiburtius. 4th cent-AD The Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter are situated on the 3rd mile of Via Casilina in Rome. but later assigned to his mother. the skeletons were stacked one on top of each other and still bore the togas they were buried with. were buried here. Their name refers to the Christian martyrs Marcellinus and Peter who. 641. Via Casilina. Vatican Mueum 328 The Mausoleum of Helena.Sarcophagus of Helena. according to tradition. Helena's Tomb. Via Casilina 641. over a thousand skeletons were discovered in these catacombs. near the body of St.

Burial camber. murals before 5th cent AD .

00177 Roma. Italy. 00177 Roma Chiese Parrochiale S.Jonah being thrown to the whale (4th cent) Adam and Eve (before 5th cent) Via Casilina. +39 06 241 9446 Regional Train: San Marcellino Station . 641. 1st cent AD One of the more accessible catacombs of Rome included in most tours .Roma Pantano Line. Marcellino A Torpignattara . Via Casilina. ATAC station: Berardi Catacombs of Callisto Via Appia Antica 110. 641.

It takes its name from the deacon Saint Callixtus. he enlarged the complex. . form part of a complex graveyard that occupies fifteen hectares and is almost twenty km long. The arcades. San Callisto has had many more recent burials.on his accession as pope. that quite soon became the official one for the Roman Church. Although started in the 2nd Century. Entry is €6 and includes a guided tour in several languages. including 16 popes. with some private Christian hypogea and a funeral area directly dependent on the Catholic Church. It covers an area of 15 hectares and contains an estimated half-million tombs.These catacombs were dug after AD 150. proposed by Pope Zephyrinus in the administration of the same cemetery . where more than fifty martyrs and sixteen pontiffs are buried. The burial arcades are almost 20km long.

Calistus' catacomb e To reach the Appian Way from Termini station.Lady praying The Good Shepherd. take the 714 bus from outside the station. and change at the 6th bus stop (St Giovanni Laterano) to the 218 bus. .

).00 . that the 118 runs only every 40 minutes and is not reliable.00. To reach the Appian Way. which will bring you to Metro Line A (2. 9. reduced: € 5. see above. The caves where the massacre took place are now a National Monument and Memorial Cemetery and can be visited daily. Beware. ☎ +39 06 513 01580.which will take you all the way to the main entrance of the San Callisto catacombs and then on to San Domitilla catacombs and the Fosse Ardeatine.Reference: sacred. Via Appia Antica 110-126 (Located in a large diamondshaped park between the Appian Way and Via Ardeatino.destinations also: catacombe-roma Fosse Ardeatine National Monument of German atrocities 1944 Via Ardeatina 174 ( End of (?) 218 bus takes you to the entrance. the 118 goes further along the Via Appia and you can enter the catacombs through a small gate to the right at the third stop. This was the site of the slaughter in 1944 of 335 Italians. consider returning to Rome with a walk through the Caffarella Park. Closed Wednesdays The price of admission is € 8.00 . The Domitilla Catacombs are unique in that they are the oldest of Rome's underground burial networks. Beware that buses in this area are not reliable. particularly in the morning or evening rush hours when journeys can be delayed or even arbitrarily cancelled. however. 300m east of catacombs of San Domitilla).17.8 km see GE map) Colli Albani-Via Appia Antica Station Catacombs of Callisto.-. Catacombs of Domitilla Via delle Sette Chiese 280 Christian wall paintings 2nd-4th-cent. The large and impressive Catacombs of Domitilla are spread over 15 kilometers of underground caves. in retaliation for a partisan attack on German troops in Rome. Included in their passages are a 2nd-century fresco of the Last Supper and other valuable artifacts.00 and 14.12. and the only ones to still contain bones. They are also the best preserved and one of the most extensive of all the catacombs. From the main sites along the Appian Way. If you don't fancy the 1km walk from the main entrance. including many Jews from the ghetto. Unfortunately the parts with the best frescoes can only be visited with organized tour-operated groups at much higher prices .

Orpheus as Christ (2nd-3rd century) Christ among the Apostles (4th cent) .

)." Since this was the only underground cemetery to be maintained after ancient times.00 .Via delle Sette Chiese 280 (continue on the 218 from the entrance to San Callisto. 9. beyond the Catacomb of San Callisto.17. The Catacombs of Domitilla are considered to be the best preserved of all Roman catacombs – but the frescoes are not shown without special dispensation! Catacombs of San Sebastiano Same area: underneath Church of San Sebastiano. .00. Closed on Tuesdays and in January. It was dug out in a rock quarry in a valley.. Get off at the junction with via delle Sette Chiese and walk northwest for 200m.00 . founded in the 3rd century. and was thus referred to by the description in catacumbas from the Greek word for "sunken valley.00 and 14.12. all other ones came to be called "catacombs" when they were discovered. is located beneath a church of the same name on the Via Appia Antica. 3rd cent AD The Church and Catacombs underneath The Catacomb of San Sebatiano.

Excavations of the catacombs were undertaken from 1892 to 1961. Bus 218 to Fosse Ardeatina then turn left on foot along Via delle Sette Chiese for 400m.17.).00. from catacombs of Comodilla . 9..12. 2nd cent AD One of the earlyest necropolis. Closed Sundays and 15 Nov.00 . on the Via Ostiensis. They originally held the relics of Saints Felix and Adauctus. These catacombs. (Bus 118 to the entrance. Paolo Fuore le mure.00 .00 and 14. to 15 Dec. Bearded Christ. Catacombs of Santa Comodilla Via Ostiensis near St. contain one of the earliest images of a bearded Christ.The Church of San Sebastiano has been in continous use ever since. It was restoredy by Pope Hadrian I (772-95) and remodeled in the 12th or 13th century.

Photo Jim Forest. Chi-Rho and fish symbols in San Callisto. Photo Jim Forest. Photo Jim Forest. Rome Gallery in the Catacomb of San Callisto. Loculi (burial niches) in San Callisto.Early Christian Catacombs. .

Christ as the Good Shepherd in the Catacomb of Domitilla.Fresco of Christ as the Good Shepherd in the Catacomb of San Callisto. .

4th-century fresco of a bearded Christ in the Catacomb of Commodilla.Fresco depiction of bread and fish in San Callisto. Epitaph in the Catacomb of San Sebastiano. .

OP. see our Rome Map. the catacombs are home to some of the earliest examples of Christian art. This method requires significantly . the catacombs provide a rare glimpse into the earliest centuries of Christianity. Photo © Sacred Destinations. For a larger interactive view. now displayed in the Vatican Museums. Forming an underground maze in the outskirts of the city. The Early Christian catacombs are one of the most interesting and most popular sights in Rome. with ashes stored in urns. Early Christian terracotta lamps with Chi Rho from the catacombs. Photo Br Lawrence Lew. But Christian belief in the bodily resurrection led the early Christians to reject this practice and bury their dead instead. Location map and aerial view of Early Christian Catacombs. In addition to the countless burial chambers that line the tunnels.The Church of San Sebastiano. History The burial custom of most ancient Romans tended to be cremation.

age and the day of death. . but there is little evidence for this. the catacombs consist of vast systems of galleries and passages built on top of each other. What to See There are 40 known underground cemeteries in Rome. even necessary. The Ostrogoths. Vandals and Lombards that sacked Rome also violated the catacombs. Many modern depictions of the catacombs show them as hiding places for Christian populations during times of persecution. In 1956 and 1959 more catacombs were discovered near Rome. But within a couple more centuries. two centuries later. Narrow steps join the multiple levels. as Roman law forbade burial within the city limits. By the 10th century the catacombs were mostly abandoned and they remained forgotten until their accidental rediscovery in 1578. Antonio Bosio spent decades exploring and researching them for his Roma Sotterranea (1632) and.more space. The early Christians bound the bodies of dead in linen and placed them in burial niches (loculi). By the 6th century catacombs were used only for martyrs’ memorial services. the catacombs were used for memorial services and celebrations of the anniversaries of Christian martyrs. They were all located outside the city walls. and the early Christians did not own much land. In addition to burial. the saints began to be buried in churches rather than catacombs and the faithful dead joined them in church cemeteries. The catacombs had other advantages as well: they were an ideal way to strengthen the sense of Christian community (both in life and death) and they provided quiet. solution for burial of the faithful. These niches are about 40-60 cm (16-24 in) high and 120-150 cm (47-59 in) long. which were sealed with a slab bearing the name. It probably only occurred in exceptional cases during the persecutions. taking whatever valuables they could find. The galleries lie anywhere from 7 to 19 meters (22-65 ft) below the surface and the passages are about 2. Built along ancient Roman roads such as the Via Appia. So the catacombs made a practical. outof-the-way places for memorial ceremonies and displaying Christian symbols. The first large-scale Christian catacombs were excavated in the 2nd century AD. when the catacombs were the only safe place to celebrate the Eucharist. the archeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi (1822-1894) published the first extensive professional studies about catacombs. the catacombs became a place of pilgrimage. After Christianity became the religion of the Roman Empire (381) and the cult of relics became an established part of Christian worship. Today some of the catacombs are open to the public and they are one of the most popular stops in Rome for tourists and pilgrims alike. Often Christian symbols such as the fish or chi-rho were included as well.5x1 meters (8x3 feet) in size. of course.

with more detailed articles to replace them eventually." Since this was the only underground cemetery to be maintained after ancient times. It lay hidden until its rediscovery by Giovanni Battista de Rossi in 1849. and 6th-century frescoes of bishops. with an inscription by Pope Damasus and early Christian graffiti. Catacomb of San Callisto One of the largest and most famous of the Roman catacombs. various other important inscriptions. 3rd-century frescoes of Baptism and the Eucharist. the Catacomb of San Callisto (St. Excavations began in 1852. Catacomb of San Sebastiano The Catacomb of San Sebatiano. He ordered the construction underground basilicas to provide access to martyrs' shrines and places of worship for pilgrims. It covers an area of 15 hectares and contains an estimated half-million tombs. a large Christian complex had developed above ground as well. with the ceilings and walls decorated with frescoes. . It is named for Pope St. It came into Christian use in the 3rd century. By the 5th century. in 258 it even temporarily hosted the relics of St. First excavated in the 2nd century and expanded in the following century. The main sights in the Catacomb of San Callisto are the Crypt of the Popes. and was thus referred to by the description in catacumbas from the Greek word for "sunken valley. Some of best-known Christian catacombs in Rome are summarized below. the Catacomb of St. It was the first catacomb to be rediscovered in modern times. The quarry site was first used for burials in the 2nd century by pagan Romans.Wealthier families were able to construct cubicula housing several loculi. Further expansion took place under Pope Damasus (366-84) as part of an effort to increase veneration of Rome's martyrs. The Catacomb of San Callisto can be visited on guided tours. who was not buried here but oversaw the expansion and administration of the catacomb. but almost none of this survives. is located beneath a church of the same name on the Via Appia Antica. Damasus also built the main stairway into the Crypt of the Popes. beyond the Catacomb of San Callisto. It was dug out in a rock quarry in a valley. Callixtus (217-22). founded in the 3rd century. Callixtus) consists of five levels of galleries between the Via Appia (along the north) and Via Ardeatina (to the south). the catacomb was completely abandoned. Callixtus became the official burial place of the 3rd-century popes. After Pope Paschal I (817-24) transferred its relics of saints and martyrs to churches in the city. with reduced tours during the busy summer to preserve the site. all other ones came to be called "catacombs" when they were discovered. These frescoes are some of the earliest examples of Christian figurative art in the world.

A pilgrim's guide written in 638 describes the site as follows: On the Appian Way you come to Saint Sebastian. Petronilla. after which the saints' relics were transferred to the Church of Sant'Adriano in the Forum. Petronilla. Beginning in about 600. Paul during persecutions under Valerian. and Christ Enthroned between Sts. There is also an important 4th-century mosaic of the Raising of Lazarus. and Pope Damasus (366-84) enlarged the cubiculum to make room for them. and there are the graves of the Apostles Peter and Paul where they lay for 40 years.Peter and St. Domitilla's descendants built a series of pagan catacombs on her land and in the 4th century they were reused by Christians. Peter's daughter. the martyrs Nereus and Archilleus were buried in a cubiculum on the third level of the catacomb. The catacomb was then abandoned until its rediscovery in 1873. Their tombs attracted many pilgrims. After the early 5th century. Achilleus and a 4th-century fresco of a deceased woman named Veneranda being led into Paradise by St. located along the Via delle Sette Chiese just west of Via Ardeatina." This may reflect the sect (later . who was believed to be St. pilgrims also venerated the tomb of St. a major construction project created an underground basilica by hollowing out the area around the tombs of Nereus and Archilleus. the whole complex become known as the Catacomb of Domitilla. nor does the catacomb date from her lifetime. Mosaics are very rarely found in the catacombs. A cubiculum in the Catacomb of Domitilla contains a fresco that is the earliest known depiction of Christ as the Good Shepherd. the Three Hebrews in the Furnace. In the early 4th century. From the 3rd to 9th centuries. the Church and Catacomb of San Sebastiano was one of the most important pilgrimages sites in Rome. The complex included some above-ground structures from the beginning. The Catacomb of Domitilla remained in use until the early 9th century. Linked with an existing Christian catacomb. Excavations of the catacombs were undertaken from 1892 to 1961. It was restoredy by Pope Hadrian I (772-95) and remodeled in the 12th or 13th century. and in the early 4th century these were replaced by a large funerary hall under Constantine the Great (306-37). In the 2nd century. and this one is important not only for its images but for the inscription accompanying the portrait of Christ: "You who are called the Son are found to be also the Father. Peter and Paul. Quirinus lies. Other notable artworks include a late 4thcentury relief of the martyrdom of St. the martyr whose body rests in a place further down. Catacomb of Domitilla The Catacomb of Domitilla. and in the west part of the church you can go down to where St. Domitilla was a member of the Roman imperial family and was not a Christian. is named after the owner of the land in which the catacomb was dug. The Church of San Sebastiano has been in continous use ever since.

12. Also named for the landowner. World Heritage Sites Architecture: Paleochristian Date: Features: Status: 2nd-5th century AD Early Christian Frescoes ruins Visitor Information Address: San Callisto: Via Appia Antica.00179 Rome Italy Coordinates: 41. Catacomb of Comodilla The Catacomb of Comodilla is located near that of Domitilla on Via delle Sette Chiese.roma. Quick Facts Site Information Names: Location: Faith: Dedication: Category: Early Christian Catacombs. available in various languages Mass can be performed for groups who book ahead and bring their own priest. Admission is by special permission only.858889° N. The Catacomb of Domitilla can be visited on guided tours. Italy Christianity various Catacombs.it scallisto@catacombe. San Callisto: large parking area 1000m from entrance .catacombe. with reduced tours during the busy summer to preserve the site. it contains an underground church built by Pope Siricius (384-99) with many important frescoes.it Admission is by guided tour only.roma. Lazio. Unfortunately the parts with the most frescoes can only be visited with special permission.declared a heresy) called Modalism. Son and Spirit.511111° E (view on Google Maps) Lodging: Phone: Website: E-mail: Official tours: Services: Parking: View hotels near this location 0039 06 513 01 51 www. 110/126 . which explains that God is one being who variously expresses himself as Father. Le Catacombe Cristiane di Roma Rome.

Note: This information was accurate when published and we do our best to keep it updated. please check with the site directly before making a special trip. To avoid disappointment. Domitilla . but details such as opening hours can change without notice. Catacombe di S.

"Ospiti di rilievo". due soldati vittime probabilmente della persecuzione di Diocleziano (304 d. presso Tor Marancia. Ciò ha fatto concludere agli studiosi che. Quando nel Medioevo si perse memoria delle Catacombe. soltanto nell'800 si arrivò a determinarne origine e nome.). cubicoli (camere sepolcrali familiari a pianta quadrata). ai quali fu poi dedicata la omonima basilica. Le catacombe di Domitilla risalgono al III secolo e furono in seguito interessate da diversi interventi di modifica e di ampliamento nel corso del IV e del V secolo. molti dei quali affrescati. a sua volta nipote di Vespasiano e cugino di Domiziano. Flavia Domitilla fu mandata al confino a Ponza. arcosoli (nicchie arcuate). Le Catacombe di Domitilla sono considerate tra le meglio conservate e come tali hanno offerto e offrono uno sterminato repertorio di studio epigrafico. ai Santi Nereo e Achilleo fu dedicata una nuova chiesa. della gens Domitia . .dal latino "domitus". con capitelli di recupero. ai cristiani. mentre la zia. anche dovuto a differenze di censo e di epoca realizzativa. che lo fece uccidere per le sue simpatie religiose. anche conosciute col nome di Catacombe dei Santi Nereo ed Achilleo.C. e come queste sono composte di ambulacri (corridoi) scavati interamente nel tufo -in parte riadattando cunicoli preesistenti-. ma che prende luce in alto da ampi finestroni affacciati sull'esterno. Furono riscoperte a fine 1500: ritenute parte di quelle di S. che ancora si trova presso le Terme di Caracalla. nipote o forse moglie (le fonti sono incerte e contraddittorie al riguardo) di Flavio Clemente. Callisto. dallo stesso nome Flavia Domitilla. La santa lasciò i suoi terreni nell'area dell'Ardeatina. docile. lungo la quale hanno trovato posto oltre 150. Una basilica nata semi-ipogea. del IV secolo: una maestosa aula absidata del tempo di papa Damaso (366-384). Callisto. Su una colonnina appartenuta al ciborio dell'altare è ancora possibile ammirare la scena del martirio di Achilleo. nonché figlia di Flavia Domitilla minore. nel luogo di sepoltura dei martiri. si tratta di un "cimitero collettivo". mansueto: la santa Flavia Domitilla. Petronilla. dal quale si evince una disuniformità di linguaggio. fu mandata a Ventotene.C. preceduta da un nartece e suddivisa in tre navate da 4 colonne per lato. i santi Nèreo e Achìlleo [si noti la corretta posizione degli accenti].In principio fu Domitilla. console nel 95 d. Si trovano nei pressi di altrettanto note catacombe quali S. In questo modo sorse nel tempo il più grande cimitero sotterraneo cristiano dell'intera Roma: le catacombe di Domitilla. più che di una entità monolitica. davvero ragguardevole. sviluppandosi addirittura su 4 livelli per una estensione complessiva di oltre 15 km. Sebastiano e S.000 sepolture. Ivi si trova anche la tomba di S. simbologia e tecniche costruttive. organizzate come loculi.

effettuando il rilievo completo delle catacombe tramite laser scanner. anche in tempi recenti. Vittorio Colombo . Si è così ottenuto il modello virtuale dell'intera estensione dei cunicoli. nel quale. sepolture cristiane decorate con scene tratte dalle Sacre Scritture.info Fonti: "Le catacombe romane e i loro martiri" di E. per Roma Sotterranea. Per la documentazione epigrafica cliccare qui. come ipogeo privato pagano per poi accogliere. un'equipe guidata dal professor Zimmerman dell'Università di Vienna ha portato avanti il progetto START.05. Uno sforzo notevole per un risultato mozzafiato: si faccia riferimento all’interessante articolo di Scheiblauer.C. è abbastanza breve ma sufficiente a dare una idea delle caratteristiche dell'ipogeo.Un nucleo molto antico delle catacombe di Domitilla è l'ipogeo dei Flavi. miracolosamente salvati da molteplici tentativi di abusivismo. datato alla fine del III sec. A partire dal 2006. Intorno all'ingresso vi è un bel giardino e una zona verde. Tutte le informazioni per il visitatore sul sito ufficiale www. cesti di fiori e uccelli è raffigurato il mito pagano di Amore e Psiche rappresentati come putti che raccolgono fiori.domitilla.html Uno stupendo video illustra il risultato. La visita avviene scendendo alla basilica e da questa alle catacombe.C. rigorosamente accompagnati dalla guida e in piccoli gruppi per motivi di sicurezza.. d. tra ghirlande. Zimmermann e Wimmer 2009 "Interactive Domitilla Catacomb Exploration" Al riguardo si legga anche: http://www. d. Il percorso di visita tocca una porzione del primo livello ed un "assaggio" del secondo.05%20Catacombe%20di %20Domitilla. durante il III sec.it/News/2009. che ha origine alla fine del II sec. Kirschbaum. Nei pressi si trova un piccolo cubicolo dipinto.schliemann-carter..

catacombs of domitilla and christ By admin 11 September 2010 Saturday .

Quick ViewRoman armies after the time of Christ. once in A..Archaeology and the New Testament File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat .D. 70 and again in 135. The Catacomb of Domitilla is noteworthy because it is called after a member of CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Roman Catacombs From the time of Constantine the monogram of Christ was a favourite symbol for use Thus in the catacomb of Domitilla a man and his wife are represented .

Domitilla in Rome.YouTube .Original Catholic Encyclopedia 21 Jul 2010 From the time of Constantine the monogram of Christ was a favorite Thus in the catacomb of Domitilla a man and wife are represented .AllNationsAngel2B's Channel "This fresco of Christ among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Roman Catacombs .

had a vision of the risen Christ while fleeing persecution in Rome. The Catacombs of Domitilla are considered to be the best preserved of all .iGuide The 118 goes to the catacombs of San Sebastiano before turning off the Appian Way.Rome / South Sights: The Appian Way zone .Rome Travel Guide .

Catacombs and Appian Way .

Let's Go Travel . tomb slab from Catacomb of Domitilla.TRAY #21 ISLAMIC. and the "ICHTHYS" scratched on. San Callisto or San Sebastiano Roman Catacombs . supposedly left by Christ when he had the chat with Peter.The catacombs are subterranean systems of rock-cut hallways and niches. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Early Christian Art Early Christianity grew apart from Judaism and established itself as a Oriental Text Description: Anchor and fish. the underground Basilica Christ as the Good Shepherd (again). (cont. Mina'l ware bowl. HUM 2211 . Rome (Spiro Kostos). as in the Sarcophagus of Junius Rome Sights and Activities .Catholic Encyclopedia .Quick Viewaerial diagram of the catacombs beneath Domitilla. Catacombs of Domitilla. Iran File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat . Skip The Line: Crypts & Catacombs Tour | Dark Rome Tours and Walks Go below and beyond to a time when Christianity was considered a simple cult whose members were Catacombs of Domitilla.Quick ViewCatacomb of St. These are images depicting Christ. but here. in the pavement.) = I 1. excavated to house the closed mid-Nov-mid-Dec € 6. mosaic.The Appian Way . Domitilla.Catholic Online The Greek monogram of the name of Christ Chi-Rho . Thus in the catacomb of Domitilla a man and his wife are represented Early Christian Images: Roman forms and emerging iconographies File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat .

Arguably the most historically significant of the Appian Way catacombs.Clinton. Rome .300 after christ. From the #218 bus stop near San Callisto and Santa Domitilla. of deacon severus .Things to Do .. too. Leave a Reply Name (required) . in Clinton. in the frescos on the stone walls of the catacombs symbolised Christ. John's . You take metro line B. Sette fourthcentury portrait of Christ and the Apostles remains intact) and its Holy presence: Martyr's bones lie beneath St. Domitilla's Catacombs — the burial ORPHEUS – THE CHRISTIAN CONNECTION (MORE) In the two frescoes in the Catacomb of Domitilla (one is probably based on the . Catacombs. MA 25 Dec 2008 Here. are physical remains of a Christianity less than where Domitilla is buried at St. walk down V.VirtualTourist Domitilla catacombs are located in the same area and are very worthy to be seen.

Catacombs of Rome • See also Rome Catacombs Tours "HIC CONGESTA IACET QUAERIS SI TURBA PIORUM CORPORA SANCTORUM RETINENT VENERANDA SEPULCRA SUBLIMES ANIMA RAPUIT. was buried here. and where they meet to prey secretly.From the 3C to the 9C this was the most venerated area of subterranean Rome. for those who seek. Address: Via Appia Antica 136 Phone ( 0039)06 78 50 350 - . Find here all information about the most important and famous catacombe in Rome. Roman catacombs date back to the II century. rest together a moltitude of Saints: their venerated tombs conserve their bodies. At bottom find also our suggestion to visit the Catacombs of Rome. but the Kingdom of Heaven has taken to its bosom their elected soul") Ancient places where the Christian were buried. SIBI REGIA CAELI" ("Here. Sebastian who was martyred under Diocletian in 288. Photo credit SAINT SEBASTIAN CATACOMBS .CATACOMBE DI SAN SEBASTIANO St. and generally rose outside the city walls.

Address: Via Appia Antica 110 Phone (0039) 06 51 30 15 80 Opening Times: 9. was put in charge.it .CATACOMBE DI SAN CALLISTO The VIA APPIA was the <<Regina Viarum>> of ancient Rome.roma.30 in summer time).12.Opening Times: 9.00 / 14. from the first centuries the largest labyrinths of underground Christian cemeteries in all of Rome were built. Its name comes from the deacon Callixtus who.12. closed on Wednesdays and in February Entry: € 5.17. during the 3rd century.00 (17. of the wealth of the curch. Here was also built the catacomb of St.00 .00 / 14.17.catacombe. Asiede from these. although buried in the cemetery of Calepodius on the Via Aurelia.00 full price.30 . in the most excellent of all the cemeteries of the Christian community.00 . closed on Sundays and from 13/11 at 11/12 Entry: Euro 5.30 in summer time). Callixtus. € 3 reduced fee Website: www.00 (17.00 .00 Photo credit CALLISTO CATACOMBS . Here. there are innumerable hypogea and minor catacombs for private use which no availeble or yet discovered written records can tell us about.

together with other three catacombs.htm .romecity.Photo credit PRISCILLA CATACOMBS .12 / 14..17. She was a member of the patrician family <<Aclii Glabiones>> who had their hypogeum here. The catacomb of Priscilla is one among the largest and oldest in Rome. closed on Mondays and January Entry: € 5. Priscilla was the founder of the camatery.00 Website: www.it/Catacombedipriscilla.- Address: Via Salaria 430 Phone (0039) 06 86 20 62 72 Opening Times: 8.30 .CATACOMBE DI PRISCILLA It was built on the Via Salaria. with origins that date back to the end of the 2nd century.30 .

domitilla.it/Catacombe . Beside the name Domitilla. the catacomb was also known under the name of Sts. who owned the land on wich the cemetery was built.17.30 . This cemetery is one of the oldest and largest in the entire complex of underground cemeteries in Rome.00 Website: www.Photo credit DOMITILLA CATACOMBS . closed on Mondays and January Entry: € 5.CATACOMBE DI DOMITILLA Flavia Domitilla was the member of a Flavian imperial family.30 . Nereus and Achilleus.12 / 14. Address: Via delle Sette Chiese 282 Phone (0039) 06 51 10 342 Opening Times:8.

Sundays and high days.org Our Suggestion VISIT THE CATACOMBS . all making for a fantastic three hour escape from the hustle and bustle of central Rome. Entry: € 4. closed on Mondays afternoon. explore beyond the city walls of Rome on the Catacombs and Roman Countryside tour. Address: Via Nomentana 349 Phone: 06 86 10 840 Opening Times: 9 . We still do not know when St.00 Website: www. it is one of the four catacombs which were built on this Via. Agnes was martyred. Her body was buried in an area probably owned by her family. It could have been under Valerianus (257-58) or under Diocletian in the first years of the 4th century.Photo by Lindsey Horner CATACOMBE DI SANT' AGNESE Placed on the Via Nomentana. .18. Travel along the Appian Way through rolling countryside.GUIDED TOURS Catacombs and Roman Countryside Half-Day Walking Tour By bus and by foot. ancient roads and underground tombs.12 / 16 .santagnese.

00 per person Click here for more information and Booking Details >> Crypts and Catacombs Walking Tour . catacombs. A fascinating way to spend 3 hours in this great city.Guide of Rome Useful links about: Rome | Italy | World Travel | credits info@aboutroma.www.Duration: 3 hours Price: Starting from EUR €48.aboutroma.P. Duration: 3 hours Price: Starting from EUR €54.I 05622420486 .00 per person Click here for more information and Booking Details » Home .com © Copyright: About Roma .com Webdesign and SEO by Web Marketing Team . underground burial chambers and pagan temples that now lie deep below the city's surface.The Underside of Rome A trip through underground Rome to discover the crypts.

Roman Catacombs .

.

.

.

.

a soft volcanic rock. The original Roman custom was cremation. Originally they were carved through tufo. much as a response to overcrowding and shortage of land. Though most famous for Christian burials. some discovered only in recent decades. There are at least 40 catacombs in and around Rome depictinghow burial for early Christians. the pagan custom was to incinerate corpses. as it is softer when first exposed to air. in graves or sarcophagi. Italy. inhumation (burial of unburnt remains) became more fashionable. History Precursors The Etruscans. like many other European peoples. The Jewish catacombs are similarly important for the study of Jewish art at this period. ash-chest or urn. underground burial places under or near Rome. Pagans and Jews in Rome worked. in up to four stories (or layers). Being most of the latter of lower classes and slaves. often in a columbarium. The soft volcanic tuff rock under Rome is highly suitable for tunneling. often elaborately carved. Many have kilometres of tunnels. while early Christians and Jews used to bury.The Catacombs of Rome (Italian: Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs. Christians also preferred burial to cremation because of their belief in bodily resurrection at the Second Coming. they usually lacked the . used to bury their dead in underground chambers. outside the boundaries of the city. for those who could afford them. because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits. Furthermore. From about the 2nd century AD. as they contain the great majority of examples from before about 400 AD. either in separate catacombs or mixed together. after which the burnt remains were kept in a pot. Many scholars have written that catacombs came about to help persecuted Christians to bury their dead secretly. they began in the 2nd century. in fresco and sculpture. of which there are at least forty. hardening afterwards. The Christian catacombs are extremely important for the art history of early Christian art. Christian Catacombs The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards.

which is alongside Via Appia Ð refer to martyrs that might be buried there. Names of the catacombs Ð like St Calixtus and St Sebastian. They probably were not used for regular worship. Apparently Ostrogoths. thus using the soft volcanic rock of the whereabouts of Rome to dig tunnels in which to bury their dead. Fresco decorations were typically Roman. At first many still desired to be buried in chambers alongside martyrs. Some families were able to construct cubicula which would house various loculi and the architectural elements of the space would be a support for decoration. though some paintings were added as late as the 7th century. The catacombs have become an important monument of the early Christian church. In the intervening centuries they remained forgotten until they were accidentally rediscovered in 1578.resources to buy land for burial purposes. Another excellent place for artistic programs were the arcosoliums. the Via Ostiense. Decline and Rediscovery In 380. after which Antonio Bosio spent decades exploring and researching them for his volume. At first they were used both for burial and the memorial services and celebrations of the anniversaries of Christian martyrs (following similar Roman customs). Many depictions of the catacombs show them as hiding places for Christian populations during times of persecution. the Via Tiburtina. However. Archeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi (1822Ð1894) published the first extensive professional studies about catacombs. the practice of catacomb burial declined slowly. Bodies were placed in chambers in stone sarcophagi in their clothes and bound in linen. There are sixty known subterranean burial chambers in Rome. presumably looking for valuables. for example a Saint Stephen in the Catacomb of Commodilla. like the Via Appia. Roma Sotterranea (1632). the Via Labicana. and holy relics were transferred to aboveground basilicas. Vandals and Lombards that sacked Rome also violated the catacombs. age and the day of death. By the 10th century catacombs were practically abandoned. They were built along Roman roads. and the dead were increasingly buried in church cemeteries. Christianity became a state religion. In 1956 and 1959 Italian authorities found more catacombs near Rome. The catacomb of Saint Agnes is a small church. Then the chamber was sealed with a slab bearing the name. and the Via Nomentana. In the 6th century catacombs were used only for martyrsÕ memorial services. Today .

other graves were also dug in the floor of the corridors . the via Tiburtina. which directs excavations and restorations. the via Ostiense. typical of Roman catacombs. today Via Casilina in Rome. such as the Appian way. and the via Nomentana. . according to tradition. near the church of Santi Marcellino e Pietro ad Duas Lauros. Study of the catacombs is directed by the Pontifical Academy of Archaeology. of which there are forty in the suburbs. near the body of St.these graves are called formae. which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St. These loculi. Italy. Their name refers to the Christian martyrs Marcellinus and Peter who. consisting of a curved niche. Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome. maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the papacy. Another type of burial. were buried here. cubicula (burial rooms containing loculi all for one family) and cryptae (chapels decorated with frescoes) are also commonly found in catacomb passages. was the arcosolium. enclosed under a carved horizontal marble slab. Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter These catacombs are situated on the ancient Via Labicana. out of whose walls graves (loculi) were dug.Currently. could contain one or more bodies. the via Labicana. When space began to run out. were built along the consular roads out of Rome. Tiburtius. List of Catacombs in Rome The Roman catacombs. generally laid out vertically (pilae). Responsibility for the Christian catacombs lies with the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archaeology (Pontificia Commissione di Archeologia Sacra). Typology Roman catacombs are made up of underground passages (ambulacra).

entrance to the catacombs is achieved through this sunken 4th-century church. Faustinus and Beatrix. at the request of the Vatican. assumed responsibility as administrator of St. In the past. They are the only catacombs that have a subterranean basilica. It was rediscovered in 1593. on the Via Ostiensis. these catacombs are said to have been the resting place. spread over 15 kilometers of underground caves. and the only ones to still contain bones.Catacombs of Domitilla Close to the Catacombs of San Callisto are the large and impressive Catacombs of Domitilla[2] (named after Saint Domitilla). . Catacombs of Commodilla These catacombs. a Roman Catholic Society of priests and Brothers. Included in their passages are a 2nd-century fresco of the Last Supper and other valuable artifacts. In the beginning of 2009. the Divine Word Missionaries. of Simplicius. contain one of the earliest images of a bearded Christ. and much of it was reconstructed in 1870. at via delle Sette Chiese 280. Domitilla Catacombs. Christian Martyrs who died in Rome during the Diocletian persecution (302 or 303). Catacombs of Generosa Located on the Campana Road. the basilica had become unsafe. They originally held the relics of Saints Felix and Adauctus. perhaps temporarily. and was abandoned in the 9th century. They are also the best preserved and one of the most extensive of all the catacombs. The Domitilla Catacombs are unique in that they are the oldest of Rome's underground burial networks.

New. and somewhat controversial research has begun to suggest that the scenes traditionally interpreted as the deuterocanonical story of Susannah (Dn 13) may actually be scenes from the life of a prestigious Christian woman of the 2nd century AD. and a 4th century painting of Susanna and the old men in the allegorical guise of a lamb and wolves. where the Good Shepherd is depicted as feeding the lambs.Catacombs of Praetextatus These are found along the via Appia. In the oldest parts of the complex may be found the "cubiculum of the coronation". with a rare depiction for that period of Christ being crowned with thorns. The catacomb of Priscilla. at first in pagan then in Christian use. Mary is shown with Jesus on her lap. The Catacombs of Priscilla is divided into . Some of the walls and ceilings display fine decorations illustrating Biblical scenes. with a crowing cock on His right and left hand. Christian symbols such as the painting reproduced in Giovanni Gaetano Bottari's folio of 1754. Italy. They consist of a vast underground burial area. and were built at the end of 2nd century. They contain a number of wall paintings of saints and early Christian symbols. Catacombs of Priscilla The Catacomb of Priscilla on the Via Salaria in Rome. The Catacombs of Priscilla are believed to be named after Priscilla. This quarry was used for Christian burials from the late 2nd century through the 4th century. also dating from the early 3rd century. a member of the gens Acilia and who was probably the wife of the Consul Acilius who became a Christian and was killed on the orders of Domitian. is situated in what was a quarry in Roman times. including the Fractio Panis. The Priscilla catacombs contain the oldest known Marian paintings. housing various tombs of Christian martyrs. Above the apse is a Last Judgment. from the early third century. The catacomb also has a depiction of the Annunciation. mentioned in all the ancient liturgical and topographic sources. has its modern entrance on the Via Salaria through the cloister of the monastery of the Benedictines of Priscilla. Near this are figures of the Madonna and Child and the Prophet Isaiah. Particularly notable is the "Greek Chapel" (Capella Greca). a square chamber with an arch which contains 3rd century frescoes generally interpreted to be Old and New Testament scenes.

on his accession as pope. was built by Pope Damasus I. giving access to the region of the Popes. with the tombs of Pope Gaius (with an inscription) and Pope Eusebius. opposite each other. It takes its name from the deacon Saint Callixtus. where nine pontiffs and. with some private Christian hypogea and a funeral area directly dependent on the Catholic Church. with their frescoes from the first half of the 3rd century hinting at baptism. proposed by Pope Zephyrinus in the administration of the same cemetery . where more than fifty martyrs and sixteen pontiffs are buried. perhaps. eight representatives of the ecclesiastical hierarchy had been buried .along its walls are the original Greek inscriptions for the pontiffs Pontian. in the region of Saint Militiades next door.three principal areas: an arenarium. that quite soon became the official one for the Roman Church. an arcade dating to the end of the 2nd century gives access to the cubicula of the sacraments. In the region of Saints Gaius and Eusebius are some crypts set apart. after he was killed during the persecution of Valerian. Catacombs of San Callisto Sited along the Appian way. the bust of the Redeemer and Pope Urban I. on a marble copy of the end of the 4th century (of which fragments may be seen on the opposite wall) may be read of an . Lucius I and Eutychian. where some of the most sacred memories of the place are preserved (including the crypt of the Popes. A modern staircase. In the adjoining crypt is the grave of Saint Cecilia. these catacombs were built after AD 150. a cryptoportico from a large Roman villa. A short distance away. and an underground burial area of the noble Roman family Acilius Glabrio. the crypt of Saint Cecilia. and the crypt of the Sacraments). West region (built in the first half of the 4th century) and the Liberian region (second half of the 4th century). on the site of an ancient one. a child's sarcophagus has a front sculpted with biblical episodes. Anterus. in which is to be found the crypt of the popes. Fabian. the region of the Popes and the region of Saint Cecilia. This catacomb's most ancient parts are the crypt of Lucina. the other regions are named the region of Saint Gaius and the region of Saint Eusebius (end of the 3rd century). the Eucharist and the resurrection of the flesh. In the far wall Pope Sixtus II was also buried. whose relics were removed by Pope Paschal I in 821: the early 9th century frescoes on the walls represent Saint Cecilia praying. all showing grandiose underground architecture. he enlarged the complex. in front of his tomb Pope Damasus had carved an inscription in poetic metre in characters thought up by the calligrapher Furius Dionisius Filocalus. The arcades. form part of a complex graveyard that occupies fifteen hectares and is almost twenty km long. who died in Sicily where he had been exiled by Maxentius and whose body was translated to Rome during the pontificate of Militiades.

Sixtus also redecorated the shrine in the catacomb and was buried there. Catacombs of San Lorenzo Built into the hill beside San Lorenzo fuori le Mura. which contains a rhythmic inscription (dated to no later than 304) in which a bishop of Rome (at that time Marcellinus is first called pope and first openly professes belief in the final resurrection. with Roman frescoes of (on the ceiling) the Good Shepherd and orantes and (on the far wall) two fish with a basket of loaves behind it. whose tomb still has its original inscription giving him the title of martyr and. these catacombs are said to have been the final resting place of St. after AD 175. splendid paintings with figures in 7th and 8th century Byzantine style representing popes Sixtus II and Cornelius and the African bishops Cyprian and Ottatus.inscription by Damasus on the schism provoked by Heraclius over the matter of the lapsi. in succession. Joining onto the arcade itself are. the crypt of the martyrs Calogerus and Parthenius and the double cubiculum of Severus. on its sides. In a nearby cubiculum are some of the most ancient burials. who completely remodeled it. Catacombs of San Sebastiano . Catacombs of San Pancrazio Established underneath the San Pacrazio basilica which was built by Pope Symmachus on the place where the body of the young martyr Saint Pancras. a symbol of the Eucharist. had been buried. or Pancratius. The church was built by Pope Sixtus III and later remodeled into the present nave. it was given to the Discalced Carmelites. In a region further from there is the burial of Pope Cornelius. The catacombs house fragments of sculpture and pagan and early Christian inscriptions. Lawrence. In the 17th century.

One then arrives at the restored crypt of S. one finds the arcades where varied cubicula (including the cubiculum of Giona's fine four stage cycle of paintings. Latin inscriptions in Greek characters. of the "Triglia" and of the Constantinian basilica. has a refined stucco ceiling. are visible. but was in fact (as proved by excavation) a tomb for the martyr Quirinus. a construction at the rear of the basilica that was long believed to have been the temporary resting place for Peter and Paul. the plastered walls have hundreds of graffitoes by the devotees at these banquets. On the left is an apsidal mausoleum with an altar built against the apse: on the left wall a surviving graffito reading "domus Petri" either hints at Peter having . carved in the second half of the 3rd to the beginnings of the 4th century. the first is almost completely gone). thus giving this and all other tombs of this type their name. From here one reaches a platform. To the right of the "Platonica" is the chapel of Honorius III. The first one on the right. and a graffito with the initials of the Greek words for "Jesus Christ. on the inside contains paintings (including a ceiling painting of a Gorgon's head) and inhumation burials and has a surviving inscription reading "Marcus Clodius Hermes". A room called the "Triglia" rises from the platform. decorated on the outside with paintings of funereal banquets and the miracle of the calling out of Cerasa's demons. under which is a sandstone cavityad catacumbas which once may have been named "ad catacumbas". The second. along with the outside of the apse of the Chapel of the Relics. This covered room was used for funereal banquets. built in the 13th century. adapted as the vestibule of the mausoleum. and other subjects. rebuilt in 1933 on ancient remains. with an exterior wall painting of vine shoots rising from kantharoi up trompe-l'Ïil pillars. which turns around into an apse: here is a collection of epitaphs and a model of all the mausolei. Madonna and Child. the name of its owner. From here one descends into the "Platonica". From the "Trigilia" one passed into an ancient ambulatory. saints. Via a staircase down. bishop of Sescia in Pannonia. with interesting 13th century paintings of Peter and Paul. Son of God.One of the smallest Christian cemeteries. Saviour". called by some "tomb of the Innocentiores" (a burial club which owned it). whose remains were brought here in the 5th century. arches to end the middle of the nave of the actual church. roughly in the middle of the basilica and cut into from above by the present basilica. with appeals to the apostles Peter and Paul. with a table altar on the site of the ancient one (some remains of the original's base still survive) and a bust of Saint Sebastian attributed to Bernini. dating to the end of the 4th century). the Massacre of the Innocents. On the left hand end of the right hand wall of the nave of the primitive basilica. Sebastiano. 3 mausolei of the second half of the 2nd century (but also in later use) open off the platform. whole and fragmentary collected sarcophagi (mostly of 4th century date) were found in excavations. this has always been one of the most accessible catacombs and is thus one of the least preserved (of the four original floors. On the left is the mausoleum of Ascia. the Crucifixion.

Jewish catacombs There are 6 known Jewish catacombs in Rome. Catacombs of San Valentino These catacombs were dedicated to Saint Valentine. built over the catacomb. Catacombs of Sant'Agnese Built for the conservation and veneration of the remains of Saint Agnes of Rome. Agnes' bones are now conserved in the church of Sant'Agnese fuori le mura in Rome. and archaeological excavations continued for twelve years. The catacombs . two of which are open to the public: Vigna Randanini and Villa Torlonia. Catacombs of via Anapo On the via Salaria. Her skull is preserved in a side chapel in the church of Sant'Agnese in Agone in Rome's Piazza Navona. The structure has two entrances.been buried here or testifies to the belief at the time the graffito was written that Peter was buried here. In the 13th century. The Jewish catacombs were discovered in 1918. the Catacombs of via Anapo are datable to the end of the 3rd or the beginning of the 4th century. the martyr's relics were transferred to Basilica of Saint Praxedes. and contain diverse frescoes of biblical subjects. one on via Syracuse and the other inside Villa Torlonia.

coins.000 sq ft). The other catacombs are not open to the public because of the instability of their structure and the presence of radon. researchers say . Pompeii. the deposit the largest collection of ancient Roman garbage and human waste ever found.June 25. and date back to the period between the 2nd and 3rd centuries. That year a catastrophic volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius buried Herculaneum. In the News .. Lost jewelry. along with its more famous neighbor. 79. an ancient Roman chamber once held tons of decayed garbage and human waste..dates to about A. but these do not show any examples of a particular relief. and semiprecious stones from a gem shop have been found. and possibly remained in use until the 5th century. Sacks of Human Waste Reveal Secrets of Ancient Rome National Geographic .000 square metres (140. beyond some rare frescoes showing the classic Jewish religious symbols. There are almost a century of epitaphs. Flushed down sewers from apartment blocks and shops. according to .extend for more than 13.D. 2011 Now excavated. along with discarded household items such as broken lamps and pottery.

a Packard Humanities Institute initiative. who collaborated with the British School at Rome and the archaeological authorities for Naples and Pompeii. the organic material has revealed just what your run-of the-mill Roman might have eaten in this coastal town.Wallace-Hadrill. director of the Herculaneum Conservation Project. And. coming from a onetime district of shopkeepers and artisans. according to project scientists. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE ShareThis ROME INDEX ANCIENT AND LOST CIVILIZATIONS ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF ALL FILES CRYSTALINKS HOME PAGE PSYCHIC READING WITH ELLIE 2012 THE ALCHEMY OF TIME .