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8

Design of Shaft

Version 2 ME , IIT Kharagpur

Lesson

2

Design of shaft for

variable load and

based on stiffness

Version 2 ME , IIT Kharagpur

Instructional Objectives:

At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to understand:

Equivalent stress on shaft

Design based on stiffness and torsional rigidity

Critical speed of shaft

Design of shaft for strength involves certain changes when it is acted upon by

variable load. It is required to calculate the mean stress and stress amplitude for

all the loads, namely, axial, bending and torsion. Thereafter, any of the design

methods for variable load, that is, Soderberg, Goodman or Gerber criteria is

utilized. Once again, the familiar design diagram for variable load in terms of the

stress amplitude and the mean stress is reproduced below.

σe Gerber

Stress Amplitude

Goodman

Soderberg

σa

A

(design point)

σm σy σ ut

Mean Stress

Fig. 8.2.1 Diagram for design under variable load

A is the design point, for which, the stress amplitude is σa and mean stress is σm.

In the Soderberg criterion the mean stress material property is the yield point σy ,

whereas in the Gerber and the Goodman criteria the material property is the

ultimate stress σ ut For the fatigue loading, material property is the endurance

limit, σe in reverse bending. The corresponding equations for all the three above

criteria are given as,

σa σm 1

Goodman criterion: + =

σ e σ ut FS

σa σm 1

Soderberg criterion: + =

σ e σ y FS

2

FS × σ a ⎛ FS × σ m ⎞

Gerber criterion: +⎜ ⎟ =1

σe ⎝ σ ut ⎠

(8.2.1)

Where,

σa = Stress amplitude; σe = Endurance limit; σm = Mean stress; σy = Yield

point;

σut = Ultimate stress and FS= factor of safety.

Similar equation (8.2.1) also can be written for the shear stress.

For the design of shaft, it is most common to use the Soderberg criterion. Hence,

we shall limit our discussion only to Soderberg criterion.

K f σa σ m 1

+ =

σe σ y FS

σ y k f σa σy

multiplying by σ y , + σm = = σeq

σe FS

(8.2.2)

K fs τa τm 1

+ =

τe τ y FS

τ y K fs τa τy

multiplying by τ y , + τm = = τeq

τe fs

(8.2.3)

In equations (8.2.2) and (8.2.3), to consider the effect of variable load, the normal

stress amplitude, σa is multiplied by the fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf and

the corresponding term, shear stress amplitude is multiplied by a fatigue stress

concentration factor in shear, Kfs.

The physical significance of equations (8.2.2) and (8.2.3) is that, the effect of

variable stress on the machine member (left hand side of the equations), has

been effectively defined as an equivalent static stress. Therefore, the problem is

treated as a design for static loads. Here, σe or τe are equivalent to allowable

σy τy

stress, or . Hereafter, conventional failure theories can be used to

FS FS

complete the design.

It states that a machine member fails when the maximum shear stress at a point

exceeds the maximum allowable shear stress for the shaft material. Therefore,

2

⎛ σeq ⎞

τmax = τallowable = ⎜ ⎟ + τeq

2

⎝ 2 ⎠

(8.2.4)

substitution of σeq and τeq from (8.2.3) will give the required shaft diameter.

In addition to the strength, design may be based on stiffness. In the context of

shaft, design for stiffness means that the lateral deflection of the shaft and/or

angle of twist of the shaft should be within some prescribed limit. Therefore,

design for stiffness is based on lateral stiffness and torsional rigidity.

8.2.2.1 Lateral stiffness

Let us consider a beam loaded as

shown in Fig.8.2.2. The beam deflects

by δ due to the load P. So the

P

requirement for the design is that

where, one has to limit the deflection

δ. Hence, the design procedure is as δ

follows,

using any of the following methods,

L

Fig. 8.2.2 Deflection of a beam

Integration method

Moment-area method, or

Energy method (Theorem of Castigliano)

Now, the deflection, δ = f (applied load, material property, moment of inertia and

given dimension of the beam).

including δ , shaft dimension is obtained.

To design a shaft based on torsional rigidity, the limit of angle of twist should be

known. The angle of twist is given as follows,

TL

θrad =

GI p

584TL

or, θdeg =

Gd 04 (1 − k 4 )

584ΤL

∴ dO = 4

G(1-k 4 )θdeg

(8.2.5)

Where,

θ = angle of twist

L = length of the shaft

G = shear modulus of elasticity

Ip = Polar moment of inertia

The limiting value of θ varies from 0.3 deg/m to 3 deg/m for machine tool shaft to

line shaft respectively. With the knowledge of design parameters, the shaft

dimension can be obtained from (8.2.5).

Critical speed of a rotating shaft is the speed where it becomes dynamically

unstable. It can be shown that the frequency of free vibration of a non-rotating

shaft is same as its critical speed.

is,

g ( W1δ1 + W2 δ 2 + ......+ Wn δ n )

f critical = 1

2π ( W1δ12 + W2 δ 22 + ......+ W1δ n2 )

(8.2.6)

Where,

W1, W2…. : weights of the rotating bodies

δ1, δ2 …. : deflections of the respective bodies

This particular equation (8.2.6) has been derived using the following assumption.

Assumptions:

The weights are concentrated and

Bearings/supports are not flexible

Where,

δ 1 and δ2 δ 2

: Deflections of the respective bodies

The operating speed of the shaft should be well above or below a critical speed

value. There are number of critical speeds depending upon number of rotating

bodies.

Sample problem

P

carrying a load of 5 kN at the center

and is simply supported as shown in

figure. The maximum shaft deflection δ

is 1mm. E=200GPa.

Solution

L

The maximum deflection of the shaft is given as,

PL3

δmax =

48EI

πd O 4

where, for a solid shaft, I =

64

4PL3 4 × 5000×10003

∴ dO = 4 = 4

3πEδmax 3× π× 200×103 × 1

= 57 mm

from standard shaft size, d O = 58 mm

This problem is not a complete one. The magnitude of torque on the shaft is not

specified. The design calculations should be first based on strength, where, both

bending moment and torsion are required. With the given limits of lateral

deflection and angular twist, the design should be checked.

Q1. What is an equivalent stress?

A1. When a shaft is subjected to variable load, both the stress amplitude and

mean stress can be conveniently represented as equivalent stress. The

equivalent stress is conceptually an equivalent static stress.

Q2. What are the limiting values of the angle of twist of a shaft?

A2. The limiting value of angle of twist of a shaft varies from 0.3 deg/m to 3

deg/m for machine tool shaft to line shaft respectively.

Q3. What are the assumptions made to derive the equation for critical

frequency? Why critical frequency is important in shaft design?

A3. The assumptions made to derive the equation for critical frequency are,

The shaft is weightless, the weights are concentrated and

bearings/supports are not flexible. The critical speed value helps a

designer to set the limit of shaft speed. To avoid resonance, the shaft

speed should be much higher or lower than the critical speed.

References

1. J.E Shigley and C.R Mischke , Mechanical Engineering Design , McGraw Hill

Publication, 5th Edition. 1989.

2. M.F Spotts, Design of Machine Elements, Prentice Hall India Pvt. Limited, 6th

Edition, 1991.

3. Khurmi, R.S. and Gupta J.K., Text book on Machine Design, Eurasia

Publishing House, New Delhi.

4. Sharma, C.S. and Purohit Kamalesh, Design of Machine Elements, Prentice

Hall of India, New Delhi, 2003.

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