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12

Design of Brakes

Version 2 ME , IIT Kharagpur

Lesson

2

Design of Band and

Disc Brakes

Version 2 ME , IIT Kharagpur

Instructional Objectives:

After reading this lesson the students should learn:

• Different types of band brakes

• Design of band brakes

• Design of disc brakes

• Properties of friction materials

1. Band brakes:

The operating principle of this type of brake is the following. A flexible band of

leather or rope or steel with friction lining is wound round a drum. Frictional

torque is generated when tension is applied to the band. It is known (see any

text book on engineering mechanics) that the tensions in the two ends of the

band are unequal because of friction and bear the following relationship:

T1

= eμ β ,

T2

β = angle of wrap.

If the band is wound around a drum of radius R, then the braking torque is

Tbr = (T1 − T2 ) R = T1 (1 − e − μ β ) R

Depending upon the connection of the band to the lever arm, the member

responsible for application of the tensions, the band brakes are of two types,

(a) Simple band brake:

In simple band brake one end of the band is attached to the fulcrum of the

lever arm (see figures 12.2.1(a) and 1(b) ). The required force to be applied to

the lever is

b

P = T1 for clockwise rotation of the brake drum and

l

b

P = T2 for anticlockwise rotation of the brake drum,

l

where l = length of the lever arm and

b = perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to the point of attachment of

other end of the band.

l l

b b

T2 T1 T1 T2

P P

1(a): Band brake with CW rotating drum 1(b): Band brake with CCW rotating drum

Figure 12.2.1: Band brakes

In this type of band brake, two ends of the band are attached to two points on

the lever arm other than fulcrum (see figures 12.2.2(a) and 12.2.2(b)). Drawing

the free body diagram of the lever arm and taking moment about the fulcrum it

is found that

a b

P = T2 − T1 , for clockwise rotation of the brake drum and

l l

a b

P = T1 − T2 , for anticlockwise rotation of the brake drum.

l l

Hence, P is negative if

T1 a

eμ β = > for clockwise rotation of the brake drum

T2 b

T1 a

and eμ β = < for counterclockwise rotation of the brake drum. In

T2 b

these cases the force is to be applied on the lever arm in opposite direction to

maintain equilibrium. The brakes are then self locking.

The important design variables of a band brake are the thickness

and width of the band. Since the band is likely to fail in tension, the following

relationship is to be satisfied for safe operation.

T1 = wtsT

t = thickness of the band and

sT = allowable tensile stress of the band material. The steel bands of the

w 25-40 mm 40-60 mm 80 mm 100 mm 140-200

mm

t 3 mm 3-4 mm 4-6 mm 4-7 mm 6-10 mm

a l

b

T2

T1

a l

b

T1

T2

2. Band and block brakes:

Sometimes instead of applying continuous friction lining along the band, blocks

of wood or other frictional materials are inserted between the band and the

drum. In this case the tensions within the band at both sides of a block bear

the relation

T1 1 + μ tan θ

= ,

T1′ 1 − μ tan θ

If n number of blocks are used then the ratio between the tensions at taut

side to slack side becomes

n

T1 ⎛ 1 + μ tan θ ⎞

=⎜ ⎟ .

T2 ⎝ 1 − μ tan θ ⎠

3. Disc brake:

In this type of brake two friction pads are pressed axially against a rotating

disc to dissipate kinetic energy. The working principle is very similar to friction

clutch. When the pads are new the pressure distribution at pad-disc interface

is uniform, i.e.

p = constant .

F

If F is the total axial force applied then p = , where A is the area of the pad.

A

The frictional torque is given by

μF

Tbraking =

A v∫ r dA

A

infinitesimal element of pad. After some time the pad gradually wears

away. The wear becomes uniforms after sufficiently long time, when

pr = constant = c (say)

dA

where F = v∫ p dA = c v∫ . The braking torque is

r

μ AF

Tbraking ' = μ v∫ pr dA = μ Ac =

dA

v∫ r

It is clear that the total braking torque depends on the geometry of the pad. If

the annular pad is used then

2 ⎛ R3 −R 3 ⎞

Tbr = μ F ⎜ 12 2 2 ⎟

3 ⎝ R1 − R2 ⎠

⎛ R + R2 ⎞

Tbr′ = μ F ⎜ 1 ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

where R1 and R2 are the inner and outer radius of the pad.

4. Friction materials and their properties.

The most important member in a mechanical brake is the friction material. A

good friction material is required to possess the following properties:

• High and reproducible coefficient of friction.

• Imperviousness to environmental conditions.

• Ability to withstand high temperature (thermal stability)

• High wear resistance.

• Flexibility and conformability to any surface.

Some common friction materials are woven cotton lining, woven asbestos

lining, molded asbestos lining, molded asbestos pad, Sintered metal pads etc.

Q.1. A double shoe brake has diameter of brake drum 300mm and contact

angle of each shoe 90 degrees, as shown in figure below. If the coefficient of

friction for the brake lining and the drum is 0.4, find the spring force necessary

to transmit a torque of 30 Nm. Also determine the width of the brake shoe if the

braking pressure on the lining material is not to exceed 0.28 MPa.

S S

250

225

Figure 12.2.3

30

F1 + F2 = = 200 ( N )

0.150

F1 F

The normal forces on the shoes are N1 = , N 2 = 2 , where

μ' μ'

4 μ sin θ 0 π

μ'= (θ 0 = ) = 0.44. Writing the moment equilibrium equations about

2θ 0 + sin 2θ 0 4

the pivot points of individual shoes (draw correct FBDs and verify)

Sl

− Sl + N1 x + F1a = 0 ⇒ F1 = = 0.718 S , and

x

a+

μ'

Sl

Sl − N 2 x + F2 a = 0 ⇒ F2 = = 1.1314 S

x

−a

μ'

This yields S = 98.4(N).

Width of the friction lining :

According to the pressure distribution assumed for a shoe brake, the maximum

bearing pressure occurs at the centerline of the shoe. The width of the brake

lining must be selected from the higher values of the normal forces, in this

case N 2 . Noting that

π /4

N 2 = Rbpmax ∫

π

− /4

cos 2 θ dθ ,

Where R = 0.150, pmax = 0.28 X 106 , N 2 = 1.314 × 98.4 / 0.44, the value of b is

Q2. A differential band brake has brake drum of diameter 500mm and the

maximum torque on the drum is 1000 N-m. The brake embraces 2/3rd of the

circumference. If the band brake is lined with asbestos fabric having a

coefficient of friction 0.3, then design the steel band. The permissible stress is

70 MPa in tesnion. The bearing pressure for the brake lining should not

exceed 0.2 MPa.

Ans. The design of belt is to be carried out when the braking torque is

maximum i.e. Tbr = 1000 N-m. According to the principle of band brake

4π

⎛ − 0.3× ⎞

Tbr = T1 (1 − e − μβ ) R = T1 ⎜⎜1 − e 3 ⎟ × 0.25

⎟

⎝ ⎠

Which yield T1 = 5587 N , T2 = e − μ β T1 = 1587 N . In order to find the pressure on

the band, consider an infinitesimal element. The force balance along the radial

direction yields

F T

N = T Δθ

T

Since N = p b R Δ θ so p = . N

bR

T1

The maximum pressure is pmax = .

bR T+ΔT Δθ

5587

Hence b= = 0.112 m (approx.)

0.25 × 0.2 × 106

The thickness t of the band is calculated from the relation

St bt = T1

5587

Which yields t = = 0.0007145 m or 1 mm (approx.).

70 × 106 × 0.1117

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