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Sedimentar y Basin Analysis

http://eqsun.geo.arizona.edu/geo5xx/geos517/

Sedimentary basins can be classified based on the type of plate motions (divergent, convergent), type of
Sedimentary basins can be classified based on the type of plate
motions (divergent, convergent), type of the lithosphere, distance
from plate margins.
Sedimentar y Basin Analysis
http://eqsun.geo.arizona.edu/geo5xx/geos517/

From divergent to convergent margins

From divergent to convergent margins

Basins related to convergent margins

Convergent margins: collisional and noncollisional

Peripheral foreland system

Basins related to convergent margins Convergent margins: collisional and non ‐ collisional Perip heral foreland system
Back‐arc Retroarc Fore‐arc
Back‐arc
Retroarc
Fore‐arc

After Dickinson (1974):

Oceanic basins Rifted continental margins Arctrench system Suture belts Intracontinental basins

TO FORM A SEDIMENTARY BASIN YOU NEED ACCOMODATION SPACE

Subsidence of the crust is caused by:

1) Attenuation of the crust due to stretching and erosion (divergent margins);

2) Contraction of lithosphere due to cooling (divergent margins);

3) Depression of both crust and lithosphere by sedimentary or tectonic loading (convergent margins).

Primary mechanisms of basin subsidence

Isostasy (changes in lithospheric thickness and/or density)

Flexure (loading) Thermal effects

Isostasy

Based on Archemidesprinciple:

A body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight (volume) of the displaced fluid.

Isostasy assumes local compensation: i.e. the earth is composed of free floating pistons

Depth of compensation

Following the theor y of isostasy, a mass above sea level is supported below sea level, and there is thus a certain depth at which the total weight per unit area is equal all around the Earth: depth of compensation (ca. 113 km).

Models for local isostasy

Airy: where different in topographic highs are accommodated by changes in thickness

Pratt:….by changes in density

Models for local isostasy • Airy: where different in topographic highs are accommodated by changes in

Adjacent blocks with different densities or thickness will have different relative relief

After Angevine et al., 1990

After Angevine et al., 1990

Typical lithospheric structure under the continents and the oceans

Typical lithospheric structure under the continents an d the oceans
After Angevine et al., 1990
After Angevine et al., 1990

Thermal effects

Thermal effects change the density of the lithosphere so that the isostatic balance is changed

Initial cooling of the lithosphere by conduction: t1/2

After 10s the lithosphere will cool exponentially (subsidence: because colder rocks are denser….)

A. If everything else is equal the total amount of uplift during heating (e.g. intrusion ‐

A. If everything else is equal the total amount of uplift during heating (e.g. intrusiondoming) is equal to the amount of subsidence during cooling .

B. Subsidence can occur in case of erosion; thickening of the mantle lid during cooling or stretching.

After Angevine et al., 1990

Following McKenzie (

Following McKenzie ( • In time 2 the li th osp h ere w ill subside

In time 2 the lithosphere will subside because of isostatic compensation (you replace denser mantle lid with less dense asthenosphere.

In time 3 the lithosphere cools and thickens as warm asthenosphere converts in cool lithosphere (thermal subsidence)

Examples of divergent margins
Examples of divergent margins
Examples of convergent margins Peripheral forelands Retroarc forelands
Examples of convergent margins
Peripheral forelands
Retroarc forelands
The Alpine orogeny Foreland Pro‐wedge Alps Foreland Retro‐wedge After Stampfli et al. (2002) The Alpine orogeny
The Alpine orogeny
Foreland
Pro‐wedge
Alps
Foreland
Retro‐wedge
After Stampfli et al. (2002)
The Alpine orogeny
is the result of the
collision between
Europe and Adria
~50 My ago,
following closure of
the Alpine Tethys.
Tibetean Plateau Himalaya Foreland N
Tibetean Plateau
Himalaya
Foreland
N
Tibetean Plateau Himalaya Foreland N

The Himalayan orogeny

The Himalayan orogeny is the result of the collision

between India and Asia ~50 My ago, following closure of the NeoTethys.

Example of oceancontinent collision and retroarc foreland:

The Andes

The Andes are the result of Tertiary crustal thickening and magmatic processes related to the subduction
The Andes are the result of
Tertiary crustal thickening and
magmatic processes related
to the subduction of the
Nazca plate under the South
American Plate.
Altiplano‐
Puna
Foreland
Plateau
Cordillera
Courtesy Isabelle Coutand

Mechanisms of foreland basin formation

  • Peripheral basins:

Mechanisms of foreland basin formation  Peripheral basins: Modified after DeCelles and Giles (1996)

Modified after DeCelles and Giles (1996)

Mechanisms of foreland basin formation  Retroarc basins: Modified after DeCelles and Giles (1996)
Mechanisms of foreland basin formation
 Retroarc basins:
Modified after DeCelles and Giles (1996)
Slide 28
Slide 28

c1

dynamic slab load is caused by viscous coupling between the subducting slab, overlying mantle-wedge materil and the base of the overidding continental plate

carrapa, 1/5/2006

Sedimentary facies and depositional environment in pheripheral basins

Sedimentary facies and depositional environment in pherip heral basins Shallowing upward trend up ‐ section

Shallowing upward trend upsection

GEODYNAMICS OF FORELANDS

D=flexural strength
D=flexural strength

Th

h

f FB

e s ape o a

and the

magnitude of

subsidence largely

depend on the

age and thickness

of the underlying

crust (i.e. closing

young rift=low D;

old continental

margin=high D).

Thinversus thicksckinned deformation

Typical (continuous) foreland basins develop in association with thinskinned thrust belts:

i.e. where sedimentary cover rocks are shortened by folding and thrusting above undeformed basement.

Thinversus thicksckinned deformation

Broken foreland basins (Sierras Pampeanas and Laramide style) develop associated with thickskinned basement uplift where crystalline basement rocks translate along high angle reverse faults.

Preconditions to form a continuous foreland basin

The existance of topographic highs and horizontal shortening;

The preexistance of a thick pile of layered strata.

Inferred preconditions to form a broken foreland basin

The existance of topographic highs and horizontal shortening;

The presence of a subducting plate with very low angle of descent into the mantle (i.e. flatslab or flatsubduction).

Component of tectonic subsidence in broken foreland basins

In a broken foreland the crust is subdivided into short beams that can rotate about horizontal axes relative to one another. This rotation is a principal component of tectonic susbidence (in addition to flexural loading)

What are the controlling factors for the angle of subduction?

The preexisting tectonic history of an orogenic belt and the shape of its plate margin

Example of flat slab and broken foreland: Sierra Pampeanas (Andes)

Example of flat slab and broken foreland: Sierra Pampeanas ( An d es ) • In

In South America along strike

variabilities in the structure of

the Andes generates along

strike variations in geometry of

foreland basins

Example of broken foreland:

the Rocky Mountains and the Laramide foreland system

Example of broken foreland: the Rocky Mountains and the Laramide foreland system The depocenter of the

The depocenter of the upper Cretaceous (A) in eastern Wyoming is too far from the thrust belt to have been simply caused by loading and flexure. B) Eocene basin and ranges; uplift and subsidence are contemporaneous; C) thickness of the Green River Basin reflects tilting and bending of the crustal blocks.

Example of broken foreland: the Rocky Mountains and the Laramide foreland system The depocenter of the

Laramide and Sierra Pampeanas comparison

Laramide and Sierra Pampeanas compari son

Seismic exercise:

thinskinned or thick skinned?

Seismic exercise: t hi n ‐ s ki nned or t hi ck s ki nned?

Seismic example:

thinskinned or thick skinned?

Seismic example: t hi n ‐ s ki nned or t hi ck s ki nned?

After Ramos et al. (2002)