On Macedon before Philip II see Hammond and Griffith, History of Macedonia, vol. ii, chs.

1–4 (by Hammond: accepting the Argive origins claimed by the royal family, as other scholars do not, and taking a more formal view than other scholars of the working of the kingdom); Borza, In the Shadow of Olympus. On the reign of Philip see Cawkwell, Philip of Macedon (preceded by various articles, which are cited there: some of these are reprinted in Perlman’s collection, noted below); Ellis, Philip II and Macedonian Imperialism; Hammond and Griffith, History of Macedonia, vol. ii, chs. 5–21 (ch. 20 by Hammond, otherwise by Griffith). Hatzopoulos and Loukopoulos (eds.), Philip of Macedon, contains chapters by experts as well as good pictures. The point that Athens could not make a secret treaty with Philip about Amphipolis was made by G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, ‘The Alleged Secret Pact Between Athens and Philip II Concerning Amphipolis and Pydna’, CQ2 xiii 1963, 110–19 (reprinted in Perlman, ch. 3). On the Third Sacred War see Buckler, Philip II and the Sacred War; the once-popular view that Diodorus had reduplicated a whole year of the war was rebutted by N. G. L. Hammond, ‘Diodorus’ Narrative of the Sacred War’, JHS lvii 1937, 44–78 = his Studies in Greek History, ch. 15 (but he was perhaps wrong not to allow minor doublets). Among many treatments of Athens’ responses to Philip see Harris, Aeschines and Athenian Politics; Sealey, Demosthenes and His Time. Perlman (ed.), Philip and Athens, reprints a number of important articles. On Euboea in the 340’s see P. A. Brunt, ‘Euboea in the Time of Philip II’, CQ2 xix 1969, 245–65; J. M. Carter, ‘Athens, Euboea and Olynthus’, Hist. xx 1971, 418–29. The view championed by Ellis, that in 346 Philip would have preferred to cooperate with Athens against Thebes but was frustrated by Demosthenes, was first advanced by M. M. Markle, ‘The Strategy of Philip in 346 BC’, CQ2 xxiv 1974, 253–68. For Speusippus’ letter see Natoli, The Letter of Speusippus to Philip II. The Eretrian law to protect the democracy is published by D. Knoepfler, ‘Loi d’Érétrie contre la tyrannie et l’oligarchie’, BCH cxxv 2001, 195–238 and cxxvi 2002, 149–204. PHILIP II OF MACEDON 327 On military technology see especially Marsden, Greek and Roman Artillery, i. Historical Development. On the origins of the Fourth Sacred War see P. D. Londey, ‘The Outbreak of the 4th Sacred War’, Chiron xx 1990, 239–60 (not planned by Philip). On the battle of Chaeronea see N. G. L. Hammond, ‘The Two Battles of Chaeronea (338 BC and 86 BC)’, Klio xxxi 1938, 186–218, of which the part on 338 is reprinted in his Studies in Greek History, ch. 16; W. K. Pritchett, ‘Observations on Chaironeia’, AJA2 lxii 1958, 307–11. On Philip’s territorial settlements after the battle see C. Roebuck, ‘The Settlements of Philip II with the Greek States in 338 BC’, CP xliii 1948, 73–102 = his Economy and Society in the Early Greek World, 131–50 (and reprinted in Perlman [ed.], Philip and Athens, ch. 12 – but by a printer’s error there the first half of the article was originally omitted). On the murder of Philip, Alexander was suspected by E. Badian, ‘The Death of Philip II’, Phoen. xvii 1963, 244–50; Olympias by R. Develin, ‘The Murder of Philip II’, Antichthon xv 1981, 86–99; the official verdict was accepted by N. G. L. Hammond, ‘The End of Philip’, in Hatzopoulos and Loukopoulos (eds.), Philip of Macedon, 166–75; Olympias and Alexander are exonerated by E. Carney, ‘The Politics of Polygamy: Olympias, Alexander and the Murder of Philip II’, Hist. xli 1992, 169–89. For tomb II at Vergina as that of Philip and one of his wives see N. G. L. Hammond,

The Letter of Speusippus to Philip II. ch. For the story of Nectanebo’s dream see L. On the Hecatomnids of Caria see Hornblower. Philip II. 241–68. in Heckel and Tritle (eds. ‘Darius III’. Koenen. W. Badian. The ‘satrap stele’ is translated by Bevan.. AHB xiv 2000. 717–18 with 1017–18. Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Heritage. ‘Hermias of Atarneus and His Friendship with Aristotle’. From Cyrus to Alexander. 271–87. and the episode of Khababash is discussed by Briant. Green. 2. N. 149–54.‘The Evidence for the Identity of the Royal Tombs at Vergina’. ii. ‘The Dream of Nektanebos’. 256–66.). ‘Prelude to Alexander: The Reign of Khababash’. Crossroads of History: The Age of Alexander. BASP xxii 1985. HSCP c 2000. Mausolus. and for the reconstruction of the skull as Philip’s skull A. also E. On Hermias of Atarneus see P. S. ‘The Skull from Tomb II at Vergina: King Philip II of Macedon’. In the Shadow of Olympus. Against Diodorus’ account of Bagoas and the Achaemenid royal family see Briant. 171–94. Burstein. for Speusippus’ letter see Natoli. 28–32.). 111–27 = his Collected Studies. JHS civ 1984. . A History of Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dynasty. 60–78. J. Prag et al. From Cyrus to Alexander. in Adams and Borza (eds. in favour of Philip Arrhidaeus and Eurydice see Borza. 769–80 with 1033–4.