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H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management Carnegie Mellon University Systems Synthesis Fall 2006
Dana Casto Krystle Demauro Samantha Laffey Sun-Young Lee Lauren Merker Heather McElwee Jesse Rye Katrina Strueloff Johanna Taylor Faculty Advisor: Jerry Coltin Clients: Pennsylvania Council on the Arts The Sprout Fund
Strengthening Relationships Between Artists and Post-Industrial Pennsylvanian Communities, is a research project through Carnegie Mellon University’s H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management. The project team consists of nine Masters of Arts Managements students, a faculty advisor and two clients. The clients were the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts; a statewide government arts funding agency and The Sprout Fund; a Pittsburgh based grassroots funding organization. The objective of the project was to determine how post-industrial Pennsylvanian communities, including Pittsburgh, could strengthen their relationships with artists and attract artists to their communities. The project seemed especially relevant since many communities across Pennsylvania are currently trying to revitalize themselves after the loss of manufacturing industries over the last two decades. By definition a post-industrial community is one who has seen a loss in manufacturing jobs and in the case of the Pennsylvanian cities, often a deserted downtown and an excess of abandoned warehouse and factory space. It is assumed that the arts have a positive economic impact in communities because national supporting evidence is overwhelming. Studies such as The Artistic Dividend by Ann Markusen and David King show that the arts contribute much more to an economy than just ticket sales and peripheral spending on things such as meals and parking in arts districts. These authors say that, “Artists are key contributors to what economists call the economic base of a region – goods and services exported out of the region that enable the producers to earn incomes that are in turn spent in support of local-serving businesses as well as on imports of yet other goods and services.” In other words, artists help to build and maintain the economic base of a region through the actual creation of their work, not only through the sale of such items in commercial format. Another study conducted in Pittsburgh by the Pennsylvania Economic League, Inc. says that the arts “bring jobs, dollars and economic growth to our region’s economy.” This project does not set out to prove that the arts have a positive impact on economies, but rather how communities can capitalize on that already established impact by retaining and attracting artists to live and work in their community. Additionally, there has been extensive research done by the Urban Institute into what artists need, so the systems team did not feel it necessary to repeat this research. The Urban Institute’s report Investing in Creativity: A Study of the Support Structure for U.S. Artists outlines six dimensions of the environment in which an artists needs lay: Validation Demands/markets Material supports Training and professional development Community and networks Information
The systems team chose to look at these six dimensions as an outline for where to begin the research. Using these six criteria the team began case studies of cities that had used the arts to revitalize and also looked at what elements of the criteria already existed in the selected Pennsylvanian cities. One main focus of needs of artists is on space, including living space, studio space to create work, and space to exhibit and perform work. The team began to examine the different types of rental, long-term lease and homeownership possibilities for artists.
These needs were addressed in a variety of ways in each of the case study cities and from these examples the team developed a selection of best practices and lessons learned. Historically. attract restaurants and businesses and then finally become displaced when the area became so trendy that property values exceeded sustainable levels for the artists themselves. One of the main ways the systems team conducted its research was through case studies. for the indepth review of Pittsburgh. the team conducted one-on-one interviews with experts in the field ranging from arts administrators to people in local government.Executive Summary A common side effect of attracting artists to a community that will be referred to commonly is the idea of gentrification. These studies were broken into three groups: National and International case studies. the galleries and art dealers followed along with hip bars. working and showing and selling in the city. Finally. Already artists have been priced out of neighborhoods like SoHo after being the key to such areas’ rise in popularity. The final recommendations the team made were separated into suggestions for the city of Pittsburgh and suggestions for the other post-industrial Pennsylvanian communities. In addition. Three of the common themes that emerged were the need for sustainability. The sourcebook could take many forms. In Pittsburgh. Not long after artists moved into the East Village. artists have been used as gentrifiers to move into an area. the team developed a toolkit to help these cities analyze their strengths and weaknesses. In Pittsburgh. the need for heightened awareness lead the team to recommend a comprehensive sourcebook for artists in the city. This has happened repeatedly in New York City since 1950. Gentrification is the process of neighborhood renovation that often results in displacement of residents in an urban community. validation and structure for artists in a community. Artists first moved into the neighborhood of East Village around 1982 when it was downtrodden and in desperate need of revitalization. This is an important issue that will be discussed further. the team held a focus group with Pittsburgh artists to ascertain artists’ perceptions of the area. . it became evident that awareness was a key issue and one that had yet to be addressed in a comprehensive way. In less than ten years the East Village completed the cycle of gentrification where artists moved in and then were priced out. start a buzz about the neighborhood. restaurants and shops. and provide resources and practical examples for change. identify stakeholders with power and influence in the community. For the post-industrial cities. The team compiled data and created GIS maps of Pittsburgh to help identify artist centers and target areas. PostIndustrial Pennsylvanian city case studies and an in-depth case study of Pittsburgh. but would include information about living.
Shaulis Acknowledgements . Matt Hannigan Faculty Advisor: Jerry Coltin Advisory Board: Susan Blackman Susan Callahan David DeSimone Tom Fallon Margaret Graham Adam Grossi Allison Hoge David Howe Charlie Humphrey Paige Ilkhanipour Erin Molchany John Morris Alison Oehler Lindsay O’Leary Heather Pesanti Hilary Robinson Harriett Schwartz As well as: Linda Metropulos Robert Beckman Adele Fleet Bacow Pittsburgh Center for the Arts Julia Indovina Devon Dupay Gary Franko Hope Markiewicz Glenn Molzer Anne Moss The nine artists who participated in the Pittsburgh Artist Focus Group Pittsburgh Glass Center Lisa Miyashiro Kristin Kurland Skip Rhode Nathan J. There are a number of people that contributed to the success of this project. The team would like to specifically acknowledge the invaluable efforts of: Our Clients: The Pennsylvania Council on the Arts. Brian Rogers and Lori Frush Schmelz The Sprout Fund.
The best way to do that was outline the project objectives and develop a problem statement for the project. . 4. The problem statement would guide the team throughout the semester and help to clarify when the project started to drift out of focus. Project Objectives Opportunity Statement: What do artists need and how can communities provide for these needs? The aim of this project is to help post-industrial Pennsylvanian communities sustain and attract artists by connecting artists with necessary resources. Identify best practices in communities that have sustained and attract ed artists successfully by conducting in depth case studies. 2. Determine what resources are lacking or could be improved upon in these communities. Recommend tools for communities to bridge the gap between existing and needed resources for artists. Learn what artists need and want in a community through examining existing research. In many ways the team looked at the “problem” as more of an opportunity. so the team decided to define its project with an “Opportunity Statement”. The team recognized that by being clear and specific in the opportunity statement. The first thing the systems team needed to do was determine the scope of the project. 5. 3. Assess how Pittsburgh and other post-industrial communities currently fulfill artists’ needs. scope creep could be avoided and expectations defined. The opportunity statement identified the scope of the project and allowed the team to identify stakeholders. The team will: 1.
The study primarily explores who artists are. Reading. Creativity. culture. and creative expression in communities” . The PCA requested that the team assess the environment of these post-industrial cities and make recommendations so that they can effectively develop and support a local artist community. Validation 2. The initial idea of the project was proposed by two group members and arose from their desire to pinpoint exactly what would attract artists to a community and then what the community can offer so that the artists would choose to stay. Scranton. they took an immediate liking to the project. The CCC Program is a “research and dissemination initiative that investigates the role of arts. The systems team added The Sprout Fund as an additional client in order to give the project more depth. It has the potential to lead the group into an unforeseen direction or perhaps reaffirm any preconceived notions regarding the outcome of the project. The PCA was the original client that worked with the two students who proposed the idea to define the project before it officially began. Because of The Sprout Fund’s vested interest in creating a community that would provide resources and opportunities to young people. the original desire to strengthen the relationship between artists and communities remained the central focus until the very end. and Communities (CCC) Program. the PCA asked that the team focus their efforts on post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities. Lancaster. In any case. Strengthening Relationships between Artists and Post-Industrial Pennsylvanian Communities is a fall semester systems project completed in December 2006. it is arguably the most important part of the process. They strive to create a community infrastructure for the arts and provide advocacy programs to assist individual artists and organizations. Phase One The systems synthesis project is primarily a research based group project. and Johnstown. The study outlined six dimensions that form a matrix of artist’s key needs. what their needs are. The Sprout Fund is a Pittsburgh based organization that funds and facilitates grassroots efforts to create local change with the eventual goal of attracting and retaining young people (ages 18-45) to Pittsburgh. and what sort of mechanisms need to be in place in order to create an optimal support structure for those needs. Although the initial project proposal is vastly different from the final project.S. Working from the specific strategies outlined in the opportunity statement. the team was able to map out a four phased action plan for the remainder of the semester so that they could most efficiently and effectively satisfy both clients’ needs as well as their own goals for completing an academic capstone project. The systems team began the project by reading Investing in Creativity: A Study of the Support Structure for U. Erie. The research phase of the project is the base from which all recommendations and specific deliverables are derived. The dimensions are: 1. specifically. Artists written by the Urban Institute’s Culture. Demands/Markets 3. Material supports Project Methodology . Bethlehem. In order to move the project into a direction that would most effectively assist in accomplishing their goals as an organization. The Sprout Fund asked the group to specifically focus on Pittsburgh and where the disconnect lies between what the community currently offers and what artists specifically need. The information in the study was the foundation of the team’s project. A key player in helping the team narrow their focus was the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts (PCA).
pulling out important and applicable information. the other half of the group was immersed in research of their own. They did this by continuing their research on the post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities and the national model cities in order to analyze best practices and lessons learned. While some of these Pennsylvanian cities were more suited to support artists than others. as well as understand what needs to happen in a city in order to get to that level. Additional research was also done on cultural plans. Paducah. While not all of the research was used directly in the final project. 5. etc. Phase Two The second phase was relatively different from phase one in that it was less based on preliminary research and more focused on making connections within the research accomplished in phase one. CA. transportation. they all seemed to be heading in a positive direction if measured by the metrics outlined by the Urban Institute. RI. By researching what the group began to see as model cities. The knowledge served to inform the group as to what direction the project should take. Santa Ana. The team needed to draw conclusions about how communities could bridge the apparent gap. Santa Fe. what sort of resources artists need. While half of the group was researching local. 6. and make informed decisions about an upcoming focus group session. Early on in the semester the team received two boxes from the PCA filled with existing research that they felt to be pertinent to the project. the group was ready to find connections. characteristics of desirable cities. created an artist community. NC. but are making a concerted effort in revitalization. information gathering was a continual and constant process in the systems synthesis project. Phase two began with a clear idea about what needed to be accomplished for the remainder of the project and how to accomplish it. These cities included Providence. During this phase the group prepared for and executed an insightful focus group session. draw conclusions. In order to satisfy the group’s local client. professional services. While part of the group was researching cities in the state of Pennsylvania. and Asheville. the work done by the group during the first phase of the process was extremely important and relevant. national. they were able to understand what the PA cities could be. to some success. Although this phase was not primarily research based. preliminary research on existing resources in Pittsburgh was also accomplished during this time. Two group members began to research six Pennsylvania post-industrial cities that the PCA specifically requested. live/work space. These cities were chosen because they had. The PCA directed us toward these cities because they are areas that are economically and culturally depressed. The group was well informed about artists’ needs and what a community needed to do in order to support them. The Sprout Fund. others were examining select national and international cities. Training and professional development Communities and networks Information Project Methodology These dimensions helped frame the next step of the research phase. as well as gave them a context so that they could make well-informed choices later on in the process. and how artists can contribute to a community both intrinsically and instrumentally. The group used the dimensions as a framework to analyze key post-industrial cities in Pennsylvania as well as regions nationally that would serve as model case studies. and international cities. Ontario. arts organizations. 4. NM. The group researched what sort of resources the cities currently offer such as exhibition space. people in different generations and why they decide to relocate. Toronto. KY. Canada. The intention of the focus group was to gain insight into the extent that Pittsburgh is able to . After the intense research done in phase one. Two group members systematically read and organized the research.
The group also compiled a list of the number of artists in each zip code by combining mailing lists from three local arts organizations. Group B worked with a student who specialized in GIS mapping in order to create a visual representation of the data.support its local artists from the point of view of an individual artist. they divided into two groups. housing opportunities. so in order to be the most efficient. For the first time. The purpose of phase three was the daunting task of preparing for and executing the final report and the deliverable. make informed conclusions. and was able to look towards the final documentation of their work. Project Methodology . the group was also busy preparing for the interim presentation. etc. Phase two proved to be a whirlwind of activity. the group was finally able to make educated recommendations for the city. the team was able to see tangible results of their research. The group divided the Pittsburgh region into 10 areas based on zip codes chosen because of an adequate amount of resources to serve the needs of artists. the systems group worked diligently to prepare a list of pertinent questions as well as create a list of possible participants. Phase three was the culmination of the team’s research and because there was a final document to serve as tangible evidence of the group’s hard work. The focus group was made up of nine diverse local artists and lasted for approximately two hours. In order to develop these documents the group did the following: • Connected all of the material that had been written • Organized components for the final academic document • Formalized recommendation for Pennsylvanian cities • Create the final deliverable for Pennsylvanian cities While Group A may not have been doing much new research. This phase began with a fresh start and new ideas because of the insight and feedback given by their two clients and the advisory board during the presentation. For weeks before the session. After the data collection was complete. Phase Four Phase four consisted of only nine days and the goal was to incorporate any suggestions and comments from the final presentation discussion that the team deemed relevant to the project. The consensus of the systems team was that the focus group session was extremely successful and informative. The questions were based on the six dimensions outlined in the Urban Institute study. Group editing and formatting sessions took place within the week and a half and eventually produced the final deliverable and the research document. it proved to be a rewarding section of the process. but it served the invaluable purpose of solidifying the direction of the project. While the purpose of phase two was to compile and connect research. art supply stores. Group A was assigned to the task of developing the deliverable for the clients as well as designing the final academic research paper. and thus were able to gather information about the artists’ needs and their ability to fulfill these needs with the resources Pittsburgh currently has to offer. Through extensive research on the Pittsburgh region. interviewing advisory board members. and deciding what sort of deliverable they thought would be the most effective way to disseminate their research. The group then researched each area and compiled a database of the resources such as arts organizations. Group B was hard at work finishing research for the Pittsburgh section of the project. The group had approximately one month to complete the final deliverables. Phase Three Phase three began immediately following the interim presentation. parks. galleries.
establish who is contacting who Fri 15: send invite via email. 6pm 11-20: Begin Phase 4 11-27: Finished Document to Advisor for Review 12-4: Feedback from Advisor/Changes/Edits 12-5: Document sent to Printer (x copies) 12-8: Printed Digital Document Delivered to Dean/Client/Advisor Advisory Board Process Timeline Timeline Wed Sept 13: board invitees finalized. Overall Timeline 9-11: Begin Phase 1 9-15: Reserve Rooms for interim and final presentations 9-18: Preliminary Presentation during Class Time 9-25: Deadline to determine food and beverages served at interim report 9-27: Begin Phase 2 (to be completed by Mon Oct 30) Week of Oct 9: Prepare for Interim Presentation 10-4: Deadline for GUSH. 8am 10-23: Reminder to Advisory Board and client of Final Report Meeting 10-30: Deadline to determine food and beverages served at the final report 10-30: Prepare for Final Presentation (Phase 3) 11-9 – 11-11: Alliance of Artists Communities conference at CMU 11-20: Final Report Date. but also outlined when certain research needed to be completed. Since the project was completed in approximately three and a half months. including presentation dates Wed 20—Fri 22: Follow up via phone with invitees Mon 25: have finalized board list Week of Sept 25 through Oct 6 (two work weeks): meetings with board members to inform them about the project and gain their perspective in groups of 1 or 2 team members Focus Group Timeline 9-24: Finalize List of artists to invite for focus group 9-28: Send Invite to artists 9-30: Determine food needs and “give away” 10-19: Send reminders to artists about upcoming focus group 10-26: Hold focus group at Pittsburgh Glass Center (Thursday night) . The timeline was useful in keeping track of important dates such as presentations and deadlines for grants. The timeline was meticulously followed by all group members and thus the project was completed thoroughly and efficiently. the group diligently adhered to a strict timeline. GSA Funding 10-13: Send email reminder to Advisory Board & Client of Interim Report Meeting 10-20: Interim Report Date.
as well as be available to answer any questions the group might have during the execution of the project. Carnegie Mellon University •Harriett Schwartz Career Counselor. The Advisory Board included: Advisory Board •Susan Blackman Director of Arts Programs. General Counsel. Brewhouse •Heather Pesanti Assistant Curator of Contemporary Arts. the systems team sought individuals that that fell into one of the following categories: • Artists living and working in Pittsburgh • Individuals involved in cultural or economic development • Artist contact points (i. Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council •Susan Callahan Artist Representative and Marketing Researcher •David DeSimone Senior Vice President of Operations. Digging Pitt Gallery •Alison Oehler Assistant Director. not only to ask questions during the process. When choosing members for the board.e. Pittsburgh Urban Magnet Project •John Morris Owner/Director. Senator Jim Ferlo •Margaret Graham Local Artist •Adam Grossi Local Artist •Allison Hoge Owner/Director. They all proved to have a genuine interest in the project. At a minimum the advisory board members are expected to attend both the interim and the final presentations. they decided. Carnegie Mellon University’s College of Fine Arts . Carnegie Museum of Art •Hilary Robinson Dean of College of Fine Arts. The advisory board members were an invaluable resource to the systems team for many reasons. Pittsburgh Filmmakers and Pittsburgh Center for the Arts •Paige Ilkhanipour Marketing Director. this mix of individuals would add depth and a diverse perspective to the project. ASH Galleries •David Howe Manager. Pittsburgh Glass Center •Erin Molchany Executive Director. people who work directly with artists like local univer sity professors or artist representatives) • People working in arts organizations • People working in exhibition spaces The systems team felt that for the purpose of the project. The board for a systems project is supposed to serve an advisory role for the extent of the semester. and gave the group thoughtful and intelligent feedback. When the team realized the diverse backgrounds and perspectives of the final board members. Concept Art Gallery •Lindsay O’Leary Local Artist and Resident/Board Member. Pittsburgh Cultural Trust •Tom Fallon Senior Executive Assistant. This process gave the team valuable information and helped shape the final project. Pittsburgh Housing Development Corporation •Charlie Humphrey Executive Director. were eager to provide assistance in any way they could. but also to include their perspectives and expertise related to the project in the final paper. Team members met with each board member individually to discuss the project and to listen to the board member’s reactions and feedback.
How can a community provide the necessary resources to sustain artists? III. Recommendations for both Pittsburgh and post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities VI. Where are they going? D. Strategies II. Artists’ needs i. Next steps A. On October 20th. Questions Presentations See actual presentation slides in Appendix XXX . 2006. During the time frame of the systems project. National Case Studies A. the team had two formal presentations which took place on October 20th. Artists are mobile. 2006 the systems team gave their interim presentation. Trends and commonalities V. Welcome B. Problem statement C. Keys to success C. Introduction A. Definition for the sake of the project B. The team presented to an audience made up of primarily advisory board members and clients. The outline of the interim presentation was as follows: I. 2006 and November 20th. which summarized all of the information they had compiled up until that point. These two presentations served as a forum for the group to present findings and receive feedback. City environment overview B. Artists A. Lessons learned IV. Pittsburgh research B. Conclusion VII. Pennsylvanian Case Studies A. Artist employment C. Why? ii. Catalyst for change B. i.
2006. Model VIII. Pittsburgh specific recommendations and deliverable A. Pittsburgh trivia D. Results i. Data collection i. Tactics B. Review of the problem statement and the strategies Presentations II. Analyzing Pittsburgh through an artist focus group A. Goals i. Implementation VI. Recommendations and Deliverable for Pennsylvanian post-industrial cities Identifying Power and Influence in Communities: F. Strategies a. City parks vi. and facilities v. Conclusion X. galleries. VII.U. Focus group make up C. Welcome B. Mailing lists iii. The final presentation was made up of the following components: I. and recommendations for their clients. Questions See actual presentation slides in Appendix XXX . Zip codes ii. Strengths ii.K. Development of a sourcebook E. Living opportunities B. Introduction A.N. The final presentation took place one month after the interim presentation on November 20. the conclusions drawn. Purpose B. Arts organizations. During this presentation the group explained all of the research done in the previous month. Analyzing Pittsburgh through GIS mapping A. Solutions D. Audience and findings III. Ideas for improving the Pittsburgh community IV. Resident demographics iv. Thanks C. Problems C. Weaknesses iii. Structure of the session D.
Erie. or things that could be done better. Through investigating these cities the team found similar economic trends where all cities had a deteriorating downtown region and a need for revitalization. At the core of the systems team’s research is the extensive data analysis the group conducted. and conduct interviews with experts in the field. They were Scranton. The team also felt the need to identify best practices in communities that have sustained and attracted artists successfully by conducting in depth case studies. These items are validation. the team used factors that have been determined to make a community attractive to artists and mapped these in GIS. See page XXX. Paducah. Providence. material support. Reading. and in turn to use Pittsburgh as a springboard for recommendations to the other communities across the state. The team also determined the need to assess how Pittsburgh and other postindustrial Pennsylvanian communities currently fulfill artists’ needs to better inform future recommendations. This report outlines six items that artists need to feel fulfilled in a community. between them that could be applied to recommendations for cities across Pennsylvania. Toronto. The research also showed that the post-industrial cities have employed unanimous effort to engage in urban revitalization. It would be impossible for the team to make informed recommendations without this extensive research. KY. These cites were Santa Ana. The team selected an extensive report by The Urban Institute called Investing in Creativity: A Study of the Support Structure for U. or trends. In addition to successes in these six cities the team also identified lessons learned. Lancaster. In addition. opinion and expertise on the subject of artists and communities. training and professional development. Johnstown. See page XXX. RI. and Ashville. The main objective of the research was to determine what artists need and how communities can provide for these needs. The team used the opportunity statement to define the scope of the research and throughout the process that statement served as a guide. In order to determine what resources are lacking or could be improved upon in Pittsburgh the team decided to conduct an artists focus group. Finally. but the involvement of the arts is varied from city to city. Santa Fe. and Bethlehem. See page XXX. CA. demands/markets. The expected outcome was an ability to help post-industrial Pennsylvanian communities sustain and attract artists by connecting artists with necessary resources. Six post-industrial cites across Pennsylvania were chosen in addition to Pittsburgh. The focus group brought together nine artists from around the city of Pittsburgh to discuss what they felt Pittsburgh does well for artists and what is lacking. community and networks and information. NC. the team consulted experts in the field to gain their knowledge. create a Geographical Information System (GIS) map. See page XXX. Canada. in post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities. Artists as a springboard for this topic. Six cities from around the nation were selected based on their relative success in creating a community for artists.S. NM. The first thing the team needed to do was to learn what artists need and want in a community through examining existing research. Ontario. Data Analysis . Through these methods the team hoped to make recommendations for improvements for artists living in Pittsburgh. The GIS map provided the supportive data to recommend specific communities in Pittsburgh that would be most attractive to artists. The systems team looked at each of these six cities in an attempt to find commonalities.
Boston.Definition of an Artist: In order to begin to examine what artist’s need and how communities can meet these needs the team needed to define who was considered an artist.653 5. such as a painter.164 4. CA. who is able by virtue of imagination and talent or skill to create works of aesthetic value. CA New York. vibrant music and art scenes and the region’s commitment to preserving natural resources for enjoyment and recreation. New York. The majority of research on artist’s employment indicates that most artists are not employed as artists full time.749 3. San Francisco. WA.847 5.” Unfortunately.258 17.770 4.1 Artists Migration by Metropolitan Area 1995-2000 Cities San Francisco. Areas like Alphabet City in Manhattan and the Mission District in San Francisco.379 Artists Leaving the Region 5. which means that they define themselves as an artist. the team needed to learn what would attract these artists to new cities. For the purposes of this research an artist can be either a visual or performing artist. The first criterion is that artists are self-selecting. However. For the sake of this research the team has defined an artist by two main criteria. NY. Washington.” Artists are moving out of some of the most expensive cities at almost the same rate new artists are moving in. outdoor activities. then the team needed to understand where artists are currently living and what makes them move. Manhattan and San Francisco are all but frontier-less. DC. young creative people are looking for amenities. CA. Data Analysis Artists are on the move: If this research hopes to help post- Table 1. In both cases it is irrelevant whether the individual derives full or partial income from their artwork. “At this point. do not derive substantial income from their art.285 12.436 3. in a new city. however there is some emphasis on space needs for visual artists. and Washington.288 . Artists are on the move and not just to big cities. NY Washington. IL Artists Moving to the Region 7. even more than jobs. MA. According to the dictionary an artist is “One. have multiple jobs and have very fluid employment patterns. industrial Pennsylvania cities attract artists. sculptor. New York. and Boston. In addition. MA Chicago. Florida’s research indicates that active young people. are now increasingly expensive. many of these cities are running out of low cost neighborhoods for artists to move into.1) In three major east coast cities alone. Currently the top six cities in the US for artists per capita are Los Angeles. were all priorities for creative young people when picking a new city. DC Boston. author of Cities and the Creative Class. or writer. this definition does not say much about the actual artist nor does it give any insight into what qualifies “aesthetic value”. According to Richard Florida. The second criterion is that artists are willing to submit their artwork for critical review by the public. Seattle. (See Table 1.
but also a “coolness factor” to attract Generation X and creative talent as is seen from Richard Florida research in Cities and The Creative Class. research leads to the concusion that today’s talent pool require less stability and are more mobile than past generations. This new group of talent wants talent capitals – communities perceived as “cool” to young talent. The study then categorized their responses into three categories: diversity. and health and environment. but this formula no longer works as effectively.000 participants from the next generation of talent what constituted a “cool community”. number Why people move: So why do people move. air and water quality. Some of the response of what makes a cool community included. What it means for this team’s research is that people no longer move only for a new job.000 artists left the region from 1995-2000 and cited rising costs of living as their number one reason for leaving. The generations after the baby boomers including Generation X and Generation Y are the first generations to identify more strongly with communities than employers. other than rising costs of living? Historically people moved for new jobs. The talent pool is changing.1946-1964) has typically held 10. Because younger generations are changing jobs more often they are more likely to pick a place to live then worry about finding a job. A Generation X employee would rather work in a diverse progressive community with multiple occupational options than devote 35 years of workaholism to one employer in trade for steady work and predictable promotions. Cities and communities have to have more to offer than just jobs to attract the new talent pool. such as post-industrial cites in Pennsylvania. amenities. 1965-1981) employee has held 9 jobs by the time they are 32. farmers markets. This study asked over 4. According to the US Department of Labor on average a baby boomer (b. In contrast the average Generation X (b.DC over 20. can entice these artists on the move and provide them with the resources they need then these cities have the potential to thrive. A region needs jobs. If low cost cities. According to a focus group conducted by Next Generation Consulting in 2002 all of the participants who had graduated from college within the previous six years reported placing greater value on the quality of life in a community than on the quality of the job. What do these statistics mean? Namely that employee loyalty is dead or dying and that Generation X thinks about jobs differently than older generations. This Data Analysis .5 jobs in their lifetime. In the past the answer to getting more people to a region was simply to create more jobs.
awards. Their report Investing in Creativity: A Study of the Support Structure for U. The systems team chose to look at these six dimensions as an outline for where to begin the research. to find jobs in arts related fields and to market their work. Pittsburgh ranked number 13 of the 221 U. The team will also consider factors like artists’ ability to show and sell their work. One main focus of needs for artists is on space: living space and studio space to create work. space. and also looked at what elements of the criteria already existed in the selected Pennsylvania cities. Demands/markets – Society’s appetite for artists and what they do.S. and critical review of work from both their community and abroad are all factors that contribute to validation. equipment and materials. cities the study looked at.of art galleries and cost of living. . grants and awards given. The need to offer business. the next step is to look at what artists’ specific needs are. tax breaks and health insurance options. legal and marketing education just for artists is one that came to the Material supports – Access to the financial and physical resources artists need to do their work: employment. The team began to examine the different types of rental. Community & networks – Inward connections to other artists and people in the cultural sector. In addition the team will investigate services for artists such as free legal advice. Information – Data sources about artists for artists. Training & professional development– Lifelong learning opportunities. while keeping in mind the issue of gentrification. insurance and similar benefits. outward connections to people not primarily in the cultural sector. Data Analysis What artists need: Now that the team knows that young people are on the move and looking for cool communities. and space to exhibit and perform.S. A community’s respect for its artists. finance. There has been extensive research done by the Urban Institute into what artists need. Another topic of great concern for artists is validation and the need of artists to show their work to the greater public. Using these six criteria the team began case studies of cities that had used the arts to revitalize. Artists outlines six dimensions of the environment in which an artists needs lay: Validation – The ascription of value to what artists do. long-term lease and homeownership possibilities for artists. and the markets that translate this appetite into financial consideration.
Awareness: One of the biggest problems facing communities and artists may be a lack of communication. and essential services.another need of artists. In the report Essential Services for Aging Artists the research team concluded that artists needed to take more initiative in obtaining services and information but that communities and service providers also needed to implement programs or initiatives that would reach out to artists. they concluded that the earlier artists obtain information about their crucial needs the better off they would be in the future. Data Analysis . Despite the fact that this report was specifically looking at the needs of aging artists. The team will study what exists and does not exist in Pennsylvania cities with the goal of recommending tools for communities to use to reach out to artists and fulfill their needs.team’s attention from the report Essential Services for Aging Artists and will be further investigated in this research. It is the hope of this systems team to look at what resources have been used successfully and unsuccessfully in other cities. The systems team’s research will also look at how to disseminate the gathered information to artists to connect them with these needed resources. reasonable housing options. cities can attract artists to build a community and network-. The team believed that by providing validation and sales opportunities through exhibition spaces.
Investing in Creativity: A Study of the Support Structure for U. The case study research served as a way for the systems team to answer the following questions: 1. The systems team looked at each of these six cities in an attempt to find commonalities. Providence. NM. between them. • Santa Ana. and Asheville. the systems team selected Paducah. Toronto. laid the groundwork for the systems team’s research. CA – The redevelopment of an area of downtown Santa Ana into an “artists village. Through recommendations from our clients and advisor. the national and international case studies brought focus to the research project. KY – The city of Paducah established a partnership with Paducah Bank to provide up to 100% financing for the purchase and rehabilitation of existing or new structures and is offering fixed rate loans . KY – The establishment of an artist relocation program rooted in ownership of real estate property by artists. Canada – The founding of a not-for-profit real estate enterprise called Toronto Artscape Inc. These “keys to success” might not be the only influencer for success but what the team saw as a stand out “best practice” for recruiting artists to their community. KY. NM – The collaboration between the city government and local arts organizations to establish an umbrella organization called Creative Santa Fe.S. RI. Santa Fe. to some success. • Providence.” • Santa Fe. And. NC to take an in-depth look at. The following is a brief list what catalysts the systems team found in each city: • Paducah. Artists. the team identified a key factor that seemed to be the major or single most important influence for success. CA. RI – The successful passage of statewide legislation that identifies nine “arts districts” in communities such as Providence and provides tax incentives to artists who live and work there. From the catalysts for change. a community for artists. What was the catalyst for change? 2. While the Urban Institute report. Santa Ana. • Asheville. The following is a brief description of each of these “keys to success”: Case Studies • Paducah. • Toronto. What was the key to success? 3. All these cities have built. NC – The establishment of a consortium of artists and gallery owners called River District Artists. or trends. Canada. what were the lessons learned? The catalyst for change in each of these communities varied from programs designed to use the arts for economic redevelopment to establishing arts districts with tax incentives associated with them.
000 after 16 years of existence. Asheville. Sustainable Artists Initiative. This initiative. is just a few blocks away from Artists Village. why others do not. Toronto Artscape Inc. the Toronto Arts Case Studies Council decided to establish a not-for-profit real estate enterprise to address the space needed for artists and arts organizations in the City. continues to address and meet the live/work space for many artists and organizations. RI – The Rhode Island State Council on the Arts established a new initiative in response to the issue of how to make the arts districts tax incentives applicable to more artists. Even though the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce is listed as a . the systems team found that the establishment of arts districts and the tax incentives associated with them were not being fully utilized by artists in Rhode Island. Canada – With a city as large as Toronto. During the development of the Village the city did not engage this near by Hispanic community in talking about how this new area could address some of their needs. Santa Ana. Just as important as learning what each of these communities have done well is to look at efforts put forth that have not ended up as intended. CA – In the development of the Artists Village. The team found this to be the case because of the cost of living and the inability on the part of many artists to be able to purchase real estate in these areas. and what other communities can learn from the these experiences. Creative Santa Fe was established to fill this need in their community. in all of Providence only 12 artists and galleries are signed up for the tax incentives (the majority of these 12 are galleries). Santa Fe. Providence. RI . For example. NC – A group of local artists and gallery owners came together to found the semi-annual “Studio Stroll” in Asheville which has projected 2006 sales of $90.“Little Mexico”. Santa Ana’s largest concentration of Hispanics. a private developer took a special interest in the downtown redevelopment and ended up playing a critical role in the development of Artists Village. Santa Ana. The establishment of the Sustainable Artists Initiative by the Rhode Island State Council on the Arts was created to address this specific issue.Upon further investigation. is also designed to assist artists in buying real estate property. The systems team sees these “lessons learned” as a critical step in understanding the dynamics of why some initiatives work. NM – The city of Santa Fe decided that their arts community needed an umbrella organization to facilitate the implementation of their cultural plan. CA . The following is a description of three lessons learned that the team feels to be most relevant to understanding successful initiatives to build communities that are attractive to artists: • • Providence. Toronto. • • • • • for up to 300% of the appraised value.
the city plans to open a facility designated for Hispanic art between Artists Village and Little Mexico. One of the frustrations the head of the ARP in Paducah stated is the lack of understanding by these artists about how to develop their own marketing strategy and business plan. it is important to note that initiatives such as the ARP were designed to address the issue of revitalizing part of the downtown Paducah area. KY – As the Artist Relocation Program (ARP) in Paducah continues to be successful in recruiting artists to move to the area. In doing so. . Case Studies Paducah. there are artists opening up galleries in Paducah that have very little experience in operating their own business. The team hopes that these compilations will be useful to others who are looking at ways to recruit artists into their communities. The systems team acknowledges that putting together a formal professional development aspect to their program might not be part of the intended goals of the program. the ARP is experiencing some growing pains. According to the research done. • partner in the development of the Village. However. The following case studies summarize the research compiled by the systems team on these national and international artist community projects. a majority of Hispanics in the area feel like Artists Village benefits them much less then their Caucasian counterparts. they may have created others issues that need to be addressed in the future. In an attempt to address this gap between the Hispanic and non-Hispanic communities.
financing. Barnett’s expertise is in property acquisition. The median age is 35. These artists have relocated from Illinois.794. MO and Nashville.C. Pittsburgh has 334. Now that the program is six years old. a full-time artist living in the area at the time. Basic loan package is 7% .514 with 45% between the ages of 20-64. Maryland.Paducah . To date fortyfive artists have relocated to Paducah with most of these artists settling in the historic community of Lowertown. Free lots for new construction as available. Washington D. Michigan. Kansas. artists in the program have invested more than $21 million in the area.5 and the average sale price of a home in Pittsburgh is $105. All materials for rehabilitation or new . he stated. San Francisco.500 for architectural services or other professional fees. Louis. Arizona. For every dollar the City of Paducah has invested in the program. The artists that started the ARP felt that all too often artists have been asked to revitalize neighborhoods only to be driven out by rising rents. in fact. and Thomas Barnett. Minneapolis. “that neither of them were aware that one couldn’t use the arts to transform a neighborhood through city government and quickly learned that. you could”. which is about a 10-hour drive.30 year fixed rate up to 300% of appraised value.. Nashville. a Community development manager (now the Planning Department Director for the City of Paducah) with a background in the Arts as an Arts administrator.040.563 residents of which 59% are between 20-64. headed up the effort in Paducah to start the ARP. Washington. Okalahoma. New York. Kentucky Demographics and Location: Paducah is located on the far west corner of Kentucky on the border with Missouri. San Diego. Case Studies Overview: The city of Paducah has an Artist Relocation Program (ARP) that was started in August 2000 and is now a national model for using the arts for economic development. and real estate while Barone brought experience in marketing in the arts world and the point of view of a working artist. History of the ARP in Paducah: The program developed as an attempt to revitalize the neighborhood of Lowertown that deteriorated over a period of time. TN and is 610 miles from Pittsburgh. so homeownership was key to the success of the program. City will pay up to $2. and Kentucky. The population of Paducah is 65. The median age is 40 and the average price of a home is $226. The Artist Relocation Program is about artist ownership. Wisconsin. Hawaii. Artist Relocation Program is in the Enterprise Zone. In interviewing Barnett. In contrast. Carolina. the artists and other interested parties have invested approximately $14 in rehabilitation and construction. Texas. thus giving the artists a vested interest in the community. Memphis. New Hampshire. Mark Barone. Missouri. North Artist Relocation Incentives: 100% financing for purchase and rehabilitation of an existing structure or building of a new structure. Paducah is half way between St.
but the city has also received numerous awards for the program. It is evident that the city has done a great job of cultivating publicity for the program and the systems team sees this as a “best practice”. Lowertown is zoned for commercial and residential which enables artists to have gallery. Your work can still be successful in New York or LA while you are enjoying a comfortable lifestyle here (in Paducah) away from the stress and cost of a big city. the national marketing effort. One of the most prevalent examples of this is the continued interest on the part of the media to write articles about the program. by attracting artists and creating an artist colony. The most recent articles published date July 2006 and there have been a consistent stream since the beginning of the program in 2000. located along the river. and living space all under one roof. Case Studies Paducah Arts Website: The website is designed for both artists considering relocating to Paducah and for tourists considering visiting the city. The Program has been awarded the Governor’s Award for the Arts. The city also wanted to be able to market the city as a collage of artist studios. shops and artistic businesses thus being able to attract more tourism dollars. Success Measures: The fact that 45 artists have moved to Paducah in just six years shows a degree of success. For artists there is general information about the ARP as well as available properties. galleries. The Kentucky Chapter of the American Planning Association Distinguished Planning Award. Group health insurance Free help with small business plans National marketing of the arts district and Paducah. Discounted web pages. For visitors the website contains information about festivals and special events. and most recently the Kentucky League of Cities Enterprise Cities Award. “I keep a pretty low profile in Paducah and concentrate on marketing my art in the bigger cities. The systems team acknowledges that this is not a success measure of the program itself but rather the marketing of the program that facilitates the growth and awareness of the program. The City of Paducah committed to assist with zoning the region both commercial and residential so that artists could conduct business in their homes. community commitment.” Goals of ARP: --Mark Barone To revitalize the downtrodden neighborhood of Lowertown. Why has it been successful? Paducah Bank and the City of Paducah have been instrumental in making the ARP a success by making the ARP a top priority for redevelopment of the city. The American Planning Association National Planning Award. restaurants and cultural attractions.construction are tax-exempt. studio. . and a list of the artists who have relocated thus far and a link to their artwork or website.
One major issue that continues to be a problem according to Barnett is that “a significant portion of the ‘non-professional artists (those who do not understand the business side)’ has trouble understanding the need for consistent hours of operation despite cycles of high traffic and low traffic [through their galleries].” Another two issues that Barnett said continue to be dealt with in the district are that there are too many open-by-appointment galleries and there is very little organized marketing among the artists themselves. Barnett stated in an interview that the program’s “future success will be tied to our ability to keep our leaders focused on the project over time.In addition. No one here locally has ever seen the potential until it was manifest. and independent films.800 seat theater that was designed for a variety of programs including a Broadway Series. Other Arts Resources/ Attractions in Paducah: The City of Paducah has a number of other arts related organizations or attractions that benefit the city and draw attention to their ongoing efforts. Barnett’s point in identifying this issue is that in order for these particular “non-professional artists” to really be successful in Paducah they have to become self-sustaining businesses and not rely only on the efforts of the city to attract business.” Barnett also stated that the initiative continues to have growing pains.000 visitors and has an economic impact of $11 million annually.500. but they don’t understand where it is going and where it can go. One of the future plans that the City of Paducah is developing includes an Art School to attract younger artists and provide income opportunities for established artists as teachers. and theater. The Yeiser Art Center – a Center that exhibits regional. Paducah Bank provided up to 100% financing for the purchase and rehabilitation of existing or new structures. They see where we’ve been and like it. and international contemporary visual arts. music. The Maiden Alley Cinema – a new cinema house that shows new. Case Studies . The Carson Center for the Performing Arts is the most recent addition to the downtown area of Paducah. Another major annual attraction for the city is the American Quilter’s Society Annual Show that draws more thank 35. I am met with incomprehension. When I tell them that this project has not yet begun to meet its full potential. national. Current Status: The current status of the project is ongoing. the City committed to provide funds for architectural fees and infrastructure improvements up to $2. and The Market House Theatre – voted as one of the top 25 community theaters in the country all contribute to the vitality of Paducah by directly or indirectly enhancing the ARP and the downtown and Lowertown areas of the city. foreign. Its much like sitting on a bus seated facing the rear. offering fixed rate loans for up to 300% of the appraised value. This $44 million facility boasts an 1.
local. 111. RISCA hired a consultant responsible for: Identifying issues. and 22% said “other”. RISCA conducted a survey in 2004 of artists residing in the state. RI was established in 1636. Arts Districts.829 were 62 and over. the total population of Providence is 173. incorporated in 1832.Providence . and Individual Fellowships. To facilitate this statewide effort. In response to a question of what kind of artwork they produce. In 2004. According to the 2000 Census. Rhode Island Demographic Information: Providence. RISCA notes that their Artist Healthcare Initiative is in the beginning phase of development.9% or 128.155 were 65 and over. This initiative is in partnership with Rhode Island Citizens for the Arts.1. the problem of health insurance is “exacerbated in Rhode Island where options for insurance providers are Case Studies Overview: The Rhode Island State Council on the Arts (RISCA) was the major funding source in developing artist communities within the state. An overwhelming amount of respondents (71%) said that they would prefer a live/work environment. 20. the median age of the population in Providence was 28. Even though a detailed summary of the survey results are not available on their website. “What type of work do you produce?” Other programs that RISCA has in place related to artist communities and artist support include the Artist Healthcare Initiative. In 2000. According to the website. 237 (or 93%) lived in Rhode Island when they took the survey. and 49% said that they lived and worked in a house or apartment. if necessary. Identifying practitioners and resources statewide. Of the 256 artists who completed the survey. and is located in southeastern New England. At the moment they only offer a list of resources on where artists can obtain healthcare with or without health insurance. 44% said that they lived in a house or apartment. Work with state. it is important to note that respondents were able to choose more than one response to the question of. non-profit developers to develop sustainable affordable models.618 and 73. RISCA made a 3-year commitment in the Artist Housing Initiative to look at artist housing in the state and after that time they would assess the effectiveness of their programs. 58% described the work that they did as visual art (two dimensional). Advocating for effective changes in public policy regarding housing. With this particular question. and 18. Promoting program visibility. 33% said music and/or performance. As part of the Artist Housing Initiative. at the head of the Narragansett Bay on the Atlantic seacoast. . Facilitate cooperative efforts for artists and private developers. 34% said multimedia or digital work. an overview provides a few details regarding what artists in the state would be looking for in terms of live/work situations compared to their current situation. Provide information and technical assistance for artists and small arts business. 41% said visual art (sculpture or three dimensional).493 were 21 and over. Cataloging best practices nationwide. Scenes of Rhode Island Exhibition & Awards.341 persons were 18 years of age or older.
Pawtucket. Case Studies . A new “west side” arts district was recently added to the Providence area and this has increased the number of artists signing up for the tax incentives because more artists live and work in this area of town. any sale of work created within the district is exempt from state sales tax. even if the individual is living and working in the District. These tax incentives are: For artists who live and work within a specified district. For artists who live and work within a specified district. any income they receive from the sale of work they have created within the district is exempt from state personal income tax. granting them state income tax exemption on all personal income from the sale of their art and allowing their work to be sold tax-free.) Income to performers and technical personnel who aid in the production of a stage performance are not exempt from taxation. In 1998. The issue is that many artists who make a full-time living selling their art do not live in the downtown Providence area designated as the “arts district” and in order to qualify for the tax incentives artists have to work and live in this area. And. RISCA is developing a system to track and monitor the return on investment and the impact to the community. and are under the age of 65. DiChiera provided a list of how many artists and galleries are currently enrolled in the tax incentive program broken down by cities (this list is artists and galleries combined for the State): Providence – 12. Little Compton. The other major initiative that RISCA has taken on in relation to artist communities is the development of Arts Districts in specific communities around Rhode Island. The City of Providence also defines these tax incentives as “designed for artists who are living within the Arts and Entertainment District boundaries and selling their work there. the work MUST be produced and sold in the district. do not have disabilities. for gallery spaces located within the boundaries of a specified district. Director of Individual Artists and Public Art Programs for RISCA. and Little Compton – 0. Woonsocket. Tiverton. Galleries are currently the main benefactors of the artist tax incentives as they are more able to reach the qualifying income level and meet the other requirements. graphic design. the artist MUST be living in the Arts and Entertainment District. At the moment. Warwick – 2. Newport. The tax exemption is on works sold and only the recipient of the commission for the original work is eligible for the tax incentive. Pawtucket – 17. For sales tax exemption. Westerly.” The City of Providence goes on to further stipulate that: Productions may not be done for the purpose of industry (freelance journalism. and for income tax exemption. etc.limited to one major carrier and where state and federal insurance programs do not address the needs of people who do not have children. Tiverton – 3. whether or not they were created within the boundaries of the arts district. the sale of original. the Rhode Island General Assembly passed legislation that provided tax incentives to artists who live and work in any of the nine communities (Providence. one-of-a-kind works of art are exempt from state sales tax. Woonsocket – 2. Warwick and Warren). Westerly – 7. Warren – 4.” RISCA also notes that they are hoping to develop a group health insurance plan for artists in the State to address this issue. Newport – 34. Success Measures: When speaking with Cristina DiChiera. she mentioned that one of RISCA’s ongoing issues is how to make the tax incentives applicable to more artists that live in the identified arts districts.
These listings provide descriptions of the spaces along with contact information.” and “artistic communities” sell for $200. Luxury condominiums marketed as “creative space. housing development that qualifies for the historical preservation tax credit in the arts districts only has to set aside 10% of space earmarked for artists and make it affordable. Wakefield. very attractive to developers to turn buildings into highend condominiums. and elsewhere . these listings are not necessarily current as most of the postings are dated for January 2004. The Blog includes information on housing. One highly successful and popular feature of their website is their Artist Blog and the systems team acknowledges this as a “best practice”.hailed as the catalyst for economic development in Providence. artists looking for roommates.000 to $500. the City provides a listing on their website of live/work or work only space for artists. SAI is focused on helping artists buy property rather than rent it.well beyond the means of our local artists.000 a year (according to a recent study by Rhode Island Citizens for the Arts and the Rhode Island State Council on the Arts on the crisis in artist housing). Redevelopers are buying old mills and other industrial structures (the same structures that artists were encouraged to buy) and then turning them into high-end condominiums. The Providence Journal published an article in July that addressed this very issue and stated that 63% of the artists who live and work in these .000 plus . location. Pawtucket. and price ranges. Currently. along with a host of other topics and issues relevant to artists. RISCA primarily uses their website to distribute information about their programs. as the program has not been formalized. funding opportunities. such as Providence. events. RISCA is currently developing a program called the Sustainable Artists Initiative (SAI). Not much more information is available at this time on SAI.” Case Studies Marketing and Getting the Word Out: Beyond the tax incentives for living and working in the Arts and Entertainment District.” “artist housing. Ongoing Efforts by RISCA: There is currently a 30% statewide and 20% federal historical preservation tax credit which has made the areas of the state that are earmarked for artists. However. The article went on to further state that “These artists . Informally. DiChiera stated that their best indicator of the success of their programs is the continued strong outside response to the initiatives. RISCA is working on trying to change this policy and increase it to more than 10%.are the selling point for aggressive marketing campaigns from outside developers. communities have households that earn less than $35.) Recent Developments: There has recently been a surge in Providence of high-end development that is starting to displace artists from the communities into which they were encouraged to move.They are looking at how to tie all of their programs together to have a comprehensive look at understanding the broader economical issues for the state in terms of the impact of the arts and how to best support artists residing in Rhode Island. In response to the issue of gentrification in Rhode Island. RISCA also acknowledges that the most effective tool to getting information distributed is by word of mouth (and may be the reason for the success of the Artist Blog.
The median age of this population in 2000 was reported as 26. 1. The City of Santa Ana has created specific partnerships with the Chamber of Commerce. referred to as “Artists Village. the anecdotal evidence of public perception cannot be overstated in a community like Santa Ana. enhance their city redevelopment. as a tragic story of west coast urban decay. dining and shopping locations speak to this growth.1% of the vacant units are for rent and 18. on Interstate 5 approximately 89 miles north of San Diego and 32 miles south of Los Angeles. the City of Santa Ana has focused its energies on the revitalization of a downtown portion of the city for arts and culture. Within the 6-block focal region of Artists Village all spaces have been currently renovated and are in use.3% are owner occupied and 50.1% according to the State of California Development Department.412 and 75.” First incorporated as a city in 1886. Specifically. Of these housing units 49. Santa Ana has been described as having “progressive city government. and exhibit their art. 12.14 square miles in land and 0.520.Santa Ana . work. and the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce to Recognized Shortcomings: While many have acknowledged Santa Ana as a successful story of urban . In addition. Santa Ana.657 residents are composed of 76.707.3.” The district known as Artists Village was designed with the goal of creating spaces for artists to live. The current unemployment rate in Santa Ana is 6. promotes itself as “The Arts and Cultural City of Orange County. California.3% of the population of Santa Ana was born outside of the United States. Indicator of Success: In 2001 political theory researcher. Santa Ana has a median household income of $42. Case Studies Introduction and Artists Village: Often highlighted as one of the greater stories of urban revitalization through the arts and culture. While no numerical data is currently available on the increase of activity in residency. significantly lower than the national median age of 35. The city covers 27.3 square miles in water. While more economically based analysis of the actual impact of Artists Village is still in process.2% other.1% Hispanic/ Latino. the explosion of lofts.5 years.7% are renter occupied. In past years. Mark Mattern.222 housing units with a total building valuation of $147. insiders and outsiders have viewed the city after the fall of industry.4% are for sale. Council of Arts and Culture. According to the same census. California Location & Demographics: Santa Ana is located in Orange County. 78% of which were born in Mexico. 44. tourism or property development. 53. the shift in attitudes in local residents is significantly important and shows a level of Artists Village’s success. As Mattern points out.3% black and 1.” which is assisted by community partnerships and investments with real estate developers.4% white. critically assessed the impact of Artists Village in Santa Ana and found that 93% of city residents believe that Artists Village has a positive impact on the overall image of Santa Ana. venues. The City of Santa Ana’s 351.
Case Studies revitalization through an artist community. generally known to be an economically marginal population. In hopes of combating this obvious short-coming. and tax credits. Due to the success of Artists Village. The most distinct financial resource provided by the city is their Enterprise Zone. Hispanic residents believe that the Artists Village benefits them much less than their white counterparts. concerns of gentrification have risen. The Hispanics of Santa Ana. there are recognizable shortcomings of their actual development. the City of Santa Ana will be opening La Plaza de Las Artes to specifically highlight the region’s history and Hispanic culture. The largest shortcoming is the growing gap between Hispanic and non-Hispanic residents and cultures. which will be located within one block of “Little Mexico”. the reality of such cycles has begun to raise questions about leasing options in Artists Village. It has been suggested that a significant element of this shortcoming stems from the idea of art participation requiring an amount of leisure time and surplus financial resources. produce 50-500% less art and consume 2 to 4 times less art. This issue is exacerbated by the fact that “Little Mexico” the city’s largest Hispanic population lies less than two blocks from Artists Village. The drive for businesses and non-artist residents to move downtown can already be seen through purchased property and redevelopment of previously abandoned buildings. Financial Backing: Rather than specifically funding Artists Village. While the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce was highlighted as a partner in Artists Village. While there has not been a significant increase in property values in downtown Santa Ana. the City of Santa Ana has used traditional tools of community and economic development including community based block grants. as an arts resource. business incentives. .
000 will be used for funding arts programming with a focus on Artists Village. Case Studies . especially One Broadway Plaza. By purchasing large buildings in the downtown section. Harrah has offered a vision of a high class. Mattern and Mitchell found in their work with Santa Ana residents “Art. In its totality the revitalization of the downtown post-industrial rubble of Santa Ana provides a framework for other communities to place faith in the arts and its benefits of increasing a city’s potential. the city was given federal empowerment zone designation. a private developer.designed to offer state tax credits for employers who hire new employees. building activity increased by at least 50%. Harrah is not himself without criticism. From these grants the city officials of Santa Ana believe that $100. In fact. of Caribou Industries take a special interest in its downtown redevelopment.” Santa Ana has been in a lucky position of having Chris Harrah. 1997-1998. “Harrah’s hurry to get projects approved can appear to be abrasive and self-serving. clearing the eligibility path for over $100 million in development grants in the subsequent ten years. In the following year. urban environment based off of historical buildings and integrated with the local culture. Outside of this funding the city of Santa Ana puts very little money towards the arts. but even City Manager David Ream admits that those methods have resulted in a new lease on life for downtown Santa Ana”. While Artists Village has identifiable flaws.” that 80% “support increased funding of arts programs to low-income people” and that two-thirds “support continued funding of the arts by the city. Community and Politics. rebirth and growth. it also provides many positive lessons from which others can learn. During the first year of this projects introduction.
356 persons per square mile. which have been recognized both nationally and internationally. and 16 performing arts organizations. Approximately 30% of this population. educational and technology communities in New Mexico. In 2000. The city has also been recognized as an international destination by Travel and Leisure magazine in August of 2003.3% of people below the poverty line. a medium-sized city is composed of 37 square miles of land with a population density of 121. According to Cities Ranked and Rated in 2004. New Mexico Location & Demographics: Santa Fe’s current population is estimated at 66. New Mexico overall has had a 20% increase in population. the city was named one of the 15 best places in the country to “reinvent yourself” by the American Association of Retired Persons. according to the 2000 United States census. To provide resources for educators. The annual growth in Santa Fe.2%. Santa Fe has an 85% rate of high school graduation among residents. is under the age of 18 and another 40% is under the age of 65. Santa Fe proudly boasts 250 galleries.” Outside Magazine highlighted Santa Fe as one of the “Ten Dream Towns” in its September 2001 issue. colleges and government agencies.” American Style Magazine ranked Santa Fe as the number two Art Destination in 2002. The Spring 2002 issue of Sunset Magazine ranked the city as “The West’s Best Places to Live.800. To work collaboratively with arts organizations. Composed of predominately 77% white and 48% Hispanic with 5% reporting two or more races. schools. To foster increased communication and collaboration among those in the cultural. 12 museums. Santa Fe. Case Studies Introduction to Santa Fe CultureNet: Santa Fe CultureNet states on its publications and website its fourfold dedication to the arts as: To support the creative work of New Mexico’s youth. New Mexico Introduction to Santa Fe: Santa Fe has in the last six years been highlighted on a national level as a city to rival. During the same year.Santa Fe . offering a 6.8% increase in recently recorded years. In July 2005. with a home ownership rate of 58.800 new residents. At the same time. Acting as an umbrella organization and also a central point for the arts web within New Mexico.” .476 individuals. In May 2003. Forbes Magazine showed Santa Fe in the “10 Best Places of Business and Careers. Santa Fe’s median household income is $40. students and lifelong learners. the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization named the city of Santa Fe as the first Creative City in the United States. New Mexico has been estimated at 1. Santa Fe is the second best place to live. Money Magazine rated Santa Fe as “One of the Top Ten Places to Retire. The median value of owner-occupied housing units is $182.600 new jobs and 2.392 with 12.
and neighborhood development. The following year in 2000. career tracking. have positioned the New Mexico CultureNet as a vital element and advocate of the arts on a national scale. the city revisited this plan to create their current Community Arts and Cultural Plan. As a facilitator supporting the growth of the overall arts and cultural industries. artists. paying $231. but also determined other elements of the city that can help the growth of the arts including downtown revitalization. Indicator of Success: In 2004 the University of New Mexico Bureau of Business and Economic Research published a report entitled.” Currently Creative Santa Fe acts an organizer between a number of larger agencies invested in the arts and cultural industry in the city. Story of Collaborations: If Santa Fe can act as a model case study. These include City of Santa Fe Arts and Culture. to design new initiatives and to strengthen existing as well as new institutions. listing art exhibits and facilities. Beginning in 1998 and 1999. Features such as hosting a database of all organizations and registered artist. This means that the arts and cultural industries are the top contributors to New Mexico’s economic development and the second highest per capita business in the country. five dollars of revenue is generated. Richard Florida ranked Santa Fe first in talent among cities under 250. education. McCune Charitable Foundation. Arts and Tourism Plan was designed. and offering a portal for artists’ online artwork sales.5 million in wages and salaries.CulutreNet has positioned itself to provide services to tourists. Creative Santa Fe is “a non-profit organization. Americans for the Arts also toted Santa Fe as the number one in per capita arts businesses among 276 metropolitan areas in the United States. art lovers. Creative Santa Fe will provide leadership. During this time a Culture. the city of Santa Fe built upon the research done by the University of New Mexico and the economic development strategic plan by Angelou Economics and formed Creative Santa Fe. In 2005. Case Studies effort to gather multiple partners to the table to discuss the future of Santa Fe as a cultural and artistic hub in the Southwest. linkages.1 billion in receipts annually. and arts organizations alike.000 population in his popular text The Rise of the Creative Class.4 million in taxes and revenues. For every dollar spent by the city on arts and culture. and $13. “The Economic Importance of the Arts and Cultural Industries in Santa Fe County.” This report gave quantitative data to support continual and future endeavors in funding arts in the city of Santa Fe. and communication to catalyze effective practices in the field. Creative Santa Fe acts as an intermediary bringing together diverse constituencies to increase awareness and involvement. the city of Santa Fe made a distinct . New Mexico Arts Division of the Department of Cultural Affairs. The arts and cultural industries contribute to 39% of the local economy inflow by generating $1. New Mexico Economic Development Department and New Mexico Tourism Department. it is due to the fact that a number of partners and the city’s government have continually invested in the research. planning and execution for advancement of the arts and culture in their city. Santa Fe is also the second largest art market in the United States. This plan not only addressed issues of traditional arts and cultural plans. transportation patterns.
supporting artists. As with many such organizations. These Strolls started out as an annual and then developed in to a semi-annual event due to popularity. Odyssey Center for the Ceramic Arts (for-profit school associated with Highwater) and Working Artists Press (a group of artists/printmakers. RDA has transformed several buildings around the French Broad River into studio and/or living spaces.Asheville . Along with promoting its artists as opportunities arise. RDA President. producing a successful art event known as the Studio Stroll and creating a protected environment for artists in the river district area. Recent developments have also positioned the city for a great deal of potential growth in the film and TV arena. the artists began electing officers and promoting RDA and the district year-round.) These partners came together in 1993/1994 to organize an open-studio tour for the public and established the semi-annual event. Support Mechanism: River District Artists (RDA) is a community of artists in the Asheville French Broad River District committed to creating art. . Rhode explained that as a part of the Strolls.889 to 70. North Carolina Location and Demographics: Asheville is located in the western side of North Carolina in Buncombe County. Highwater Clays (pottery supply business located in the District). and professional at the same time.400. Another developing function of RDA’s increasing visibility in the city is working closely with the city of Asheville to help develop the arts tourism industry and ensure the growth of the Arts District. In 2003. the total city population grew from 68.” History of RDA in Asheville: The establishment of RDA is credited to a number of dedicated community partners: RiverLink (a local non-profit that seeks to guide development along the French Broad River). Studio Stroll. Because of their growth over the past few years. 20% of the workers do 80% of the work. painters. Rhode goes on to say. the organization has a very “good vibe” within the group as described by Skip Rhode. welcoming. and musicians. “that we have been able to keep the tone inclusive. The art scene is particularly active and Asheville has evolved into a “mecca” for potters. they now have a fairly good number of people willing to pitch in to make things happen. Most importantly. RDA is an all-volunteer force. The city is described as attractive to both creative young people and hip and creative retirees. A significant element of the city’s identity is the live music scene. artists give demonstrations in order to talk about and educate the public on their work along with provide opportunities to guests to purchase work that they like. It is the largest city in western North Carolina and between the 2000 and 2004 census. Seasonal festivals and a diverse array of nightclubs offer up many opportunities for tourists and residents to attend live entertainment events. positive. Case Studies Overview: Asheville has been listed in both Rolling Stone and Modern Maturity as an ideal place to visit and live.
has produced many of the finest craft artists in the country. Rhode related it to a burger stand metaphor. very well established. percentage of sales during the Studio Strolls and selling advertising for local businesses in a brochure that they publish to list artists and their location on a map. but as the Studio Strolls gained popularity the organization began to seek funding from alternative sources. It is put on by artists in Weaverville. Some artists welcomed this. there are ongoing plans to develop a long range plan to guide their future direction. The Asheville area has quite a few other arts groups. Stumbling Blocks: One issue that RDA has been dealing with for a few years now is related to retail sales of artists merchandise out of the artists’ studios. Asheville Area Arts Council (AAAC) runs a program called Artist’s RoundTable which meets once a month and is comprised of artists crossing all disciplines. NC. as they are the only group of individual artists near the city center to open doors to the public. both for artists and for cultural tourists. AAAC also hold meetings called Artists AfterHours where artists can show slides or do demonstrations of their particular art form. the Safari is spread out over a very large area. since 1923. in which its members can sell directly to the public. all of which do different things. Currently. but if a group of them are in one area. as artists often work out of their homes instead of in a centralized location. as opposed to just twice a year during Strolls. RDA is playing an important role and filling a needed gap in the community. The main focus of this programming through AAAC is to provide social and networking opportunities for artists along with professional development sessions.” Initial funding for RDA came from the original partner organizations for many years. visitors wanted to shop in the District all year round. as their work is well suited to walk-in . and also produces two Craft Fairs in Asheville each year. The combination of all of them is what makes the area so artistically rich. As RDA continues to develop and establish itself in the community. other artists. It has four retail stores in three states open year-round. funding comes from annual membership fees. share information. a small town on the northern border of Asheville. Chamber of Commerce. Penland School of Crafts in Penland. is a nationally recognized institution that. and other entities. they will all do well. Among them: The Southern Highlands Craft Guild is an old (chartered 1930). Case Studies Interaction with Asheville: When asked about the development of the Studio Stroll. we are being sought out to provide an ‘artist input’ for planning and development panels by the City. The combination of all these organizations or events plays a critical role in cultural tourism in Asheville. Handmade in America is a relatively new organization that promotes crafters primarily in western North Carolina. Membership is by a rigorous jury process. Additionally. Unlike RDA’s Strolls. and support each other’s endeavors. The main purpose of the meetings is to provide a forum for artists to get to know each other. and very well recognized association of craft artists in a large geographic area. Rhode also stated in the interview: “we have begun to see more recognition of our group from tourists.Since then RDA membership has grown by 60%. and the city. to almost 70 members. Once RDA started producing brochures on items available from local artists. Art Safari is an event similar to the Studio Stroll. where one hamburger stand in an area will not make much money.
“Sales out of my studio have increased about 35% over last year”. The area is becoming nationally known. In the years since the late 1990’s. total reported sales for 2006 should be in the vicinity of $90K.000 for marketing and other expenses. RDA members reported total sales of over $45K from both Studio Strolls. and in 2005. RDA relates these increased sales to a number of factors: The “improving” economy is finally making its . reported sales were $52K. Speaking very locally. they get more visitors coming down all during the year looking for artist studios that have open hours. If this trend continues. “The impact to the community as a whole is more difficult to quantify. reported sales were almost $75K. postcard mailings. which is a sign that the ‘River Arts District’ is beginning to have a cachet. The financial future of the Studio Stroll looks healthier than ever with the first Stroll in 2006 sales up by 25% over the previous year’s event. radio spots and paid advertisements. RDA was quick to mention that the estimates that they provided were only the reported sales for these events. Case Studies Success Measures: During many of the beginning years of the Studio Stroll. while 2D and 3D artists (such as painters and sculptors) don’t. sales have increased dramatically. which benefits not just the artists. he related what he thought to be a more successful studio for walk-ins: “We have found that those in “craft” arts (pottery. the sales from the event did not support the budget of $3. for example) tend to do well.” As RDA’s reputation grows. RDA believes that the actual sales are significantly higher. While interviewing Rhode. but also Asheville’s tourism industry.visitors and began opening their studios for regular retail hours. RDA is currently working to find ways of dealing with these issues and to continue to strengthen their investment in the community. The Stroll has been the subject of many articles in newspapers and magazines. since some artists do not accurately report sales or report any at all. Right now we have only a few artists who keep regular retail hours during the week. President of RDA. In 2003.” –Skip Rhode. RDA and individual members have contributed increasing amounts to include promotional materials. The struggle that RDA is faced with is that the visitors to Asheville do not find nearly as many walk-in studios as they expect. way down to artists. Patti Torno (RDA treasurer) says. two really good restaurants have opened in our neighborhood in the past year and a half (previously we only had two really bad greasy spoons). We’re also seeing property values rise. in 2004. Other artists had little success with walk-ins and wanted to keep their studios closed except during the Strolls.
Toronto covers 243 square miles and is the home to more than 2. Artscape took on its first real estate development project at 96 Spadina Ave to provide affordable work studios in Toronto’s then budding gallery district.62. Artscape’s work encompasses building creative places. The goal of the Cultural Plan is to put in place 63 recommendations which. Canada Demographic Information: The City of Toronto is located on the north shore of Lake Ontario. is the capital of the Province of Ontario. In 1991. clusters. Toronto Artscape Inc. master planning. developing creative districts & . and cultivating creative cities. engagement of stakeholders in creative cluster projects. Montreal at $26. together with smart partnerships with other levels of government and private sponsors. In order to achieve recognition and funding from the City of Toronto as a partner to address the spacerelated challenges of the arts. During this time.01 (Canadian). Artscape continues to redevelop many spaces for artists and arts organizations in Toronto that include multi-use space for the visual and performing arts. and is Canada’s largest city. in response to a healthy real estate market and to address the growing concern about the viability of artists and arts organizations ability to live and work in downtown Toronto.64 as compared to Vancouver at $17. Part of the process of revitalization is to look at how artists and arts organizations are having their needs met. Artscape (in association with Toronto Arts Council) published No Vacancy. History of Artscape: In 1986. The city’s per capita contributions to arts. Toronto Arts Council established a not-for-profit real estate enterprise. (Artscape) is a non-profit enterprise that builds creative communities and expands knowledge about the dynamics of creative places.5 million people. culture and heritage are $14. development of arts districts. the city government was closing down illegal artist live/work spaces in warehouse buildings across the city. Areas of specialized expertise include: property management. and San Francisco at $86.71. In Toronto. Toronto Artscape Inc.Toronto . and research on monitoring the impact of artsdriven revitalization projects. Chicago at $21. will allow Toronto to realize its potential as a Creative City. The organization also provides consulting services and hosts an annual conference called Creative Places Case Studies Overview: The city of Toronto has been going through a process of redevelopment and emphasizing the importance of cultural institutions to the quality of life enjoyed by its residents. the City adopted a cultural plan entitled Culture Plan for the Creative City: City of Toronto to help guide cultural development in Toronto for the next 10 years. there are over 190.000 cultural jobs and the cultural industry produce about $9 billion (Canadian) of the Gross Domestic Product each year. In 2003.95. a comprehensive review of space issues and concerns of Toronto’s arts community. Artscape went on to open 45 workspaces at 60 Atlantic Ave a mostly abandoned industrial area in the same year. was established in 1834. creation and management of multi-tenant arts centers.
governments. This resource guide is designed to answer many questions that artists and organizations have regarding fulfilling their space needs. The organization’s property development activity looks at building community partnerships as well as the technical aspects of capital project planning and construction. Artscape also looks at providing resources to artists through publications such as Square Feet: An Artists’ Guide to Leasing and Purchasing Space. To provide a source of additional revenue to living Toronto artists. and increase awareness of the value of the arts to Toronto. and professional artists. Grant Opportunities for Artists . and research and space provision that focuses on the needs of artists. collectives. TAC separates artists into categories according to their discipline (Dance Projects. For application purposes. and communities. intended to increase the resources available to Toronto artists and arts organizations.TAC: Toronto Arts Council (TAC) provides grant opportunities for nonprofit Toronto based arts organizations.000 per individual or project. non-profit arts organizations. Arts in the Workplace .TACF: Arts in the Workplace was created in 2001 as one of a number of programs designed by Toronto Arts Council Foundation (TACF).+ Spaces to address the issues involved in redevelopment and how the creative industries are a part of that process. To encourage Toronto’s commercial organizations to display and purchase the work of Toronto artists thereby celebrating the immense talent and creativity that exists in this City. Visual & Media Artist. Studios under Artscape management include artist work and live/work spaces. and private sector businesses to undertake a broader understanding of the issues involved. Each artist was paid an exhibition fee and 100% of the proceeds of sales were directed to the artist. offices. designer/maker retail studios. production. performance and exhibition facilities for non-profit arts organizations. for corporate environments. They include nonprofit real estate development. The organization also does research on the development of arts infrastructure by partnering with universities. and Writers) and total grant dollars awarded ranges from $2. as well as helping to improve the health of the arts sector. planning and consulting. Case Studies Artscape Programs: Artscape provides a wide variety of programs and services. Music Creators & Composers. TACF took the first step by hosting a series of art exhibitions in its own workspace and used these presentations as a prototype .000 to $9. The mission of Arts in the Workplace is: To increase public interest in the work of living Toronto artists. Artscape also leases affordable space to professional artists of all disciplines in six different neighborhoods in Toronto.
Through investigating these cities the team found similar economic trends. Erie’s economic growth remained slow while job growth continued to trail behind the national . Research showed that the post-industrial cities have employed concerted effort to engage in urban revitalization. While Erie has been struggling to grow its population. where all cities have an abandoned downtown region paired with relatively high unemployment rates in comparison to the statewide average. Looking at Erie from an economic perspective is grim as well. behind Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. The population of 25-34 year olds has decreased during the past twenty years by a staggering 21%. As the third largest city in Pennsylvania. these cities exhibit an aberration from a cookie cutter arts organization solution: Where cities such as Erie.3%. both economically and culturally. Case Studies Erie Erie is located in the very northwest corner of Pennsylvania off the coast of Lake Erie. yet is relatively behind the growth and prosperity that Pittsburgh and Philadelphia have seen in the last two decades. In the 1990s. In the last twenty years this postindustrial Pennsylvanian city has seen some disturbing trends. while the rest of the state was experiencing mild and steady growth rates. and Bethlehem. and Erie recognize the value in investing in older urban areas and spaces to create artist communities. Reading. Not only is Erie’s young population rapidly decreasing.717. Reading. Similar processes of redevelopment exist throughout the six cities. As outlined in the following case studies. Erie. Whether the arts are the focus of the revitalization or a by-product of urban redevelopment. There are overarching efforts from City Departments who are pushing for the revitalization.3 square miles as well as 812 square miles of surrounding farmland. all six cities are moving forward to create artist communities using their existing resources as leverage. but its senior population makes up approximately 14. Lancaster. and Johnstown have conducted or are currently conducting surveys to find what is necessary to fit their specific community needs. Johnstown. Being such a large city in Pennsylvania. The city itself makes up approximately 19. During this time. Erie’s population only increased by approximately 2%. Cities such as Bethlehem. Erie has a lot of resources as a community. its population taken from the 2000 US Census was reported at 103. it has slowly become a very old city. making the city one of the slowest growing in the region.Pennsylvania Six post-industrial cities throughout Pennsylvania were selected as subjects for indepth case studies: Scranton. making it one of the oldest cities in the state. Scranton. The city has been struggling to pull itself up from two decades of economic decline after the collapse of its industrial economy. Johnstown.
culture. The idea for the renovation of underutilized buildings and warehouses for the use of local artists sprung out of an ask from the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts (PCA) to “consider the concept of developing space in Erie where artists could live. More specifically.average of 20%.9 million streetscape project. the ERA serves as an umbrella organization in making significant strides to increase the quality of life in Erie. and entertainment. The Erie Arts Council in partnership with Americans for the Arts has also looked into the economic impact of the local arts community by conducting an Arts and Prosperity Economic Impact Study. Although the city certainly has major steps to take in order to become an ideal location for artists. arts organizations. Because of this study. distributes grants to local arts organizations. On October 11. Erie’s current attempts to renovate old industrial buildings shows foresight and intelligent city planning. redeveloping the Mercantile Building. and The City of Erie to redevelop a large building in the downtown area for artists to live. economy. a neighborhood revitalization program. there are small steps being taken to ensure its future development. work and display their art. there are telltale signs that Erie considers the arts to be an important aspect of its community. and many other community organizations. work. and display their art”.681. They have even begun to work with other community organizations to develop plans to provide artist with live/work space. The Erie Downtown Improvement District (DID) is an organization that works along similar lines as the ERA. EAC works to enrich the lives of the citizens of Erie through experiences in the arts. The Redevelopment Authority of The City of Erie (ERA) is an organization “dedicated to the developing and redeveloping the many elements of the living environment. the Arts Council serves as an advocate for the arts. One organization that has been fundamental in addressing the needs of artists is the Erie Arts Council (EAC). Erie is a fortunate city in that they have the resources to sustain a community that supports its artists. For a city of its size. Erie has a flourishing cultural community that seems to care about and support its local artists. 2006 plans were unveiled by the Erie Redevelopment Authority. and other redevelopment initiatives. in collaboration with the Erie Arts Council. PA. The City of Erie seems to be heading in the right direction in terms of creating opportunities for artists. the arts have been recognized as an essential industry in the area. EAC’s work affects countless local artists. which is among the lowest in the state and well below the national average of $52. thriving hub of business. Collectively. sidewalk and tree replacement. raises awareness in the community of the diversity and quality of the arts. Their many projects include a $1. and places local artists in residence in schools and community settings. and the Erie community. space is plentiful. Through proactive and effective programs and services. This lag in economic growth at the end of the 1990’s is apparent in the region’s average household income level of $46. This organization is fundamental in the revitalization of the city of Erie. In broad terms. While these trends seem to suggest a lack of coordination as a city to redevelop and reinvent itself. The EAC did the necessary research to determine if there was adequate interest in such a space and what sort of structure would meet the needs of a local artist. The DID is a nonprofit organization that strives to empower the stakeholders of downtown Erie by positioning it as a safe. they Case Studies . As is the case with most post-industrial cities.000. Through collaboration with the city of Erie. both of these organizations are helping redevelop Erie into a desirable destination. Erie has already begun to transform the once bustling centers of industry into living and shopping areas. and recreational environment of the City of Erie”. park improvements. clean. This study states that the non-profit arts industry in Erie is an $11 million industry.
Lancaster has been experiencing disturbing trends within the last 20 years. this postindustrial Pennsylvanian city can begin to pull itself out of its economic depression and into an era of renewed life by way of the arts. experienced a mere 11. Lancaster is experiencing major change. which is higher than any other area in the state. and thriving area. Lancaster’s young population decreased by 4. Its population growth slowed even more in the late 90s and continues along this trend today. One organization that is part of this effort is the Lancaster Downtown Investment District Authority (DID). they seem to be small and lacking in support. Lancaster is among the ranks of the other post-industrial cities in Pennsylvania and is making sincere efforts to revitalize the seemingly stagnant region.348 people. the Erie Downtown Improvement District. While the economy is maintaining a competitive level when compared to the rest of the state. of 20%. The City of Lancaster has also been an effective force in the redevelopment by forming a redevelopment authority that continues to work to develop vacant or underutilized buildings in downtown Lancaster. a level exceeded only by Philadelphia. Lancaster’s employment increased by 18%. there are few organizations dedicated to providing necessary resources and services to individual artists in the community. There are several organizations dedicated to exhibitions and performances. economically Lancaster has been outperforming the rest of the state. other smaller organizations.3% growth rate. has a population of 56.2 square miles and according to the 2000 US Census. the Lancaster Museum of Art. The DID began in 1992 and has devoted efforts to making downtown Lancaster a safe. and the City of Erie. the Arts Council of Erie. Through efforts of the Lancaster Downtown Investment District Authority and the City of Lancaster.5% while the population aged 65 and older increased by 19%. attractive. and the support from local residents. stagnating population centers. Currently. Lancaster’s economy declined considerably as jobs have diminished and the population has idled. While Lancaster is struggling both economically and culturally. with the rest of the state’s post-industrial regions. the Demuth Foundation and Museum. The city has a total area of 7. They provide funding for downtown management programs and implement lasting and effective programs to revitalize and sustain Lancaster’s downtown area. According to the Brookings Institution study. One organization that is addressing the Lancaster Case Studies Lancaster is a small city located in the south-central part of Pennsylvania. clean. Leonard and Mildred Rothman Gallery. the city’s “dispersing development. there are many plans to convert industrial buildings in and around the city into hospitals. Perhaps even more troubling for the city is its loss of young people (2534 year olds) during this time.889 in 1999. like the Fulton Opera House. and many others. Back to Prosperity.are making major strides for the citywide community and economic development. the Philips Museum of Art. approximately 70 miles west of Philadelphia and 34 miles southeast of Harrisburg. there seems to be a community wide effort for the revitalization of the city. While the national population rose significantly over the last 20 years. Lancaster. and other commercial spaces. However. apartments. playing fields for a local college. yet still lower that the national average . After the collapse of the steel industry. and fraying older neighborhoods do not bode well for the region’s future economic competitiveness”. With the innovative initiatives from groups such as the Erie Redevelopment Authority. The city’s average household income was at $54. During the last decade. Although the arts in Lancaster have a presence.
However. Lancaster is a post-industrial city similar to others in Pennsylvania in that it is making a direct effort to redefine itself and develop a community that revolves around more than industry. and improve the coordination and quality of local arts events. The company is based out of Minnesota but has completed projects around the country in cities such as Houston. and is also an aged city with the residents’ median age at 38.8. and the Spinning Plate Artists Lofts in Pittsburgh. Scranton does lack the facilities to provide studios for artists. which all stimulate the city’s economy. Art Space is the country’s leading non-profit arts developer.needs of local artists is LancasterARTS.. At the 2000 census. The region’s elderly population reached 18. “The effect is dynamic! Case Studies The city of Scranton is located in North Eastern Pennsylvania and has a considerably larger population than Johnstown at 73. Scranton Tomorrow conducted a survey polling artists on needs and the project’s feasibility. the city. with most of the young working force leaving Scranton to work in other cities.120. Camerawork Gallery. Lancaster is beginning to succeed in its efforts to redevelop downtown and market itself favorably to attract young people to the region. Portland. Their goal is to improve the relationships between artists. In addition. they strive to market the arts and culture in the region. In collaboration with Art Space Projects Inc. According to the Brookings Institution Study Back to Prosperity of 2003. Scranton suffered from a dramatic decline in its population of young adults. An interesting result was that 52% of the artists who said they would definitely move to a live/work facility in Scranton were between the ages of 19-40 years old. There are higher learning institutions like the University of Scranton. Scranton Tomorrow has devised a three-phase plan to revitalize the urban community of Scranton through the arts. The city of Scranton also has an arts council. with a projected return on investment of eight to one. Scranton has made significant efforts towards redevelopment primarily in infrastructure improvements and construction projects like the Southern Union headquarters. The executive director of Scranton Tomorrow. As a cooperative initiative. The city of Scranton already has many . Scranton Tomorrow is a non-profit organization that exists for service in community leadership and development. However in regards to a live/work space. it could start an exodus for the young adult population to move back into Scranton to stimulate the economy. and opportunities for artists to network with one another. LancasterArts “aim to create synergy within the arts community and enhance the arts’ presence in the city for both residents and visitors”. Scranton had a substantial unemployment rate at almost double the state’s average.9% of the population. Scranton also has a few galleries and exhibition spaces such as the Everhart Museum. which offers resident artists grants through the Lackawanna County Council for the Arts Grants. and the Maslow Collection. If the project is successful. Scranton is located in Lackawanna County. coinciding with the Generation X population. the project in Scranton will have up to 60 live/work units. There are too few organizations that provide necessary services to local artists. Although the project is still in the consultation phase. individual artist grant opportunities. resulting in a lack of artist live/work space. the city of Scranton is researching the feasibility of an artist live/work establishment. Scranton aspects of validation to offer artists. and visitors. Paul Colaiezzi anticipates the project’s success. Marywood University. and the Career Technology Center of Lackawanna County. the arts community is not yet a large part of this effort. Ideally. Based on the statistics Scranton is in need of an urban revival.
coffeehouses and clubs. The Brookings Institution study states that Reading’s lack of a vibrant downtown community. new and existing businesses thrive and in many instances relocate to harvest the benefits of the progressive marketplace. it still remains behind the national average growth rate of a 13. its average job growth. Unlike the ICGR. They strive to make downtown cleaner.” Scranton’s situation is a unique case in which a non-profit organization. Economically. its senior population (age 65 and older) remained a very high 15% as compared to the national average. nearly half of Reading’s jobs left the downtown business district. the organization went to an out-of-state entity to begin consultation on a local project. economic status. in 1999 the city’s average household income was $54. was the beginning catalyst for urban redevelopment. The region’s household income mirrors its . restaurants. but lagged behind the national average. the organization has made a significant contribution to the revitalization of downtown Reading.207. Reading’s economic prosperity grew out of the industrial era and declined rapidly about 20 years ago. The Initiative for a Competitive Greater Reading (ICGR) strives to be a catalyst for community change. According to the Brookings Institution study Back to Prosperity. the Berks Economic Partnership maintains a full Reading Case Studies Reading is located in Southeastern Pennsylvania. yet still lags behind national averages. Berks Economic Partnership (BEP). Through various programs and services. restaurants and theaters. Concurrently. Even though Reading’s young adult population grew. Another issue affecting post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities statewide was the decline of the downtown area. safer. Similarly. There are several organizations in Reading working toward the city’s redevelopment. The organization uses and initiates research projects to provide influential evidence for development decisions in the city. As the fifth largest city in Pennsylvania. and its sprawling population “threatens to stall the regions modest population growth and small gains of young college-educated workers and bode poorly for the region’s future economic competitiveness”. While the national job growth during the last 20 years was around 20%. The Reading Downtown Improvement District Authority (RDIDA) is dedicated to revitalizing Reading’s downtown area.A downtown arts and entertainment district attracts artists and consumers to its galleries. again. exceeded the state average. The projects and recommendations of the ICGR are then carried out by their successor organization. its population recorded in the 2000 US Census was 81. and even experienced a small gain of young adults during this time. Reading’s performance has been typical of other postindustrial Pennsylvanian cities.873 which. Although Reading experienced minor population growth of 11% since 1990. The city has an area of approximately 10 square miles and is surrounded by the eastern Pennsylvania landscape of rivers and mountains. Instead of enlisting the help of the city. During the last twenty years. and to “preserve and improve the economic vitality of the central business district”. Reading has experienced changes that have affected the community economically and culturally. While so many jobs moved out of the city. Artists like the proximity of shops. approximately 60 miles northwest from Philadelphia. Like many other cities in Pennsylvania.4%. Reading’s jobs only grew 11. During the last 20 years. Vacancy rates in the downtown area increased to about 7% during the 90’s and 65% of Reading’s modest population growth moved to suburban areas. the once vital downtown area and surrounding neighborhoods became deserted.2%. Scranton Tomorrow.
jewelry studio. in combination with the other strong arts organizations in the region provide a necessary network of support for artists and presents the potential to increase the city’s vitality as a thriving community. has sprung up in Reading that has the potential to be a great example for organizations in other postindustrial Pennsylvanian cities. a theater. and grow economic development in a collaborative and unified manner”. As the city takes steps in its revitalization effort. The city of Johnstown. In 1997 the Johnstown Redevelopment Authority embarked in a $40 million rehabilitation and protection project and concurrently sparked the movement for urban redevelopment. The Institute for the Arts is a different type of organization but offers similar types of support for local artists. Since they have financial backing. Johnstown’s population taken in the 2000 census was 23. a community arts and cultural resource center located in the heart of downtown Reading is rooted in its “engaging passion for the arts and culture for our richly diverse community. Reading Art Works (RAW) operates in the same realm as these other two organizations. One of these organizations is the Berks Arts Council. . BEP has the power to take the research done by the ICGR and implement services in the city. and to enrich and enhance the quality through education. and offering outreach opportunities. a café. and for the revitalization of a city thirsting for the cultural and economic boon that has proven to come of similar regional arts center programs”. Through grant awards. Before the center opened. office space for 26 local community arts organizations. to develop an appreciation of the arts. GoggleWorks. Case Studies Johnstown Johnstown is located in Cambria County and is the principal city representing Cambria and Somerset Counties for the Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical area. communal areas for resident artists. RAW is a community space for artists housed in an old industrial warehouse that provides studio rentals. which is a testament to the strong presence of Reading’s arts community. For a city of its size.staff and is funded both privately and publicly. Through the dedication of these organizations.906. gift shop. collaborations and presentation with other arts organizations”. a glass blowing studio. BEP is a marketing agency that works with other economic development agencies to “provide a single voice in helping to retain. These arts organizations have been cornerstones in Reading’s arts community for years and have provided a network of support necessary to sustain local artists. educational programs. photography facilities. and a digital media lab. ceramics studio. The organization has state of the art facilities and offers an extensive range of services to the local arts community including 34 artist studios. The latest flood in Johnstown was in 1977 and caused over $200 billion of property damage in Johnstown and 6 other surrounding counties. performance and exhibition space. providing exhibition and performance space. the arts community is taking similar steps to support its local artists. the Berks Arts Council is a lead organization in the Reading arts community. yet offers entirely different services to individual artists. attract. most famous for its flood legacy has experienced trends of economic depression since the turn of the century. The Institute serves the community by operating an educational facility. Recently another organization. The Council’s mission is “to encourage and promote all of the arts. all of the studios were filled. Reading has quite a few arts organizations that are providing services to the arts community. classrooms. and cultural entertainment. and gallery space. promote. there has been sufficient development in the city’s economic revitalization effort. GoggleWorks.
Johnstown has few established arts organizations.595 at the 2000 census and its unemployment rate was more than double the state average at 11. The Torpedo Factory also aided in living costs for artists by offering a 15 year long subsidized lease when the center opened in 1983. The city’s effort has been focusing on industrial and commercial redevelopment as well as the restoration of the county high school. are more likely to stimulate economic and cultural growth if there are higher learning institutions within the area. Bottle Works offers workshops.6%. The space was purchased by the city and restored and renovated to include numerous galleries and studio facilities. The city of Alexandria covered half of the operating costs of the center as well as the payroll of the city staff. The Torpedo Factory. Due to the effects of economic depression. Art Work’s in Johnstown! is planning to use the redevelopment plans as a model. Bottle Works functions more as a community center like the Community Arts Center of Cambria County. In the case of Art Works in Johnstown!. According to the Brookings Institution Study Back to Prosperity. Recently. a successful artist live/work space in Alexandria. Virginia. also an abandoned post-industrial factory. leaving the arts at meager beginnings. The Torpedo Factory also sells an information packet on it’s website to help other organizations and individuals start artist communities who wish to create similar venues. More than a center that concentrates on visual arts. Artworks’ board president is the senior vice president at AmeriServ Financial Corporation. This institution offers proper exhibition space for artists including the Artists Alliance of Johnstown. The project. In a team of local arts administrators and members of Johnstown’s business community. As a city that has never recovered from collapsed industries. studios. In 1992 Johnstown established the Bottle Works Ethnic Arts Center in response to the growing interest in culture and arts after the Centennial Celebration of 1989. This organization concentrates mainly on community outreach programs and crafts and offers little exhibition space. The median household income was $20.5 years. and a kitchen. Due to the Torpedo Factory’s success. Bottle Works was established in a former industrial Bottling Factory. The Torpedo Factory currently has had significant return on investment with 800. John Kupinksy. performances and cooking classes. The building was renovated and restored to provide facilities such as a black box theatre. titled Art Works in Johnstown! was modeled after the Torpedo Factory. Art Works will offer affordable single and group housing for artists at $4 per square foot. Johnstown has become an aged city with a median resident age of 41. Case Studies In response to the lack of an organization that concentrates on the needs of artists the Department of Community and Economic Development in conjunction with Bottle Works have started a project to create an artist live/work space.J) in collaboration with the Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art. Already in existence is the Community Arts Center of Cambria County. the board is working together towards the goal of providing space for artists to produce and exhibit their work. like Johnstown. houses over 84 artists within its facilities. One of Johnstown’s greatest assets is the University of Pennsylvania Johnstown (U.000 visitors to the facility per year. traces of economic depression can still be seen in Johnstown’s vital demographics. postindustrial cities. there has been a major city initiative for a downtown revival in order to reestablish the urban community. “The goal of Artworks is to provide an environment that fosters both educational and creative interaction .P. the city took initiative in which the Department of Community and Economic Development hired an outside consultant and put together an advisory board to oversee the current project.
Uniquely. chosen in an abandoned Banana Factory in the Southside of Bethlehem. Bethlehem’s urban redevelopment has sprouted around the arts center the Banana Factory. the organization showcased concerts in hopes of reviving the downtown cultural scene. Art Works in Johnstown! is well on its way to becoming an attractive area for artists to live and work. Under the leadership of Board Director Jeffrey Parks. In 1995 the major steel plant in Bethlehem. Similar to Art Works in Johnstown!. Bethlehem’s close proximity to Philadelphia and New York City is also an asset for future artist residents. the Banana Factory was modeled after the existing artist community the Torpedo Factory in Alexandria. This is an instance where the development of an arts institution set the precedent for further development. plans for SteelStax an urban performance arts and culture center is under way. The former steel plant was purchased for urban redevelopment. and generate both public and private interest for future investments. Formerly known as Musikfest. Case Studies Bethlehem Bethlehem has experienced chronic trends of economic depression where many of the local factories have been shut down leaving the city abandoned. Despite its high unemployment rate and industrial loss. leaving a generous portion of the city desolate.” Kupinsky said. Bethlehem has already made strides in creating and sustaining a local artist community through the efforts of the organization ArtsQuest. the city of Johnstown has taken the initiative to develop a stronghold for a culturally rich community. The eventual home for the Banana Factory was . With Bottle Works as the parent organization. Currently the city has devised a redevelopment plan for the Southside to increase the number of retailers in the area. Bethlehem has well established institutions determined to revitalize the city. essentially creating a new downtown in addition to Bethlehem’s already historical downtown. the city of Bethlehem has focused its energy in revamping the Southside to a cultural and exciting attraction with the Banana Factory as its hub.” Despite its meager beginnings. “We hope to attract artists to the area who would have this as their home-base studio. Since the success of the arts center.for artists while serving as a catalyst for added economic growth and cultural enhancement of the community. ArtsQuest completed several studies to assess the true community’s needs and input. With the increasing demand for more cultural facilities. The concerts were extremely profitable and ArtsQuest collected enough funds to establish Bethlehem’s artist live/work space. the Banana Factory. Virginia. The establishment of the Banana Factory has turned the Southside of Bethlehem into a “hip” cultural center. College communities like Moravian and Lehigh offer great opportunities for the arts. which took up 1/6th of the city closed. Recently in 2004 Newmark Real Estate of New York purchased the 180 acres called “BethWorks” in the center of the Southside. Much of the success of the Banana Factory can be attributed to its location.
There are a range of factors mapped in the study that are oriented by zip code: where artists live (based on the databases of both the Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council and the Pittsburgh Center for the Arts). community development and arts organizations are crucial to creating an environment that is welcoming and enriching for artists. This consistency allows for the determination of objective and constructive conclusions. This focus group consisted of nine local artists representing a range of mediums. ages. A survey was distributed to the artists to gain a comprehensive understanding of their opinions and experiences. which makes it ideal as a focal study whose findings can be applied to the other post-industrial cities. race). yet it is the artists themselves that provide the rationale for the larger organizations to exist. as well as housing benefits offered through the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh. parks. The next component of the Pittsburgh case study is an extensive Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis of multiple components of the city’s cultural and functional landscape. arts organizations (including facilities and galleries). The focus group provided insight into the Pittsburgh arts community to compliment interviews with arts community leaders and understand the experiences of local artists. The sourcebook is compiled in an accessible digital format that can be utilized by any local arts organization or artist group. The first element of the Pittsburgh case study is a focus group of local Pittsburgh artists that was held in October 2006. Local government. so by focusing the research on artists needs this study is working to strengthen the community connections that bind all current and potential members of the Pittsburgh arts scene together. The goal of the GIS analysis is to allow all members of the arts community to study the results. The information will ideally be presented in an engaging style in order to be accessible and beneficial to artists. The research and analysis that make up the Pittsburgh case study is artist focused. international and other Pennsylvanian cities in order to maintain a consistency of process. The Case Studies . as well as provide a reference for artists moving to the area when deciding on a preferred neighborhood. with a similar history but a more extensive cultural history. household economic level. living. and showcasing and selling in Pittsburgh together in one comprehensive collection of the resources that are currently available to artists in Pittsburgh. It can aid potential business owners in deciding where to open a new location. There are three main components to the Pittsburgh case study: a focus group analysis. The sourcebook brings information about working. Pittsburgh is the largest post-industrial Pennsylvanian city. Geographic Information Systems analysis. and neighborhoods of residence. Many of these organizations already facilitate programs to support artists.Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania The Pittsburgh in-depth case study has been outlined similarly to the extensive case studies of national. particularly where the various components overlap. The primary research objective of both the focus group and the GIS analysis is to aid in the compilation of information that makes up a sourcebook for current and prospective Pittsburgh artists. city resident composition (age. and a comprehensive compilation of resources in Pittsburgh.
During the 1990s. and by 2000. 71% of city residents commuted to jobs located in the suburbs.sourcebook brings together the answers to daily questions about living as an artist in Pittsburgh. Nevertheless.100 residents leading to a 1. The research relates to Pittsburgh specifically.5% population decline. Pittsburgh consistently lost its younger population while simultaneously increasing its senior population. The majority (57%) of new jobs created during this time were located 10 miles outside of the city. but has continued to lose residents since then. the number of retail and service sector jobs has increased. Pittsburgh lost more than half of its manufacturing jobs (57%). job opportunities and cultural dynamics. employment opportunities became decentralized and left the metropolitan area during this period. The change in job availability and location was most likely a contributing factor to the shift in primary age of the Pittsburgh population. the loss of which influenced the changing cultural dynamic of the city. arts organizations. the team is creating recommendations that can aid all current and prospective members of the Pittsburgh arts community including artists. Pittsburgh has faced numerous economic and cultural challenges over the past few decades. Pittsburgh suffered the most intensive population loss during the 1980s. Pittsburgh lost over 36.4%. which has encouraged people to reconsider their residential location. While manufacturing jobs have significantly decreased. The case study also includes marketing research directed at aiding Pittsburgh organizations in attracting and informing Generation X artists. but can also potentially provide ideas and suggestions for other post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities to reference. employment rates . and compilation of Pittsburgh information for artists.500 people. GIS analysis. During this time period. Pittsburgh has undergone drastic shifts in population. the amount of young people ages 25 to 34 decreased by 8. This is contrary to the overall Pennsylvania state population increase of 3. Case Studies Similarly to other post-industrial cities. community organizations and others. a higher rate than any other city in Pennsylvania. which has in turn lead to a decrease in population.2% while the senior population increased by over 2%. After completing the focus group. From 1970 to 2000. The shift in types of jobs available alters the sense of the city. The total amount of residents to leave the greater Pittsburgh area from 1980 to 2000 was 212. From 1990 to 2000. Simultaneously. The drastic decline in industrial jobs and decrease in population have created empty spaces and a desire for revitalization. This number accounted for a significant portion of the population.
The study concluded that downtown and the North Shore serve as gateway neighborhoods to the Pittsburgh area. members of the community. Bethlehem. and are working to figure out how to best capitalize on these assets to prepare for the future. and that many of these people will eventually leave downtown for other areas of the city and surrounding suburbs. More comprehensive research has been conducted about Pittsburgh. and facilitate the feasibility and desirability of future downtown development. Scranton. Reading and Johnstown. but there also are a substantial number of older movers (ages 45 to 54) that account for 32% of the new resident population. Because of the similarity in trends among this set of post-industrial cities. particularly into downtown and the North Shore. and has successfully established a working model to aid future programs looking to bring people to the city. due to the decline in industrial jobs. The current economic and population situation in Pittsburgh is reflected in Erie.4% and the national job increase of 20% during that time.300 jobs were started between 1992 and 2002 recording a 9. All of these post-industrial cities have faced similar challenges economically and culturally over the past few decades. Lancaster. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management conducted a study entitled The Market for Housing in Downtown Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh was still behind the state job increase of 11. In 2005 the Center for Economic Development at Carnegie Mellon University’s H. While the population decreases and the variety of jobs available in Pittsburgh continues to shift. this study uses Pittsburgh as a pilot city through which suggestions can be made to benefit all of the cities. Despite this vast improvement. What the Downtown Living Initiative has accomplished is crucial to bringing people to Pittsburgh. In 2003 the Downtown Living Initiative was created to increase desirability for downtown residency. The majority of new residents are young (under 34). The goal is that by sharing resources and knowledge. and 101.9% increase. the two organizations will be better able to address downtown living needs. improve the quality of living in the area. All are currently assessing what exists in their city.grew throughout the Pittsburgh region during the 1990s. creating a study that the other post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities can reference in order to make decisions about how to most effectively actualize change in their own communities. The three-year project has just completed the designated term. and has become a smaller department within the Pittsburgh Downtown Partnership. One emphasis is to bring residents back to urban areas of Pittsburgh. organizations. The study found that 39% of the new downtown residents and over half of the young new residents moved from beyond the Pittsburgh region. Case Studies . and local government are working to create positive change throughout the city.
as well as promote the business to the greater community. The not-for-profit organization that operates 16:62 is an economic development initiative of the Lawrenceville Corporation. Artists and Cities Inc. and Blackbird is an entirely green building. The organization operates a comprehensive website with information about all of the associated businesses. design. This was accomplished through Artists and Cities role as a real estate developer. Artists and Cities Inc. The project aims to develop the East End of Pittsburgh as a diverse cultural hot-spot. food. service firms and studios. PAAI has been successful in its mission to strengthen the neighborhood through the arts. The goal of the project is to create business growth and development in the neighborhoods. worked to make artists an integral part of Pittsburgh community development and economic growth. Artists and Cities invested nearly $13 million into the three projects. Spinning Plate is only available for low-income artists. all adamantly working to fulfill their own missions. which encourages positive interactions among the socially. including details about restaurants in the area. They include Spinning Plate Artists Lofts in East Liberty.000 names in order to disseminate information pertinent and beneficial for artists. Over its twelve year tenure. both in Lawrenceville. Over the duration of the organization. Ice House Artists Studios and Blackbird Lofts and Artists Studios. Penn Avenue Arts Initiative The Penn Avenue Arts Initiative (PAAI) was a joint project headed by the Bloomfield Garfield Association and Friendship Development Associates Inc. Currently.Pittsburgh Arts Organizations: Key Change Agents Many viable arts organizations exist in Pittsburgh. making it a destination for art and design. Artist and Cities developed three affordable living and working spaces for artists. and economically diverse landscape of the Penn Avenue District. galleries. Additionally. The area is made up of over 100 shops. Ice House offers affordable studio space. creating living and working spaces for individual artists and arts organizations. These organizations are able to exist because of the number of strong foundations in Pittsburgh that strive to create a culture of philanthropy in the city. 16:62 is successfully positioning Lawrenceville as a destination for an engaging shopping experience of art. by empowering all members to participate in activities . that employs the strengths of established arts organizations within the district. Without organizations such as the Pittsburgh Foundation or the Heinz Endowments. A few of the key change agents from the large population of organizations are: Case Studies 16:62 Design Zone The 16:62 Design Zone extends from the 16th Street Bridge to the 62nd Street Bridge. and connects the Strip District and Lawrenceville. Facilities like the Pittsburgh Glass Center and Garfield Artworks have become stakeholders in attracting artists to live in the Penn Avenue corridor. From 1994 until 2006. and culture. they operated an artists database containing over 4. the existence of Pittsburgh arts organizations would be more challenging. the PAAI hosts events like Unblurred and the Penn Avenue Community Arts Festival.
The program seeks to initiate a “dialogue on public art between the community and the artist [that] contributes to community and neighborhood development and raises awareness about the important role that local artists can have in shaping communities”. 707/709 Penn and Future Tenant. as well as a broad range of regional performances. Partnering with community organizations and interests to provide comprehensive education and outreach programs. . The mission of the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is to lead the way in uniting public and private interests in the downtown cultural district by fostering mutually supportive cultural and economic development objectives and by providing a home for its resident companies.” the Trust carries out its mission by: Encouraging diverse quality performing/visual arts and entertainment programs.provided by the arts community. Stimulating commercial and residential development. a joint project of the Cultural Trust and Carnegie Mellon University’s Institute for the Management of Creative Enterprises. Awards are continually granted. Case Studies The Trust owns a vast majority of real-estate in the downtown Cultural District. Cited by the Pittsburgh Post Gazette as the “single greatest creative force in Pittsburgh. Supported projects serve to strengthen the community at large through innovative ideas. Sprout Public Art seeks to deepen connections between the community at large and visual arts by commissioning murals throughout Pittsburgh. The two main programs that Sprout offers consistently are the Seed Award program and Sprout Public Art. The Seed Award program provides funding for small. Sprout seeks to support projects that “catalyze change and empower emerging young leaders”. The Sprout Fund The Sprout Fund began in 2001 as a project of The Tides Center. the Cultural Trust also makes its presence known in the visual arts world with the Wood Street Galleries. SPACE Gallery. The Trust owns and operates performing arts venues including the Benedum Center for the Performing Arts. Creating distinctive and lively environments. the Byham Theater. Sprout has a particular emphasis on developing a community that is welcoming and engaging for young people (defined by Sprout as ages 18-40). Heinz Hall and the O’Reilly Theatre. Positioning the Cultural District for increasing volumes of visitors. Sprout runs programs that support innovate changes in the community and encourage regional development. emerging groups and organizations to support initial operations. Promoting appreciation of and access to Cultural District activities among diverse segments of the regional population. While performing arts are their primary focus. The Pittsburgh Cultural Trust The Pittsburgh Cultural Trust was founded in 1984.
This information helped the team to make more informed recommendations for the benefit of the entire arts community in Pittsburgh. The focus group met over the course of two hours in the Pittsburgh Glass Center’s conference room. This focus group and survey is an initial study to test how the format and questions were received by the participants. the facilitator loosely directed the group in a discussion about living in Pittsburgh. Nine of the invited artists attended and were led in discussion by one facilitator. but Lawrenceville. 2006. a focus group was held on Thursday October 26. gender. Over the session. a future study could be conducted more efficiently in order to achieve more in-depth results. Allentown. They each completed a survey containing more specific and open-ended questions on these topics. . West End. The range of ages and neighborhoods of residence represent a small part of the wide spectrum of artists that live and work in Pittsburgh. race. A few themes developed during the discussion: the low cost of living in Pittsburgh and the diversity of culture prevalent throughout Pittsburgh neighborhoods. a competitive research program designed to aid in analyzing qualitative data. neighborhood of residence and main source of funding. The participants in the study represent a sampling from the Pittsburgh artist community in terms of age. Each of the nine participants had adamant views on the topic and was eager to participate. Verona and the North Hills were also represented. Most (6) of the artists are in their twenties. Based on the successes and challenges this research faced. The focus group and associated survey captured the opinions and ideas of a small group of artists to better understand their experiences in Pittsburgh. 40 and 56 years old creating a range of ages and life experience among the group. An exploratory analysis of the focus group discussion as well as the individual artist surveys was conducted using NVivo 7. the group was asked questions about living in Pittsburgh. Four of the participants live in the Garfield or Friendship neighborhood in Pittsburgh. and showcasing and selling in Pittsburgh. ranging from 21 to 28. The group is nearly evenly split in terms of gender. The following discussion of the focus group is based on connections made using NVivo 7 and is formatted using the three larger categories that were followed in preparing both the focus group and the survey structure: living. working in Pittsburgh. with four male and five female participants. but the nine participants contributed constructive and thoughtful opinions from a variety of experiences. Focus Group Living in Pittsburgh: During the first section of the focus group. working and showcasing in Pittsburgh. To more fully understand the experiences of artists in Pittsburgh. The other three participants are 36.
in conjunction with the developing cultural scene. In the survey one artist responded that Pittsburgh is a permanent home.” They acknowledged the importance of having insurance. because of the unique neighborhoods.” They view the individual neighborhoods as benefits to quality of life and artistic inspiration in Pittsburgh. and also struggle with biking because of accessibility. Although most of the participants do not own a home or a workspace.) Three artists are Pittsburgh natives. One element of living in Pittsburgh that all of the focus group participants were interested in learning more about is insurance. those who came for school. Very inspirational. using the bus is a vital component to accessing the city. Among the participants there is a mix of people who were initially from Pittsburgh. The people who are from Pittsburgh and either stayed or returned after a few years away. The city was also portrayed as an accessible environment to actualize change and see results. mostly did so because of their devotion to the culture of the city or because of a desire to be close to family.” Detriments to living in Pittsburgh that were discussed are similar to the issues that the Downtown Living Initiative is working to address for Downtown and North Shore residents. while the other six are not. face challenges with the bus because of available routes and limited schedules. because “you can make enough to get by on a part time. [like a] working artist portfolio. Although many of the participants also bike to many destinations. It enables you to make your own work in your own time. One artist commented during the focus group that the cost of living is crucial. and currently only has a place to live and studio space as a temporary house-sitter. East Liberty has a different take on life versus the South Side. An idea was suggested involving a group insurance program for artists that could involve an “extremely stringent application process. they identified the primary benefit to living in Pittsburgh as the low cost of living. One of the owners shares ownership with a small group of friends he lives with. One artist commented: “Geographically everything seems close but are far different. commenting “I love the city and it’s cheap enough that I can buy a house. The majority of the participants currently rent their living spaces (seven). Although most of the artists do not own their homes. The artists in the focus group saw this as a major draw to the city. One artist also identified a desire to assist in the development of the local arts community as one of his main reasons to remain in Pittsburgh.” This is an important benefit to emerging artists who are trying to establish their art careers and reputations in the community while simultaneously trying to maintain enough of a financial base to live without constant financial stress. six of the artists do not have their own workspace while the other three do. Another positive aspect of Pittsburgh that the artists discussed is the dynamic diversity of culture evident throughout the neighborhoods. One artist commented that Pittsburgh may or may not be a permanent home. and those who came for other reasons (often job specific. Also. while only two own their homes. all view having a studio as an asset and many commented that they like Pittsburgh because of the affordable housing. Many do not have cars because of financial issues.” This comment came from an artist who graduated from school a year and a half ago. but commented that individual insurance is extremely expensive. The main issue was the public transportation system. low stress job.” If there is a way for artists to obtain health insurance at an affordable price then it would ease the tension around not having it that makes daily Focus Group . but that he would “like to stay here and make an impact. Transportation issues were brought up numerous times throughout the focus group and were also mentioned in every survey. It is a “huge thing” because insurance generally is not offered with “all these crappy part time jobs.
It was also identified that it is difficult to enter into arts related jobs in Pittsburgh. If I don’t know someone. Each member was Focus Group . awareness of potential sources was not equal throughout the group.” Another participant said that she initially came to Pittsburgh for school. or organizations that individuals are associated with. they are still economically limited and unable to take advantage of the comparatively affordable cost of living. One of the artists summed up the discussion well saying that Pittsburgh is “better than the rest. the artists participating in the focus group enjoy their experiences living in Pittsburgh. The most recurrent concept discussed during the conversation was the simultaneously segmented and invigorating nature of the arts community in Pittsburgh. In general. which is what the group members were interested in finding. “of course I love Pittsburgh. The participants spoke well of the community of artists within the city. on unseen levels. While only two of the artists had never applied for funding opportunities. The group continually made references to the undertone of segmentation in the Pittsburgh art community. the most frequent reason to not own personal studio space is the lack of finances to support the space. References were made to the difficulties in joining different groups together for work or social purposes. This comparison shows that although housing is affordable.” She ended the statement saying. there was a discussion about the levels of approval that must be reached to be an on-call art preparator at the Carnegie Museum of Art or the Warhol Museum. I know someone you know. They appreciate its charms.” Working in Pittsburgh: The second topic covered during the focus group and in the survey was working in Pittsburgh as an artist. cultural scene and the arts community despite some of the prevalent challenges in affording space and insurance. One stated “I feel like I know about everybody here. While low cost of living in the city was presented as one of the greatest attributes to working in Pittsburgh. For example. This included subjects such as studio space. These groups could be based on types of medium. Everyone is really happy to work with you. funding and facilities. yet these sentiments were more than balanced with the comments about the small and connected community that is also evident. One of the artists just moved to Pittsburgh three months prior to the focus group and the segmentation is something that he is currently trying to work through. if artists still face challenges in selling their work or finding other jobs. There was an especially disparate awareness of funding opportunities among the artists at the focus group. They each were curious to learn what galleries. they also identified challenges in the segmented nature of the smaller groups within the larger community. It became clear that not everyone in the group knows exactly what the Penn Avenue Arts Initiative does. They spoke of wanting a central location to gain information from that could benefit all artists in Pittsburgh. commenting highly on the connections between artists. Everyone wants to collaborate with everyone. We are all in it together. but “stayed because of the community. or who comprises the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh.existence more challenging and worrisome for many artists.” Although they spoke well of the existing community. The discussion also made it clear that the artists are not sure how to fully take advantage of the resources that currently exist in the city. arts organizations or guilds the others are associated with in Pittsburgh. saying there is a “very scattered feel to it…I’m not sure where to look” or how to meet and connect with other people. locations in the city.
and two of the artists had only applied for funding through Carnegie Mellon University while they were students in the College of Fine Arts. which she characterized as unexpected and fortuitous.Focus Group very interested in hearing about where others had applied for funding. whether or not any financial support had been received. while previously he had received funding for an exhibition from the Pittsburgh Foundation through association with a gallery.” Another agreed. Another artist had just applied for his first grant because of a friend’s recommendation. Although in general the artists adamantly support the existing system of relationships they have with galleries and other exhibition spaces. Also. and for what amount. not a great place to sell your art. saying that Pittsburgh offers “good emerging artist opportunities to show work. Many of the artists had applied for various opportunities. questions and concerns were addressed about how to make the most beneficial connections. The artists feel like they are able to approach gallery owners easily. Being aware of these issues is important in creating a clear understanding of what affects artists working in Pittsburgh. one artist continually questioned how to reach out to local curators in particular. There was not a lot of diversity in the funding sources approached. not like New York where you have to have someone you know. most of which were favorable. The main concern that arose from both the focus group and the survey is the diverging amount of awareness that the artists have about the resources that are available to them and how they can access those resources. curators and exhibition coordinators. artist commented: “I know comparatively it seems to me most of the people in Pittsburgh are very accessible. They were each very interested to learn where the others had exhibited and gained recognition. saying that Pittsburgh is a “great place to make your art. One .F.” Artists discussed their frustration with ignorant buyers and the lack of people with significant disposable Showcasing/Selling in Pittsburgh: In general. emotions and opinions about the elements that influence working artists. the artists are satisfied with the amount of exhibition opportunities available in Pittsburgh. One artist brought the ideas together. There was a range of opinions about the accessibility of gallery owners. they also are unsure of how to formulate additional connections or discover new opportunities. The city was presented equally in different lights: nurturing and dynamic compared to segregated and difficult to become immersed in. and generally feel like there is a lack of awareness among the people that would make the best collectors. The comments and observations made about working in Pittsburgh present a scope of experiences. and that they are free to establish connections with other people in the community in order to advance their work. She assigns curators to the top level of gatekeeper in the arts community and would like to establish individual ties with them but does not know exactly who they are or how to approach them..” Yet another is about to have her first solo show at an established Penn Avenue Arts District gallery only a year and a half after graduating with a B. yet they also commented that there are additional galleries and exhibition spaces in Pittsburgh that are beyond their individual scope of awareness. You can talk to somebody at a gallery. but a few were unable to remember details about the specific grant they pursued. the proverbial gatekeepers to success in the Pittsburgh art scene. They feel that the artist community is strong. calling it “ridiculous.A.” Although most of the conversation was focused on the positive and communally supportive nature of the arts community. The artists are concerned about how to reach potential buyers for their work.
but other more basic suggestions were also presented. They are putting art on their walls. After discussing this important component of what life and work is like for a Pittsburgh artist. someplace to go and get all the information. neighborhood information. Pittsburgh is an accessible destination for artists because of the low cost of living. and that the galleries that sell work most significantly are “not pushing contemporary work. The frustration was unanimous. They all also said that they would recommend for another artist who is interested in moving to the city. services and opportunities that already exist in Pittsburgh but are not known to artists. They feel like the community at large is not aware of their work. To the artists. When asked if New York residence was a requirement to being a successful artist. galleries and other artists.income attending exhibitions. the dynamic Focus Group . Another interpretation of a database was discussed in terms of presenting the information as a marketing tool to attract prospective artists to move to the Pittsburgh area. We need some kind of connection. neighborhoods? Where can I display? How about housing? … Why not try to put that together for artists?” commented one of the focus group participants. what have you got? Is there a list of galleries. One artist mentioned wanting “a source. They acknowledged that individual organizations have their own compilations of events. and does not purchase work from local artists in lieu of that from artists in other cities.” One other idea suggested was to also make the website offer display opportunities to artists so that they are able to connect with potential customers. Primarily these suggestions focused on how to bring existing information together into an accessible format for artists to utilize. funding opportunities. they believe that one can easily be a successful artist in Pittsburgh. Ideas for Improvement: Throughout the focus group discussion the artists mentioned ideas about how to improve upon the current living and working environment for artists in Pittsburgh. Despite the challenges and issues that the participating artists addressed about Pittsburgh.” One artist brought together the sentiments by saying that the Pittsburgh community at large is not educated about art. resources and information but that these never offer everything needed and are in competition with each other. The idea that was most consistently mentioned is developing a website offering all of the information easily to everyone. although no one was quite sure how to aid the situation.” This type of reference source could include housing. local facilities and gallery listings. They saw the potential website as fulfilling dual roles in aiding both current and potential Pittsburgh artists. the discussion turned towards how to improve upon the current situation.” The range of opinions expressed about the current environment for showcasing and selling work in Pittsburgh shows the range of awareness that individual artists have about the opportunities that are available to them. Another offered connecting with corporate buyers because “buildings are popping up all over the place. One artist titled this composite of resources the “artist infrastructure. the group adamantly refused the idea. “If an artist wanted to contact Pittsburgh and said ‘I’m thinking of moving here. One artist suggested printing a publication with a comprehensive gallery and events listing that could be delivered throughout the city and suburbs. The artists are very interested in accessing information that relates to their success as artists in Pittsburgh. They continually discussed how to bring this information together into a cohesive package that can be accessible for artists. All of these ideas are focused around how to inform artists about the vast array of resources.
Focus Group . the primary challenges facing the Pittsburgh arts community is the disparate levels of awareness among individual artists about existing resources and how to take advantage of them.cultural community and the exhibition options available to emerging artists in particular. Based on the lessons learned from the focus group and survey. Addressing this underlying issue by spreading knowledge and empowering local artists with the support of local organizations will directly respond to the questions that the nine artists addressed in the focus group.
individuals consistently identified the importance of green spaces within cities when discussing relocation. analyzing. features. with the mission to be “a collective In supporting research for this project. The maps were designed so that each individual can customize their own comparisons to fit their unique needs and desires in a community.” The PCA has acted as a central location for artists in the region. one individual may wish to live in an area that has a larger population of twenty-somethings with a strong Hispanic concentration. This list was selected as the most comprehensive available source of Pittsburgh artists and demonstrates where artist currently reside in the city. individuals will have the capabilities to layer characteristics to see where they overlap. is a collection of computer hardware. While these GIS maps are currently in a stagnant form. art sales and exhibitions. and effectiveness of the regions’ varied and vibrant arts community. By offering these maps. but guild meetings. A map displaying overall population density for the city is also included for comparison.” GPAC maintains a local list of artists who have chosen to register for this database. managing. the city has been divided in larger groupings than the traditional local neighborhoods. By layering two maps that represent those characteristics. It provides not only a location for creation. in the future these maps would ideally be available digitally so that individuals from across the country could use their interactive capabilities. and geographic data for capturing. The three elements of this feature used to help describe the city’s dynamics are residents’ age. the following nine items were selected. such an area could be identified in the overlap. Pittsburgh’s pride in its commitment to green spaces. While this list is smaller than the GPAC database list. and dynamics through a series of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps. By breaking the city down into zip codes. zip codes were to be mapped. Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council (GPAC) Artist Database Parks GPAC was established through the merger of ProArts and the Greater Pittsburgh Arts Alliance in 2005. which are often found to be confusing and fluid. For example. providing services and resources for individual artists throughout Western Pennsylvania. it also represents the residential location of artists currently living in Pittsburgh.” which has the ability to provide interactive layering and viewing. . These three statistics were taken from the most recent available United States census of 2000. City Resident Composition City of Pittsburgh Zip Codes As a method of offering geographical reference points and a general understanding of the city’s dynamic. and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. While there are many elements and dynamics that could have been featured in this format. The chosen mapping programming “GIS. This threefold feature of the GIS mapping was meant to provide a fuller understanding of the communities to which artists may wish to relocate. voice for the arts that expands the reach. This section was designed to offer prospective and current residents of the city of Pittsburgh a visual representation of the city’s characteristics. ethnicity and income level. This non-profit community arts campus was founded in 1945 and recently has combined forces with Pittsburgh Filmmakers to continue to offer “arts education programs and contemporary art exhibitions. GIS Pittsburgh Center for the Arts (PCA) Guild Members List Another list of artists was collected from the PCA. influence. software.
Individuals may decide to live near a particular facility where they would create their artwork or a gallery they would like to frequent. motivated the creation of one GIS map to display Pittsburgh’s city parks. The location of these spaces can also provide a deeper understanding of the artistic element within the overall community environment. and Facilities Realizing that the primary audience of the GIS maps are artists. which provides “first-mortgage financing for purchase of new or existing homes in movein condition at a possible low rate of 5. the final feature mapped was the location of arts organizations.25%. it deepens their community connections through financially investing in the area. but program areas may also qualify depending on the buyer. The Pittsburgh Urban Redevelopment Authority offers a Home Ownership Program (PHOP). the importance of affordable and accessible homeownership is a feature of the GIS mapping. At the same time.especially parks.” This is “fixed. Galleries. Arts Organizations. URA Mapping With issues of urban gentrification and resident retention on the forefront of any developing community’s mind. GIS .” The target areas denoted on the map are where these loans are designated. 30-year mortgage loans for low to moderate income home buyers with down payments as low as 3%. galleries and facilities. low interest. Homeownership not only offers an element of a solution to these issues. but also increases the sense of security for individuals in a community. See the printed maps in Appendix XXX.
with the Bach and Baroque Ensemble and Urban Sky Consort. Blackman is also involved in producing a semi- monthly mailing to individual artists that publicizes professional development and networking opportunities for artists along with other relevant information relating to the arts field. She has numerous ambitious ideas to bring artists. ProArts merged with the Greater Pittsburgh Arts Alliance to form the Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council (GPAC) and a year later Blackman was named Director of Arts Programs. individuals involved in cultural or economic development. Blackman is an enthusiastic early music singer. Blackman felt like the barrier for artists is not a lack of opportunities in Pittsburgh but making the information that is available more accessible to a greater number of artists. artist contact points (such as agents). Blackman highlighted the Sprout Fund’s Mural Project as a unique opportunity for artists that creates public art that is community specific to the area that it is being created in. Each one of these programs is designed to provide professional development opportunities for arts managers and artists. The systems group facilitated gaining a diverse perspective on the project by ensuring that advisory board members were from different backgrounds when selecting individuals to participate. and owners of exhibition space. Blackman sees the organization taking a central role in moving forward initiatives and projects directly related to opportunities for individual artists. Blackman is hoping to utilize the Web to disseminate and create connections for artists so that artists are able to use each other as resources for professional opportunities. In the future. and the Artists as Entrepreneur series. the following section is a collection of summaries from conversations with advisory board members and other professionals in the field with knowledge related to the project. As noted in the Project Methodology section regarding advisory board members. GPAC is in the process of developing a “grassroots” approach to reaching out to local artists in the greater Pittsburgh area. organizations and . When asked about opportunities for artists in the community. In 2005. These efforts include the development of a database of artists’ work that will be free and available to the public. MetLife National Arts Forums. Along with taking a proactive role in the arts community as a manager. She also oversees the National Arts Marketing Project. In addition to formal initiatives. Blackman’s role at GPAC ranges from facilitating re-granting initiatives to managing GPAC’s pro bono consulting programs such as Business Volunteers for the Arts and Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts. The systems group included summaries of conversations with a few non-advisory board members because their insight was particularly valuable to the project and the group decided that it would be appropriate to highlight their experience and perspective. Interviews Susan Blackman Susan Blackman has worked in arts administration for the last 25 years and in 2000 joined ProArts. Arts Management 101. These conversations helped to guide the research and provided insight into the history of communities that may not have been able to be gleaned from traditional research sources. arts organizations. As GPAC continues to define their role in the community. These categories include: artists working and living in Pittsburgh. or is to facilitate the distribution of grant money.
minor competition—it is easy to make a mark and get connected. Her role in the arts community is as a representative of multiple glass artists. behind the times. She currently lives in Peters TownshipSouth Hills. Fallon does not believe that artists alone can revitalize the city of Pittsburgh. “Friendly. Despite the growth of exhibition space downtown.the public together in mutually beneficial relationships.g. She thinks the neighborhoods in Pittsburgh that are “ripe for the picking” for artists looking for live/work space are primarily in the East End (e. communities ready to welcome artists to help gentrify them and access to the public through numerous galleries around the city. she speculates that many artists may not be aware of these supportive organizations. He says that artists are great for coming into distressed Interviews Callahan believes the top three things Pittsburgh has to offer to artists are affordable housing and a good standard of living. She sometimes provides contact information. and traditional/conservative. Fallon’s interest in the arts and community revitalization stem from his love of Pittsburgh and Senator Ferlo’s involvement on the Community and Economic Development Committee of the Pennsylvania Senate. Fallon believes that Pittsburgh has a lot to offer artists including low cost housing. Her recent foray into working with a few non-glass artists has brought some organizations geared toward supporting artists to her attention. and she is motivated to actualize these plans in Pittsburgh. Shadyside. The things that Fallon sees as missing for artists in Pittsburgh are greater financial support through grants from the state and foundations. Susan Callahan thoughts on how people react to or perceive Pittsburgh. Bloomfield. etc.) Callahan feels that there is a lack of space dedicated to exhibiting artwork in Pittsburgh. better education on how to buy a home and homeownership programs for low income residents and more access to public art spaces. Often times. a culturally diverse population (if sought out. or makes a direct connection between artists and gallery/shop owners. she said. Highland Park. Callahan has found the support system for artists in Pittsburgh to be lacking.” Tom Fallon Tom Fallon is a Senior Executive Assistant to State Senator Jim Ferlo and lives in the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Morningside. Callahan purchases work directly from the artists and then sells it to one of her many gallery/retail contacts throughout the region. there has not been sufficient growth in other Pittsburgh communities.) When asked about her . as most artists she encounters have no idea how or where to start marketing their work. Susan Callahan has lived in Pittsburgh for about 25 years and moved here for family reasons. Since she has not heard about them in her years working with glass artists. East Liberty. but they can do a lot to help.
Graham acknowledges that in any other arts city. drawing. she does miss one thing about school that she wishes could exist on its own: “The great thing about school was the communal nature of it—all these young artists convened in one space where they could make work and share ideas. In fact.’ It would have lockers for people to store their supplies. Fallon adds the opinion that for financial reasons. this would be nearly impossible to achieve. which is why state and foundation funding would need to come into the picture in a bigger way. an established small gallery in the Penn Avenue corridor. But. it takes public or private development to revitalize an area. however. “The fact is that some of our neighborhoods and the city of Pittsburgh have been getting media attention [because of artists moving into the area]. It would be open all the time and could provide the opportunity for discussion about work while its in . Interviews Margaret Graham Margaret Graham recently graduated from Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Art in May 2005. lots of open space in which people could set up a workspace for painting. It would be awesome if there could be like an ‘art community center. With these initial developments come coffee shops and younger bars and restaurants and people who will want to develop around these centers. surreal. Graham is thoroughly enjoying the flexibility of life after art school. Artists that have moved into such neighborhoods as Garfield and Lawrenceville have been successful in reinvigorating the business district with shops and galleries. she is currently preparing for her first solo show at Modern Formations Gallery. “The community here—it’s buzzing—and it’s cheap enough that I can buy house. sculpture. In addition to creating her art. She currently lives in the Garfield neighborhood of the East End of Pittsburgh. whatever. a flexibility that arguably would not be feasible in another city. Graham says her primary medium is painting and her work spans a wide range of styles including: decorative. a little more than a year after graduating with her Bachelor’s degree.” She also enjoys the welcoming environment towards emerging artists. environmental. she works as a house painter in different areas of the city. Illinois and moved to Pittsburgh five years ago in pursuit of her education in Fine Art. portraits and abstract.” In addition.neighborhoods. Graham elected to stay in Pittsburgh after graduating from CMU because of the potential in the burgeoning arts community. She grew up in a suburb of Chicago. the City of Pittsburgh is in no place to give incentives to artists. so the process has started on a number of levels.
he did not sell any of his pieces at the exhibitions. Grossi also said that one of the Adam Grossi greatest resources the city has to offer is that Pittsburgh is a foundation based city. Grossi received a grant in the spring of 2006 and has shown his work in several Lawrenceville galleries. He is very involved in the “punk scene”.” Most of his friends have picked up odd jobs relating to artistic fields in order to pay for supplies. It could be all the benefits of art school without any of the hassle of strict production schedules and deadlines which ultimately. if only they can get the bus system to work better. In addition to the sense of community. When asked why he did not move to a larger city like his classmates. Although the lifestyle may seem bleak. Grossi loves the ambience of the post-industrial landscape: “I think it’s beautiful. Pittsburgh serves its purpose by having an affordable cost of living. He currently rents an apartment with another studio mate. Grossi also explained some reasons for the problem with retaining artists after they graduate from local colleges. Grossi has to find a source of income other than creating art. and it does not matter to him if there are not any swanky nightclubs. Most of his friends are broke trying to support the lifestyle they want. Grossi and his friends arrange collective meetings to discuss the local art scene. who currently lives in Lawrenceville. Although Grossi has shown his work. He explained that the validation from living in a particular city varies on many personal levels. Another problem artists have to struggle with is the lack of a collector base or market for art in Pittsburgh. Now.process—like we did in school. with institutions like the Sprout Fund and GPAC providing grant money to Pittsburgh resident artists. In conjunction with these organizations. The issue is artists’ awareness of what is available to them. His main reasons for staying in Pittsburgh were his attachment to the pre-existing organizations that Pittsburgh has to offer. “Being an artist is the only occupation you have to pay for.” Interviews Adam Grossi is a recent Carnegie Mellon School of Art alumn with a concentration in painting. Grossi has devoted his efforts to making a career as an artist in Pittsburgh. He currently works part-time at a design firm on average of approximately 20-30 hours a week. He said that artists need to learn how to live modestly. just stifled creativity. He claimed that a major root of the retention problem stemmed from the environment of Carnegie Mellon itself. The students of this particular University are so wrapped up in academics. While most of his classmates moved back home or to other metropolitan areas. they have no opportunity to explore what the city has to offer. Grossi responded that he did not find the validation of a bigger metropolitan area like New York City to be that important. Like many of his friends who are involved in the art community. which concentrates its efforts in diversifying Pittsburgh through a music collective. Instead the students remain in a microcosm and do not even give the city a fighting chance to experience its facilities. Grossi finds the cost of living in Pittsburgh to be reasonable.” .
from all over Southwestern Pennsylvania. like Lawrenceville being separated from Penn Avenue. In the future. and even the Strip District. including Public Works. East Liberty. galleries and art organizations in the region. online in a virtual gallery. which is “a Pittsburgh based. She suggested Pittsburgh artist communities Interviews should work together and not compete. especially in Lawrenceville. She referenced the extensive gallery and studio tour program in Philadelphia as an example. This blog is willing to serve as a networking hub for artists. She has already been taking action to develop artist communities in Pittsburgh. Articulate would like to energize the art community through continued non-virtual exhibitions and educational programs. displays an extensive collection of local art. As a member of Lawrenceville and Pittsburgh arts communities. Hoge has a vision of a sustainable artist community and contributes to the palate of color and inspiration in the most visible community spaces in Pittsburgh. grassroots organization. Even though they are all part of the Pittsburgh artist community. digital camera. Hoge would like to educate artists in grant writing. or they do not know how. Hoge feels that Pittsburgh artists are segregated. named Articulate. . marketing their artwork. to develop awareness of new small galleries.Allison Hoge Allison Hoge is the Founder/Director of ASH Galleries. Hoge feels they are not willing to share what they do. ASH Galleries provides a resident artist program. and other related training which is needed for emerging and even more established artists. She graduated from the University of The Arts of Philadelphia with a major in Painting and Drawing. Since its inception ASH Galleries has been successful in its marketing to a younger clientele which is evident at gallery openings and special events. She has a vision to build a center providing technology services such as computer with Internet access. a public art program. In addition. She is currently an active member of the 16:62 Design Zone and Lawrenceville Corporation. named FRESH JUICE. and discount printing for young and emerging artists. Five emerging artists are chosen to exhibit their works in various group or solo exhibitions. Hoge established a community blog under ASH Galleries’s homepage. Hoge is a motivated individual dedicated to making Pittsburgh a strong and supportive community for emerging artists. Hoge has been aware of brokerage between artists and facilities providers.
David Howe is the manager of the Pittsburgh Housing Development Corporation (PHDC), a non-profit development corporation, created by the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh (URA). The PHDC is charged with the task of initiating, planning, financing, developing and managing housing development throughout the City of Pittsburgh, with an emphasis on development of affordable housing units in low to moderate income census tracks. PHDC partners with local neighborhood leadership by providing development expertise and can serve in different roles to develop housing, including General Partner, Developer, and Development Manager. The PHDC encourages the growth of, and never supplants, organizations capable of developing affordable and/or market rate housing. PHDC never works in neighborhoods to which it has not been invited and, in those cases where it acts as a sole developer, always solicits the consent of the local neighborhood development corporation. The Corporation’s development partners have traditionally been well established Community Development Corporations, but it has also worked with private developers, faith-based organizations, and other community based organizations in order to further goals of the neighborhood. David Howe is 28 years old and a native of Pittsburgh. David left the area for his undergraduate studies but returned to Pittsburgh for graduate school. He remained in the area afterwards because of his opportunities for employment. In Howe’s mind, Pittsburgh has many great assets such as its location, cost of living, amenities, people and universities. Howe’s expertise is in economic development and his interest in the systems project is that he sees the work being done as a bridge between traditional economic development, which focuses on business, and creative development, which focuses more on amenities. He sees an
effective outcome to the research being “some sort of tool or list of tools for policy makers to see where the gaps are in attracting and maintaining a viable community of artists.” He would like to find out how to identify the needs of a community, what steps can be taken to meet those needs and how to expand on what is currently available. When Howe was asked about what he thought were the major factors going into the revitalization of Pittsburgh and what role he saw the arts playing in that process, he said:
“That’s a big question. Ultimately the revitalization of Pittsburgh will be have to be through the attraction, creation, and retention of high paying jobs in industries in which we have a competitive advantage. There is a theory that says that the arts can provide some incentives towards attracting these type of “creative” people to a region. I don’t really buy that, however. I would suggest that you set aside the question of whether the arts has a role in the revitalization of Pittsburgh, partially because (1) there’s stacks of work that says it does and (2) the more important question is what you have to do to meet the needs of the arts community.”
When Howe was asked about the feasibility of housing tax breaks for artists he thought it was probably a “long shot.” He stated that there are many regulations and paperwork that go into the process of creating tax breaks and that there might not be any advantage to the individual artist. He did identify programs such as LERTA (Local Economic Revitalization Tax Act), KOZ (Keystone Opportunity Zones), and LIHTC (Low-Income Housing Tax Credit) that could be targets towards areas that the City might like to see developed as artist communities. Howe also said that ownership is the best way to prevent displacement of artists
from communities. He said, “If you control the land and structure you can control what gets done with it.” He stated that some landlords will evict tenants if they think they can make more money ‘going condo’. However, he also commented that he did not see this as being a real problem right now in Pittsburgh because there is not much gentrification happening. Howe suggested that the team look at the research and reports of Michael Porter, a leading advocate for “cluster based economic development.” The Porter Diamond, according to Howe, asserts that the key is to develop a base of industries and supportive infrastructure that competes and collaborates. Howe thought that the group would be well served to discuss the problem as an arts “cluster” in Pittsburgh using the Porter Diamond, to create a shortcut to identify what is lacking in the arts community in a systematic way.
Charlie Humphrey has been the Executive Director of Pittsburgh Filmmakers since 1992. Pittsburgh Filmmakers is one of the oldest and largest media arts centers in the United States. The organization is committed to artists and the advancement of artistic excellence in visual arts - specifically film, video, photography, digital media, and fine and creative arts and crafts. Prior to joining Filmmakers, Humphrey was editor and publisher of In Pittsburgh, an alternative weekly paper. Prior to that he was a radio producer and announcer, and still does occasional voiceover work for film and other media. In addition to his role at Filmmakers, Humphrey is the Executive Director of the Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, assuming the dual position after the Center closed amid a financial crisis in August of 2004. The Pittsburgh Center for the Arts is a nonprofit community arts campus founded in 1945. The center offers arts education programs and contemporary art exhibitions, providing services and resources for individual artists throughout Western Pennsylvania. Humphrey’s dedication to the local arts community stretches beyond his dual directorship of these two leading arts organizations. Until late last year, Humphrey sat on the Board of Directors of the Andy Warhol Museum, and was President of the Board at Quantum Theater for ten years. He was once president of the National Alliance for Media Arts and Culture and once chair of the Greater Pittsburgh Arts Alliance. Over the past decade he has served on the board for Silver Eye Center for Photography, The Mattress Factory, Artists and Cities, and funding panels for the National Endowment for the Arts, The Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, The Massachusetts Cultural Council, The Heinz Family Foundation and the Heinz Endowments’ Small Arts Initiative. Humphrey is a valued member of
the Pittsburgh arts community and continues to lend his support, wisdom, and enthusiasm. When asked what was lacking with regard to serving the local artists, Humphrey said that there is a definite lack of fellowship opportunities for individual artists. Currently there are very few opportunities for artists to receive fellowships in Pittsburgh. Increasing opportunities for artists to receive stipends so they can do their art freely, is a valuable goal for the city and its arts organizations. He also emphasized the need for more exhibition space. Humphrey stressed the importance of housing opportunities for artists. He commended the efforts of organizations like Artists and Cities for creating unique live/ work space for artists, yet recognized that the best scenario for artists is to own a space rather than rent short term. Humphrey also brought up the interesting concept of giving artists the opportunity to own a space by utilizing “sweat equity”. The term refers to an organization, or governing body, giving lowvalued property to a person in exchange for hours of work or “sweat equity” to increase the property’s value. In other words, it refers to the value added to property by owners who invest their personal time and energy to make improvements. “The more labor applied to the home, and the greater the resultant increase in value, the more ‘sweat equity’ that has been used.” This concept is not only beneficial for the artist, but also for the city in that it improves the aesthetic and overall value of otherwise decrepit areas.
There are very few barriers to getting work done here. She also adds that the city has a surprising number and variety of arts organizations and that there are fewer barriers to creating art than in larger cities. It’s green and clean. Some of the resources she felt are important to artists and should be included are: Coffee houses as community gathering spaces Available grants. At the core of the mission of the PGC is the desire to create a thriving glass artist community in Pittsburgh centered around the PGC. the art scene has a grassroots feeling and things are affordable. but points out that to call it “professional development” would probably be a bad idea because that title wouldn’t speak to young artists. granting organizations and contact information Nonprofit art organizations by type or topic Map Music venues FREE STUFF in town Available live/work space Places that are interested in displaying art/ selling art Apprenticeships/internships/volunteer opportunities Cheap housing Neighborhood guides Answers to the following questions: How do I get around town? What media should I access (print or radio or web) to find out the latest events in Pittsburgh? Where can I access the Internet for free? Ilkhanipour has spent quite a lot of time thinking about what Pittsburgh has to offer young artists and what is missing. It is near many major cities. The problems that Ilkhanipour sees that Pittsburgh needs to address most are a larger network for artists and more young people with fresh ideas in the city. The most important things she sees in Pittsburgh are that young artists can be “a big fish in a little pond”. both artists considering relocating as well as current residents. As the marketing director Ilkhanipour works to “sell” Pittsburgh and the PGC to artists from around the country in order to encourage them to make Pittsburgh their permanent home.Paige Ilkhanipour Paige Ilkhanipour has worked as the Marketing Director of the Pittsburgh Glass Center (PGC) since July 2003. When asked what Ilkhanipour would . Prior to working at PGC. Interviews tell young artists about Pittsburgh she said. Ilkhanipour worked in the for profit world as an advertising and marketing executive for a Pittsburgh based public relations firm. It’s affordable.” Ilkhanipour said she would love to see a zine or website as a central source for Pittsburgh artists. She also feels both of these things can be accomplished by attracting more artists to the city.” She also comments that artists need professional development opportunities. Part of that professional development should include helping the artists be more selfsufficient. Once the artists are here Ilkhanipour feels that the artists need “knowledge of what exists in the city and an understanding of how to tap into it and make things happen. It has a vibrant growing arts community and young people who are very interested and engaged in changing and affecting the community. “It’s a great city that is on the rise. It’s beautiful.
Young Non-profit Professionals Network. Her interest in the project stems from her belief that how to attract young people of all professions is an important question. “Artists contribute to the professional diversity that makes Pittsburgh a vibrant. complete with special hand shakes and perks for owners. Interviews . but I think Pittsburgh used to have a few of those and they came and went. “Resources like zines are important. 40 Under 40.” Erin Molchany Erin Molchany is the Executive Director of the Pittsburgh Urban Magnet Project (PUMP.) a local organization that runs various programs geared toward making Pittsburgh a more diverse place to live for young and young-thinking people. She thinks that Pittsburgh has already begun the revitalization process but more certainly needs to happen. Washington. “anyone who was an artist that lived in Pittsburgh would be welcome to join. dynamic and diverse place to live. and Pittsburgh Sports League. These programs include Discover Pittsburgh.” For a sustainable benefit to occur. Arts are an important part of the revitalization. Ilkhanipour adds that the Pittsburgh artists club would be inclusive and. Perhaps Pittsburgh needs to be made special and maybe Pittsburgh artists need a secret club to make them feel special. world class cultural amenities. She moved to the city eleven years ago to attend Duquesne University and currently lives in the neighborhood of Mt. Ilkhanipour added that from a marketing standpoint Cooper Mini has a great position. and awareness and support by community organizations. Molchany has great insight into how to communicate with young and youngthinking people. and arts organizations. As the Executive Director of PUMP. She believes that the top three things Pittsburgh has to offer to artists are affordability. Their marketing and customer service make owners feel like they are in a club. the foundation community.” Molchany is not originally from Pittsburgh. but can not be expected to carry the full weight alone. there needs to be something more.
glasstire.people who stay because they like the slow pace.John Morris John Morris spent most of his life in Queens. Once he arrived. . He pointed to The Glass Tire (www. Morris sees no reason why. It is a central website that offers Interviews comprehensive information about the arts scene throughout the state of Texas. And looking at what is out there on the web. Morris sees a great deal of potential and an open window of opportunity.” he says. Morris offered the following opinion of Pittsburgh. with some collaborative effort towards change. After doing some research. artists. hotel and visitor sites should link to galleries and what else is going on throughout the city. there is no structure for getting new artists involved. Both the city and the arts currently lack a significant web presence.the people who are happy to be “king of the hill” and get angry when new people come around and propose change. The Digging Pitt. 3 . shortly after he arrived here. “There are lots of good artists here making good work. he chose Pittsburgh “on a whim. He opened his gallery in Lawrenceville. he found it to be stratified and isolating. that Pittsburgh or any other post-industrial Pennsylvanian city can not become the destination that those artists leave for. With the intense saturation of the gallery scene in NY. “When I opened the gallery. His background is as an artist. “There are so many shows that go on that no one knows about. To really get things going galleries should link to one another. NY and moved to Pittsburgh just over two years ago. It is somewhat like an island-there are three types of people: 1 . he could barely make ends meet. and considering cities like Providence. there is no linking between sights. thousands of artists are leaving it and cities like it.” Morris thinks that an essential component to the revival of Pittsburgh and its arts community is web infrastructure.” Morris thought that physically Pittsburgh looked like a little NY or San Francisco. museums. and merely a few images online. and organizations. And as established earlier on. The scene in NY is changing in ways that no one expected.” He agrees that awareness is the major component that is lacking from the Pittsburgh arts scene.” Morris’ decision to move here was somewhat impulsive. com) in Texas as an ideal model for what should happen in Pittsburgh or even Pennsylvania on the whole. but so many of them don’t even bother trying to show here. That elitism does not breed new collectors either. Despite this somewhat unenthusiastic portrait of Pittsburgh. and even Reading. “I had no idea what I was doing.the most motivated people who have left 2 . The cost of living in NY was out of control and even with major gallery representation.
Space 101 and The Performance Garage. help to make Pittsburgh a virtual hive of creative activity. O’Leary has many thoughts about how Pittsburgh can bolster its artist community. bars. Get involved with an artist collective/group in the city because that is a great way to get to know other artists in the city quickly. to make meaningful connections with the visual and performing arts. Interviews O’Leary adds that it would be best if it was printed (as opposed to a website) so artists could take it around the city with . Located in the beautiful turn-of-the-century former Duquesne Brewery. In order to receive a space in the building artists must submit an application to the board. The efforts of the BHA have resulted in the creation of 25 unique studio/living and studio spaces for artists in the former brewery. Don’t be shy about taking your portfolio to galleries. nightclubs. the BHA continues to serve both the general pubic and working artists through its programming of the Brew House spaces. PHOTOS of what your money can buy Real estate contacts Artist contacts/liaisons Info on arts organizations in the city A couple pages on highlights/favorite restraunts. Some are lofty goals like a better public transportation systems and others are better methods of communication with artists and among artists in the city. but your pay might be too. she says. If accepted the artist agrees to work for the Brew House for a certain number of hours a month. three of which have been at the Pittsburgh artist collective known as “The Brew House”. Be aware that the cost of living is low. providing unique opportunities for artists. Carnegie Museum of Art and The Andy Warhol Museum.” O’Leary cites the large number of galleries along with the low cost of living and vibrant arts community. etc. the owners/directors are usually very nice.” The idea of having a well-designed information packet for artists is very attractive to O’Leary. as well as the general public. the Brew House Association (BHA) has been a dynamic part of Pittsburgh’s growing creative community. “Things that would have to be included are:” Fast facts about Pittsburgh including a short history Transportation info (car and bus) Averages of real estate. Pittsburgh is indeed a great city for emerging artists. O’Leary would also “like to see more exhibition opportunities for young people in the city that are on the level of the Mattress Factory. O’Leary says that she would tell an artist that was moving to Pittsburgh to “live in the East End. as Pittsburgh’s strongest selling points for artists. Since 1991. However. on Pittsburgh’s historic South Side. There are over 100 galleries in the Pittsburgh region.Lindsay O’Leary Lindsay O’Leary is an artist who has lived in Pittsburgh for the last five years. The residents of the building are a mix of people who live in the building and those who just have studio space. As an artist living and working in Pittsburgh herself and as a connector for artists through the Brew House. “I LOVE IT”. which is not bad for a city our size. O’Leary has living as well as studio space at the Brew House where she also serves as the Secretary on the Board of Directors. art stores.
and a great arts scene. we begin to consider the new artist for possible inclusion in a show.” Whatever format it is in. and they will serve as a more welcoming place for emerging artists to show and develop. we either return the work if it doesn’t appear to be working out. Also the city is just on the verge of some young. say) and “road test” them in the gallery--see whether they sell well. a very well connected. hip gallery spaces opening up. whether we get good reactions from gallery clients. In her work at the gallery Oehler meets many local artists as they create the majority of work shown there. The arts community is very well connected and the city/arts scene is small enough to make a name for yourself in a relatively short period of time. we usually take on a few pieces (3 or 4. . Her background is in art history and arts management. which is really something that has been missing. Oehler says. involved art community. they may not even look at it. She describes the process for artists to be accepted at Concept Art Gallery. if the piece doesn’t look good. She also feels that Pittsburgh as a city needs a better profile. “They start by submitting a portfolio. O’Leary says that it would have to be designed with a “classy edge” to appeal to artists and to show them what Pittsburgh has to offer design wise. After a year or so.” Oehler thinks Pittsburgh is incredibly livable. After the initial introductory period. encouraging young artists to move to Pittsburgh and encouraging artists to stay after they finish school here as she did. including images.people just don’t know it”. resume/education. The things Oehler sees as lacking in Pittsburgh are younger artists uniting with younger galleries. MI in 2001 to attend graduate school and has lived here ever since. She currently works as the Assistant Director at Concept Art Gallery and is training to become a certified art appraiser. Oehler sees many benefits of being an artist in Pittsburgh including affordable housing and studio space. and whether the staff likes them and thinks they are “saleable”. etc. even the ones with high profiles. The city needs. “It should be something small that you could squeeze into your pocket while here scouting different areas around Pittsburgh. and an arts audience receptive to young artists. and then if we decide we want to start working with the artist. “better marketing as an attractive place to live and work--which it is-. Oehler also stresses that it is accessible to approach galleries in Pittsburgh. past exhibitions. past representation. especially for someone in the arts. inexpensive housing stock.them. or we continue to consign other pieces and begin to officially “represent” the artist. We review. It is affordable and has lots of good. Oehler’s desire is that more of these galleries will continue to come onto the scene.” Interviews Alison Oehler Alison Oehler moved to Pittsburgh from Dexter. “Artists are visual beings.
and to local artists in particular. with preparations for the 2008 Carnegie International as well as organizing exhibitions for the Forum Gallery at the Museum. and local artists in particular. Pesanti is engaged with the Pittsburgh arts community. She often makes local studio visits and encourages artists in developing their work. Pesanti assists the Curator of Contemporary Art. makes Pesanti a dynamic and vibrant part of the Pittsburgh art scene. including the extensive collection of contemporary art always in rotation at the Carnegie Museum of Art. Pesanti strongly advocates that artists take advantage of the resources that Pittsburgh has to offer. Pesanti is thrilled to work in preparation for the 2008 Carnegie International. It is an exciting planning and organizational feat for curators to completely redesign a substantial space in alignment with a single show. Interviews . Douglas Fogle. Her dedication to international contemporary art. She then works to maintain these connections after the visits. Pesanti previously worked at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago.Heather Pesanti Heather Pesanti was hired as Assistant Curator in the department of Contemporary Art by the Carnegie Museum of Art in January 2006. It is a unique exhibition opportunity that utilizes the majority of the Museum’s galleries for an extended period of time.
“Drama students hardly ever remain in Pittsburgh. resources and opportunities for students to find internships and jobs in all creative fields. to entice students to remain in the city and serve as members of the local arts community. In reality the number of art students that remain in Pittsburgh is growing ever year. Interviews Schwartz believes that Pittsburgh has many opportunities to offer students within the visual art field. Although recruitment and job availability for these organizations is few and far between.” As the numbers of artists remaining in Pittsburgh every year increases. and music students rarely and only do if they are completing an apprenticeship under a professor. Living Your Dream” includes a job fair and several panel discussions. the conference also has organizations from other parts of the country come in and talk to students. . As an advisor for studio art seniors at Carnegie Mellon. Schwartz has also found that more studio art students are choosing to stay in Pittsburgh than any other field within the College of Fine Arts. A common misconception is that most of the studio art students leave immediately after graduation to seek opportunities in cities like Los Angeles or New York. Schwartz hosts a conference every year to aid students in finding “art-related jobs” for summer or post-graduation. She invites local Pittsburgh organizations like the Sprout Fund. offers advice. Schwartz offers development advice and instructs students in formulating resumes. The conference called “Making a Living. Head counselor Harriet Schwartz. Carnegie Mellon’s students help to strengthen the local art community by participating in shows at different venues early on in their art careers. Carnegie Mellon has established a career-counseling program that concentrates on all areas of the College of Fine Arts. Schwartz attributes this gain to the early involvement of students in the local arts community. Students are encouraged to exhibit work throughout the city while they are students at Carnegie Mellon. Schwartz would like to keep the job fair diverse geographically. In addition.Harriett Schwartz In order to address issues that concern graduating fine arts students.
they completed three major redevelopment projects that included Spinning Plate Artist Lofts. The focus of the initiative was to create sustainable space opportunities at affordable prices for artists. The first was in 1995 and the second was in 2001. Metropulos saw this focus as “a narrow view. Ice House Artist Studios. according to Linda Metropulos. In the ten years that the organization was in existence. Through developing relationships in the community. there was very little interest in Pittsburgh to provide resources for individual artists. Artists and Cities conducted two separate surveys/studies of artists in Pittsburgh. Both were focused on what artists need in a city to stay and found that affordable housing and workspace were paramount. and Blackbird Lofts & Artist Studios in the Pittsburgh .000 artists in the Pittsburgh area was created to do a feasibility study on what artists in the area required in terms of space. a database of more than 4.Linda Metropulos Interviews When Artists and Cities founded in 1994. Metropulos stated that they also found that there was a lot of interest from neighborhoods for artists to move into their communities. The organization’s main goal as a real estate development and resource organization was “to foster community development and economic growth by helping to ensure an integral place for artists in Pittsburgh’s future. but for us it was the right view.” The organization worked to bring forward issues dealing directly with the live/work space needs of artists in the area.” Near the beginning of Artists and Cities incorporation.
a community nonprofit that serves the neighborhood in which these two buildings reside. tax credits. traditional lending. Metropulos talked about the creative way that Artists and Cities was able to fund their projects which was different from most not-forprofit organizations. the initiative will be most beneficial to the artists in that community.” Even though Artists and Cities is taking less of an active role in the Pittsburgh community. Artists and Cities spoke with individual communities to determine what they thought about the role of artists within that community in order to build the projects in places where the artists could be integral parts of those communities.” Interviews . Metropulos stated “We [Artists and Cities] were excited to be able to give them [Lawrenceville Corporation] the buildings and make sure that the buildings are well cared for and also create some money for the organization. there is not a need for another big redevelopment project for artists in the Pittsburgh area. During Artists and Cities tenure in Pittsburgh. They laid the groundwork for providing resources to local artists to secure living and work space. When asked what she felt were the key ingredients for a successful redevelopment for artists. After 10 years. This way. All of our buildings are owned by for-profit entities (in order to take advantage of some of these sources) and pay real estate taxes. Artists and Cities feels that it completed its mission and transferred ownership of Ice House Artist Studios to Lawrenceville Corporation. “We were able to leverage the foundation support with city and state support. She thinks that its important to look at non-traditional sources of financing for arts organizations. Artists and Cities learned this through a failed partnership with a redevelopment organization based out of Minnesota. What Artists and Cities found was that it did not work to take a successful model from one city and try to implement it in Pittsburgh. She suggested that more funding programs for individual artists should be established in the area to better meet artists’ basic needs and encourage them to stay in Pittsburgh. Metropulos also felt like it was essential to ensure that the space was in line with what artists would be able to afford along with securing economic development money from the Government. and alternative investment sources.area. Metropulos said the most important issue was to make sure that the project is put together locally and based on resources available in the community. the organization secured nearly $13 million in investment money for the venture. In talking about the transfer of ownership to Lawrenceville Corporation and how these projects are moving into a different phase of the venture. An interesting and unexpected comment that Metropulos made was that she feels like at this time. it will continue to oversee the Spinning Plate Artist Lofts property in Friendship.
in 1996 to work with cities and towns. initiated in the 1980s was one of the major projects that Bacow spearheaded while with the Interviews Massachusetts Council on the Arts and Humanities. creation of public/private partnerships. informal. and community-based organizations around the country.000 visual artists. Much of her work incorporates urban planning. it is still a thriving space with many of the units being resold to artists. and as such developed a number of statewide programs and played a major role in one of the most successful artist live/work space projects (Brickbottom) in the country in 1988. cultural development.Adele Fleet Bacow “Adele Fleet Bacow founded Community Partners Consultants. public agencies. short-term consultations Grants for technical studies required prior to the development of cultural facilities . It has caused controversy because many people feel that the original intent of the project has been compromised. Bacow was the Director of Design and Development for the Massachusetts Council on the Arts and Humanities during the 1980s. MA “was the result of countless hours. The Space Program. and practical strategies for implementation of recommendations provided by Community Partners Consultants. The Brickbottom project in Somerville. The Space Program included the following components: Expert technical advisors in the areas of development and finance who were available for free. where she presents many of the lessons she has learned from years of vast experience in bringing public and private sectors together. “The Board of Brickbottom agreed to turn it from a limited equity cooperative requiring sale to artists at affordable prices to a condominium development without strict requirements on resale. the adjacent community of Union Square is undergoing a revitalization effort focused on creating an arts district with suitable zoning for artists. but not all. foundations. and angst by the players involved.” As a result.” Bacow authored Designing the City: A Guide for Advocates and Public Officials. Created in response to a variety of issues and concerns identified through a survey of 3. Inc. More recently. work.” Brickbottom had a huge impact on the immediate surrounding community spawning a great deal of revitalization.
Revolving Loan Fund for development of artists housing in partnership with another state organization, the Community Economic Development Assistance Corporation Tools to educate community and financial leaders on the development of artists’ housing and studio space The program was dismantled in 1989 when the state art council’s budget was cut from about $21 million to $4.5 million. Some components have reappeared in other ways through grant programs and the Mass Council’s key role in the ArtistLink program of Leveraging Investments in Creativity (LINC.) Adele’s current project is consulting for the “national arm” of LINC, whose No. 1 goal she says, “is to provide support for individual artists around the country.” Their approach to achieving that goal is addressed in the many programs they are currently developing. From Bacow’s vast experience, she acknowledges that every community is different, but that lessons can be learned from the experiences, mistakes and successes of other efforts. The key factor is determining what successes and failures were unique to that community and what elements were transferable. Bacow’s opinion is that the No. 1 catalyst for change is leadership and commitment to make something happen. “That most often comes in the form of one individual’s passion and ability to translate that passion to the needs and desires of others. The other key is collaborative partnerships. These two factors may seem contradictory but they in fact do and can work together.” Bacow worked in Pittsburgh “ages ago” with a few Community Development Corporations and the Urban Redevelopment Authority. She sees the community as open and receptive to artists and change. She cites downtown redevelopment, the Heinz Foundation and Manchester Craftsmen’s Guild as examples of the success that Pittsburgh has already achieved.
The team has been able to synthesize all of the research collected from the National and International case studies into common “piles” or commonalities. The three key themes identified in the research of developing successful artist communities are validation, structure and sustainability. Validation addresses the second criteria for defining an artist in that they are willing to submit their artwork for critical review by the public. A more focused look at validation reveals the need for artists to have opportunities to sell and exhibit their work. As addressed in the preceding case studies, Asheville’s Studio Stroll, through opportunities to sell art, and Santa Ana’s Artists Village, by facilitating a live/work environment, each provide validation to artists in their own ways. By structure, the systems team is referring to artists’ need to have resource organizations available to them that provide various services that meet the artists’ needs professionally. These services include professional development and networking opportunities, facilitating collaboration between artists and arts organization, funding opportunities, and even guidance on buying real estate for live/work space. As demonstrated through the case study research, many cities have established an umbrella organization to facilitate the distribution of these resources to artists (i.e., Toronto Artscape Inc. or Creative Santa Fe) but did find that some communities decided to have an established organization take on this responsibility. For example, the Rhode Island State Council on the Arts provides many of the services mentioned above to communities throughout the state of Rhode Island. The final commonality that transpired from the team’s research addresses the need for artists to obtain a sustainable living and working environment. The systems team discussed in the summary of the Urban Institute report, Investing in Creativity: A Study of the Support Structure for U.S. Artists, the need for material support which includes the opportunity to build equity through real estate ownership or long-term lease options for their live and/or work space. Paducah’s Artist Relocation Program continues to receive regular publicity regarding the effectiveness of their program and is a leading model for using the arts as an economic redevelopment tool. Because validation, structure, and sustainability are broad themes, the team sees the application of these concepts varying from community to community. It is also important to note that through the research, the systems team found that one of the most important factors related to implementing a new program or adopting one from another city is to ensure that the program is put together locally and based on resources available in the community. The systems team would caution any community against making “cookie cutter” decisions based on what other cities have done without assessing the resources available in their community.
Statewide Pennsylvania Trends:
Upon reflection of the research that was completed on the six post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities (Scranton, Johnstown, Erie, Reading, Lancaster, and Bethlehem), the systems team discovered that there were not established commonalities between them but rather emerging trends. The systems team defines these as trends rather than commonalities based on three criteria: 1) these statewide efforts are in their infancy as compared to the commonalities found in the national/international case study research, 2) the national/ international case study programs have been able to measure some kind of success/failure of
their programs, and 3) the statewide trends address a broader issue of redevelopment that is not solely focused on the use of the arts or meeting the needs of artists in that community. These emerging trends indicate that each of these cities are engaged in urban revitalization based on similar economic trends because of an abandoned downtown region paired with a relatively high unemployment rate as compared to the statewide average. Similarly, there are indications that each of these six cities has efforts for redevelopment being facilitated by city departments. For example, the Erie Downtown Improvement District was designed to empower the stakeholders of downtown and in Reading the city established the Reading Downtown Improvement District Authority. In both cases, the core objective is to make the downtown area of both of these cities an important and desirable part of the people who live in these communities. Another trend that the systems team saw throughout the Pennsylvanian cities is the full assessment of each particular city’s needs by key players in those communities. Each of these assessments addressed different issues relating to fulfilling artists needs in the community. They may not have encompassed all of the issues listed below but there was some overlap. These assessments looked at: The effect of the arts on the local economy The interest on the part of artists to move in to post-industrial settings How to adapt historical industrial buildings for use by artists Whether or not local organizations are able to meet the needs of artists.
As demonstrated by these trends, each city is moving forward using their existing resources as leverage to redevelop areas of their cities. It is important to note that the arts are sometimes the focus of the revitalization or a by-product of urban redevelopment depending on the city and their own assessment of needs. Regardless of the focus of the revitalization, Pennsylvanian cities have the opportunity to attract artists to their communities. To capitalize on that opportunity, they will need to put in to place key programs that address the needs of artists.
a tool often used in economic analysis. There are four components represented in the acronym F.U. borough. county and state government.K analysis tool. Unification of Community This component consists of neighborhood associations. The F. city.N.U. outside consultants and developers. It was illuminating to the team in that it forced the determination of a process to identify power and influence. prospective major donors.U.K: owners. arts initiatives. artists and arts patrons.N.U. historic preservation groups. particularly the national case studies and assessment of Pittsburgh. which is seen in the top right portion of the illustration. This notion was frustrating to the team insofar as it seemed to undermine the grassroots ideas and practical recommendations being formulated.” within a community.N.K analysis tool: While all four of the components are necessary for successful retention and attraction of artists to a community. which acts on any Financial Contributors This component consists of local business . spaces for artists by artists. In response to this challenge the team created the F. banks. a catalyst. The F.N.K analysis tool was created out of research previously completed by the team. Knowledgeable Resources This component consists of existing arts organizations.Power and Influence The team created tools and compiled research to help communities create change and strengthen relationships with artists. The research and case studies illustrated the unavoidable fact that power and influence within a community were necessary agents of change. It is designed after Porter’s Diamond Model for Competitive Advantage of Nations. Network of Political Agency This component consists of neighborhood. small granting agencies and large granting agencies. or “tipping points.
such as land.N. While the F. It drives innovation in the field.U. It increases the productivity of the organizations in the cluster.K analysis tool is that a key player or catalyst can arise to push development within a community.U. Instead Porter proposes a concept that relies on “clusters. In Porter’s model the government is the catalyst.K analysis tool the catalyst can be filled by any of the key players listed in the components of the model.K analysis tool may not be the only way to determine power and influence within the community the research team believes that it can serve as a very powerful indicator. When this happens the remaining elements of the model will follow in an undetermined order. 2. related industries and institutions that arise in certain locations.U.N. 3. service providers and associated institutions in a particular field.” or “groups of interconnected firms.N.N. It is important to stress that any of the components of the F. Porter’s Diamond Model insists that inherited factors of growth. .U. The hope is that the arts will grow in locations and foster competency and networks of resources to reach what Porter would call a “critical threshold. location.U. natural resources and population size are not the most useful factors in determining competitive advantage. suppliers.” The F. is necessary for the model to be fully realized.N.” Clusters are geographic concentrations of “interconnected companies.K analysis tool appropriates this theory and relates it to the arts. specialized suppliers.K analysis tool can act as a catalyst. Power and Influence The implications of this influence within the F.one of the four components. labor. Stimulates new businesses in the field.” This “critical threshold” can influence competition in three ways: 1. In the F.
draw conclusions. The assessment should also include the identification of key stakeholders that can be a valuable resource when taking next steps. The other deliverable is a sourcebook directly geared toward Pittsburgh that lists available resources and information relevant to addressing the needs of local artists. Although the systems team thoroughly researched the current community environment in each of these cities. opportunities. The first step that cities need to take in order to strengthen the relationship between artists and communities is to personally assess the strengths and weaknesses of their own community. The following recommendations are broken into two categories: 1) broad themes that are key in developing a successful community for artists and directed toward post-industrial Pennsylvanian communities (such as the six that were highlighted in the statewide case studies). This assessment can take the form of a SWOT analysis in which Pennsylvania the community identifies its strengths. 2) specific recommendations for Pittsburgh that include strategies and tactics on how to achieve each goal. It is important to note that the recommendations are directed to all members of an arts community. The recommendations are intended to serve as loose guidelines that cities can tailor to their own unique community environment. and threats with regard to the resources they provide for their local artists. Based on the commonalities and trends that emerged from the systems teams’ case study research. the team has developed two resources. Both of these resources are outlined in more depth in their respective sections. that will be made available (free of charge) to Pennsylvanian communities. they do not have the inside perspective that is necessary to most accurately assess the communities. Sustainability – How artists are able to build equity within a community. The city should focus closely on the following three areas of needs when conducting the assessment: Validation – How artists show and sell their work and receive feedback from peers. as well as other individuals and organizations associated with community or economic development. the team has synthesized this information down to make it applicable to postindustrial Pennsylvanian cities. A city might find areas where resources and services are . Structure – How artists can stay connected to one another and find resources in the city. and finally make recommendations. Recommendations By analyzing the data collected on the six post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities and the national and international case studies. The complete toolkit and sourcebook is available in Appendix XXX. Also included in this section is a summary of the marketing research that helped the systems team define the best way to disseminate the source book to Pittsburgh artists and arts organizations. or deliverables. The first deliverable is an easy-to-use toolkit for communities across the state to assess their own resources and attract artists to their community. the systems team was able to make connections. Results of this research could manifest in a city’s cultural plan. As a result of these recommendations. weaknesses.
exhibitions space. or individual artist loan programs. cities need to provide: Opportunities for artists to build equity either through long-term leases or homeownership. The systems team found that while some resources for artists are already being provided in the Pennsylvanian communities. the recommended umbrella organization should also provide opportunities for professional development such as how to write a business plan or run a small organization. Cities should also begin to leverage strategic partnerships with stakeholders in the community. etc. low-interest rate loans. But. But. An existing level of dedication for creating a community that adequately supports its artists is necessary. The topics in the central resource guide should include studio space. An umbrella organization is an organization that provides essential resources and services to local artists. These cities need to leverage their existing resources. Recommendations . Artists bring a certain level of diversity when moving into an area. exhibition spaces. other resources are not currently available. In many of the national model communities. These recommendations will only be successful tools if they have the dedicated community support behind their implementation. and a cohesive. such as carefully researched and planned tax incentives. the communities must remember that the change cannot occur without the desire for change. if a city can learn to capitalize on these assets. influential stakeholders became the key agents when initiating change within the community. Many times a region’s existing resources are overlooked. This type of organization would maintain the control of such a list in order to keep it updated and relevant. this type of organization can be an extremely valuable resource for artists. If run successfully. This central source of information should be housed by an ‘umbrella organization’ for maximum impact. Financial incentives. It should also provide guidance on buying real estate. empty spaces into live/work space for artists. In addition to housing a central source of information for artists.lacking and choose to create a plan that aims to systematically close those gaps. In order to sustain a substantial artist base. parks. For example. If the city and the artists do not respect the current community environment. farmers markets. There are many existing effective arts organizations that provide essential services to local artists in these cities. housing opportunities. grant applications and facilitating collaboration between artists and arts organizations. such as abandoned real estate left over from industrial or manufacturing production. one commonality the systems team found of each post-industrial Pennsylvanian city is an excess of space. libraries. Such an organization does not necessarily need to be created from scratch. supportive environment for local residents. and any additional responsibilities can be given to such organizations. It is the intent of the systems team that these recommendations be a valuable resource for community leaders and will initiate a level of change. But. they can create a low-cost. they can become a valuable asset when creating communities that support artists. or even community art centers. a backlash from community members can occur. and in most cases it is a welcome change in a community. networking opportunities. one note of caution for cities is that in order to combat displacement issues of gentrification the city needs to be aware of the socioeconomic dynamics of that particular area. arts organizations. supportive neighborhood will not be created. A central source of information on the resources and services that exist in the area. By converting these large.
including artists. The recommendations are broken down into broad goals. Tactics: Utilize local publications such as Pittsburgh magazine to feature the arts scene regularly. This unified perspective strengthens the existing community. . Goal: Internal Relations Strategy: Increase Pittsburgh’s awareness of artists and their contributions to their shared community. Yet this is challenging in a city with a multitude of strong arts organizations already working to fulfill their personal missions. Internal relations refers to the symbiotic relationship between the arts community and the greater Pittsburgh community with the goal to spread awareness and strengthen relationships. The recommendations are directed to all members of the arts community in Pittsburgh.Pittsburgh Formulating Recommendations: Throughout the project. Promote a podcast of the Pittsburgh art scene. followed by more specific Recommendations strategies and related tactics. Funding opportunities addresses the fundamental need for financial support within the arts community. With this outlook. Without awareness. Based on the research conducted on the Pittsburgh arts scene. recommendations were formulated that specifically address the community. The goals are: internal relations. an emphasis has been placed on Pittsburgh in particular as a city that the other post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities can reference. Have a comprehensive online listing of all Pittsburgh artists. Most of these organizations lack the financial and staffing capabilities to undertake a significant additional project. Establish a regular. External relations encompasses a broader scope. Each of the individual goals revolves around establishing a knowledgeable community by spreading awareness. arts organizations. and other related facilities. Finally. how it interacts with greater Pittsburgh. as well as individuals and organizations associated with community or economic development. independent. juried exhibition that consists solely of current Pittsburgh artists. community connections refers to the relationships among members of the arts community towards developing a more proactive and unified group. individuals and organizations beyond the Pittsburgh region. success is impossible and the creation of a more unified arts community becomes infinitely more challenging. The idealistic recommendation for the Pittsburgh arts community is to entrust all of the responsibility to one organization. all groups and individuals are working towards a similar goal using the same ideals and guidelines. This approach further instilled the value of community bonds across groups. external relations. either one that is currently in existence or by establishing a new one. and existing perceptions of the region. working to bridge gaps through the recommendations themselves. Recommendations that are intended for the community at large seek to instill all individuals and groups with the power to actualize change. funding opportunities and community connections.
Maintain a consistently updated and comprehensive cultural calendar with information about all events. Recommendations Strategy: Create opportunities for artist validation within the city of Pittsburgh. organizations and alternative venues dedicated to showcasing local artists. Establish and promote a comprehensive listing of all professional development opportunities that benefit artists. Empower artists to take advantage of local opportunities designed for them. . shows and related happenings in Pittsburgh. independent. Goal: External Relations Strategy: Develop a web presence for Pittsburgh artists and arts organizations. studio and business space. Regularly conduct classes and workshops in online business operations for artists teaching them how to market their work online. Tactics: Establish a regular. juried exhibition that consists solely of current Pittsburgh artists. Increase and enrich program opportunities within existing arts organizations. Strategy: Further develop available resources for artistic creation and showcasing. Operate a central listing of all rental and ownership opportunities that are specific to artists that include housing. Foster the development of galleries. Tactics: Build facilities to supplement current opportunities and create a well-rounded spectrum of mediums.Utilize the extensive Pittsburgh blog network to further disseminate information about Pittsburgh art.
Encourage arts organizations to host conferences in Pittsburgh. Encourage local arts organizations to approach and connect with their national network of associations and other related organizations and publications. Tactics: Encourage funders to develop clear applications that outline detailed steps. Motivate individual organizations to establish funding opportunities for their artist constituents. Establish a regular. arts organizations and other related facilities. newspapers. Promote a podcast of the Pittsburgh art scene. arts organizations and other related facilities. and museums in publicizing their events and shows in national magazines. to cultivate relationships with potential artist recipients of funding. festivals. juried exhibition that consists solely of current Pittsburgh artists. Establish links on community websites to artist and arts organization sites. and other publications. and to promote the opportunities they offer. Strategy: Spread awareness to artists about funding opportunities.Tactics: Link to artist and organization sites from government and tourism websites. Support Pittsburgh galleries. Promote statewide and national funding opportunities to local artists. Recommendations Strategy: Tactics: Establish Pittsburgh as an arts hot spot on the national radar. Have a comprehensive online listing of all Pittsburgh artists. Have a comprehensive online listing of all Pittsburgh artists. Goal: Funding Opportunities Strategy: Increase funding opportunities for individual artists. Promote artist trade shows to run in conjunction with national conferences in Pittsburgh that provide artists with opportunities to showcase their work to national audiences. independent. Empower artists to take advantage of local opportunities designed for artists. Tactics: Establish a welcoming agency for new artists. Tactics: Strategy: Implement central database of funding opportunities through an accessible vehicle. Encourage cross-linking between artist and organization pages. Educate artists about funding opportunities and the fundamental skills needed to complete strong applications Design and implement group health insurance programs in which Pittsburgh artists can opt to participate at a low cost. arts organizations and other related facilities. independent. Encourage foundations to direct funds towards individual artists. Market a regular. Goal: Community Connections Strategy: . Have a comprehensive online listing of all Pittsburgh artists. juried exhibition that consists solely of current Pittsburgh artists as a traveling show to promote the city and its artists. Position Pittsburgh as a live/work city for artists.
galleries. a joint initiative of the Heinz Endowments and Pittsburgh Foundation that is based in the STUDIO for Creative Inquiry at Carnegie Mellon University. and pool resources. organizations. and other venues. Strategy: Spread a perception of a unified Pittsburgh arts community. organizations. such as altering existing tax incentives to be directed more specifically to artists. or geographic locations. festivals. Looking beyond the recommendations that have been outlined. Articulate is an online base for the Pittsburgh arts community. Keystone Opportunity Zones (KOZ) eliminates most local and state taxes for business and residential owners and tenants in specific properties until 2010. There are two projects entering the Pittsburgh art scene that are important to be aware of: Articulate Pittsburgh Art Network. specifically. and are directed to the Pittsburgh arts community at large. According to its website. guilds. Tactics: Break down social and occupational barriers between artists working in different mediums. Tactics: Facilitate connections between local curators and local artists. Many of these groups are known among the larger community and their impact is evident. Yet there are additional possibilities to consider that may become more important in the distant future. Encourage arts organizations to partner. Looking Forward The recommendations outlined encompass a broad scope. guilds. Also. Stimulate relationships between artists. Currently these tax incentive programs are broadly directed towards individuals and organizations that implement positive economic changes on the community. it is important to be aware of new initiatives within the Pittsburgh arts community that are working to confront some of the issues addressed in the above recommendations. independent. Create a source that compiles information from all arts organizations about their programming. The project has just received funding from the Sprout Fund and is in the process of initiating its Go Public Program. Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC) is a program through the federal government to provide tax incentives for developing low-income residences. another approach to change the Pittsburgh economic landscape is to reframe the current tax incentive programs to specifically include members of the arts community.Stimulate connections within the arts community. Both of these projects are setting out to improve the nature of the arts community with artists in mind. When considering ways to change the dynamic of the Pittsburgh arts community. The Local Economic Revitalization Tax Act (LERTA) aims to improve certain commercial and residential districts by offering tax reduction incentives to new developers. or geographic locations. collaborate. Any of these tax incentive programs or others that are not addressed here could be redirected to include benefits for artists or organizations that work to support artists. like the Penn Avenue Arts Initiative or the August Wilson Center for African American Culture. Establish a regular. Break down social and occupational barriers between artists working in different mediums. juried exhibition that consists solely of current Pittsburgh artists. Articulate is “a new vision for a Recommendations . a project started by artist and gallery owner Allison Hoge. it is important to take into consideration what is currently being done by local groups towards meeting goal. and the Creativity Project.
The Creativity Project has been many years in the planning stages. and will begin in 2007 with the creation of a new full-time position.Recommendations sustainable artist community” by providing a central location for local artists. both relevant to artists and accessible to all community members. the recommendations become the bridges bringing the larger community together as they strive for similar goals. This outlook influenced the way the information was broken up throughout the sourcebook. and Showcasing and Selling in Pittsburgh. Within the general Pittsburgh information section is functional information Pittsburgh Deliverable: A Sourcebook Throughout the Pittsburgh research. There is also a board that will be working with the full-time director of the project. and the language style used. The project intends to enrich the community through the support and encouragement of local artists. Zip codes were used instead of the usual neighborhoods because it is an atypical approach to looking at Pittsburgh and serves to further unify an area beyond traditional neighborhood boundaries. businesses and art lovers to connect and build relationships towards a stronger community. The recommendations provide a framework around which all individuals and groups can take their own steps towards transforming the community. where cultures extend beyond the typical neighborhood lines. The information in the sourcebook is divided into three main categories to make it easy to follow. the artists continually discussed this idea as a tool to heighten artist awareness of the range of resources and opportunities available to them. It is important to assess the current initiatives as well as overall dynamic of the Pittsburgh arts community in order to formulate steps towards actualizing change. will be freely shared among all community organizations. The sourcebook is approached as though it was an edgy city guide. to be most engaging for the intended Generation X artists. including the focus group and GIS study. The initial goal of the Creativity Project is to create a base of information to benefit local artists. The next step is to create competitive funding opportunities specifically for local artists without requiring a connection to an organization. from downtown storefronts to the Pittsburgh International Airport. The website Go Public is working to create a business to art partnership that empowers artists and spreads awareness in the community by placing art around the city. It begins with general Pittsburgh information that applies to people who live all over the city. but it has aspirations to last beyond the initial one-year time commitment. followed by more specific information divided by zip code. A sourcebook was developed to begin collecting the necessary components to create an initial source of information relevant to artists currently living in or considering moving to Pittsburgh. about the expansive arts community in Pittsburgh. The three categories are: Working in Pittsburgh. a common trend arose involving the need for a composite source of information . The sourcebook has been approached to create an initial source of information that can easily be used as a basis to create a functional and accessible base of knowledge for artists as well as organizations. Articulate aims to be a source and a destination for all local artists. Currently the project is entering its pilot stage. The goal is to compile a database of information that is engaging and contains pertinent information for current and potential artists living and working in Pittsburgh. The zip codes avoid bias because they include more than one neighborhood in each area. Living in Pittsburgh. Because of the broad scope and the range of their intended audience. During the focus group. The information.
galleries.about living and working in the city. There is detailed information provided about the culture and amenities available in each of these areas. providing indepth information about each in a unified format. facilities. marketing research discusses multiple options for organizations to make an informed decision. In order to help local organizations in this process. By making it freely accessible for use by individual organizations. The sourcebook can be implemented through a range of presentation techniques from printed documents to a web-based resource. It also becomes a method of unifying the arts community as an extensive foundation of shared resources that are accessible to all artist through their respective organization. with the intention of allowing them to decide how to best present it to their artist constituents. and is also presented in the Appendix of this document. The information in the sourcebook is currently in a digital format. and living necessities such as grocery stores and hospitals. Recommendations . It has the ability to provide essential information to artists about Pittsburgh that currently is not available through a unified source. Ten zip codes within Pittsburgh are outlined in the sourcebook. random facts about the area. the sourcebook becomes a tool that each can use to empower their individual constituents. funding for artists and other arts related opportunities. It will be freely provided to all local arts organizations and groups. The sourcebook has an entertaining element. Included is entertaining facts about the city and a comprehensive listing of galleries. There are listings of restaurants. and includes quirky facts about the city and lessons in Pittsburghese.
It’s also one of the hardest to reach. which are consistently addressed in marketing research. In its totality this target has proven to be the most challenging. below is a collection of viewpoints that are important to consider when approaching this subject. This survey of information provides insight into potential avenues for attracting artists to postindustrial Pennsylvanian cities and combating the issue of insufficient awareness.” . what events they witnessed. Individual organizations need to assess their resources in combination with their goals in reaching Generation X before selecting a specific strategy.” “They are ‘first and foremost’ individuals and don’t like to be grouped. pretense is out. and strategies for reaching Generation X was collected.Marketing Approaches and Generation X Market analysts. For the purpose of this systems synthesis project. practices.perpetuated those stereotypes.” “As more information became available about these now young adults. “Generation X. Many rue Douglas Coupland’s 1991 book. varied and unique generation to date.” which immortalized them as a generation of dazed and confused riffraff.” “This new emphasis on telling it like it is comes as more Gen Xers rebel against the labels pinned on them. writers began using more positive adjectives like Marketing Ground Work on Generation X “Members of the Generation X. and what defining moment influenced its members for the rest of their lives. Today’s young adults comprise the second largest birth group in American history. They are broken into five categories. public relations specialists and entertainers have long sought after the target market of Generation X.” “Generation researchers consider how people were reared.” “Gen Xers have done as they were taught. or categorized. proving that both the fields of business and social science do not have all the answers. It’s a world where realness and attitude are in. it is a birth group ultimately moving through stages in life. a survey of the current beliefs. Since there is no right answer or single way to reach Generation X.” “It is absolutely imperative to recognize that Generation X is not a life stage. [are] a supposedly angst-ridden group of 45 million Americans between the ages of 20 and 33.” “The 20-something consumer market is one of the most desirable for manufacturers. researchers. labeled. advertisers. Misplaced Stereotypes “Marketers who continue to propagate the Generation X stereotype are missing an incredible opportunity. They’ve learned to think for themselves even if elders disapprove of what they think. Even more grating to many young consumers is that media and marketing types -. Rightly so because they are the most diverse generation alive. what social mission they were given.most of whom are baby boomers -.
” “First. we know that they have a unique style of learning and communicating. and self-sufficient’. associate professor of marketing at Duquesne University’s School of Business in Pittsburgh.” Honesty and Brevity “Because Generation X consumers grew up in a culture soaked with sophisticated advertising. You know what you want. “With all the information centers and chat rooms operating out there. It gives them connection and identity.‘ambitious.” traditions but instead ‘take bits and pieces that work for them and throw out the rest’. “The Internet gives you an opportunity to be very focused in reaching your target customers. but they favor ‘short-term commitments to smallscale projects with definable objectives and ending dates. combined with a self-aware advertising campaign befitting a generation oversaturated with advertising. Both Generation X and Y will talk about and share good and bad experiences across their networks of friends. They know the value of the media. savvy.” “They are self determined.” “Generation X is used to instant gratification. They don’t subscribe to the dogma dictated by institutions and .’ Xers do not share the Baby Boomers’ view of changing the world. and sense of community.” “This is a generation that likes to talk and share. They are media savvy.” said Audrey Guskey. We tell you what we have and leave it at that.” “This is a group that is into hightech products and computers. They love to hear true stories about other’s lives. Still. it makes sense to advertise and market to people in their 20s and 30s on the Internet. colleagues. partner in Sputnik Inc.” Community and Connection “Stories and music reach them better. pragmatic.” said Joanne DeLuca. a New York marketing and trend forecasting company. they understand its power while realizing how easily it distorts reality. they are cynical about advertisers’ motives. and families.” “Three consumer drivers as essential for engaging Generation X: creative appreciation. relevance and convenience. has proven successful for several consumer goods companies. They particularly like Web sites that enable them to get product information that they want and need. the best communication for them is person-to-person and word-ofmouth..” “Relationships matter to Gen Xers. Smart companies are figuring out ways to leverage the idea of community networks.” “Advertising can reach them if it’s more informative than persuasive. independent.” “Instead… treat Xers as intelligent consumers and say what needs to be said simply and quickly. they have them and want them and using this technology is an effective way to reach them. They treat the media with irony and irreverence. Marketing Technology and the Internet “A sophisticated Internet presence. but rather would like to make a difference at a localized level.
or trends. The F.U. the systems team focuses on factual lessons learned related to the project and suggestions for future research.K analysis tool. Conclusions Lessons Learned The nature and chronology of the research led the group to interesting discoveries about the subject and findings.U. The systems team found. The systems team hopes that interested parties will build upon the foundation laid out by the research done to further this systems project.N.N.N.N. In this final section of Strengthening Relationships Between Artists and Post-Industrial Pennsylvanian Communities. These “catalysts for change” can now serve as potential catalysts in the F. the necessity of power and influence in that community to accomplish successful change for artists. The example of Paducah.U. In the interim presentation. In order to describe the lessons the systems group learned it will be helpful to frame them in the language of the F. One of the biggest lessons learned is the idea that power and influence are major determining factors in the creation of artist communities. the team identified “catalysts for change” from the six case study cities in an attempt to find commonalities between them and to see if these commonalities. Paducah was selected as an example to use with the F. As with most systems synthesis projects.U.K analysis tool.U. KY can illustrate how the case studies fit into the F. model allows examination of other aspects of the research such as the national and international case studies.N. were applicable to Pennsylvania. The suggestions for future research section outlines the next steps that could be taken to augment the accomplishments of this project’s lifetime. there is always more work then can be accomplished in the time restraints of one school semester. In the lessons learned summary.N. KY). the F.K analysis tool is elaborated on by highlighting an example of how to apply the model to a case study city (Paducah.K. at the core of every case study city examined.U.K model: .K model because of the established nature of the Artist Relocation Program and the clearly delineated parties involved in facilitating the development of the program.
one would show how each could be adapted to a single model. which then pushed on the executives at the bank and the rest of the process followed. In the example of Paducah. More research lends more information which leads to wiser decision making. the team would have done a great deal more research. Each community has its own strengths and weaknesses. Each community has its own unique channels of power and influence. The catalyst in this example. But the team hopes that the terminal nature of the project does not lead to . What was learned throughout this process is that while researchers can examine the best practices from other communities around the nation and the world.U. Information is powerful.N. To give the masses the information that would prove most helpful and let the rest sort itself out. One could just as easily use this same process to identify the power. the unification of community includes the artists Mark Barone and Tom Barnett. Mark Barone and Tom Barnett. the network of political agency is the City of Paducah and the knowledgeable resources include the Yeiser Arts Center and the American Quilter’s Society. In any major effort to affect change. more research is always better. that each community in question is unique. pushed directly on the City of Paducah.K microscope. the two artists. a commitment to community and an explained vision derive results. Had this project not had such a brief lifespan of three and half months. The team thought the best approach to our initial problem was to approach it through grassroots efforts. By doing this. one would also see that each of the case studies would look very different through the F. Conclusions Suggestions for Further Research Research is never done—there is always more information available. The team came to realize that these efforts can only prosper if leveraged correctly within a given community. influence and catalysts within each of the other case study communities. but the unification of resources. However. the financial contributor is the Paducah Bank.
Though this study. Ways to continue creating tools to benefit artists in post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities involve facilitating and implementing many of the programs that are discussed in the recommendations section of this paper. OR Brickbottom Artists Association Des Moines. One important area of determining these tools is continued research of the post-industrial cities. IA . Lancaster. Scranton. The team recommends that each of these cities do an in-depth analysis of their community using the Toolkit provided in Appendix XXX. particularly Bethlehem. This section highlights ideas for further research that could potentially be carried out by interested parties within the Pittsburgh or other post-industrial Pennsylvanian cities. such as establishing a group health insurance program in Pittsburgh. Examples of areas that the team would have investigated had time allowed are: Conclusions Portland. These case studies could provide further suggestions and lessons learned that would influence the paths that Pennsylvanian cities could take in strengthening relationships between artists and their communities. This research should include personal interviews with members of the arts community and focus groups with the artists living there.termination of the spirit behind it. a more comprehensive plan for each of the cities could be completed that would make specific directed goals. Additional case studies of national and international cities would benefit and augment the existing research. Many of the recommendations are ideas for further projects. and would benefit the arts community as a whole if implemented. and tactics (like the previous recommendations for Pittsburgh) for each. Reading and Johnstown. Erie. strategies.
MD The Gateway Arts & Entertainment District. Also. or by creating the actual tool to deliver the information to artists. FL Another way to continue this study would be to conduct focus groups of artists or at least send surveys to artists around the country. Most importantly. Through the continuation of research on this topic a better. A substantial way to readily benefit artists living in Pittsburgh or interested in moving to the city is to make the Pittsburgh sourcebook a reality. and what they identify as the most beneficial and challenging aspects of their respective cities. WI Baltimore.Detroit. making all of the resulting maps digital and accessible on the internet presents the information to a broad audience. This could be in one form. GIS has capabilities beyond what was presented in this study. AZ Buffalo. Maps can be generated that demonstrate the distances between places. why they live there. or establish a business. This alone will stimulate change in the post-industrial cities and all of Pennsylvania. With this information people can make more informed decisions about the areas in which they choose to live. Continuing the GIS mapping to include other elements in Pittsburgh. Conclusions . and show how long it takes to walk. or many (such as a zine and a website). or bus from one part of town to another. MI Cleveland. and completing similar studies in the other post-industrial cities would provide more comprehensive information about these cities. This could either be through appropriate dissemination of the information to existing organizations. the artists can provide information about what would influence them to move and what their perceptions of Pennsylvania are in particular. NY Madison. OH Maricopa County. MD Florida Keys. set up a studio space. more informed and proactive community will be working towards change. drive. This research would provide information about how artists feel about the places that they live.
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