Neolithic Revolution

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The Neolithic Revolution was the first agricultural revolution. It was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement. Archaeological data indicates that various forms of plants and animal domestication evolved independently in six separate locations worldwide

hierarchical ideologies.1 Domestication of animals in the Middle East 4 Consequences o 4.000–5.. These developments provided the basis for high population density settlements. architecture. property regimes and writing). rather than being the outcome of universal laws of social evolution. and depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.1 Social change o 4. trading economies.3 Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent o 2.000–7000 years BP (8.000 BC). The first full-blown manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (ca.g. and seems to vary from place to place. irrigation and food storage technologies) that allowed extensive surplus food production.. During the next millennia it would transform the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human history into sedentary societies based in built-up villages and towns.2 Agriculture in Asia o 2.500 BC). and empirical relation to each other at various Neolithic sites remains the subject of academic debate. their sequence of emergence. The earliest known evidence exists in the tropical and subtropical areas of southwestern/southern Asia.3 Disease o 4.1 Agriculture in Papua New Guinea o 2. whose emergence also inaugurates the end of the prehistoric Neolithic period. the Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques.[2][3] Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • 1 Agricultural transition 2 Domestication of plants o 2.5 Agriculture in the Americas 3 Domestication of animals o 3. 3.4 Agriculture in Africa o 2. which radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized food-crop cultivation (e.2 Subsequent revolutions o 4.[1] However. The relationship of the above-mentioned Neolithic characteristics to the onset of agriculture. centralized administrations and political structures.g.circa 10. the development of non-portable art. specialized and complex labor diversification. and culture.4 Technology 5 Archeogenetics 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading [edit] Agricultural transition .

eastern USA (4000–3000 BP). exact location unknown).000 BP). originally proposed by Raphael Pumpelly in 1908. Central Mexico (5000– 4000 BP). The beginning of this process in different regions has been dated from perhaps 8000 BC in Melanesia[5][6] to 2500 BC in Subsaharan Africa. the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9000 BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (9000–6000 BP). This transition everywhere seems associated with a change from a largely nomadic huntergatherer way of life to a more settled. The most prominent of these are: • The Oasis Theory. Northern South America (5000–4000 BP). agrarian-based one. The period is described as a "revolution" to denote its importance. and the great significance and degree of change affecting the communities in which new agricultural practices were gradually adopted and refined.[4] Knap of Howar farmstead on a site occupied from 3500 BC to 3100 BC The term Neolithic Revolution was coined in the 1920s by Vere Gordon Childe to describe the first in a series of agricultural revolutions in Middle Eastern history.[7] This theory maintains that as the climate got drier due to the Atlantic depressions shifting northward. sub-Saharan Africa (5000–4000 BP. There are several competing (but not mutually exclusive) theories as to the factors that drove populations to take up agriculture. and probably also influenced by local culture. popularized by Vere Gordon Childe in 1928 and summarised in Childe's book Man Makes Himself. with some considering the developments of 9000–7000 BC in the Fertile Crescent to be the most important.Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11. with the inception of the domestication of various plant and animal species—depending on the species locally available. which were . communities contracted to oases where they were forced into close association with animals.

and which ended the last ice age.000 BP. Evidenced by arguments such as those by Maria Hopf regarding cultivated emmer and barley at Jericho. sheep. This required assembling large quantities of food. So Grinin dates the beginning of the agricultural revolution within the interval 12.[9] The Feasting model by Brian Hayden[10] suggests that agriculture was driven by ostentatious displays of power.g. In "A Reassessment of the Neolithic Revolution". It is supposed that the cultivation of cereals started somewhere in the Near East: in the hills of Palestine or Egypt. could have provided circumstances that required the evolution of agricultural societies for humanity to survive.[16] Andrew Moore suggested that dawn of the neolithic revolution originated over long periods of development in the Levant.[8] The Hilly Flanks hypothesis. which drove agricultural technology. Peter Richerson. He noted that the full range of domesticated animals (goats. The evolutionary/intentionality theory. Robert Boyd. where the climate was not drier as Childe had believed. Frank Hole further expanded the relationship between plant and animal domestication. to exert dominance. proposed by Robert Braidwood in 1948. He noted that no transition site had been found documenting the shift from what he termed immediate and delayed return social systems. and Robert Bettinger[14] make a case for the development of agriculture coinciding with an increasingly stable climate at the beginning of the Holocene. He suggested the events could have occurred independently over different periods of time. However. possibly beginning during the Epipaleolithic. in as yet unexplored locations. Ronald Wright's book and Massey Lecture Series A Short History of Progress[15] popularized this hypothesis. Starting with domestication by protection of wild plants. the independent invention of agriculture always took place in special natural environments (e. The Demographic theories proposed by Carl Sauer[11] and adapted by Lewis Binford[12] and Kent Flannery posit an increasingly sedentary population that expanded up to the carrying capacity of the local environment and required more food than could be gathered. Hole concluded that "close . though in some cases the first cultivated plants or domesticated animals' bones are even of a more ancient age of 14–15 thousand years ago.. South-East Asia). The postulated Younger Dryas impact event. today this theory has little support amongst archaeologists because climate data for the time actually shows that at the time. it led to specialization of location and then full-fledged domestication. such as giving feasts.000 to 9. claimed to be in part responsible for megafauna extinction. suggests that agriculture began in the hilly flanks of the Taurus and Zagros mountains. along with the earliest emmer suggested by Willem van Zeist at Tell Aswad.• • • • • • • • then domesticated together with planting of seeds. Leonid Grinin argues that whatever plants were cultivated. this overpopulation itself ultimately propagates the extinction event. Various social and economic factors helped drive the need for food. The agrarian revolution itself is a reflection of typical overpopulation by certain species following initial events during extinction eras. developed by David Rindos[13] and others. views agriculture as an evolutionary adaptation of plants and humans. the climate of the region was getting wetter rather than drier. and fertile land supported a variety of plants and animals amenable to domestication. cattle and pigs) were not found until the sixth millennium at Tell Ramad.

and not simply of those that would favour greater caloric returns through larger seeds.[18] Wild lentils present a different challenge that needed to be overcome: most of the wild seeds do not germinate in the first year. . made its way to Europe as weed seeds and was successfully domesticated in Europe. breaking dormancy in their first year. thus not stored and not seeded the following season.[18] This process of domestication allowed the founder crops to adapt and eventually become larger. thousands of years after the earliest agriculture. human activity resulted in the selective breeding of cereal grasses (beginning with emmer. Several plant species."[17] In contrast to the Paleolithic (2. einkorn and barley). only one (Homo sapiens) reached the Neolithic. the first evidence of lentil domestication.6 million years ago to 10. the "pioneer crops" or Neolithic founder crops. was found in the early Neolithic at Jerf elAhmar (in modern Syria). especially where wadis carrying Pleistocene rainfall runoff flowed. perhaps as far south as the Arabian Peninsula. and quickly spread south to the Netiv HaGdud site in the Jordan Valley. tried and abandoned in Neolithic Anatolia. Plants that rapidly shed their seeds on maturity tended not to be gathered at harvest. were the earliest plants successfully manipulated by humans at sites such as Tell Aswad. [edit] Domestication of plants Neolithic grindstone for processing grain Once agriculture started gaining momentum. Some of these pioneering attempts failed at first and crops were abandoned.attention should be paid in future investigations to the western margins of the Euphrates basin. sometimes to be taken up again and successfully domesticated thousands of years later: rye. Plants that possessed traits such as small seeds or bitter taste would have been seen as undesirable. more easily harvested. more dependable in storage and more useful to the human population.000 BC) in which several hominid species existed. years of harvesting selected for strains that retained their edible seeds longer.

The process was not as linear as was once thought. barley and. Once early farmers perfected their agricultural techniques. The Australian CSIRO has found evidence that Taro was introduced into the Solomons for human use. making taro cultivation the earliest crop in the world[20] It seems to have resulted in the spread of the Trans New Guinea language phylum from New Guinea east into the Solomon Islands and West into Timor and adjacent areas of Indonesia. taro (Colocasia esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea sp.000 BC. Most hunter gatherers could not easily store food for long due to their migratory lifestyle. their crops would yield surpluses that needed storage. and it has been suggested that cultivation in more favourable ranges in the lowlands may have been even earlier. whereas those with a sedentary dwelling could store their surplus grain. which was undertaken by different human populations in different regions in many different ways. represented by the early Neolithic site of Gilgal I. This is the altitudinal limits of these crops.000 years ago.950 to 6. By extension.200 calibrated years before present (cal BP). at sites like Gilgal. [edit] Agriculture in Asia The Neolithic Revolution is believed to have become widespread in southwest Asia around 8000 BC–7000 BC. In China. most likely. it may be theorised that women were largely responsible for . Although archaeological evidence provides scant evidence as to which of the genders performed what task in Neolithic cultures. oats were cultivated in the Jordan Valley. foxtail millet. where in 2006[19] archaeologists found caches of seeds of each in quantities too large to be accounted for even by intensive gathering. This seems to confirm the theories of Carl Sauer who in "Agricultural Origins and Dispersals" suggested as early as 1952 that this region was a centre of early agriculture. broomcorn millet and rice were important domesticated crops. by comparison with historical and contemporary hunter-gatherer communities it is generally supposed that hunting was typically performed by the men. shows evidence of the cultivation of Taro and a variety of other crops. Eventually granaries were developed that allowed villages to store their seeds longer. Some of the plants tried and then abandoned during the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East. Two potentially significant economic species. Further evidence of Bananas and Sugar Cane date to 6. at strata dateable c.000 years ago. So with more food. the population expanded and communities developed specialized workers and more advanced tools.) have been identified dating at least to 10. from 25. 11.440 BP. dating back to 9. though earlier individual sites have been identified. but a more complicated effort.A Sumerian harvester's sickle dated to 3000 BC Figs. were later successfully domesticated in other parts of the world. [edit] Agriculture in Papua New Guinea Evidence of drainage ditches at Kuk Swamp on the borders of the Western and Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. whereas women had a more significant role in the gathering.

the domesticated plants had especially high protein content. for example.[citation needed] The precise nature of these initial observations and (later) purposeful activities that would give rise to the changes in subsistence methods brought about by the Neolithic Revolution are not known.[21] . Other areas with a similar climate were less suitable for agriculture because of the lack of geographic variation within the region and the lack of availability of plants for domestication. However. In all likelihood. teff and finger millet were also domesticated in the Ethiopian highlands. The kola nut. khat. it might be expected that the common practice of discarding food refuse in middens would result in the regrowth of plants from the discarded seeds in the (fertilizer-enriched) soils. The Mediterranean climate has a long dry season with a short period of rain. In addition.the observations and initial activities that began the Neolithic Revolution. The variety given made agriculture more profitable for former huntergatherers. The Fertile Crescent had a large area of varied geographical settings and altitudes. a number of factors contributed to the early onset of agriculture in Neolithic human societies. like wheat and barley. extracts from which became an ingredient in Coca Cola. ensete. Other crops domesticated in West Africa include African rice. noog. insofar as the gradual selection and refinement of edible plant species was concerned. [edit] Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent Generalised agriculture apparently first arose in the Fertile Crescent because of many factors. These were the most suitable for domestication because of the ease of harvest and storage and the wide availability. African yams and the oil palm.[21] The most famous crop domesticated in the Ethiopian highlands is coffee. which made it suitable for small plants with large seeds. specific evidence is lacking. [edit] Agriculture in Africa Nile River Valley. was first domesticated in West Africa. In addition. three areas have been identified as independently developing agriculture: the Ethiopian highlands. Egypt The Revolution developed independently in different parts of the world. On the African continent. Crops domesticated in the Sahel region include sorghum and pearl millet. the Sahel and West Africa. not just in the Fertile Crescent. several reasonable speculations have been put forward.

this evidence appears as a "false dawn" to agriculture. Ancient Pueblo Peoples. squash. Asian yams and taro were also cultivated in Africa.[22] Many such grinding stones are found with the early Egyptian Sebilian and Mechian cultures and evidence has been found of a neolithic domesticated crop-based economy dating around 5000 BC. which were first domesticated in Southeast Asia. Oasisamerica. fragments of maize pollen. with maize beginning about 7500 BC. and permanent farming then was delayed until 4500 BC with the Tasian and Badarian cultures and the arrival of crops and animals from the Near East.000 years ago. as early as 8000 to 6000 BC and beans by no later than 4000 BC. most likely Papua New Guinea. referred to as the formative period. and life span were factors in the desire and success in domesticating animals. Unlike the Middle East. Animals that provided milk. of the Department of Anthropology at Southern Methodist University. Agriculture in the Nile River Valley developed from crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. In this area of the world people relied on hunting and gathering for several millennia to come. it became necessary to bring animals permanently to their settlements. grinding stones.[21] Prof. Romuald Schild. and Proto-Uto-Aztecan Corn. Potatoes and manioc were domesticated in South America. several harvesting implements and charred wheat and barley grains—which may have been introduced from outside the region. although in many cases there was a distinction between relatively sedentary farmers and nomadic herders. including a mortar and pestle. Smith[24] writes: "With the benefit of hindsight we can now see that many Late Paleolithic peoples in the Old World were poised on the brink of plant cultivation and animal husbandry as an alternative to the huntergatherer's way of life". The animals' size. originally thought to have found evidence of early agriculture in Upper Paleolithic times at Wadi Kubbaniya.[23] Philip E. At Guilá Naquitz cave in the Mexican highlands. [edit] Agriculture in the Americas Further information: New World Crops. beans and squash were among the earliest crops domesticated in Mesoamerica. bottle gourd and pepo squash were recovered and variously dated between 8000 to 7000 BC. as the sites were later abandoned.[25] [edit] Domestication of animals When hunter-gathering began to be replaced by sedentary food production it became more profitable to keep animals close at hand. In what is now the eastern United States. Therefore. on the Kom Ombos plateau. sumpweed and goosefoot around 2500 BC. Bananas and plantains. of Egypt. Native Americans domesticated sunflower. diet. such as cows and . temperament. mating patterns. Sedentary village life based on farming did not develop until the second millennium BC.A number of crops that have been cultivated in Africa for millennia came after their domestication elsewhere. L. were re-domesticated in Africa possibly as early as 5. Fred Wendorf and Dr. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating since their first reports has invalidated their hypothesis.

just like tropical crops such as bananas do not grow in colder climates. as crops usually have a narrow optimal climatic range outside of which they cannot grow for reasons of light or rain changes. and became drier. The animal’s ability as a worker (for example ploughing or towing). like Jared Diamond. as well as a food source. Some authors. This area was also the first region to domesticate the Dromedary Camel. and fertilizer. It was this massive emigration from the Middle East that would later help distribute these animals to the rest of Afroeurasia. Henri Fleisch discovered and termed the Shepherd Neolithic flint industry from the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon and suggested that it could have been used by the earliest nomadic shepherds. Besides being a direct source of food. and pigs.000 years ago).goats. many of the farmers were forced to leave. offered a source of protein that was renewable and therefore quite valuable. wheat does not normally grow in tropical climates. [edit] Consequences [edit] Social change . goats and pigs. such as sheep. have postulated that this East-West axis is the main reason why plant and animal domestication spread so quickly from the Fertile Crescent to the rest of Eurasia and North Africa. certain animals could provide leather. also had to be taken into account. Mesolithic or even Pottery Neolithic. cows.[citation needed] The African Zebu is a separate breed of cattle that was better suited to the hotter climates of central Africa than the fertile-crescent domesticated bovines. [edit] Domestication of animals in the Middle East Dromedary Camel caravan in Algeria The Middle East served as the source for many animals that could be domesticated. goats.[26] sheep. As the climate in the Middle East changed. This emigration was mainly on an east-west axis of similar climates. He dated this industry to the Epipaleolithic or Pre-Pottery Neolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic. where temperate crops were successfully imported by ships in the last 500 years. For instance. while it did not reach through the North-South axis of Africa to reach the Mediterranean climates of South Africa. hides.[27][28] The presence of these animals gave the region a large advantage in cultural and economic development. that prevented the andes llama to be exported to the Mexican plateau. Some of the earliest domesticated animals included dogs (about 15. North and South America were similarly separated by the narrow tropical Isthmus of Panama. taking their domesticated animals with them. wool.

and Angora goats) milk (from goats. and life expectancy may in fact have been shorter. but dominated their communities by other means and monopolized decision-making. went down from 5' 10" (178 cm) for men and 5' 6" (168 cm) for women to 5' 3" (165 cm) and 5' 1" (155 cm). it appears were first domesticated purely as a source of meat.[29] The shift to agricultural food production supported a denser population. Once trade and a secure food supply were established. Living in one spot would have more easily permitted the accrual of personal possessions and an attachment to certain areas of land. and the opening up heavier soils for farming. Overgrazing of these areas. but this has been disputed by the finding that nutritional standards of Neolithic populations were generally inferior to that of hunter gatherers. llamas. for example. along the margins of deserts. horses. respectively. industry or commerce. and it took until the twentieth century for average human height to come back to the pre-Neolithic Revolution levels.[30] The Secondary Products Revolution occurred when it was recognised that animals also provided a number of other useful products. From such a position. It also made possible nomadic pastoralism in semi arid areas. donkeys. camels and dogs) guarding and herding assistance (dogs) Sherratt argues that this phase in agricultural development enabled humans to make use of the energy possibilities of their animals in new ways. Average height. and permitted permanent intensive subsistence farming and crop production. populations could grow. alpacas. [edit] Subsequent revolutions Domesticated cow being milked in Ancient Egypt. The development of larger societies led to the development of different means of decision making and to governmental organization. cattle. Animals. the accumulation of goods and tools. and specialization in diverse forms of new labor. in part due to diseases. yaks. onagers. Andrew Sherratt has argued that following upon the Neolithic Revolution was a second phase of discovery that he refers to as the secondary products revolution. and eventually led to the domestication of both the dromedary and bactrian camel. particularly by herds of goats. greatly extended the areal extent of deserts. horses and camels) traction (from oxen. Food surpluses made possible the development of a social elite who were not otherwise engaged in agriculture. sheep.It is often argued that agriculture gave humans more control over their food supply. These included: • • • • • • hides and skins (from undomesticated animals) manure for soil conditioning (from all domesticated animals) wool (from sheep. which in turn supported larger sedentary communities. it is argued. and society would have . prehistoric people were able to stockpile food to survive lean times and trade unwanted surpluses with others.

were better prepared and more successful. Ultimately. smallpox. led to a second Urban Revolution in which the first cities were built.[citation needed] Other "agricultural revolutions" occurred in later millennia: • • • • The Arab Agricultural Revolution (8th–13th centuries). Such relative complexity would have required some form of social organisation to work efficiently. Some examples of diseases spread from animals to humans are influenza.[31] In concordance with a process of natural selection. The artisans. all rooted in the original decision to settle. during this time property ownership became increasingly important to all people. which led to the Lowland Clearances The Green Revolution (1943–late 1970s). disease spread more rapidly than it had during the time in which hunter-gatherer societies existed. Childe argued that this growing social complexity. so it is likely that populations that had such organisation. an increase in agricultural productivity in Great Britain which helped drive the Industrial Revolution The Scottish Agricultural Revolution (18th–19th centuries). perhaps such as that provided by religion. the denser populations could form and support legions of professional soldiers. and measles. the British Agricultural Revolution in Scotland specifically. and technology transfer initiatives that increased industrialized agriculture production in India and other countries in the developing world [edit] Disease Llama overlooking the ruins of the Inca city of Machu Picchu Throughout the development of sedentary societies. as diseases jumped from the animal to the human population.diversified into food producers and artisans. were able to develop technology such as metal weapons. development. who could afford to develop their trade by virtue of the free time they enjoyed because of a surplus of food. a term coined by the historian Andrew Watson postulating a fundamental transformation in agriculture arising from the diffusion of crops through the Islamic world The British Agricultural Revolution (17th–19th centuries). Inadequate sanitary practices and the domestication of animals may explain the rise in deaths and sickness following the Neolithic Revolution. Also. In addition. a series of research. the . in turn.

humans who first domesticated the big mammals quickly built up immunities to the diseases as within each generation the individuals with better immunities had better chances of survival. environmental deterioration and irrigation schemes that helped to spread malaria rather than the development of agriculture.000 years of shared proximity with animals. urbanisation. but the Inca did not drink its milk or live in a closed space with their herds. and millions more died from plague. hence limiting the risk of contagion. such as smallpox. such as the Spanish conquistadors. and both were safer from attacks of other people than civilizations in the middle part of the Eurasian continent. influenza and tuberculosis. During and after the Age of Discovery. Eurasians and Africans became more resistant to those diseases compared with the indigenous populations encountered outside Eurasia and Africa. The causal link between the type or lack of agricultural development. Disease increased after the establishment of British Colonial rule in Africa and India despite the areas having diseases for which Europeans lacked natural immunity. In their approximately 10. lacked domesticated big mammals such as the people of the New Guinea Highlands. The increase of disease has been attributed to increased mobility of people. including malaria and sleeping sickness and despite parts of colonised Africa having little or no agriculture Europeans were more susceptible than the Africans. increased population density. and neighboring other early agricultural societies with whom they could compete and trade. Germs. Both shared the temperate climate ideal for the first agricultural settings. In Africa European colonisation was accompanied by great epidemics. malaria. Being among the first to adopt agriculture and sedentary lifestyles. 90% of the population of certain regions of North and South America were wiped out long before direct contact with Europeans.[33] [edit] Technology In his book Guns. both were near a number of easily domesticable plant and animal species. In addition. European explorers. .[32] For instance. such as the Australian Aborigines and American indigenous peoples were more vulnerable to infection and largely wiped out by diseases. the population of most Caribbean and several Pacific Islands have been completely wiped out by diseases. they developed resistances to infectious disease. Some cultures like the Inca Empire did have one big mammal domesticated. Jared Diamond argues that Europeans and East Asians benefited from an advantageous geographical location that afforded them a head start in the Neolithic Revolution. In India agriculture developed during the Neolithic period with a wide range of animals domesticated. During colonial rule an estimated 23 million people died from cholera between 1865 and 1949. According to the Population history of American indigenous peoples. Groups of people who had not lived in proximity with other large mammals. disease and colonisation is not supported by colonization in other parts of the world. encountered other groups of people who had never or only recently adopted agriculture. the Llama. such as in the Pacific Islands. due to their close relationship with domesticated animals. both Europeans and East Asians were also among the first to benefit from technologies such as firearms and steel swords. and Steel.

Anil K.300. Rise of Civilization: From Early Hunters to Urban Society in the Ancient Near East. "Origins of Agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea".1126/science. No. doi:10.1126/science.[edit] Archeogenetics The dispersal of Neolithic culture from the Middle East has recently been associated with the distribution of human genetic markers. In Europe.. Redman (1978). ^ Gordon Childe (1936). 6. Vol. ^ "Zawi Chemi Shanidar". ISBN 0-500-28531-4 9. ^ Scarre. London: Thames and Hudson. 19 October 2010 2. (2003). the spread of the Neolithic culture has been associated with distribution of the E1b1b lineages and Haplogroup J that are thought to have arrived in Europe from North Africa and the Near East respectively. PMID 12714734. Bellwood. PMID 12817084. . Minnesota State University 4.. in Anatolia. J. (2003). Man Makes Himself. ^ "Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration". a settled culture preceding agriculture Original affluent society Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) Haplogroup J (mtDNA) Agricultural Revolution Neolithic tomb Surplus product Göbekli Tepe Mehergarh [edit] References 1. Oxford university press. ^ Diamond.[34] [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • • Çatalhöyük.[34][35] In Africa. EMuseum. the spread of farming. Gupta*.. Page 188. a Neolithic site in southern Anatolia Aşıklı Höyük.1078208. P. Heather Pringle* 3. Current Science. doi:10. one of the earliest agricultural communities (ca 8200 BC)[citation needed] Natufians. "The World Transformed: From Foragers and Farmers to States and Empires" in The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies (Ed: Chris Scarre). ^ The Kuk Early Agricultural Site 7. 1. Science 300 (5619): 597–603. ^ "The Slow Birth of Agriculture". San Francisco: Freeman. Science 301 (5630): 189–193. 8. edit 5.597D.. ^ Charles E. 87. et al. and notably the Bantu expansion. is associated with the dispersal of Y-chromosome haplogroup E1b1a from West Africa.. Tim P. "Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions". Chris (2005). Bibcode 2003Sci.1085255. ^ Denham.

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