MC0076 Q. What do you understand by Information processes data?

Ans :- MIS is an Information system which helps in providing the manage with information which is used by management for decision making.

A management information system (MIS) is a subset of the overall intern covering the application of people, documents, technologies, and proc accountants to solving business problems such as costing a product, se strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular info they are used to analyze other information systems applied in oper organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to th management methods tied to the automation or support of human decisi Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems.

This involved large amount of data and its processing. Since then the exceeded the scientific applications for which the computer were mainly Information system which helps in providing the management of an orga which is used by management for decision making.

The Basic characteristics of an effective Management Information System a

Management-oriented: The basic objective of MIS is to provide info management in the organization for decision making. So an effective MIS from appraisal of management needs, mission and goal of the business individual or collective goals of an organization. The MIS is such that it management in an organization i.e. top, middle and lower level.

Management directed: When MIS is management-oriented, it shoul management because it is the management who tells their needs and requi than anybody else. Manager should guide the MIS professionals not only

but also on development, review and implementation stages so that effect end product of the whole exercise in making an effective MIS.

Integrated: It means a comprehensive or complete view of all the sub syste a company. Development of information must be integrated so that functional information sub systems should be worked together as a single necessary because it leads to retrieval of more meaningful and useful inform

Common data flows: The integration of different sub systems will lead to a will further help in avoiding duplicity and redundancy in data collection, sto example, the customer orders are the basis for many activities in an orga for cashing, etc. Data is collected by a system analyst from its original sou he utilizes the data with minimum number of processing procedures and production output documents and reports in small numbers and eliminat This will lead to elimination of duplication that simplify the operations information system.


An information retrieval process begins when a user enters a query into the system. Queries are formal stateme search strings in web search engines. In information retrieval a query does not uniquely identify a single object in may match the query, perhaps with different de An object is an entity that is represented by information in a database. User queries are matched against the da application the data objects may be, for example, text documents, images,[6] audio,[7] mind maps[8] or videos. Ofte kept or stored directly in the IR system, but are instead represented in the system by d Most IR systems compute a numeric score on how well each object in the database match the query, and rank th top ranking objects are then shown to the user. The process may then be iterated if the user wishes to refine the qu


Q. Describe the Structural Semantic Data Model (SSM examples?

A data model in software engineering is an abstract model that describes how data are rep formally define data elements and relationships among data elements for a domain of intere "A data model is a wayfinding tool for both business and IT professionals, which uses a explain a subset of real information to improve communication within the organization and stable application environment." A data model explicitly determines the structure o applications of data models include database models, design of information systems, and data models are specified in a data modeling language. Communication and precision ar data model important to applications that use and exchange data. A data model is the me from different backgrounds and with different levels of experience can communicate with the terms and rules on a data model can be interpreted only one way and are not ambiguo referred to as a data structure, especially in the context of programming languages. Data function models, especially in the context of enterprise models.

A semantic data model in software engineering is a technique to define the meaning interrelationships with other data. A semantic data model is an abstraction which defines h real world. A semantic data model is sometimes called a conceptual data model. The l management system (DBMS), whether hierarchical, network, or relational, cannot tota conceptual definition of data because it is limited in scope and biased toward the implem DBMS. Therefore, the need to define data from a conceptual view has led to the devel techniques. That is, techniques to define the meaning of data within the context of its in illustrated in the figure. The real world, in terms of resources, ideas, events, etc., are symbo stores. A semantic data model is an abstraction which defines how the stored symbols relat must be a true representation of the real world

Data modeling in software engineering is the process of creating a data model by apply using data modeling techniques. Data modeling is a technique for defining business sometimes called database modeling because a data model is eventually implemented in a d

The figure illustrates the way data models are developed and used today. A conceptual da data requirements for the application that is being developed, perhaps in the context of an normally consist of entity types, attributes, relationships, integrity rules, and the definition as the start point for interface or database design

Data architecture is the design of data for use in defining the target state and the subseque

state. It is usually one of several architecture domains that form the pillars of an architecture.

A data architecture describes the data structures used by a business and/or its application storage and data in motion; descriptions of data stores, data groups and data items; and ma qualities, applications, locations etc.

Essential to realizing the target state, Data architecture describes how data is processed, sto It provides criteria for data processing operations that make it possible to design data flows the system.

Q. What are differences in Centralized and Distribut Systems? List the relative advantages of data di

A distributed database is a database that is under the control of a central (DBMS) in which storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU. It may located in the same physical location, or may be dispersed over a network of inte

Collections of data (e.g. in a database) can be distributed across multiple ph database can reside on network servers on the Internet, on corporate intran company networks. The replication and distribution of databases improves data worksites.

To ensure that the distributive databases are up to date and current, there are duplication. Replication involves using specialized software that looks for chang Once the changes have been identified, the replication process makes all the replication process can be very complex and time consuming depending on distributive databases. This process can also require a lot of time and compute other hand is not as complicated. It basically identifies one database as a m database. The duplication process is normally done at a set time after hours distributed location has the same data. In the duplication process, changes to

allowed. This is to ensure that local data will not be overwritten. Both of the proce in all distributive locations.

Besides distributed database replication and fragmentation, there are many oth technologies. For example, local autonomy, synchronous and asynchronous dist These technologies' implementation can and does depend on the need sensitivity/confidentiality of the data to be stored in the database, and hence the spend on ensuring data security, consistency and integrity. Basic architecture A database User accesses the distributed database through:

Local applications; Applications which do not require data from other sites. Global applications: Applications which do require data from other sites.

A distributed database does not share main memory or disks.

A centralized database has all its data on one place. As it is totally different from data on different places. In centralized database as all the data reside on one p can occur, and data availability is not efficient as in distributed database. Let m distributed database, it will clear the difference between centralized and distribute

Advantages of Data Distribution

The primary advantage of distributed database systems is the ability to share an efficient manner.

Data sharing and Distributed Control:

If a number of different sites are connected to each other, then a user at one si that is available at another site. For example, in the distributed banking system, branch to access data in another branch. Without this capability, a user wish branch to another would have to resort to some external mechanism for s mechanism would, in effect, be a single centralized database.

The primary advantage to accomplishing data sharing by means of data distribu retain a degree of control over data stored locally. In a centralized system, the central site controls the database. In a distributed system, there is a global data for the entire system. A part of these responsibilities is delegated to the local d site. Depending upon the design of the distributed database system, each lo different degree of autonomy which is often a major advantage of distributed data

Reliability and Availability:

If one site fails in distributed system, the remaining sited may be able to continue are replicated in several sites, transaction needing a particular data item may fi failure of a site does not necessarily imply the shutdown of the system.

The failure of one site must be detected by the system, and appropriate action m the failure. The system must no longer use the service of the failed site. Finally, w

is repaired, mechanisms must be available to integrate it smoothly back into the s

Although recovery from failure is more complex in distributed systems than in a c most of the systems to continue to operate despite failure of one site, results in in is crucial for database systems used for real-time applications. Loss of access to may result in the loss of potential ticket buyers to competitors.

Speedup Query Processing:

If a query involves data at several sites, it may be possible to split the query into sub in parallel by several sites. Such parallel computation allows for faster processing of in which data is replicated, queries may be directed by the system to the least heavi

Ethical Issues

In general, many ethical and global issues of Information Technology apply to e-business. So, wha e-commerce? Let’s list some of the ethical issues spawned with the growing field of e-commerce. Web tracking

E-businesses draw information on how visitors use a site through log files. Analysis of log file m service or installing software that can pluck relevant information from files in-house. Companies

tracking software and cookie analysis. Programs such as cookies raise a batch of privacy concerns. cutters, Spam Butcher, etc which can provide users some control over the cookies. The battle between computer end users and web trackers is always going on with a range of

PC’s hard disk, and any time you revisit a website, the computer knows it. Many smart end u

software such as Privacy Guardian, My Privacy, etc can protect user’s online privacy by erasing

cookies. To detect and remove spyware specially designed programs like Ad-Aware are present

collects and combines Internet browsing history of users and sends it to servers. The battle goes on Privacy

Most Electronic Payment Systems knows the identity of the buyer. So it is necessary to prote Electronic Payment System. A privacy issue related to the employees of company is tracking. Monitoring systems are installed

and other web activities in order to identify employees who extensively use business hours for non

activities performed by a buyer can be tracked by organizations. For example, reserving railw

purpose can be tracked. Many employees don’t want to be under the monitoring system even while

As far as brokers and some of the company employees are concerned, E-Commerce puts them in d to offer retraining programs. Disintermediation and Reintermediation

from their jobs. The manner in which employees are treated may raise ethical issues, such as how

Intermediation is one of the most important and interesting e-commerce issue related to los intermediaries are (i) Matching and providing information. (ii) Value added services such as consulting.

The first type of service (matching and providing information) can be fully automated, and this se

and portals that provide free services. The value added service requires expertise and this ca Disintermediation.

phenomenon by which Intermediaries, who provide mainly matching and providing informati

The brokers who provide value added services or who manage electronic intermediation (also k surviving but may actually prosper, this phenomenon is called Reintermediation.

The traditional sales channel will be negatively affected by disintermediation. The services req

commerce are provided by the web as new opportunities for reintermediation. The factors tha more predictable.

enormous number of participants, extensive information processing, delicate negotiations, etc. T

Legal Issues

Where are the headlines about consumers defrauding merchants? What about fraud e-commer

sophistication have grown even faster than the Internet itself. There is a chance of a crime over th committed over the internet. Let’s discuss the legal issues specific to e-commerce. Fraud on the Internet

not know each other and cannot even see each other. During the first few years of e-commerc

E-commerce fraud popped out with the rapid increase in popularity of websites. It is a hot issue

merchants. The swindlers are active mainly in the area of stocks. The small investors are lured b

stock promoters. Auctions are also conductive to fraud, by both sellers and buyers. The availability bogus investments. Copyright

the way for financial criminals to have access to many people. Other areas of potential fraud includ

The copyright laws protect Intellectual property in its various forms, and cannot be used freely. It

property in E-Commerce. For example, if you buy software you have the right to use it and not the

rights are with the copyright holder. Also, copying contents from the website also violates copy righ Domain Names

The competition over domain names is another legal issue. Internet addresses are known as doma

top level name is qburst.comor A second level name will be To

by a central non-profit organization which also checks for conflicts or possible infringement of trad 2001 after several upper level names were added to com.

companies having similar names competing over the same domain name. The problem of doma

Another issue to look out for is Cybersquatting, which refers to the practice of registering domain higher prices.

Security features such as authentication, non-repudiation and escrow services can protect the selle One needs to be careful while doing e-commerce activities. The need to educate the public about e-commerce is highly important from a buyer as well as seller perspective.

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