This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION SECTION ONE SECTION TWO - EQUIPMENT - STUDENT PREPARATION & TRAINING
SECTION THREE - AIRCRAFT DRILLS EXITS (NORMAL) AIRCRAFT EMERGENCIES SECTION FOUR SECTION FIVE SECTION SIX - FREEFALL/DROGUEFALL - CANOPY CONTROL and LANDING - MALFUNCTIONS
SECTION SEVEN - APPENDICES
Sources of information Tandem skydiving with wheelchair dependent persons Extracts from a thesis by Paul Murphy Display jumps Night jumps Tandem tips........and traps Sample exam and oral questions Training Record Tandem Master Written Exam
IMPORTANT - READ THIS INFORMATION Parachuting is dangerous. This Handbook has been produced for the information of APF members. The information it contains is based on the opinions of the writers: it does not necessarily represent APF policy. While the writers have attempted to ensure that the information in this manual is correct, it may contain information which is out of date or incorrect. Individual parachutists should check the information in this Handbook and assess the risks involved before carrying out any of the procedures described.
Produced by the APSC for the APF This document is updated frequently and printed in small batches to allow it to remain as current as possible for Tandem Masters and Tandem Master candidates. Please make suggestions for changes to John Chapman at the APF Office P.O. BOX 144, DEAKIN WEST ACT 2600 phone 02 6281 6830, fax 02 6285 3989 email: email@example.com
Tandem Master’s Handbook
This edition of the Tandem Master’s ( TM’s) Handbook is intended to replace the previous editions and is to be used in conjunction with the current manufacturer’s manual for the equipment used. Greg Cox, CI of Temora DZ made a large contribution with the sample oral questions at the back submitted by Peter Lonnon of Darwin. Other parts of this manual are taken from many other pertinent sources including APF, Relative Workshop and Strong Enterprise Newsletters and Tandem equipment manufacturers’ manuals, skydiving periodicals and letters from parachute instructors. This Handbook is designed not only as a ‘study guide’ for preparation for the tandem evaluation but also as a source of reference and revision material for all TMs Tandem skydiving has indeed revolutionised our sport making it possible for almost anyone to experience the thrill of skydiving. It is currently the most popular choice for first time jumpers - during 2000, over 90% of first jumps in Australia were tandem skydives, this equates to over 60,000 tandem jumps. In widening the appeal and profile of our sport, tandem is probably the best advertisement we have. The main benefits of making a tandem skydive as an introductory jump are that less intensive training is required, and reduced stress and an increase in safety is achieved by having the student directly attached to an Tandem Master who is able to provide instruction throughout the jump. Done correctly Tandem skydiving is an excellent method of introducing first time jumpers into the sport - it is exciting for the student and rewarding for the instructor.
Remember, a tandem jump is not just another jump. The procedures are more complicated than your personal parachute rig. There is an absolute need to understand and be able to perform every procedure. Also it is a student jump. It is required to be done under a Chief Instructor with at least an Instructor “B” who is qualified to supervise tandem as DZSO.
The Operational Regulations ( O.R.s) included in this issue of the TM’s Handbook are taken from the January 2001 edition. You should refer to the current issue of the Australian Parachute Federation (APF) O.R.s or ensure that this manual is up to date.
Introduction - 1
Tandem Master’s Handbook
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE TANDEM MASTER Holding any APF instructional rating and dealing with students is a highly responsible position. By agreeing to make a tandem jump you become responsible for your student’s safety from emplaning until after landing. Your responsibilities include but are not limited to : * Having a professional approach when dealing with your students. * Ensuring that the equipment used is maintained and packed to the manufacturer’s specifications. * Placing safety before all other factors. * Maintaining your currency and proficiency at the highest level. * Providing a thorough briefing for your student as per the operations manual. * Being constantly aware of and able to react to emergency situations. * Being vigilant of other TMs and ensure they display the same high standards. A SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN MANY TANDEM FATALITIES TO DATE HAS BEEN THE TANDEM MASTER’S FAILURE TO USE CORRECT PROCEDURES ! TANDEM MASTER REQUIREMENTS In order to attend a Tandem Master training course the candidate must hold: 1. An APF/FAI “E” Licence 2. An APF Instructor Rating (minimum Instructor “D”) Note: this includes a requirement to hold at least a Packer “B” rating - this course may be run in conjunction with a tandem course 3. A current private pilot’s licence medical clearance. The candidate is required to have reviewed the Tandem Master Training video produced by the relevant equipment manufacturer. The candidate must attend a course of instruction in tandem procedures and pass written, oral and practical exams set by an APF TM Examiner. The candidate must perform a minimum of 5 examination jumps (1 as passenger) to the satisfaction of a TM Examiner and 5 consolidation jumps also to the satisfaction of a TM Examiner.
TANDEM MASTER EXAMINATION FORMAT During the preparation for your evaluation you are required to be familiarised fully with the equipment you are to be using including packing and maintenance. You are required to view the video produced by the equipment manufacturers. The examination has written and oral components which you are required to pass before making any jumps on tandem equipment. A sample exam is included at the end of this manual. The practical examination includes: A physical demonstration of procedures for dealing with all normal and abnormal deployment sequences and emergency drills, this must be completed prior to any Tandem jumps where the candidate is acting as Tandem Master. The freefall evaluation which consists of a minimum of five tandem jumps to be performed to the satisfaction of a TM Examiner (at least two of these with the Examiner as passenger) followed by five consolidation jumps also to the satisfaction of a TM Examiner. For detailed information about the exam procedures see the appendix in section 7.
Introduction - 2
casa. oral and practical examinations with specific requirements to pass examinations in rigging and packing the new equipment and suspended harness training.au/avreg/avmed/index. No prior application is necessary. • The Tandem Examiner is to take into account the experience and qualifications of the candidate when determining whether or not to require tandem conversion jumps. Racer. Strong Dual Hawk. Notes: • Rigs which have the same handle placement for in-air operation may be regarded as sufficiently similar by the Tandem Examiner so that no tandem conversion jumps are required. The private pilot’s medical examination can only be carried out by a suitably qualified CASA approved doctor. the holder of the endorsement shall perform a tandem descent with a licensed parachutist. Parachutes de France. 4. It is not necessary for the doctor to notify CASA. attend ground training as directed by an APF TM Examiner. If the holder of a tandem endorsement who has made 50 or more descents as Tandem Master has not carried out three tandem descents within the last ninety days. • If the Tandem Examiner determines that conversion jumps are to be made. a review of manufacturer’s manuals and tandem master training videos.Tandem Master’s Handbook CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS O. • When the Tandem Examiner requires that a candidate make conversion jumps on the different rig a licensed skydiver may act as passenger. the endorsement shall be considered uncurrent.3.htm Proof of the candidate having passed the pilot’s medical may be achieved by the candidate retaining the medical form when completed by the doctor. and that a candidate who has less than 50 tandem jumps may not gain an endorsement for another type of tandem rig without completing the full (10 jump minimum) tandem training course. the Examiner will determine the number and format of the jumps. Alternatively the doctor may simply complete a note stating that the candidate has passed the medical and including the doctor’s name. (c) In order to regain the currency of an uncurrent tandem endorsement. seal and contact phone number. but the Tandem Examiner needs to inform the APF National Examiner on the appropriate form so that an updated rating certificate may be issued. (Copy of form at the back of this manual…) Introduction .10. which is valid for 4 years if the TM is under 40 years. the endorsement shall be considered uncurrent. APF Policy is that equipment produced by different manufacturers will require a separate endorsement to be issued by the National Examiner. pass the written. TANDEM EQUIPMENT CONVERSION TRAINING and EXAMINATION For the purposes of Tandem Master certification formal certification is required when converting between Vector. Conversion training should include : 1. 3. Eclipse or any other systems.3 . (b) TANDEM MASTERS WITH 50 OR MORE DOCUMENTED DESCENTS AS TANDEM MASTER. perform jumps on the new system to the satisfaction of a TM Examiner.R. If the holder of a tandem endorsement who has made less than 50 descents as Tandem Master has not carried out three tandem descents within the last ninety days and one within the last thirty days. 5. TANDEM MASTER MEDICALS Tandem Masters are required to hold a current private pilot’s medical. but not a student. 2.gov. or 2 years if the TM is over 40 years. Names of nearby doctors who are approved to complete a pilot’s medical examination are on record at the local CASA District Office or may be found on the internet at http://www. (a) TANDEM MASTERS WITH LESS THAN 50 DOCUMENTED DESCENTS AS TANDEM MASTER.
A. 6.R.Tandem Master’s Handbook FOR A QUALIFIED TM TO GAIN A TANDEM ENDORSEMENT ON EQUIPMENT WHERE NO TYPE ENDORSED EXAMINER IS AVAILABLE The equipment and its operations/packing manual(s) must be approved by the APF Directors Instructors. (b) Introduction . Once the equipment and its manual are approved a TM (in addition to the ground conversion training listed above) must make a minimum of five jumps under the direct supervision of the Tandem Examiner appointed by the National Examiner.R.5. DIRECT SUPERVISION OF STUDENT AND NOVICE TRAINING DESCENTS O.4 . The manual(s) must be in English or an English translation supplied. (a) For direct supervision of tandem descents: A tandem descent shall not be carried out by a Tandem-Master who has made less than 50 descents as Tandem-Master except under the direct supervision of a DZSO who holds an Instructor “B” rating with current tandem endorsement and who has made at least 50 descents as Tandem-Master.3. SUPERVISION OF TANDEM MASTERS An instructor may not act as a TM except under a DZSO as specified below: O.3. oral and emergency procedures part of the Tandem-Master examination.A. 6. A tandem descent shall not be carried out by a Tandem-Master who has made at least 50 descents as Tandem-Master except under the direct supervision of a DZSO who holds an Instructor “B” rating and who has passed at least the written. Safety and Rigging.
possibly causing entanglement with drogue. there are some local modifications in use at individual DZs and technical information is included in the Rigging Advisory Circulars (RACs). Drogue Release Location varies depending on the equipment in use and either one or two release handles may be present. The Strong and Racer drogue systems operate to a different principle to the Vector and PdF systems but still requires wear points to be examined on a regular basis. If the handle and housing become detached in freefall it will trail behind the tandem pair.Tandem Master’s Study Guide SECTION ONE . It requires a right handed pull. handles or a combination. They may be pads. If the release system is incorrectly routed at the 3-ring it may be necessary to pull both handles to release the drogue. main or reserve during deployment. A Tandem descent shall not be made unless the equipment is fitted with an operational automatic activation device. Due to the length and routing of the cable this may require more force to pull than the shorter. Cutaway and Reserve Handles These are mounted outboard on the main lift webs. Reserve Static Line (RSL) May be attached to one (Vector/ Dual Hawk) or both (Atom/Racer) risers by a Swedish link Section 1 . Your procedure should include PEELING the pad or handle from the velcro in an upward direction prior to pulling straight down. loops.1 . It is your responsibility to familiarise yourself with any equipment before making a tandem jump as TM. Pulling the drogue release handle begins the main deployment sequence. primary drogue release.EQUIPMENT Due to the rapidly developing nature of tandem skydiving it is essential that you familiarise yourself fully with the current edition of the manufacturer’s manual relevant to the equipment you will be using. Secondary/ Student Drogue Release This is designed as a training device when attached to the student’s harness or as an alternative drogue release for the TM. The drogue is used to reduce freefall speed and must be deployed to allow main canopy deployment. They are held in place with double velcro to minimise the risk of accidental removal. Additionally. 5. Using equipment fitted with two releases is recommended. TANDEM SYSTEM COMPONENTS Harness and Container The tandem system is an oversized version of the manufacturer’s product with some specific changes. Problems that tandem masters have reported with drogues include: • Drogue in tow due to failure of the release to operate (often mis-rigging) • Drogue entanglement with TM (unstable deployment) • Deployment of a collapsed drogue (failure to cock or some kind of entanglement with itself) • Failure to lift the bag off. or bag lock (worn drogue or failure of the outer bridle) • Failure of the centre line and loss of the drogue (failure to inspect for wear) The drogue is an essential part of tandem equipment and MUST be checked regularly and operated correctly. O. Use of this handle creates additional malfunction possibilities.R.12. Consequently they require considerable force to remove from the velcro in the event of a breakaway. Never put a rig on that does not have the secondary drogue release securely attached to the harness.8. Drogue This is mounted on the base of the main container in a pouch usually made of Spandex. Failure to do so has resulted in fatalities.
Student’s suit should be tight fitting so as not to obstruct rig handles and to cause less drag. It has fully adjustable legstraps.210 kg (460 lb). Flotation gear . The RSL may be left disconnected in Australia at the discretion of the Chief Instructor and in accordance with guidelines issued by the manufacturers.6. Automatically inflating devices (CO2 or similar). Whenever components are mixed the lower limit is to be applied. Hook Knives .metal rings mounted low on the container.). With the latter the TM must include a check of these prior to exit that the student has not interfered with them. These limits refer to reserves and containers and are irrespective of main canopy size. Section 1 .the TM should use a left hand/wrist mount or may mount the altimeter on the shoulder of the student’s harness. Altimeter .may be useful in some emergency situations such as cutting broken lines hanging down prior to cutaway or in the case of a locked brake line. It is attached to the TM’s harness by two large snap hooks (5000lb hardware) at the shoulders and two quick ejectors (2500lb hardware) on adjustable straps at the hips.should be clean and tight fitting. Gloves . Only AADs approved by the rig manufacturer may be used for tandem and these are usually set to activate around 2000 feet. Helmets . Doing so will reinforce the muscle memory needed to react correctly in an emergency situation. most commonly forged in one piece. Student Attachment Points Upper . side and backstraps.is required for both TM and student if the target is within 300 metres of an open body of water (O. Consideration must be given to the type of buoyancy equipment used. Ancillary Equipment Jumpsuits . Using a student jumpsuit with leg handles that allow the student to use their hands to help hold their legs up for landing is becoming regarded as safety equipment at some DZs. normally integral with the harness and threaded through the back diagonals.are useful for student comfort in cold conditions. APF Op Regs require that the TM turns the AAD on. Later Vector systems are equipped with a ball handle on the RSL which can double as a right side reserve handle if necessary. the student should wear a soft hat as a hard hat would be dangerous for the TM. Lower . should not be worn under the harness but attached to the waist with a nylon belt. Goggles .should be worn by TM and may be worn by the student.R.500 lbs Tandem Vector .500 lbs Jump Shack Racer .2 . a parachute harness without the containers. These are :Strong Dual Hawk .Tandem Master’s Study Guide allowing release in the event of a high wind landing. OPERATION OF THE TANDEM SYSTEM You should make practice pulls on all the handles in their correct sequence of use before and during every skydive. The leg straps may be either step-in or have B4 snaps. This requirement does not apply to French (Atom) tandem equipment which is approved under a different standard and is limited to a maximum weight of: Atom (PdF) .located beneath the large 3-ring. Head protection is recommended for the TM. Student Harness Essentially.if used. Weight Limits (RAC 225) Tandem parachutes currently available from the USA are approved for use in Australia under an exemption from CASA and must be placarded on the reserve canopy and harness with the information appropriate to the system. Correct adjustment of the harness maximises the student’s comfort and security when attached to the TM’s harness.450 lbs These are maximum exit weights approved by the manufacturer and are not to be exceeded. (One student undid their legstraps prior to exit “because they were uncomfortable”!) Automatic Activation Devices (AAD’s) Study the manufacturer’s operating instructions for the type in use. 5.1. Tandem Masters often find that wearing a larger suit gives them more control in freefall.
often caused by line-dump: Line-Slump (ALS) bag by Strong and a similar design by PdF. PACKING AND INSPECTION Main Canopy Packing Because of its larger size you will require more space to lay the tandem equipment out. some leading to fatalities. 5 and 6. Securing the line stows tightly minimises the risk of this occurring. Steering Toggles All tandem main canopies have steering toggles with additional loops for student use.Tandem Master’s Study Guide Instructions and comments on procedures for pulling all the handles of the tandem system will be found in Sections 4. This out of sequence deployment can cause hard openings.3 . Line-dump . Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations with regard to the packing method you use. have been caused by incorrect routing of the bridle line. The main reason for this is believed to be that the drogue bridle has contacted the pin bridle during deployment. canopy damage and malfunctions. If you are interrupted during closing go back and start again (Regain your focus!) Ensure your closing sequence and bridle routing are as per the manufacturer’s instructions. One of the main causes of malfunctions is tangled or knotted suspension lines. This is possible in any kind of deployment but is far more drastic with tandem since the drogue is out of your burble and is exerting a lot of drag immediately it is released. Closing the Main Container Many malfunctions. Your Chief Instructor may directly specify the packing method to be used. Packing these on different sides of Section 1 . extra strength stow bands and tube stows are available for use on tandem equipment. Some systems also have a double brake system designed to reduce toggle pressure while steering and make the canopy more responsive during the flare.the rapid acceleration of the deployment bag as it leaves the main container can cause some or all of the suspension lines to release prematurely from the stows. Propacking is acceptable but not usually recommended as it is physically difficult due to the size and weight of the canopy. In addition some manufacturers have developed special equipment such as the Anti- There have been several instances of Strong Dual Hawk tandem systems opening the main container on drogue deployment. Many operators have reported an increase in their malfunction rate when using this method.
* check all grommets. Maintaining an accurate log (or reference to the DZ Master Log) for the number of jumps on the equipment will give a guide to replacement schedules. In addition to the inspection carried out at every repack you should thoroughly inspect the harness. No! ! Section 1 . * the main closure loop. No! ! ⇑ Two examples of misrouted bridles ⇓ both of these were discovered in freefall.. main canopy and drogue assembly every 25 jumps. The Main Canopy * 3-rings and risers for signs of wear and distortion due to load. Tandem equipment is subjected to considerably harsher treatment than a solo system. * wear to the webbing passing through the large 3-ring and upper attachment points. check specifically for the following The Container * wear around the lower attachment points. * steering lines for signs of wear particularly around the loop. * connector links for tightness. Packing the drogue This is similar to a throwaway pilot-chute only larger. Any components showing signs of wear should be repaired or replaced before they fail. When the lines become ‘furry’ they are more prone to developing tension knots. and resulted in a drogue in tow! One resulted in two deaths. cracks.. If you are not sure of how hard it will feel to deploy you can easily make a few deployments on the ground so that there are no surprises in the air. * the drogue attachment and release mechanism including the Teflon cables. * Suspension lines for signs of wear particularly at the cascades. solid unit with the bridle packed inside so that it can be thrown clear cleanly and easily.Tandem Master’s Study Guide the container reduces the possibility of this happening as the diagram above: Use of the long main pin also increases the security of the system as does the Spandex main bag enclosure fitted to newer systems. Points to check:In addition to a wear and serviceability inspection. Ensure protective covers are secured. ROUTINE INSPECTION CHECK YOUR GEAR BEFORE YOU JUMP The following pictures are examples of rigs which have been jumped in Australia and resulted in a drogue in tow. Care must be taken that these modifications are packed and maintained correctly.4 . corrosion. For example the Spandex closing can result in a drogue in tow if not closed correctly and the long pin can result in increased wear to the pin and loop. It is important to get the finished result to be a smooth. check for broken stitches. not only at the loop end but also where the knot rubs against the washer. check attachment to toggles.
and the material for line burns and wear.) Section 1 . the error may not be readily recognisable during an equipment check. outer bridle and 3-ring attachment for wear and damage. It is also possible to route one cable through both ends of the loop. burns and broken stitches. This diagram shows the WRONG way to route the closing loop. * inner core line thoroughly for wear and damage. check the slider stops and line attachments.check the grommets for wear and damage. Look inside the cells. while the inner core line should be replaced after 300 jumps. Whilst the release cable is somewhat harder to route through the loop. This requires pulling the outer bridle all the way along the core line to allow inspection. suspension lines 200-300 jumps. both on top and inside the canopy. Activation of the drogue release results in the free end of the closing loop being trapped between the other cable and the grommet. Replace the inner line if it appears to be excessively worn. (There have been some test jumps and many real situations when the reserve was deployed past an inflated drogue in tow.5 . As a last resort. the recommended reaction to a drogue in tow is to release the second handle. This is easier to do on a Vector Tandem system. On all systems. Routing the closing loop in this manner consistently results in failure of the 3-ring to release. The Strong drogue and bridle system The Drogue * canopy.Tandem Master’s Study Guide * slider . The drogue is lifed at 600 jumps.(see diagram below). The drogue is subject to continual wear throughout every jump. The Relative Workshop has recommended that the main canopy is lifed at 600 jumps. * canopy for tears. when using two drogue release handles. This malfunction was caused by the closing loops going to the wrong cable. Drogue in tow A routing error of the Strong drogue closing loop resulted in a Tandem Pilot experiencing a drogue in tow malfunction. * main closing pin and attachment. Due to the stress exerted on the drogue and its importance to the safe functioning of the system any drogue should be inspected before each jump.but it is not guaranteed. This usually results in a normal reserve inflation . This is probably the most likely area to fail. pay particular attention to the bridle line attachment point. pull the reserve. Pulling both drogue releases will activate the 3ring release.
The Student Harness Each time you pick up the student harness to put it on a student have a look at the component parts.6 . In other incidents the outer bridle of the drogue has failed probably due to abrasive degradation (sand) working inside the drogue line. One harness failed at the main lift web due to undetected wear caused by corrosion of its hardware. Students have been known to remove the harness by unthreading the legstraps and then doing them up again. Harsh environment: Experience has shown that the life of components may be shortened in a sandy/salt water environment (beach jumps). properly maintained tandem system is your responsibility. This has resulted in a main reserve entanglement and serious injury in at least one case. This was loading the locking loop and preventing the cutaway cables from being withdrawn. This is the correct way to thread harness adjusters: Main Container 3-rings… Well made? A problem has developed over several years that resulted in very hard or impossible cutaways pulls. Padding should be untwisted and the adjusters lengthened ready to help a new student into the harness. in association with the training organisation. Particularly inspect the adjusters for correct threading. either a Packer ‘A’ or Rigger. replacement.Tandem Master’s Study Guide The Reserve Canopy Packing and inspection of the reserve canopy must be undertaken only by suitably qualified person. Section 1 . Jumping with a serviceable. It should be inspected by at least a Packer “A” each time the reserve is repacked. The main points of this RAC are illustrated as follows. Packers and riggers need to be particularly vigilant when working on equipment subjected to this kind of environment which is the norm for many of Australia’s tandem DZs. One reason that was identified as contributing to this problem was the geometry of the 3-ring itself (that is the relationship of the rings to each other and to the grommet). The reserve life is limited to 20 uses. The APF issued RAC 811 requiring inspection of all 3-rings and if necessary. This can result in the adjusters being threaded backwards which allows them to slip under tension. Remember that the student harness is a TSOed part of the reserve assembly.
It is mandatory in Australia that these to be fitted to Strong Tandem rigs and recommended to be fitted to other tandem rigs. take the time to properly familiarise yourself with the equipment you are using. In a few cases the 3-ring hardware itself has distorted or broken. related area is the overall strength of the 3-ring assembly. A tandem jump is not just another skydive. All tandem risers should be constructed of Type 7 (6000lb) webbing. • Alignment of the grommet and locking loop • No distortion of any parts Strong enough? Another.7 . This is the same webbing used for main lift webs and is identified by its yellow selvedge edge. This has resulted in the manufacturers of 3-rings developing a specific tandem 3-ring which is far stronger than the system found on solo sport rigs. Section 1 .Tandem Master’s Study Guide Specifications of a GOOD 3-ring include: • METAL to METAL contact of ALL rings.
This will boost their confidence and contribute to their enjoyment of the jump. PASSENGER REQUIREMENTS Passengers are parachute students and must be trained under a Chief Instructor and a training organisation. O. 5. * Instruct the student to tighten the leg straps and adjust the leg pads.R. Visually impaired students require a modified briefing and thorough communication throughout the jump. In the case of physically disabled passengers. 5.Tandem Training Course. not excessively overweight and have no history of heart condition.Tandem Master’s Study Guide SECTION TWO . If there is any doubt ask the passenger to obtain written medical approval from a doctor. * Adjust the main lift webs and rear diagonals. The student should be fully conversant with what is required from them and have an appreciation of what to expect on the jump.20 minutes and should include:∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ fitting the harness movement in and around the aircraft clipping up and moving to the exit the exit position freefall position and briefing harness adjustment after opening landing position mention of emergencies Prior to your briefing it is helpful if the student has had input about the jump in the form of video and/or photographs.at risk . Fitting the Harness * Loosen the harness fully. Physical RequirementsIdeally.5. dislocations or other debilitating illness. Passenger Size and Weight These are important considerations especially for the newly qualified TM.8.6 . A passenger who is significantly larger and heavier than the Instructor will be harder to manage. STUDENT PREPARATION Briefing You should refer to your club Training Operations Manual (TOM) Section 3. but under your supervision. assist as necessary. it may be almost impossible to get a large or unfit student out of a smaller aircraft. Allow the student to make their own adjustments to their harness wherever possible. Movement in and around the aircraft Tandem passengers are like any other new student around an aircraft . extreme care and in-depth preparation is advised and each case should be treated individually.STUDENT PREPARATION & TRAINING O. Do not overtighten.2. Once the harness is fitted.and it is up to the TM to adequately brief them and be on hand to reinforce that briefing. All passengers shall be thoroughly briefed in accordance with an accepted Training Operations Manual prior to each descent. begin the practice. It is generally considered that the student briefing should take 10 . The passenger on a tandem descent shall hold at least a Student Parachutist License. Talk to your student. Section 2 . If there is any doubt of the student’s (or your) ability the prudent course of action is to decline the jump. Each student must complete an APF pink card and DZ indemnity form. Refer to “Tandem Skydiving with Wheelchair Dependent Persons” by Paul Murphy.R. the student should be in a sound physical condition. * Help the student into the harness * Instruct the student to do up the chest strap.1 . assist if necessary. available from the APF Office.8. explain what is happening and why. TMs must be physically able to control the student. ideally at the aircraft or mock up.
SET. Having the leg straps in a more comfortable position can make it easier for the passenger to lift their legs for landing. If you need the legstraps loosened slightly I can do this once the parachute is open. Run through the climbout until the student has it clearly understood. Better shown than explained. To initiate the exit you may use a count of READY. exit position and exit sequence. For example. that the exit may be lower than planned for any number of reasons or that the landing could be off-DZ and that the passenger will need to listen to and act on any briefing as the situation arises.2 . Emergencies Although the TM is directly on hand to direct the passenger should any emergency arise. Warn the student you will be loosening the side straps under canopy. A good exercise before take off is to show your student how to adjust their harness for comfort once the canopy is open.never place your hands where a student can reach them and be sure to tell them what will happen if they grab you in freefall. Have them hold this position for several seconds to ensure their ability to assume the correct position. It is also beneficial to have the student practice lying in the prone position. The Exit DANGER! Rehearse the hooking up sequence. Tell them you will ask how the chest strap/leg straps feel and what you can do to make the ride feel better if necessary. Helping your student to keep their legs up for landing.” Get them to practice the action and most students will do this straight away after opening once you remind them. It is possible to overtrain a student for a first tandem jump as too much information can lead to confusion. Gripping their leg grippers (or putting their hands behind their knees) to keep their legs up will keep their hands in a safe place as well as help keep their legs off the ground. The Freefall Position Move away from the aircraft or mock up. The emphasis should be on safety and awareness. explaining throughout. it is prudent to mention that some kinds of emergency are possible. Note . the last thing the student hears as you leave the plane is the command ARCH. This makes the ride more comfortable and easier to get your legs up for landing. demonstrate this while wearing the tandem harness “reach across to lift your leg as high as possible then adjust the leg strap forward with your other hand. Teach the student any signals to be used during freefall. Correct this position as necessary. Warn the student to keep their hands in as the landing may fall over. verbally reinforcing the required freefall position. In this way. Whilst attached have the student hang from your harness and assume the exit position. The advantage of a tandem jump is that the student only needs enough information to enable them to safely enjoy the jump. The Landing Position With the student still attached have them bring their knees up and extend their feet forwards in the landing position. Section 2 .Tandem Master’s Study Guide If friends and relatives are also allowed near the aircraft it is the TM’s responsibility to control them and ensure they are well clear at start-up. ARCH. Inadequate preparation and application of this skill will result in injury! If the student is unable to achieve an acceptable landing position you should reconsider whether or not they be allowed to jump. Comfort under canopy Brief the student on how to make the fit of the harness more comfortable under canopy.
5. friendly and professional. Do not allow yourself to become so focused on the student’s pull that you lose altitude awareness. To avoid any uncertainty here it is advisable to complete the parts of the inspection requiring important areas to be opened prior to donning the rig and to conduct only a final pin check after completion of the dirt dive and just prior to emplaning. jerk?. Gratuitous bodily contact is unnecessary. Be polite. Not only do your standards of personal hygiene need to be high but your conduct when dealing with students should be beyond reproach. This is usually the student’s first contact with the sport and you should make every effort to give a good impression. By explaining to your student what to check for it should be very difficult to miss any points yourself. Section 2 . The woman was not satisfied with the response from the DZ so she complained to the parachuting association who notified the manufacturer. On a practical note. read a newspaper! APF note… At least two court judgements awarding $1000s of dollars have been made. but disgusting at the very least. telling this woman who really came to make a skydive about his ". Conduct your skills practice effectively and obtain feedback from your student Student Drogue Release If this is to be fitted to the student’s harness thorough training and practice are required. Equipment Check Op Reg 5. so we must be as professional as a doctor. As part of your student’s training and to fulfil the requirement of O.Tandem Master’s Study Guide Apply positive coaching techniques and give clear instructions to boost the students confidence. There is a rumour of a lawsuit.. What could possibly be going on in the minds of these “persons”? Why would they risk being benched or thrown out of the game? Several drop zones have established a policy which basically states: " These tandem students are my customers.10. Assign the student to pull at a height which allows you time to override by 5000’.10. Unless the person checking the equipment is a current TM it is understandable that a TM would be reluctant to have the 3-ring drogue release pocket opened for inspection while he is wearing the rig. unwanted and unprofessional.R. Customer Service You should talk to your student throughout the practice.. sleaze ball?. If you don't have access to the "info highway". The student is in a vulnerable position. sexual harassment suits are being pursued in every segment of our society. states . TMs should be extremely circumspect in their “handling” of tandem passengers. regular guy?.A tandem descent shall not be made unless the parachute equipment is checked immediately before emplaning by a person other than the person who packed the equipment. From the Strong Tandem news letter… SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND TANDEM JUMPING An unpleasant subject at best. the tandem instructors are paid to take them on a safe skydive. it is possible to brief your student to conduct the equipment check.8. The tandem jumping process involves touching.3 .fifth point of attachment".8.. The tandem instructors may not even ask my customers for a date". just in case you've been lost in space. Personal Professional Conduct Tandem skydiving requires a large amount of close bodily contact. climb to altitude and canopy ride. Attach the handle in the manner prescribed by the manufacturers. the passenger is vulnerable. Now we have a report of another Don Juan?.
” “I think the positive ‘psych’ displayed by the instructors to us as ‘first time jumpers’ was fantastic. Section 2 . There was a lot of hanging around.4 . Most tandem passengers land elated after their jump. he accused me of having put us both in danger during the actual descent (he expected me to know one important (?) factor despite having next to nothing to say to me prior to the jump).try and look at it from the student’s point of view. Please remember the weather is unpredictable. Far more are along the lines of: “I was most unimpressed with the instructor: He wanted to put me on the plane without having gone through the jump routine.Tandem Master’s Study Guide And Finally The APF Office sends out membership renewals to all students and often receives comments on their skydive experience. There were obviously far too many bookings made over the whole week-end. . we were there for around 4½ hours. It was a big thrill.” “Poor communication.a different venue. and sometimes. Some do not… Comments from tandem passengers: The following is a reminder that our students do notice what we do: “I was very disappointed I didn’t get all the information. false promises and lack-lustre organisation. Most complaints revolve around DZ facilities and students waiting for their load. It was calm and reassuring but it was exciting!” Let's never loose sight of what we are doing and why we are doing it. He also made no attempt to give me the certificate after the event. Next time . but I won’t be back. don’t be governed by greed!” In fairness to parachute organisations these are the minority but probably the ones we can learn the most from. Some students feel ignored until it is their turn to jump and often complain that they do not know why they are waiting or how long they will be waiting for. I organised a group of friends thinking we would all go up together but instead we had to go up in two groups of two.
As you gain experience. locked on left.hooking all the clips up but not tightening the side straps until close to exit. the passengers must be attached to the Tandem Master before the door is opened in flight. 5. It is very easy to be distracted close to exit and fail to complete the hook-up sequence.8.R.R. begin the hooking up sequence 2000’ below planned exit altitude. AIRCRAFT DRILLS Escort your student to the aircraft ensuring they stay clear of the propeller. If the aircraft does not have an in-flight door.Say to passenger “Look.they climb fast. For example . this time may be reduced. Tip: it is easy to be caught out in a lightly loaded aircraft . Be wary of a procedure that starts early but is not completed in one continuous sequence. Hooking Up Sequence ∗ Attach top snaps . A procedure whereby you show and tell the student as each clip is attached has the added benefit of double checking your sequence and reassuring the student that all is as it should be. if attached) When hooking up your student establish a set procedure and stick to it. but always allow yourself enough time to hook up and check yourself prior to exit.) ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ (Insert locking pins . at all times whilst aboard the aircraft be attached either to the Tandem Master or to CASA approved restraint. Passengers shall . If the aircraft is fitted with an in-flight door.Tandem Master’s Study Guide SECTION THREE . O.Vector) attached.8. A Tandem descent shall not be made unless the parachute equipment is checked immediately before emplaning by a person other than the person who packed it.Vector) Attach lower snaps Attach student ripcord( if used) Tighten and stow lower straps Always double check your snaps and handles. Pre. loose webbing stowed ∗ All handles .4.in their correct order of use ∗ RSL (location. Assist the student to board the aircraft and show them where to sit.1 .Exit Equipment Check Before the aircraft turns on to jump run perform a pre-exit check : ∗ All snaps (+ locking pins . 5. Load the aircraft in such a way that you remain in close proximity to your student to allow communication and rapid hooking up in the event of a lower than planned exit. locked on right” (Top snaps first because in an emergency the top snaps may be the first and only connection. On your early jumps as a TM. passengers shall be restrained in the aircraft in such a manner that they can be attached to the Tandem Master before being detached from the restraint.AIRCRAFT DRILLS EXITS (NORMAL) AIRCRAFT EMERGENCIES O.10. Section 3 .
chest strap not too tight. Some of the deploying canopies have hit the tail of the aircraft! If this exit is to be used plan and practice it carefully and pay particular attention to keeping clear of the door. There is no need to rush your exit. This exit can be done from a step and strut. In fairness it should be noted that the Racer Tandem rig has never popped a reserve on exit due to its unique configuration among tandem rigs. The objective is to achieve a controlled exit maintaining stability throughout . The advantage of making this exit is that you can present your student into the slipstream and have them watch the aircraft as you leave . the tandem canopy will glide for long distances and you have the option to open higher than planned. Checking the handles in the correct order of use establishes a muscle memory of their location and acts as a rehearsal of the correct sequence of use. Several popped reserves on exit have resulted from this! There is a real possibility of dislodging the reserve pin when making this type of exit from a small door.2 . EXITS TYPES OF EXIT There are basically only two types of exit : The Poised Exit this allows the student to assume the correct body position prior to exit.this assists with the arch and stability. Section 3 . As you move into the door. student harness checked (at least one student has undone their leg straps in the aircraft!) If you follow this procedure on every jump it is impossible for you to exit with your student incorrectly attached. There have been several reported incidents of this occurring. The exact exit procedures you use will depend on aircraft type and DZ policy. from a floating exit out of a large cargo door or from a tailgate. do not exit if you feel you are not in a position to land on the DZ even with a higher opening. As the pair leave the aircraft they are head high and facing into the relative wind. All the student has to do is maintain their exit position. sitting in a small cargo door. It is more important to be on windline than at the right distance from the DZ. goggles in place.every time! This sort of poised exit can be very risky with the type of rig that brings the reserve flap into contact with the door or wing.Tandem Master’s Study Guide ∗ Student . Do not allow or cause yourself to rush this procedure. make a final check of your drogue and release handles (due to their outboard location they can become dislodged whilst moving to the door). Check your spot prior to Exit Prior to exit check the spot. jumpsuit zipped. The poised floating exit is best suited to aircraft with a high door and tail plane as moving backwards into the door provides opportunity to dislodge the reserve pin.
Tandem Master’s Study Guide The Diving Exit this often requires the student to alter their body position during the exit. The longer you remain in this position the greater the risk from a premature deployment. you will be looking back at the airport and those who exited before you. Due to the close proximity of the aircraft door to the reserve container do not move backwards on the “SET”. most predictable tandem exit from a tailgate aircraft. and is generally accepted as the easiest. a really nice view! If using the wheel to stand on make sure the pilot has applied the brakes although it is safer not to rely on this and stand just inside the wheel. A lot of people still do not know about the rearward facing. The dive exit can be achieved from standing. step-off with spines vertical and arms in a tracking position into a 3/4 backloop exit. Factors Contributing to Successful Exits Spend as little time as necessary either hanging outside the aircraft or with your container exposed to an open door. The diving exit does require the student to change their body position immediately after leaving the aircraft. your feet and legs will be swept to your front and you will perform a 3/4 backloop.not part of the aircraft and certainly not hands free (unless conducting Section 3 . depending on aircraft type and door size. Be aware of your student’s arm and leg positions and be prepared to correct these prior to exit if necessary. After your backloop. crouching. Being in the tracking position will keep you from going into a second backloop.) The sitting exit to a dive allows good control of the student and presentation into the slipstream. If the student is slow to react or assumes an incorrect position. Although. Tailgate exit (one version. As TM you are responsible for all eight arms and legs! Your student should have a firm grip on their harness or jumpsuit . do not feel you have to rush the exit. As you pass into the relative wind beneath the aircraft.It has been around since the '91 Bali Boogie. (Imagine the consequences of the wheel slipping and the tandem pair falling between the wheel and strut. kneeling or sitting positions. having said that. It is suitable for any aircraft with a side cargo door. Be especially sure to check the lower handles after you have moved into position in the door as they could snag as they are moved across the floor. Students have been injured by having their feet caught behind the wheel of a Cessna 182 or by hitting the aircraft with some part of their body because their exit position was not quite correct. maintaining stability becomes more difficult. From a Cessna this exit can be made with either the left foot or the right out on the step.3 . from the Strong News-letter) .
nor is it acceptable to loop an aircraft on take-off with a first time student. Assess the student’s motivation. It is not acceptable to loop an AFF exit.Tandem Master’s Study Guide AFF training). assess the student's body position as you arch to maintain stability. flowing out of the aircraft and into freefall. If the Tandem Master attains a good arch right out the door. many instability problems are caused by a bad Tandem Master body position. Refusals on tandem jumps are uncommon and can be avoided by adequate preparation and ground training. after the initial shock of freefall their eyes will reopen and they will attain their body position assisting stability. This can be either arms crossed or with elbows back at the sides. it is very possible for them to end up back to earth (with the heavier of the pair below). the smallest students can be the most difficult to control because the centre of gravity of the pair is higher. then chances are the pair will gain stability easily. and not the norm. Students sometimes do crazy things during the first few seconds after exit. If a large Tandem Master makes a poor exit with a small student. offer encouragement and try again. Section 3 . Dealing with refusals If a student indicates an unwillingness to jump. and then on his own body position on the exit. Ideally. then gain and maintain their confidence throughout the jump. the weighted end always ends up below. Establish whether the student just needs a little more time to prepare themselves. It will almost certainly be more dangerous to attempt to climb back in due to the high risk of accidental deployment. Immediately following the exit launch. and Tandem is no different. This way the slipstream assists the student’s arch. The same can hold with a Tandem pair. The Tandem Master should concentrate on good training for the student in the proper body position. as it is impossible to anticipate how a student will react in this situation. Ironically. it may be for reasons other than fear. Avoid intentionally unstable exits. Incredibly enough. In brief… Make the count and exit smooth. climb out and exit sequence. It is usual in this situation to continue with the jump. While a poor exit resulting in instability is not inherently dangerous (except when it leads to unstable drogue deployment). many problems start because the Tandem Master fails to throw a hard arch on exit. get advice from other Tandem Masters who have experience of the aircraft type. make the fall away facing into the relative wind. The student’s head should be back for exit with the body arched. Usually. Specifically. While everyone will "blow" an exit every now and then. If the student remains in the folded de-arch position of the diving exit or attains a de-arched position after the exit launch. you may have to apply additional control techniques to maintain heading and stability. it should be the rare exception. ARCH! What the Tandem Master does is more important than what the student does. Anticipation: The key to keeping in control is being able to recognise a potential problem prior to it becoming a real problem. If your student absolutely refuses to jump you should not force them. Example: When you hit a badminton birdie. it is nonetheless unnecessary and unacceptable. If you are already outside the aircraft and your student hesitates only you can assess the situation. A poor exit is defined as any exit creating a combination of uncontrolled loops or rolls immediately after exit.4 . Before making a tandem jump from an unfamiliar aircraft practice the entire hook up. If possible. Consider the legal implications in the event of a subsequent incident.
Forced Landing Procedure Below 1000’. When exiting at or above 5000’ this procedure should not be necessary. Be prepared! Tell the student… “Grip the harness. therefore exiting the aircraft below 1500’ is not recommended. Beware the propeller! Premature Container Openings Prior to Emplaning: Main ∗ Remove equipment ∗ Unpack drogue and disconnect 3-ring ∗ Carefully repack the system ∗ Check closing sequence If you have to make an emergency exit and are not already hooked up it is acceptable to attach only the two top snaps and exit with your legs wrapped around your passenger (if aircraft and exit type permits).Tandem Master’s Study Guide AIRCRAFT EMERGENCIES Tandem canopies may take up to 1000’ to open. it may be preferable to jump and have some chance of survival. instruct your student to brace for the landing. pilot and other jumpers. If you find yourself in this situation ∗ Exit immediately ∗ Assess the situation ∗ Pull the handles in the correct order.You may be required to exit the aircraft at a lower than planned altitude for a number of reasons. Descent in Aircraft If you descend in the aircraft. Dual Hawk/Racer .the AAD is set to activate the tandem reserve at 2000’. Observe manufacturers’ guidelines regarding AAD’s. Maintain control of your student throughout. Take every precaution to minimise this risk. Shut the door if open. Once the aircraft has come to a halt exit the aircraft with your passenger as quickly as possible. Protect yourself. After landing assist the student to exit the aircraft and escort them back to the administration area. pull your reserve ripcord immediately. Section 3 . feet back head back…Arch!” Above 4000 feet . When exiting the aircraft at or below 4000’. position yourselves away from the door. Secure canopy and descend with aircraft.you must deploy the drogue first and then pull the drogue release. In the event of catastrophic aircraft failure.you may pull the drogue release before exit and use the drogue as a regular pilot chute.5 . During the climbout: This situation has occurred sometimes with fatal consequences. Ideally attach all four snaps even if you do not have time to tighten them. At 1000’ detach your student and reattach the seat restraints. NOTE Vector/Atom . ∗ Attach your student as normal ∗ Do a pre-exit check ∗ Exit the aircraft ∗ Deploy the drogue ∗ Pull the drogue release at the correct altitude Reserve ∗ Remove equipment ∗ Repack the reserve In the Aircraft: Inform student. This is because the drogue will collapse prematurely if the drogue release is pulled first. Move away from door. Low Level Exit Below 4000 feet .
Tandem Master’s Study Guide PILOT’S BRIEFING Brief your pilot(s) on the different requirements for tandem operations. A DZSO or TCO in radio contact with the aircraft to advise when canopies are clear is an additional safety measure. Allowing 4-5 minutes between run-ins should be sufficient to ensure clearance.6 . Even the higher opening altitude for the tandem pair does not always ensure vertical separation. ∗ the requirement for ample warning if planned exit height is not available. increases. C-206/B/N Islander Twin Otter Nomad/DC3 Caravan Skyvan/C130 small cargo door large cargo door tailgate seated/diving/floating Have the student assume a good position prior to exit. beware of the reserve contacting the door frame. MULTI AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS/BOOGIES When multiple aircraft are in use anticipation and planning by the manifestor is required to minimise the risk of freefallers colliding with the open tandem canopy. With more canopies in the air and jumpers of unknown experience the risk of conflict. If seated. stability can take some time from a slow speed exit. check the lower handles have not become dislodged while moving to the door. Beware of contact between your reserve and the wing/door frame/in-flight door. Tandem skydiving under these conditions introduces more variables to the TM’s workload. If backing out. ∗ the higher than normal opening height of the tandem means the canopy may still be in the air as the aircraft is descending and landing. Do not rush the drogue deployment. such as :∗ your minimum exit heights in the event of aircraft emergencies. poised/diving/pivot Helicopter cargo door poised/diving Balloon basket diving/floating Section 3 . especially under canopy. Practice climbing onto the edge of the basket hooked up while on the ground. Give consideration to nominating a separate landing area for the tandems and accompanying camera people. allowing you sufficient time to hook up your student. Common Aircraft in use and Exit Types Aircraft C-182/C-185 Configuration step and strut Type of Exit poised on step/diving off step seated/diving/floating Notes… Beware the student’s legs and the wheel strut.
FREEFALL/DROGUEFALL O. Without the drogue you will accelerate to tandem terminal velocity of 280 kph (180 mph) in approximately 18 seconds. Hard Pull . (See also 5.If you experience difficulty pulling the drogue from its pouch you may Section 4 . You may need to spread you arms wider and extend your legs further than on a solo exit. Do not rush! Remember no drogue = no main! Deploying the drogue Ideally you should deploy the drogue 5-10 seconds after exit and only when stable. Consequently.R. As you exit the aircraft. As you exit the aircraft.11 A Tandem-Master carrying out a tandem descent shall not engage in contact relative work unless he or she has made at least 50 descents as a Tandem-Master since gaining his or her tandem endorsement.) FREEFALL Immediately after exit and before drogue deployment. It is recommended that you deploy the drogue within 5 .it is also highly dangerous. it may be deployed anytime after exit but before pulling the drogue release.7. however. The laws of the drogue… Distance fallen in 50 secs. Time and altitude are used up more quickly whilst in freefall.4. withdraw and deploy the drogue with a continuous. Frequent use of the drogue to achieve stability is sufficient grounds for a DZSO/CI to suspend a tandem rating! 12500 feet (Freefall) 8400 feet (Droguefall) Never deploy the drogue while out of control unless time and altitude are running out.Tandem Master’s Study Guide SECTION FOUR .10 seconds. immediately assume a hard arched position. 5. the tandem pair are in freefall. Once you have gained positive stability you should deploy the drogue. prolonged freefalls at these higher speeds can be physically uncomfortable and increase the risk of hard openings and canopy damage. Let go of the drogue at full arm extension level with your shoulder and check over your shoulder to confirm its inflation. sweeping throwaway movement of the arm.1 .8. Failure to maintain stability during the exit is often caused by the Tandem Master failing to assume a good body position. Simply grasp the drogue handle with the right hand. Using the drogue to gain stability is poor practice . With proper presentation into the relative wind and a good body position maintaining stability throughout the exit is easily achieved. Be sure to check over your shoulder to confirm drogue inflation. immediately assume a hard arched position.
Often deflecting air using just your hands will cause a turn. initiated by extending a lower leg. 4. 3.R. You should allow at least 1000’ for main deployment therefore the drogue release should be pulled no lower than 5000’. If you are jumping equipment fitted with a secondary drogue release handle it is recommended that you use this handle to deploy the main canopy on alternate jumps if it is not to be used by the student. This is a critical stage of the jump.). The main canopy must be open by 4000’ ( O. Turns Initiating turns during droguefall is easily achieved. Drogue release handle.Tandem Master’s Study Guide need to brace your elbow against the side of the container for extra leverage. you should pull the other handle immediately. Do this on every jump This acts as a rehearsal of the sequence of operation and a check to ensure nothing has become dislodged. Maintain the Arch! Practice Pulls Once the drogue is deployed you should perform practice pulls on: 1. Releasing the Drogue Pulling the drogue release anytime after drogue deployment will begin the opening sequence. Then return to facing forwards to ensure shoulders level/risers even to assist symmetrical canopy deployment. 2. Observe any freefall drift and be prepared to open higher than planned if necessary. signal your student to extend their arms by tapping them on the head or shoulders.8. Section 4 .2 . it leaves considerably more reaction time than finding this out at pull height! Student Arm Extension If you want to. This varies with different types of equipment and may feel quite unnatural at first. Cutaway handle. Signalling the student to bring their arms back in prior to deployment may be unnecessary and could lead to you focusing on their position rather than deploying the canopy. glance over your shoulder to visually confirm drogue release and main bag lift-off. 5. Locate the DZ Be aware of your position relative to the DZ. DROGUEFALL Body Attitude The drag of the drogue on your harness will affect your body attitude. or one that is hard to control. As you pull the drogue release. If a handle cannot be located during practice at 8000 feet. This allows you to practice locating both handles. Maintain a good arched position throughout the drogue fall. In the event that pulling the first drogue release does not begin the deployment sequence. Do not hold onto or wave off with the drogue as this increases the risk of the bridle tangling with either the tandem pair or the drogue canopy.3. Secondary release handle (if fitted). Leg turns are very effective. Reserve handle/s. If you need to correct your student’s arm position do so by gripping them near the wrist and moving them as required. Do not resist or attempt to change this position too much or you will begin rocking. and you should be prepared to act immediately to a number of malfunction scenarios. Upper body turns can cause movement between the Tandem Master and student’s torsos resulting in an asymmetrical position causing an unintentional turn.
particularly if they de-arch on exit. Stability is your responsibility! Student Interference If the student grabs your arms or hands rotate your palms outwards while bringing your arms into the student’s chest .3 . In Droguefall . brace your elbow against the container for extra leverage. In the unlikely event that the student’s body position is such that recovery using the arch and /or barrel roll is not working. Lighter students. deploy the drogue first. Using your arms and upper body to control an unintentional turn works well until you need to pull! Poor Student Body Position If you are stable.you cannot expect or rely on the student to assume a good position. pulling the pair face to earth. It is possible to maintain stability with a poorly positioned student . Failure to release pull the secondary handle (if fitted).if this is insufficient to regain stability. Do not spend time trying to attach hooks in freefall. deploy your reserve. bring one arm in and barrel roll face to earth. *Do not use the drogue to get stable except as a last resort* Hard Pull on Drogue If you have difficulty extracting the drogue from its pouch. A hard pull or 3. but make them let go! Always include and emphasise in your briefing the importance of not taking a grip on your hands at any stage and never put your hands where your student can reach them.Tandem Master’s Study Guide feet with yours and take hold of their arms between the wrist and elbow and manipulate them into an arch.this action should break their grip. especially if the student is larger and heavier than the Tandem Master. If you are still unable to extract the drogue pull your reserve immediately! Spins/Unintentional turnsIn Freefall . If this fails . Be careful not to put your arm where the student can grab it! Normally the student will act as a stabilising device.Deploy the drogue if face to earth. Just one top snap will hold your student securely.shout. Hook their Main container open in drogue fall As well as a broken main loop or knock on exit this can also be caused by a combination of: • Loose side container adjustments • Positioning of the adjusters and clips of the student harness • High drogue snatch force on deployment Section 4 . UNUSUAL SITUATIONS Instability If you find yourself unstable hold your arched position . Student Incorrectly Attached This should never happen! If you find yourself in this situation deploy the drogue. then physically pull them into an arched position while shouting “ARCH” into their ear. or head. then correct the student’s body position. Inability to locate the drogue release handle 2. use your teeth. Hold onto the student as you deploy your main canopy. especially tall ones.Arch and control using your legs if possible. and if this does not release the drogue. This is likely to try to put the tandem pair on their side or back to earth. Drogue Release Failure In the event of :1. are often harder to control. you should manipulate your student by gripping their arms at the wrist and hooking their legs with yours.
This in turn allows the centre of the container to “break-open” excessively which can move the pin/flex pin out of the loop during drogue fall. If you feel your student’s legs are out of place during the exit hook them with yours and pull them back. A hard arch does not effect recovery from tandem or solo side. (This applies to drogue attachment points between the main and reserve containers). or he is learning to skydive by arching hard.Tandem Master’s Study Guide • Drogue deployment in a head high position • Loose legstraps (or TM with a short torso) This combination can result in the container being able to bend in the middle a lot further than it is designed to do.spins. Turn on your AAD! Side Spin This is a form of instability only encountered in Tandem. This force can make it hard to reach handles and can quickly incapacitate the TM and student. Recognising and reacting quickly to this situation is vital. we have plenty of history in safely deploying a reserve past a drogue in tow. • If you choose to deploy the drogue. Be aware of and use the relative wind to your advantage. Because of the student’s position and the effect of the relative wind a hard arch by the TM may actually increase the problem! As the spin increases centrifugal force quickly causes the situation to deteriorate by forcing the student’s legs away from the TM’s. Face into it or away from it. and spin recognition is immediate. It begins when the student’s lower body is positioned forward of the TM’s. foetal or in a radical de-arch. It doesn't matter who manufactured the equipment. The following are the conclusions and procedures for recovery from side spins from that report: Procedure for recovery from tandem side-spins: • Initiate recovery by having the Tandem Master/pilot remove the influence of the upper bodies by grasping the wrists of the passenger and placing them on the front of the passenger's hips. either knees down. you may decide to avoid risking any entanglements of drogue or reserve by initiating recovery procedures. Section 4 . If drogue side is down: • If altitude permits. It is almost always associated with a light weight passenger. Conclusions developed from this project by the participants: Common denominators in tandem sidespins: The relative wind is hitting the tandem mass from the side. The side spin develops quickly but there is often an opportunity to deploy the drogue before the situation deteriorates. Avoid tandem side-spins by: Thorough training of the passenger. The more energy put into the spinning mass with each revolution. or become unconscious! Types of recovery: If drogue side is up. This is further compounded by a perpendicular or side on presentation to the relative wind either during or soon after exit. the longer it will take to recover. Exercise: Review lots of video of exits perpendicular to the relative wind--see what you think! Tandem side-spin recognition and initiation of recovery procedures must be immediate. emphasizing the position of the knees and heels. We don't want to run out of sky. Lay them on their stomach to practice the arch. deploy the drogue.4 . Turn into and use the relative wind to assist you. The remedy is to keep the top and bottom attachment points as far apart as possible on both the TM and passenger by adjusting the harness accordingly. • Activate your reserve. See section 6 for procedures in this event. Considerations when choosing between the drogue and the reserve: Which one are you willing to risk getting hung up during the spin? Even if the drogue gets hung up. deploy it behind you into clean air. It doesn't matter whether the student has his arms across his chest. Bill Morrisey of Strong Enterprises performed a series of test jumps to investigate the phenomenon of Tandem Side-Spins. The passenger has some degree of reverse arch.
The best exit set up for camera jumps is for the camera person to be in the rear float position with the tandem pair either diving towards the camera or turning toward the camera after making a poised exit. Do not develop the habit of using the drogue to gain stability.7. And in case you feel that your AAD will save you. even if it means pulling the reserve within 10 seconds of exit. Section 4 .Tandem Master’s Study Guide While using those grips at the passenger's hips for leverage. and the locking of the legs. First hand accounts of actual side-spin recovery refer to ".. If you are unable to recover stability by a safe height or feel yourself losing consciousness deploy the drogue .. Actual recoveries. RELATIVE WORK (RW) PROCEDURES Performing relative work with tandem increases the potential for distractions.. FREEFALL VIDEO PROCEDURES Maintain Altitude Awareness Without the drogue you will be travelling at 280 kph (180 mph).. 1993 The report of the incident makes the point that “the Tandem Master lost consciousness in approximately 10 seconds. Freefall camerapersons should meet the criteria of O.even if it becomes entangled it will slow you down. Be aware not every unstable exit will develop into a side spin. secure side adjusters and by making a positive exit facing into the relative wind. We advocate placing the hands on the passenger's hips for leverage in bringing the Tandem Master's legs forward in order to remove the influence of the lower body of the passenger. • From the back to earth position. should put the tandem pair back to earth. Although a less than ideal situation it is possible to deploy the reserve past a trailing drogue. there is a urgent need to do something to stop the spin while we are still able to. all support the fundamental ideas of the hard arch not being the answer. accidents and injuries and adds little to the passenger’s enjoyment of the experience.5 . The TM should assist by facing into the sun. Extract from the final report of the tandem side-spin fatality in Finland.and your DZ also has a copy of the Video. the report also says that the two jumpers’ heads were subject to a “G” force of 12. the Tandem Master/pilot will take ankle/leg locks on the passenger.back-looping out of it. Safe skydiving! Bill Morrisey • From this we can understand that although there is no need to panic if you start to spin on exit... but was disabled sooner”." and ". • Removal of the influence of the upper bodies.tracking out of it. the cameraperson should leave early (on the ‘SET’) to ensure adequate separation with practice this can be reduced. Initially. ". You can minimise the potential for a side spin developing by adequate student preparation. the Tandem Master/pilot will straighten out the legs [without letting go of the passenger's legs] and take a positive arch [keeping the hands on the passenger's hips]. As TM you should take every opportunity to have your jumps filmed allowing you to review your performance.4..8 “G” for approximately 20 seconds and that this may have been what killed them anyway.. • Return to a face to earth position through a 1/2 back loop or 1/2 barrel roll. Tandems are not a good subject to learn on for initial camera skills. Pulling your reserve or having the AAD fire while in a side spin presents a greater risk due to the likelihood of entanglement. 5. and the removal of the influence of the upper body of the Tandem Master.R. .pushing the passenger down towards the ground.. So the lesson from this is that we must not be too proud to do what ever we need to if the situation seems to be going out of control.".. and have proven competence of freefall camera work.".. You should study the information booklet ‘Tandem Side Spin Phenomenon’ produced by Strong Enterprises..
8. In fact to remain close the cameraflier or RWer will have to initiate the chase immediately after exit. Accompanying jumpers should either drop grips and backslide away from the tandem or turn and track as normal to ensure separation. Do not let other jumpers “just follow you out” if there has not been extensive planning and the DZSO has not approved the jump. (See also 5.Tandem Master’s Study Guide On any tandem jump you the Tandem Master are responsible for your own and your passenger’s safety.11.6 . Tandem Masters need to be prepared to “not be nice” to other jumpers who want to fly with a tandem. by exiting from the rear of the door so that the tandem is “chasing” them. as shown below: DROGUEFALL .)” Your responsibility is to your passenger’s safety. WARNING .Tandem and RW combined may be injurious to your health! Do not be tempted by RWers who want to add a little variation to their skydives and ask to dock on the drogue or stand on the Tandem in freefall. if the RWers follow a tandem jump (as below) there is a far greater chance of the tandem pair being thrown forward under the other jumper. Grips are to be taken on the student and not the TM. The exit should be such that the TM has room to deploy the drogue without risk of collision.Once the drogue is deployed the tandem pair will slow their acceleration. Rel work on tandem is special. During RW.4. do not run the risk of the tandem pair falling below and consequently need not worry about the drogue. Docking approaches should be made from in front and on the same level and should be without momentum. A little thought will quickly help you realise the potential for disaster that this could introduce to a skydive.7 is for the TM’s AND the passenger’s protection: RWers and camera fliers.allow the tandem pair room to set up in the exit position. and has the authorisation of the DZSO and the Tandem-Master for that descent. However. WAVE OFF . and has made at least 200 RW descents in the previous two years. Op Reg 5. Jumpers accompanying must be made aware that the tandem pair will accelerate faster than a solo jumper and will be more affected by throw forward. If planning RW you should have knowledge of the abilities of the jumpers accompanying you.should occur at least 500’ above pull height. A thorough briefing of all participants must be held covering the following points:EXIT . The TM initiates the exit. Do not assume that an experienced rel worker knows all about tandem rel. The safest exit is for the tandem pair to follow out the other jumpers. As TM you are a sitting duck for other’s mistakes. “A parachutist shall not engage in relative work with a Tandem-Master carrying a passenger unless he or she is the holder of at least a Certificate "D". it is not just another skydive! Section 4 . No one must pass directly over or under the tandem. This results in the TM either having to delay the drogue deployment until the RWers are clear or risk throwing the drogue close to other jumpers. not to entertain other jumpers.
Dual Hawk / Racer Releasing the drogue causes it to pull the main pin. usually with the end cells open and the slider fully down. but always use both sets for the flare. Ensure their chest strap is not too tight 2. the drogue collapses after the bag opens and the canopy begins to inflate. The canopy may streamer for slightly longer than normal with the slider up the lines as the tandem pair’s speed decreases. If you intend to let the passenger steer it is easier to release the brakes and take control of the canopy using the lower set of loops and then passing them to the student telling them “put your hands in the toggles where mine are”. MAIN CANOPY DEPLOYMENT Main canopy deployment begins once the drogue is released. Get the student to lift their legs and slide the leg straps down towards their knees. the pair accelerate briefly until the collapsed drogue.(the top of the student’s harness is a good place) Tandem main canopies are designed and packed to open slowly.3. (With older canopies this figure can double). Section 5 . Stall OpeningsOn some canopies the brake setting is such that the canopy opens in a stall configuration. The main parachute shall be open not lower than 4000 feet above ground level. acting as a pilot chute.8.R. they should pull them down and hang them around their neck. (check first to ensure they are not wearing contact lenses or glasses). this aids comfort. Eventually the slider will descend and the canopy open fully. ∗ Help the student adjust the harness 1. pulls the main pin.it sometimes helps to have the student stand on your feet to do this. ∗ Stow the drogue release . After Opening ∗ Take control of the canopy.Tandem Master’s Study Guide SECTION FIVE . get the student to remove their goggles. ∗ If it is not too cold. 5. (this causes the ‘trap door” sensation). Vector / Atom Releasing the drogue causes it to partially collapse. reduces the risk of fainting from restricting the blood supply and helps to raise their knees for landing.1 .CANOPY CONTROL and LANDING O. lifts the deployment bag out of the container and pulls the canopy to line stretch. release the brakes and check that the brake-lines are free (including the secondary brake-lines) CANOPY HANDLING If the canopy is equipped with a ‘double brake” system. lift the deployment bag out of the container and pull the canopy to line stretch. it is possible to use only the primary set of toggles (normally yellow) for steering. ∗ Check the cutaway and reserve handles for security ∗ Check the 3-Rings and risers ∗ Check the top snaps are secure (remove the locking pins -Vector) ∗ Loosen the side straps . this requires the brakes to be released to allow stable flight. The deployment sequence may take 1000’ or more.
Student feels sick If your student feels sick under canopy minimise the number of turns you make. Get the student to adjust their leg straps to aid circulation the way you showed them during the briefing by lifting their knees to slide the legstraps down their legs. Point out the windsock and any other form of ground wind indicator. Unless you are absolutely sure of the student’s ability do not have them assist you with the flare. Toggle Pressure This tends to be fairly high on tandem canopies and increases with higher wing loading something to consider when jumping with heavy passengers. gusty winds may collapse the canopy which can be difficult to re-inflate. Remember this as you practice landings and flare the canopy to a standstill at height . Stalling the Canopy Intentionally stalling the canopy is not recommended due to the high probability of tangling the canopy with the drogue as the canopy recovers. have them release the toggles and lower their arms. Talk to your student.2 .Tandem Master’s Study Guide Steering the CanopyTandem provides the ultimate suspended harness. Release the harness and provide immediate assistance after landing. If you intend to let the student assist you with the flare. The student is able to steer and control the canopy with direct assistance from the TM. While this may seem obvious it is not difficult to be distracted from canopy control by other considerations. as with a light passenger. This may be different at various heights during the descent. it saves your energy. Draw their attention to the relative wind and show them how to judge ground speed. ask how they are feeling. Of course. their full flight toggle position can often be in reality 1/4 brakes. Student Faints Under Canopy There is little you can do in this situation. especially before initiating any steep turns or stalls. it is still the responsibility of the TM to ensure separation is maintained. All students should be given the opportunity to ‘have a steer’ during the descent. Landing slightly off the wind line and rolling to the side will help avoid the students legs being forced under the tandem pair. Practice Landings Under canopy get the student to practice the landing position. Advise the student to look at the horizon and take deep breaths. if the recovery from a long spot requires some brake to be applied let the student do it. This is of primary importance in getting back to the DZ. Although common sense dictates that the tandem should have right of way. Section 5 . More brake may be necessary than you would use on a solo canopy. The TM can help here by reaching down and assisting the students knees up by pulling on the jumpsuit leg handles. Wind line Be sure to keep working the canopy towards the wind line.do not hold it into a full stall. you must practice this several times prior to landing. Poor spot If you need full drive to recover from a poor spot or similar situation then bear in mind that as the student is suspended lower than the TM. They also tend to pull down on the toggles unnecessarily thereby reducing the forward speed. If the student’s hands or arms begin to tingle. Make a sliding landing and try to kick the student’s feet out and forwards as you come into land. Also. such as… Turbulence Tandem canopies are particularly susceptible to turbulence when the wing loading is low. Right of Way Under canopy all other jumpers should maintain at least 200’ of separation from the tandem.
The tandem pair can also trip each other. a larger THE SLIDING LANDING If the landing area is not smooth warn the student to stiffen their legs to avoid a tussock or dip in the ground from forcing their legs back under the tandem pair. At approximately 1000 feet begin the downwind leg. Accuracy approaches and flaring from quarter or half brakes are not conducive to good landings. and flare the canopy as conditions dictate. Injuries have also resulted in trying to slide on soft sand for the same reason. Having your student assist with the flare requires careful preparation and several practice flares at height. Do not ask the student to assume the landing position above 100 feet . To assist your student to lift their legs for landing. Do not attempt late turn landings .they can get tired and let their legs dangle at just the wrong moment.this does not give you time to get your student into a stable landing position and the ‘g’ force makes the student’s legs heavier. ie flaring too soon or not flaring at all. Be aware also of whether this may become a busy landing area if large aircraft are operating. Even then.3 .you need to be strong enough and ready to support the student’s weight as you touch down. Just prior to landing have the student lift their knees as high as possible. Some operators find that looped handles attached to their student jumpsuits are even more effective. You do not HAVE to land where you arranged to if it is not safe.Tandem Master’s Study Guide SETTING UP FOR LANDINGS You should remain constantly aware of the wind conditions throughout the descent. Face the canopy into wind for landing and commit to the approach on full drive. Whilst flaring the canopy the TM leans back in the harness (this also pulls the student back). Section 5 . Canopy collisions are becoming more common. then put their feet forward. the student may hinder the flare by not following or reacting to your instructions. If necessary you can help the student’s feet forward with yours as you are beginning the landing. Instruct your student to assume the landing position between 10 and 20 seconds prior to touchdown (20-30 feet). canopy and relies on the ability and strength of the TM. LANDINGS There are three common landing techniques: The Stand Up Landing If you are confident of achieving a zero forward speed touchdown the stand up landing is recommended. The student must be briefed and practiced thoroughly if this landing is to succeed. This method is not recommended. The stand up landing requires +10 mph wind. Tandem canopies display their best landing characteristics when flared from full drive. The Running Landing In light winds even a full flare may not completely stop the canopy. possibly resulting in injury to either or both. In this case both the student and TM must take a few steps after touchdown. Ensure you have enough altitude to make corrections if you have misread the winds. have them take hold of their leg grippers near their knees and pull up. and as your feet touch down continue to lay back until you are sliding with the student sitting in your lap. Often. The Sliding Landing Unless there is a moderate wind the sliding landing is almost always the best choice. If the student does not step forward or have enough tension in the legs they will fall and pull the TM over them. even after a soft landing the student’s legs will buckle beneath them causing them to stagger or fall .
As you flare and after you touch down. With Catchers. The catcher must BE THERE as the tandem lands. Do not have two catchers each grab a toggle as the canopy will not spin into the ground and may pull everybody over in a heap. make your decision about which landing you are going to use based on ground speed and shout “stand-up” or “run” or “feet-up” into the student's ear. which may be quite low. So. avoid turbulence from obstacles up wind of the landing site. Brief the catcher to take a single toggle and run hard forwards and off to one side (so that the brake line is not pulled across the passenger’s face). size. the canopy type. two seconds later is too late and the tandem will be pulled over. Briefing the Catcher :The catcher must know how important it is to take the toggle and run into wind to collapse the canopy. CATCHERS Always have a catcher present. Unless you are absolutely sure of a zero speed landing it is far safer to slide in with the student’s feet up and your legs helping to keep them forward. perfect speed is Being There! POSSIBLE PROBLEMS WITH LANDINGS Off DZ LandingsYou should not jump if conditions are such that you may miss the DZ.Tandem Master’s Study Guide Whichever landing you plan to make you must tell the student and have them practice before emplaning and again under canopy to ensure success. and age and the prevailing wind conditions. while another takes the student’s chest strap to support the pair. This makes it difficult for you as the catcher is usually your target in most winds. If the catcher is two seconds late in winds over 10 knots you will be on your back and being dragged. release the RSL and be prepared to cut away to collapse the canopy. or untangling a cutaway main canopy! On windy days a good technique is to have one catcher take the toggle. Tell your catcher to stand still if you are close until you do your final turn straight into wind. with even a light breeze the tandem canopy can be difficult to collapse. the size. and then to run as fast as necessary.4 . Section 5 . like Jonathan Livingstone Seagull. Just holding the toggle and letting the jumpers get dragged backwards is not acceptable. hand one toggle to the catcher who should run into wind to collapse the canopy. With the RSL detached you can cut away the main after landing if necessary. Of course. remind the student about leg tension. A common fault with inexperienced catchers is to keep trying to run under the tandem as you do “S” turns on final approach. strength and experience of the TM. No Catchers :If there are no catchers and the wind is +5 knots check that the RSL is released while under canopy. In either case the catcher needs to try to anticipate your landing point so that you both arrive there at the same time. JUST before landing. if it is obvious that you have misjudged the final wind and are going to land some distance away then the catcher should start running sooner. however this a situation that can arise from many reasons at any time so be prepared! If you landing out follow normal off-DZ procedures. Many factors combine to produce a good landing.
To TM . These people seem to have a problem lifting their legs for landing. Even people that have demonstrated a good lift of the feet during practice have more difficulty on final approach. do the same with the other leg. Letter no 1 11 October 1995 Dear John. You should develop a plan for any eventuality that may occur. be professional. I have found that the passengers I regularly have landing problems with (and those that I see have problems) have a weight problem. That’s all from me. I adjusted the harness so that the point of attachment was more forward. The prospect of a “face plant” usually instigates undivided attention from passengers during the landing part of the ground briefing. Blue Skies.5 . or pulling up on the front risers. 3. I found I couldn't get them above my bum level without either rocking. Take statements from any witnesses. Done successfully they are now in a sitting position.if you are unable to flare and land the canopy unassisted you are not doing your job! Landings some other opinions: The following are letters from very experienced Tandem Masters to the APF News-Sheet concerned with student landing injuries and some of their ideas on what can be done to avoid them.release harness and wait for assistance. Done successfully they are now in a sitting position. My passenger now has (to an extent) their legstraps away from their butt and closer to their knees. Tandem Water Landing Procedure * Release the RSL * Undo the side straps (and remove locking pins Vector) * Student inflates buoyancy device * TM undoes chest strap * Flare and land into wind * Cutaway main canopy * Release top snaps and push student away * TM swims out of harness and inflates buoyancy device. To get these people to lift their legs up for landing I do three things: 1. Fully and accurately complete an incident report and file it with the APF office. Secure any video. Ronnie Hughan.release harness and provide immediate assistance. Both of these actions are fully briefed to the passenger before the Jump. Letter no 2 I have been concerned that students haven’t been able to get their feet up sufficiently when coming in to land. 2. NZPF TM #31 It is the TM’s responsibility to ensure a safe landing .Tandem Master’s Study Guide Hazardous Landings Although the chances of landing with a Tandem on an obstacle are small the possibility does exist. Having deployed and ascertained the main is safe to land. I then get my passengers to lift one knee up as high as they can and with both their hands. Injuries To student . and lifted my legs up. especially getting them to practice sliding one of their legstraps forward. suspended it. I tried again and Section 5 . To test this I put on my student harness. On finals I get the passenger to put their hands underneath their thighs and hold their legs up. they have a more than average bulk around their thighs and hips. pull the underside of that leg strap forward towards the raised knee. When this is done. I have also used this for passengers who are taller than I am. especially after having been in a harness for the best part of five minutes.
I extend my legs and push the students legs out in front for a sit-down or AFTER THE LANDING Detach the student’s harness from yours and assist the student with loosening their leg straps... Regards Lou Armstrong. knees slightly bent and toes visible.... My verbal instructions are “. TM #68. FLARE!!!” (2) If there is evidence that the legs are not raised enough for a successful landing.. Return to the administration area. Almost always I have the student participate in canopy control and flare for landing.whip those legs out” Once under canopy I get the student to stand on my feet (to take the weight off the harness). as the canopy moves back and we both swing forward. At least 30cm (1 ft) higher! I now adjust the harness so that the point of attachment is as far forward as possible..6 . legs up arms up. Section 5 .arms up... But who cares? The important fact is that the legs of students are controlled and protected! As there appears to be a consistent number of leg injuries with tandem students.. aeroplanes and other potential hazards. FLARE. “IMPORTANT NOTE!!” Whenever I have any doubt at all about my student’s ability to maintain correct leg positioning.. Works well every time! “When in doubt.. CI Hervey Bay This may not look as good as a nice stand-up.. I have found this to assist in getting their feet up.. FLARE. remove equipment. just loosen it...not against me. not yet. Tandem landings . to date. Five of these years are from full-time skydiving in California and Arizona.I always complete at least two practice landings with students. This is an ideal opportunity to encourage the student to enrol on a training course and become a sport skydiver.. not yet. legs up. I always place my feet behind their ankles and during the flare. prior to 1500+ ft AGL (1) On my first practice session I ask the student to lift their legs up. I then ask student to grab the grippers on the jumpsuit and lift their own legs up sufficiently while I do all the flaring for the landing on my own.. sometimes.. not yet. I’ve not had one injury yet.. AFFIA #13 Letter no 3 24 October 1995 A few of my observations based on 1200+ tandem jumps (1300+ AFF jumps) over the past seven years. slide-in landing. Many students start trying to get out of the harness immediately.. remember you are still responsible for your student’s safety! Be aware of other canopies landing. DAMIEN HANSEN. steer with me now . Leaning back in the harness helps as well.. Be positive with your comments even if the student was less than perfect. During the first session I critique the students ability to lift legs sufficiently and ability to flare canopy correctly... Tell them to keep it on to walk back to the base area..Tandem Master’s Study Guide found I could lift my feet up above bum level. This helps prevent items being left out at the landing site. these techniques can only improve students safety. and I tighten the front adjusters... Safety! Maintain control of your student while you gather your parachute and clear the landing area. Remember this was their first jump and they only received minimal training... Offer congratulations and present the certificate.
Tandem Master’s Study Guide SECTION SIX . The misrigging of the 3-ring shown here will result in an impossible pull of the drogue release due to the increased load being applied to the locking loop. You may scissor the student’s legs between yours. * ARCH hard during reserve deployment. Drogue Entangled Spend only a few seconds attempting to disentangle the drogue. MALFUNCTION PROCEDURE In the event of a main canopy malfunction you should spend as little time as necessary assessing the situation. if you cannot clear the entanglement deploy the reserve immediately.1 . Low speed deployments (after a cutaway) may take 1000’. if unsuccessful deploy the reserve immediately. Remember. * PULL the cutaway handle forwards and down to full arm’s extension. Do not waste time attempting to cut the drogue bridle. on a tandem jump safety depends on you making the correct decisions. If it is inflated it will still slow you down. Ensure the main canopy has released. Reserve landings are usually good due to the new condition of the reserve (max 20 jumps). The steering toggles have only one set of loops. Section 6 . Unable to Locate/Pull Drogue Release Use second release ( if fitted) or deploy the reserve immediately. DROGUE AND RELEASE MALFUNCTIONS Out of Sequence Pull If you. Hard Pull on Drogue Try again using your elbow as a lever against the container. have a set procedure and stick to it. the reserve may be slightly smaller. The tandem reserve is designed and packed to withstand opening shock at tandem terminal velocity (180 mph). if unsuccessful deploy the reserve immediately.MALFUNCTIONS You should review and rehearse your emergency procedures before and during every skydive. or your student pull a drogue release before the drogue is deployed deploy the drogue immediately. If a cutaway is required: * TELL your student to assume the exit position. Drogue in Burble Roll to left and look over shoulder to allow drogue to catch air. Do not pull a drogue release as this could cause a horseshoe malfunction. * PEEL the cutaway handle up and out from the velcro. While in freefall or under a malfunction do not try to second guess the situation. then * PEEL & PULL the reserve handle. Be sure to include a check of the 3-ring assembly at the same time that you check the routing of the drogue release cables. Pulling the handles in the correct sequence is vital to the safety of the tandem pair. STEERING AND LANDING THE RESERVE Use the same procedures as for your main canopy. * LOCATE your cutaway and reserve handles.
pull the secondary release In this situation (with the main container open) the drogue and release handles should be in or near their usual locations. You must pull the handles in the correct order! In Freefall . The main canopy may or may not malfunction due to the out of sequence deployment. Drogue In Tow If after pulling the drogue release nothing happens pull the second release( if fitted).pull the drogue release . check to ensure activation. When you pull the drogue release.deploy the drogue . check the packing and routing of your equipment to minimise the risk of a drogue in tow malfunction.Tandem Master’s Study Guide Drogue does not Inflate A collapsed drogue should still have enough drag to deploy the main.2 . Section 6 . PREMATURE MAIN CONTAINER OPENING (HORSESHOE) This is one of the worst scenarios facing a TM and incorrect reaction has led to several fatalities. Deploying the reserve into a horseshoe is a bad option due to the probability of the main risers and lines fouling the reserve pilot chute.pull the drogue release . If you are unable to deploy the drogue and the main container opens into a horseshoe malfunction. When you deploy the drogue check to ensure its deployment and inflation. If unsuccessful cutaway and deploy the reserve immediately. The Dual Hawk and Racer systems incorporate a combined cutaway pad / drogue release which reduces the risk of drogue and reserve entanglement in the event that the cutaway is pulled with the drogue still attached. Pull your drogue release immediately. then make sure the main risers have cleared before pulling the reserve.pull secondary release In Droguefall . Relative Workshop recommends you should release the RSL before pulling the cutaway pad. Deploying the reserve past a drogue in tow is not always successful. They may feel different due to the loss of rigidity in the main container. Drogue Deploys and Breaks or Collapses Without the drogue you will continue to accelerate to 180 mph. Pull your drogue release immediately.
Twists Can be harder to clear due to the student obstructing your actions. release it immediately. If unsuccessful cutaway and deploy the reserve. Damage Assess your rate of descent and amount of control.watch your height. Assess the amount of control and the likelihood of the drogue pulling through under the canopy and further deforming the main. Slider Hang Up Flare and assess. A minimum of 3000 feet AGL is usually regarded as decision height with regard to whether or not you have a good main canopy. If you are under your reserve and the main deploys behind you. Note: The RSL may be dispensed with at the CI’s discretion. Asymmetrical twists on high performance tandem canopies can cause a fast rotation making the twists worse. at altitude. Remember your decision height (at least 3000 feet) and keep height awareness. Broken /Prematurely released Risers A major problem with only one riser releasing is for the RSL to begin reserve activation with the main still attached. on a good canopy first to assess the feasibility of attempting this. Note: the riser to riser RSL on the Racer must be released prior to cutaway in the event of the main opening after the reserve. older canopies may increase this. Line Over Will result in a rapidly descending fast rotation cutaway and deploy the reserve. Tension knots Stalling the canopy violently or pulling on a riser may cause these to release .If the reserve is deployed without first releasing the main canopy the deployment will be unpredictable and there is a high probability of an entanglement. Know your equipment and effect emergency procedures as necessary. In-flight transfers .Tandem Master’s Study Guide CANOPY MALFUNCTIONS Your AAD is set to fire at 2000’. If the canopies entangle do not give up. Baglock With a collapsed drogue there may be insufficient drag to cause the risers to separate and you may need to physically clear them.3 . You should try this procedure. Tandem main canopies take up to 1000’ to open. Streamer Even new tandem canopies can take 1000’ to open. Flying slowly. If you experience a partial malfunction timely action is necessary to cutaway and have your reserve open before AAD activation. continue trying to clear them and protect the passenger on landing. Drogue Tangled with Main Usually caused by stalling the main canopy or the drogue falling over the front on opening. If both canopies are open and flying attempt to separate them and release the main. Broken Steering Lines Steering and landing a tandem canopy using rear risers is possible but VERY heavy. When making the decision to land a partially malfunctioned canopy it is important to remember that holding a toggle down to keep the canopy flying straight will quickly sap your strength. with brakes can reduce the chance of this deteriorating. Main and Reserve open together If you are under your main canopy and find your reserve is deploying observe the deployment and coordinate releasing the main to avoid entanglement. Broken Lines If cutaway is necessary and time and altitude permit cut any lines hanging down around the tandem pair before initiating emergency procedures to reduce the risk of entanglement. Cutaway and deploy the reserve. CONTROL MALFUNCTIONS Ask yourself ‘can I control it ?’ and ‘can I land it safely ?’ While the decision to initiate emergency procedures must be made promptly. Also see the PIA study of “Two Canopies Open”. Cutaway and deploy the reserve. you should only contemplate using your reserve as a final option. Section 6 .
most of which are avoidable. Any tandem AAD firing should be considered a serious incident and reported through the APF Incident Reporting system immediately so that a determination of the incident can be made In conclusion There are variations in some of the procedures between the available tandem systems. If the RSL is connected it should activate the reserve but be prepared to pull the reserve handle yourself. Know the equipment you are using. The Vector manual’s advice is in line with USPA recommended procedures which is to just pull the reserve for a pilot-chute in tow. *In the event of entanglement with the drogue it is still believed that just pulling the reserve is the safest option. Returning to the reserve handle is easier if you have not detached the reserve handle / pad prior to releasing it to use two hands on the cutaway. Study the incident reports in the APF Tandem supplement for information on situations which have occurred . just reach up and pull the lines free. If you experience this situation use both hands and if necessary have your student assist with the procedure. The problem can be avoided by securing the brake lines in place on the risers with break tie when packing the reserve. this is easily cleared.1999. Despite this. the potential for the reserve to malfunction does exist. This applies particularly to tandem jumps where the drogue has been deployed and both drogue releases have been pulled but a drogue in tow is still the result. In any situation other than an absolute total malfunction (haven’t touched any main deployment device) the APF recommended procedure is to cutaway before pulling the reserve provided there is time to do so. you should consider yourself grounded pending an investigation by the ASO. APF Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) accepted by the APF Board . A common occurrence is for the cascades on the steering lines to loop around the L-bar links. Since APF procedures require drogue release at about 1000 ft above the Vector recommended height there should be sufficient time. Using the reserve should only be considered as a last chance option. If you jump different systems with varying procedures make sure you spend time revising these procedures. *Note that special provisions still prevail in the event of a TM and/or passenger entangled with the drogue. assembly and maintenance of the 3 Rings is required to reduce the risk of hard or impossible pulls on the cutaway. but a course of action designed to ensure that the APF has an opportunity to consider its ‘duty of care’. Certain types of equipment appear more susceptible to this problem than others. AAD ‘saves’ If you are unfortunate enough to be in a situation where the AAD activates the reserve before you do. This is not necessarily a punishment. cutting away first is generally regarded as a safer procedure provided time permits. Hard Pulls on Cutaway Correct construction. Operating the drogue release(s) or pulling the cutaway handle may add more obstructions to your back which cannot clear due to the drogue being tangled around the TM/passenger.Tandem Master’s Study Guide Reserve Malfunctions Although unlikely.4 . whereas the Vector manual recommends pulling only the reserve after both drogue releases have been pulled. A hook knife may be useful in dealing with line over or steering line malfunctions. Section 6 . The Strong Tandem Instructor’s manual recommends pulling all the handles in order in the event of a drogue in tow.
Tandem Master’s Study Guide Learn from the mistakes of others you will not live long enough to make them all yourself! Section 6 .5 .
Recommended Reading and Viewing RIGGING ADVISORY CIRCULARS TANDEM MASTER SUPPLEMENTS Various relating to tandem equipment.. All the above publications are available from the APF office Section 7 .1 . from the APF NEWS-SHEET TANDEM SIDE-SPIN PHENOMENON ..AND TRAPS SAMPLE EXAM AND ORAL QUESTIONS To help you prepare for the exam EXAM PROCEDURES AND TRAINING RECORD TANDEM WRITTEN EXAM .Paul Murphy MANUFACTURERS’ MANUALS Relative Workshop Tandem Vector Manual Strong Enterprises TM Course and Dual Hawk Owners Manual Parachutes de France Atom Tandem BT 80 Manual and TM Course Jump Shack Racer .comments from APF incident reports over several years TANDEM SKYDIVING WITH WHEELCHAIR DEPENDANT PERSONS Extracts from a thesis by Paul Murphy DISPLAY JUMPS NIGHT JUMPS TANDEM TIPS..Strong Enterprises Video presentation and guidebook (at your DZ) TANDEM SKYDIVING with WHEELCHAIR DEPENDENT PERSONS .supplement to the Racer packing manual Relative Workshop Vector Strong Enterprises Dual Hawk Jump Shack Racer And videos..Tandem Master’s Study Guide SECTION SEVEN ...APPENDICES Included in this section: SOURCES OF INFORMATION for tandem masters DROGUE PROBLEMS ..check that these are current SOURCES OF INFORMATION for TMs .
• Student had hand over drogue release. cutaway Main container open in drogue fall.. no inflation. misrouted drogue bridle Drogue in tow. drogue and bag caught in b and c lines • Late drogue deployment. Reserve did not deploy. deployed high Drogue deployment caused main container to open. Used reserve • Drogue handle thru both loops. turning canopy Drogue deployed around pass. • TM failed to deploy drogue.OK • Did not deploy drogue although thought he had. Cypres fired. Slowly deployed main • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Section 7 . The following are some comments from APF incident reports over several years. turbulence. TM didn’t know until release. cleared but spinning. landed OK TM believed he had a drogue problem. • Unable to deploy drogue. Had to regain control • Tandem turned on to side and started to spin. Dont get complacent!! Drogue in tow. could not release. had also pulled cutaway.lucky • 2nd tandem in 2 years. then cutaway.Tandem Master’s Study Guide • Drogue bridle misrouted under bottom flap. opened OK Drogue hesitation. used reserve • Cutaway not completely cleared. dumped high • Drogue over nose and thru lines • Hard pull on drogue. Unstable at reserve deployment • Misrouting of drogue bridle under main top flap resulted in impossible pull on drogue release • Drogue came forward and tangled with T/M and around neck . Pulled reserve at 2300.cleared . Freefall fast normal deployment Main deployed on drogue deployment at 9000. 2nd drogue release. nothing happened. Being drogue side up T/M deployed drogue. Drogue problems… The drogue has become an essential part of tandem but is also a source of misuse and potential problems. reserve pulled without cutaway! Main then deployed just as reserve began to move. Deployed main at 2700 • Misrouted main bridle. Deployed main OK • 1st drogue release. main opened • Drogue tangled in bridle. Did not realise and pulled release. not picked up on gear check • Drogue caught in lines • Rock and roll. Failed to cock drogue. foot. caught in door? Drogue release failed to release. reserve deployed past drogue. Locking loop failure? Drogue assembly snapped off on opening recovered Drogue did not inflate. released and normal opening Drogue thru lines and around. streamer. entanglement Drogue outer broke in freefall.. went for drogue release with wrong hand. Released drogue. then main deployed after pressure relieved in 3 ring Pulled drogue bridle out of order Required both drogue releases to be pulled . Every TM on every jump needs to keep in mind what has happened and what can happen. Main released pulled reserve. Hard landing on reserve • Drogue tangled in bridle. reserve deployed past drogue • Drogue pushed into pouch while climbing out took 1000ft to locate • On deployment. Deployed reserve when nothing happened. • Bag (drogue) caught in lines. uninflated. pulled both handles. TM removed it and deployed • Drogue hesi. main deployed on drogue deployment Drogue deployed on exit. drogue through lines around front. held until landing. knotted Could not release drogue. Reserve. reserve used Slow inflation of drogue. reserve/main riser entanglement. Weak throw. eventually cleared Cameraman nearly hit by drogue Drogue over nose. chop • Main container opened on drogue deployment. not fully cocked??? Drogue broke! Drogue release pulled but would not deploy main.2 . then drogue collapsed so released and pulled reserve • Drogue handle replaced on way to height • Could not find drogue release. Passenger caused instability. reserve Drogue not connected correctly. deployed reserve. Mal. Landed OK off DZ (demo) • Bridle around TM leg.non-standard loops Knotted drogue.
(i. a vertebra has been broken. • The tandem passengers weight should be not more than 110% of the tandem instructor’s weight. but do not insist. or see what you are looking at. • When pushing a person in a wheelchair remember that you are behind and above them. It can be assumed that an able-bodied person with a broken bone would not feel abnormal having a broken bone. Few people with disabilities are seen in the community at present. • Fully briefed catchers should be present on every SCI tandem skydive. of those. causing spinal injury resulting in paraplegia or quadriplegia.e. THE FOREMOST POINT TO REMEMBER IS TO ALLOW THE PERSON WITH A DISABILITY TO BE IN CONTROL OF THEIR OWN SITUATION. Normal walking pace is best. so ask before grabbing their wheelchair. It's more polite and sensible. They may find it difficult to hear what you are saying. so sit down if you can.) • Talk directly to the person using a wheelchair. steps.3 . • When you get to gutters.acting on presumptions can cause misunderstanding. • The tandem instructor have a basic knowledge of the persons disability and the complications this may include. The passengers weight should not exceed 80 kilograms. not through a third party. using appropriate lifting procedures. • The skydive should not be attempted unless a ground wind speed minimum of five knots and a maximum of fifteen knots is present. I recommend these guidelines for tandem skydives with SCI people. A critical factor here is the amount of time that the person has not had the use of their legs which allows the muscles to atrophy and the bones to lose Section 7 . Note: APF Incident reports show that a small but significant number of SCI persons do break a bone on landing although this is often not apparent at the DZ and is only discovered some time after the event. • Check with the person to see if you are pushing them at a comfortable speed and try to avoid sudden turns or stops. • You cannot always guess where a person is heading for. It is important to show that you are willing to help and are sensitive to their requirements. • In most instances there is no need to be sensitive about using words like walking or running. • The tandem instructor must be approved by the chief instructor of the training organisation. APF CI Do's and Don'ts When You Meet a Wheelchair Dependent Person. give the person plenty of time to accomplish a task such as fitting the jumpsuit and harness. This weight should not exceed the safe working limits of the tandem parachute system. of these fifty in the previous six months. • The SCI tandem passenger must obtain a medical certificate indicating their suitability to complete a tandem skydive. • The tandem instructor should complete at least one practice skydive using the proposed equipment with an 'A' licenced or above skydiver before taking their first SCI person. • The possible risks to the SCI persons health should be clearly indicated to the passenger in the briefing. Conclusions Based on the information gathered in this document from my own personal experiences on those occurring in the field. • The tandem instructor should have a minimum of two hundred tandem skydives. In many cases they use the same words. Offer assistance where necessary. • Due to limited mobility. • When entering the aircraft.Tandem Master’s Study Guide Tandem Skydiving with Wheelchair Dependent Persons Extracts and notes from a thesis by Paul Murphy. Do not be surprised if first meetings are embarrassing or awkward. whether person needs help or if instructor is unsure about something.they know when and how you can be of best help. • It is best for both people to be open with each other .just ask . ten in the preceding month. stairs or other obstacles ask the person how they usually get up or down. so do not treat an SCI person any differently. Like you. and explain what you should do. Most wheelchair users have preferred methods. Most people at some stage in their life have broken at least one bone in their body. unless you are BOTH in a hurry. Do not worry if your assistance is not required. most people with a disability try to be as independent as possible. ask the person what is the most effective and comfortable way to accomplish this. With an SCI person. • If a person requires help they will ask. The following hints may assist in overcoming both the instructors awkwardness and the Spinal Cord Injured (SCI) person’s disability. • Sometimes people with disabilities may need assistance . • Conversations are usually more relaxed and comfortable at eye level.
The TM has a lot to think about on any tandem skydive. Have the landing area well illuminated and make sure the student has their legs well up for touchdown. which is why there are more extensive minimum experience requirements. Additionally look for the DZ in freefall and be prepared to open high if necessary. your student is relying on you to do the right thing. Again the main risk is in the event of an off . The main consideration when taking tandems on displays is the increased risk involved in the event of an off .DZ landing. A suitably illuminated visual altimeter is required and the TM should consider using an audible altimeter as a back up. It is also fair to say that some post-menopausal women may be equally at risk of landing injury due to low bone mass even though they are not spinal cord injured.Tandem Master’s Study Guide strength/mass and eventually become as brittle as chalk (this is osteoporosis).4 . If conditions are marginal be cautious when making your decision to jump . Night jumps are ideal for students who already have some skydiving experience and want to try something different. Osteoporosis is brought on by many factors and affects women more than men. Knowledge of winds aloft is also useful.remember. • Low calcium or dairy food intake. RW. or high intake of salt. • Low exercise level. • Smoking.) • Family history of osteoporosis. Do not allow these other factors to distract you from your primary task.. This is a CASA requirement. • Caucasian (fair skinned) or Asian. especially in the dark and due care should be taken to prevent this.DZ landing. • Small frame or thin boned. As with any display you should ensure there are suitable out landing areas available and that you have an experienced spotter on the load. displays and night jumps are all additional distractions. NIGHT JUMPS Night tandem jumps are conducted as display jumps even on a student DZ and require the approval of an LDO and CI. Factors to consider are: • Period of immobility (wheelchair dependency. APF Op Regs require the approval of BOTH a Licenced Display Organiser AND a Chief Instructor in order to take a student into a display. • Post menopausal women (not undergoing a hormone replacement program). alcohol or caffeine. DISPLAY JUMPS Professionally conducted display jumps are an excellent showcase for our sport and when including tandems illustrates to the public just how safe it is for anyone to make a first jump. Also the TM is required to hold a “B” display licence and a qualifying number of jumps. Section 7 .
... This can be done by either holding the student’s head with one hand back against your chest. check or operate their equipment correctly. Never underestimate the complexities of a tandem jump. student drogue release and instruction in their use.5 . . there are reports of solo jumpers passing close to the tandem either in freefall or after opening and at least one fatality has been attributed to a solo jumper colliding with and incapacitating the TM Section 7 . Be extremely careful if allowing your student to assist with the flare. Your student may overpower you.AND TRAPS! Never put your hands where the student can grab them. make sure anyone you jump with is capable of assuming a good landing position. especially if you are using a canopy which is prone to hard openings.. many highly experienced and current skydiving instructors have been killed or injured and in almost every case there was a failure of the instructor to pack. Some overseas operations provide all their tandem students with an altimeter.you will need to use them in the event of a malfunction!. Arrange the exit order so you never have anyone following you out. having operated the handles out of sequence.. Always keep your hands clear even when the canopy is deploying . At least two tandem pairs have been saved by the student! These were incidents where the instructor either failed to pull a drogue release or. simply gave up! Holding and bracing the students head during deployment. When tandem was first introduced it was considered unlikely that a qualified instructor could fail to open a parachute or initiate emergency procedures prior to impact. either flaring too hard or too early or not flaring far enough and “freezing” on the toggles possibly stopping you from achieving the flare.. reduces the chance of whiplash injury to the student. don’t show them your wrist altimeter or point at anything. We now know better. Older and or heavier students feature frequently in incident reports. This is a recurring theme in most incident reports many of which could easily have become fatalities. or by stowing the drogue release in your mouth and using two hands (on either side) to help support the student’s head erect.Tandem Master’s Study Guide TANDEM TIPS.
SECTION ONE .GENERAL KNOWLEDGE 1. Discuss your opinion on taking handicapped people for a tandem jump. What parts of a tandem rig must be checked before putting it on for each jump? 8.6 . The tandem canopy you are jumping has done five hundred jumps since new. 6. Describe two methods of avoiding heat exhaustion for both you and your tandem passenger on a hot day? 3. the Chairman of your Instructor Panel. How does jumpsuit selection influence the control a tandem master has over his student? 5. Discuss what handicaps would be suitable and which would not. Some of these questions deal with regulations and have a clear answer. Other may not have exact answers but still require that you have a clear plan before you encounter the situation. You need a plan and you need to carry out that plan. What is your opinion on the total number of tandem jumps a tandem master is capable of in one day? What factors would influence this decision? SECTION TWO . Section 7 . How can a tandem master improve his or her physical fitness to assist him or her in his/her duties as a tandem master? 2. 7.EQUIPMENT 1. Why is it important to have good personal appearance when tandem jumping? What areas would need special attention? 4. Consider making brief notes to help you recall important considerations in these situations and to assist you in preparing for the exam and orals. Discuss how claims of sexual harassment can be avoided when acting as a tandem master.Tandem Master’s Study Guide TANDEM MASTER ENDORSEMENT SAMPLE ORAL EXAMINATION The following questions are presented as an example of the kind of questions you will be asked during the exam. now! Most questions will require some research by you and may need you to decide between alternative procedures. Explain in detail the method of setting a Cypres AAD for a jump at a DZ with a different elevation to that of the departure airfield. Going through 4000 feet with a drogue in tow and the passenger holding your arm in a death grip is not the time to review procedures. Discuss these with experienced tandem masters. What handling characteristics can you expect compared to a new one? 5. Why is it important to have the main container tightly closed? 3. What is line dump? What are the possible consequences? How can it be prevented? 7. your CI or course leader. What areas of the drogue need to be inspected? Explain what the outcome would be if the drogue failed in any of these areas. Is it important which way the closing pin should face when the main pack is closed on a tandem rig? 4. What part of a tandem rig assembly is most prone to wear? 2. 6.
What is the maximum weight passenger you feel you can take as a tandem master? Does the height of the passenger effect this? 4. Describe how you can best avoid a premature opening on the type of tandem equipment you are training on. What is your opinion on the use of RSLs on tandem equipment? Give advantages and disadvantages on their use. what would you look at? 12. contact lenses. Consider large door. How can harness adjustment assist in the comfort of the passenger and what procedures are possible under canopy to make the passenger more comfortable? 3. wheel and strut. What age limitations are required for tandem passengers and what special considerations need to be addressed when taking elderly people for jumps? 5. What factors would influence the spotting on a mixed tandem / RW / Freefly load? How would you determine the exit order? 5. What is your next action? 7. Discuss the major points you would emphasise during the practise exit and dirt-dive of a tandem jump. Section 7 .7 . On exit the camera flier entangles with your drogue. What may cause of hard pulls on cutaways / drogue release / drogue deployment on tandem equipment? 13. Before boarding the aircraft the tandem master should have the equipment checked by someone other than the person who packed it.Tandem Master’s Study Guide 9. 2. 7. What points should be considered when matching up tandem passengers with tandem masters? 2. Describe in detail your equipment check prior to exiting the aircraft.AIRCRAFT DRILLS. What would you describe as acceptable footwear for both you and your passenger on a tandem jump? SECTION THREE . tailgate. Discuss three different types of tandem exits and the advantages and disadvantages of each. True or False? If you were asked to check another TM’s rig.STUDENT PREPARATION AND TRAINING 1. the main pack opens and the main canopy starts to deploy. Describe your procedures for emergency exits above and below four thousand feet AGL 8. Your immediate action is? 4. footwear. What is the most common cause of unstable exits? What can be done to avoid them? 3. When taking obese people for tandem jumps what needs to be considered with regards to landing? 6. Briefly comment on each of the following: passengers with long hair. 11. Describe some scenarios that can develop from having the RSL connected and disconnected. spectacles. helicopter. What is the maximum height you may have to deploy your reserve on a tandem jump? How would this influence the remainder of the descent? 6. small door. SECTION FOUR . 10. You exit the aircraft and throw the drogue. EXITS & EMERGENCIES 1.
What is your procedure if you begin to develop a side spin? Explain how a tandem pair can enter into a side spin.CANOPY CONTROL & LANDINGS 1. Describe the difference between drogue fall and freefall.? 5.8 . Include the time taken to fall 1. 10.what is your approximate height now? What is your next action? 5. How would you land with them? What methods of prevention can be taken to reduce the chance of this happening? 3.FREEFALL & DROGUE FALL 1. What must be considered before loosening or releasing the side connectors of the student harness? 6.500 ft but the drogue is still in tow . What areas would be suitable and unsuitable at your local D. Describe how you would deal with a tandem passenger who has just lost consciousness under canopy. You pull both drogue releases at 5. what do you do? 6. 8. At 8000 feet the drogue is caught around your foot.Z. When briefing ground crew on catching tandem canopies what points of safety need to be considered? Section 7 . Describe several ways to ensure your tandem passenger can lift their legs up for landing. How are side spins best avoided? 3. With regard to canopy handling what factors need to be considered when jumping in hot and turbulent conditions? 9. Include underloading and overloading. What are the areas of safety and regulation that need to be addressed when a camera flier or RWer accompanies a tandem pair? SECTION SIX . How should you assist them? 7.Tandem Master’s Study Guide SECTION FIVE . Describe the advantages and disadvantages of allowing the tandem passenger to assist with the landing flare. How can the position of your passengers arms effect the safe operation of the tandem equipment? 7. What factors influence these times? 2. What is the recommended procedure for a water landing? 2. What separation of tandem canopies in flight would you consider safe? 4. Describe the effect of mechanical turbulence on a landing tandem canopy. Describe in detail your handle checks in freefall. Discuss wing loading of tandem canopies. How often do you carry them out? 4.000 ft.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.