AP Calculus Formulas
Chapter 1 Functions , Limit and Continuity
1.Elementary functions and its graphs
(1)Power Function y = x
n
, (2)Exponential Function y =e
x
, (3)Logarithmic Function y =log
a
x.
(4)Trigonometric Function y =sinx , cosx , tan x , cotx , secx , csc x .
(5)Inverse Trigonometric Function y =sin
−1
x , cos
−1
x , tan
−1
x , cot
−1
x , sec
−1
x , csc
−1
x .
2. Four Ways to Represent a Function
(1) y =f (x) (2)parametric
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
x＝f (t)
y＝g(t)
(3)ploar r =f (θ) (4)vector r(t)=< f (t) , g(t) >
3. Present the Vertical Line Test for curves in the plane.
2. Some important limits
(1)
x
x
x
sin
lim
0 →
(2)
x
x
x
x
x e
x
1
0
) 1 ( lim )
1
1 ( lim + = = +
→ ∞ →
(3)
0 1
1
1
0 1
1
1
lim
) (
) (
lim
b x b x b x b
a x a x a x a
x Q
x P
n
n
n
n
m
m
m
m
x x
+ + + +
+ + + +
=
−
−
−
−
∞ → ∞ →
L
L
=
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
a
m
b
n
(m = n)
∞ (m > n)
0 (m < n)
Chapter 2 Derivatives
1.(1)
a x
a f x f
h
a f h a f
x
y
a f
a x h x
−
−
=
− +
=
∆
∆
= ′
→ → → ∆
) ( ) (
lim
) ( ) (
lim lim ) (
0 0
(2)One−side derivative
a x
a f x f
h
a f h a f
a f
a x h
−
−
=
− +
= ′
+ +
→ →
+
) ( ) (
lim
) ( ) (
lim ) (
0
a x
a f x f
h
a f h a f
a f
a x h
−
−
=
− +
= ′
− −
→ →
−
) ( ) (
lim
) ( ) (
lim ) (
0
[Remark] :
(1)Geometric interpretation of derivatives
The tangent line of the graph of f (x) at the point P = (a, f (a)) is the line through P whose slope is
the limit of the secant slopes as a nearby point Q approaches P. This limit is the derivative ) (a f ′ of
f at a. The equation for the tangent line to f (x) at the (a, f (a)) is then given by
y = f (a) + ) (a f ′ • (x − a).
(2)Physical interpretation of derivatives
The derivative can also be interpreted as the instantaneous rate of change, for example, the
velocity of a moving object at the instant t.
2.Theorem
If a function f is differentiable at x = c, then f is continuous at x = c..
[Remark]
Differentiability implies continuity, where continuity doesn’t imply differentiability.
3.Derivative formulas of basic elementary functions
(1)
1 −
=
r r
rx x
dx
d
, r∈R. (2)
x x
e e
dx
d
= ; a a a
dx
d
x x
ln =
(3) 0 ,
1
ln > = x
x
x
dx
d
; 0 ,
ln
1
log > = x
a x
x
dx
d
a
;
dx
du
u
u
dx
d
× =
1
) ln( .
(4) x x
dx
d
cos sin = ; x x
dx
d
sin cos − = ; x x
dx
d
2
sec tan = ;
x x
dx
d
2
csc cot − = ; x x x
dx
d
tan sec sec = ; x x x
dx
d
cot csc csc − = ;
(5)
2
1
1
1
sin
x
x
dx
d
−
=
−
;
2
1
1
1
cos
x
x
dx
d
−
− =
−
;
2
1
1
1
tan
x
x
dx
d
+
=
−
;
2
1
1
1
cot
x
x
dx
d
+
− =
−
;
1  
1
sec
2
1
−
=
−
x x
x
dx
d
;
1  
1
csc
2
1
−
− =
−
x x
x
dx
d
;
4.Operations：(1) ) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( ( x g
dx
d
x f
dx
d
x g x f
dx
d
± = ±
(2) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( ( x g x f x f x g x g x f
dx
d
′ × + ′ × =
(3)
2
)) ( (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
x g
x g x f x f x g
x g
x f
dx
d ′ × − ′ ×
=
5. Chain Rule
If g is differentiable at x and f is differentiable at g(x), then the composite function defined by f。g
= f (g(x)) is differentiable at x and ) ( )) ( ( )) ( ( x g x g f x g f
dx
d
′ × ′ = .
If y = f (u) and u = g(x) are both differentiable function then
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
× = .
Common forms of the Chain Rule:
(1)It can combine chain rule with product rule, quotient rule,...
(2)Power Rule combined with Chain Rule : if r is any real number and u = g(x) is differentiable
, then :
1
) (
−
× =
n n
u n u
dx
d
or ) ( )) ( ( )) ( (
1
x g x g n x g
dx
d
n n
′ × × =
−
Example : Evaluate the derivatives of the following using the Chain Rule
1.y = (x
3
− 1)
100
2. y =e
tanx
3.y = ln(sin x)
6. Implicit Differentiation
An implicit function is defined implicitly by a relation between x and y. (It is not of the usual form
y = f (x).) For an implicit function, it is not necessary to solve the equation for y in terms of x to
find the derivative of y. Implicit differentiation consists of differentiating both sides of the
equation with respect to x and then solving the resulting equation for
dx
dy
y = ′ .
Example : Find
dx
dy
using implicit differentiation
1.x
3
+ y
3
= 3xy 2.sin( x + y)= cosx
7. Logarithmic Differentiation Steps
(1). Take ln( ) of both sides of the equation and use log Properties to simplify
(2). Differentiate implicitly with respect to x
(3). Solve the resulting equation for y′ .
8.Inverse function
Suppose that ) (x f ′ > 0 or ) (x f ′ < 0 for all x in an open interval I containing c, so that there is an
inverse function g to f , defined on an open interval containing f (c) = d , with g (d) = c.Then g is
differentiable at d and
)) ( (
1
) (
1
) (
d g f x f
d g
′
=
′
= ′ .
9.Parametric differentaition
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy
=
,
dt
dx
dx
dy
dt
d
dx
y d
) (
2
2
=
10.Polar differentaition
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
sin cos ) (
cos sin ) (
r f
r f
dx
dy
− ′
+ ′
=
11. vector derivatives
> ′ ′ =< ′ ) ( ), ( ) ( t g t f t r
Chapter 3 Differentiation and its applications
1. Maximum and Minimum Values
A function f has an absolute maximum (or global maximum) at c if f (c) ≥ f (x) for all x in D,
where D is the domain of f . The number f (c) is called the maximum value of f on D.
Similarly, f has an absolute minimum at c if f (c) ≤ f (x) for all x in D and number f (c) is alled the
minimum value of f on D. The maximum and minimum values of f are called the extreme values
of f .
A function f has a local maximum (or relative maximum) at c if f (c) ≥ f (x) when x is near c .
[This means that f (c) ≥ f (x) for all x in some open interval containing c .]
Similarly, f has a local minimum at c if f (c) ≤ f (x) when x is near c .
2.The Extreme Value Theorem
If a realvalued function f is continuous in the closed and bounded interval [a,b], then f must attain
its maximum and minimum value.
3.Fermat’s Theorem
If f has a local maximum or minimum at c , and if ) (c f ′ exists, then ) (c f ′ = 0 .
4.Critical Number
A critical number of a function f is a number c in the domain of f such that either ) (c f ′ =0 or ) (c f ′
does not exist.
[Remark] If f has a local maximum or minimum at c , then c is a critical number of f .
5.The Closed Interval Method
To find the absolute maximum and minimum values of a continuous function f on a closed interval
[a,b] :
(1) Find the values of f at the critical numbers of f in (a,b).
(2) Find the values of f at the endpoints of the interval.
(3) The largest of the values from Steps 1 and 2 is the absolute maximum value, the smallest of
these values is the absolute minimum value.
6. Increasing/Decreasing Test
(1) If ) (x f ′ > 0 on an interval, then f is increasing on that interval.
(2) If ) (x f ′ < 0 on an interval, then f is decreasing on that interval.
[Remark]:
A function ) (x f is said to be monotonic increasing ( resp. monotonic decreasing ) or simply
increasing ( resp. decreasing ) on an interval I if and only if I x , x ∈ ∀
2 1
, if
2 1
x x < then
) ( ) (
2 1
x f x f ≤ (resp. I x , x ∈ ∀
2 1
, if
2 1
x x < , then ) ( ) (
2 1
x f x f ≥ ).
7. The First Derivative Test
Suppose that c is a critical number of a continuous function f .
(1) If f ′ changes from positive to negative at c , then f has a local maximum at c .
(2) If f ′ changes from negative to positive at c , then f has a local minimum at c .
(3) If f ′ 'does not change sign at c , then f has no local maximum or minimum at c .
8.Definition
If the graph of f lies above all of its tangents on an interval I, then it is called concave upward on
I. If the graph of f lies below all of its tangents on I, it is called concave downward on I.
9.Concavity Test
(1) If ) (x f ′ >0 for all x in I, then the graph of f is concave upward on I.
(2) If ) (x f ′ <0 for all x in I, then the graph of f is concave downward on I.
10. Definition
A point P on a curve y = f (x) is called an inflection point if f is continuous there and the curve
changes from concave upward to concave downward or from concave downward to concave
upward at P.
11.The Second Derivative Test
Suppose ) (c f ′ ′ is continuous near c .
(1) If ) (c f ′ =0 and ) (c f ′ ′ > 0 , then f has a local minimum at c .
(2) If ) (c f ′ =0 and ) (c f ′ ′ < 0 , then f has a local maximum at c .
(3) If ) (c f ′ =0 and ) (c f ′ ′ = 0 , then the test is inconclusive.
12. Theorem (Rolle's Theorem) Let f : [a, b]→ R be continuous on[a, b]and differentiable on (a,
b), and f (a) = f (b), then there exists some c∈(a, b) such that ) (c f ′ = 0.
[Remark] :
This means that if the graph of a function is equal at two points, then there must be at least one
point on the graph where the tangent is horizontal .
13. Theorem (Mean Value Theorem)Let f : [a, b]→ R be continuous on[a, b]and differentiable on
(a, b), and f (a) = f (b), then there exists some c∈(a, b) such that
a b
a f b f
c f
−
−
= ′
) ( ) (
) ( .
14. Corollary If 0 ) ( = ′ x f at each c∈(a, b), then f (x) is constant on (a, b).
Proof: Take any two points x
1
and x
2
, with x
1
< x
2
, in (a, b). Since f is differentiable on (a, b), it
must also be di_erentiable on [x
1
, x
2
].
This means we can apply the Mean Value Theorem on [x
1
, x
2
] and get f (x
2
) − f (x
1
)= ) (c f ′ •( x
2
− x
1
)
where x
1
< c < x
2
. But by assumption 0 ) ( = ′ x f for all x in (a, b) and so in particular we have ) (c f ′
= 0. Putting this into the equation above gives f (x
2
) − f (x
1
) = 0 and hence f (x
2
) = f (x
1
). Now since
x
1
and x
2
are any two points in the interval (a, b), we conclude that f is a constant over (a, b).
15. Indeterminate Forms and L'Hospital's Rule
The general, systematic method for determining limits with the indeterminate form
0
0
. Suppose
that f and g are differentiable functions at x = a and that
) (
) (
lim
x g
x f
a x→
is an indeterminate form of the
type
0
0
; that is, 0 ) ( lim =
→
x f
a x
and 0 ) ( lim =
→
x g
a x
.Since f and g are differentiable functions at x = a,
then f and gare continuous at x = a; that is, ) (a f = 0 ) ( lim =
→
x f
a x
and ) (a g = 0 ) ( lim =
→
x g
a x
.
Furthermore, since f and g are differentiable functions at x = a, then = ′ ) (a f
a x
a f x f
a x
−
−
→
) ( ) (
lim and
= ′ ) (a g
a x
a g x g
a x
−
−
→
) ( ) (
lim . Thus, if 0 ) ( ≠ ′ a g , then
) (
) (
lim
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
lim
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
lim
) (
) (
lim
x g
x f
a g
a f
a x
a g x g
a x
a f x f
a g x g
a f x f
x g
x f
a x a x a x a x
′
′
=
′
′
=
−
−
−
−
=
−
−
=
→ → → →
if f ′ and g′ are
continuous at x = a. This illustrates a special case of the technique known as
L’Hospital’s Rule.
L’Hospital’s Rule for Form
0
0
Suppose that f and g are differentiable functions on an open interval containing x = a,
except possibly at x = a, and that 0 ) ( lim =
→
x f
a x
and 0 ) ( lim =
→
x g
a x
. If
) (
) (
lim
x g
x f
a x
′
′
→
has a finite
limit, or if this limit is ∞ + or ∞ − , then
) (
) (
lim
) (
) (
lim
x g
x f
x g
x f
a x a x
′
′
=
→ →
. Moreover, this statement
is also true in the case of a limit as , , , −∞ → → →
+ −
x a x a x or as . +∞ → x
Note :
Indeterminate forms of the type ∞ ⋅ 0 can sometimes be evaluated by rewriting the product as a
quotient, and then applying L’Hospital’s Rule for the indeterminate forms of type
0
0
or
∞
∞
.
※L’Hôpital’s Rule applied to the indeterminate form
∞
∞
⇒ Still use
) ( '
) ( '
lim
) (
) (
lim
x g
x f
x g
x f
c x c x → →
= .
Exercises
Let
x
e
e
x
x f = ) ( for 0 > x .Find the greatest value of ) (x f .Hence show that
e
e π
π
> .
Chapter 4 Integration
For any differentiable function f it is always the case that ( ) ( ) f x f x dx ′ =
∫
meaning that the
function f is a member of the family ( ) f x dx ′
∫
.
∫
= c dx 0
1 1
1 1
r r
r r
d x x
x x dx C
dx r r
+ +
= ⇒ = +
+ +
∫
for any constant 1 r ≠ . Notice that when 0 r = , the formula
reduces to 1dx x C = +
∫
or just dx x C = +
∫
.
1
ln
d
x
dx x
= ⇒
1
ln
dx
x dx x C
x
−
= = +
∫ ∫
x x
d
e e
dx
= ⇒
x x
e dx e C = +
∫
sin cos cos sin
d
x x xdx x C
dx
= ⇒ = +
∫
[ ] cos sin sin cos
d
x x xdx x C
dx
− = ⇒ = − +
∫
2 2
tan sec sec tan
d
x x xdx x C
dx
= ⇒ = +
∫
[ ]
2 2
cot csc csc cot
d
x x xdx x C
dx
− = ⇒ = − +
∫
sec sec tan sec tan sec
d
x x x x xdx x C
dx
= ⇒ = +
∫
[ ] csc csc cot csc cot csc
d
x x x x xdx x C
dx
− = ⇒ = − +
∫
In fact every differentiation formula provides an integration formula. Consider the differentiation
formula ( ) ( ) c
d d
cf x f x
dx dx
= (
¸ ¸
. This is a statement that two derivatives are equal. So the families
of antiderivatives are also the same families. Therefore ( ) ( ) cf x dx c f x dx = (
¸ ¸ ∫ ∫
. In the same
manner,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d d d
f x g x f x g x
dx dx dx
± = ± (
¸ ¸
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x g x dx f x dx g x dx ⇒ ± = ± (
¸ ¸ ∫ ∫ ∫
.
For reference, number these formulae as
11. ( ) ( ) cf x dx c f x dx = (
¸ ¸ ∫ ∫
12. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x g x dx f x dx g x dx ± = ± (
¸ ¸ ∫ ∫ ∫
Example Evaluate
( )
6
6 t t dt −
∫
Solution:
( )
6 6
6 6 t t dt t dt t dt − = −
∫ ∫ ∫
(Formula 12)
6
6 tdt tdt = −
∫ ∫
(Formula 11)
1 1
6 2
6 t dt t dt = −
∫ ∫
(Algebra)
7 3
6 2
6
3 7
2 6
t t
C
 

= − +

\ ¹
(Formula 2)
7 3
6 2
6
4
7
t t C = − + (Arithmetic)
Chapter 5 Integration applications
1.(Part I)The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Let ƒ be a continuous realvalued function defined on a closed interval [a, b]. Let F be the
function defined, for all x in [a, b], by
∫
=
x
a
dt t f x F ) ( ) ( .Then, F is continuous on [a, b],
differentiable on the open interval (a, b), and ) ( ) ( x f x F = ′ for all x in (a, b).
Proof：Note that
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x h x x h
a a x
f t dt f t dt f t dt
F x h F x
h h h
+ +
−
+ −
= =
∫ ∫ ∫
∵
( )
min max
x h
x
f t dt
f f
h
+
≤ ≤
∫
according to Mean Value Theorem ∃ [ , ]
h
c x x h ∈ + such that
0 0
0 0
( )
( )
( )
lim lim ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) lim lim ( )
x h
x
h
x h
x
h
h h
x h x
x
a a
a h h
f t dt
f c
h
f t dt
f c f x
h
f t dt f t dt
dF d F x h F x
f t dt f x a x b
dx dx h h
+
+
→ →
+
→ →
=
⇒ = =
−
+ −
⇒ = = = = ≤ ≤
∫
∫
∫ ∫
∫
If f is continuous on [ ]
, a b then ( ) ( )
x
a
F x f t dt =
∫
is continuous on [ ]
, a b and differentiable
on ( ) , a b and its derivative is ( ) f x . ( ) ( ) ( ) '
x
a
d
F x f t dt f x
dx
= =
∫
Proof:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
x h x x h
a a x
x h
x
F x h F x f t dt f t dt f t dt
F x h F x
f t dt
h h
+ +
+
+ − = − − =
+ −
=
∫ ∫ ∫
∫
This is the average value of the function and means that there is some value between x and
x h + such that ( ) ( )
1
x h
x
f t dt f c
h
+
=
∫
.
As 0 h → , x h x + → , forcing c to approach x also (because c is trapped between x and
x h + . Since f is continuous at x , ( ) f c approaches ( ) f x : ( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f c f x
→
= .
Going back to the beginning, then we have
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0
1
lim lim lim
x h
h h h
x
F x h F x
dF
f t dt f c f x
dx h h
+
→ → →
+ −
= = = =
∫
.
Notice:
The chain rule dictates that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) u x
a
d
f t dt f u x u x
dx
(
′ = ⋅
(
¸ ¸
∫
2. (Part 2) Let f be a continuous function on [
) ( ) ( x f x F = ′ on (a, b). Then
∫
b
a
Proof： Define ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
x
a
G x f t dt F x G x c =
∫
( ) ( ) [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ] ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 ( ) F b F a G b c G a c f t dt f t dt f t dt f t dt − = + − + = − = − =
3. Equations of Curves are represented in Rectangular Form
Let A denote the area ( or total area) of the shaded region.
Theorem The area enclosed by the graph of
b x = is equal to
Theorem The area enclosed by the graph of
d y = is equal to
4. Equations of Curves are in parametric Form
It is known that the area between the curve
given by dx
∫
b
a
y .
(Part 2) Let f be a continuous function on [a, b]. Suppose that F is continuous on [
∫
− =
b
a
a F b F dt x f ) ( ) ( ) ( .
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) G x f t dt F x G x c ⇒ = +
( ) ( ) [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ] ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 ( )
b a b b
a a a a
F b F a G b c G a c f t dt f t dt f t dt f t dt − = + − + = − = − =
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
Equations of Curves are represented in Rectangular Form
denote the area ( or total area) of the shaded region.
The area enclosed by the graph of ) x ( f y = == = , the xaxis and the lines
is equal to dx ) (
∫
b
a
x f or dx
∫
b
a
y .
The area enclosed by the graph of ) y ( g x = == = , the xaxis and the lines
is equal to dy ) (
∫
d
c
y g or dy
∫
d
c
x .
Equations of Curves are in parametric Form
It is known that the area between the curve ) (x f y = and the lines a x = ,
]. Suppose that F is continuous on [a, b] and that
( ) ( ) [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ] ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 ( )
b a b b
a a a a
F b F a G b c G a c f t dt f t dt f t dt f t dt
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
axis and the lines a x = and
axis and the lines c y = and
, b x = and 0 = y is
If the equation of the curve is in parametric form
¹
´
¦
=
=
) (
) (
t G y
t F x
,
where t is a parameter, and if
,
;
b x when t
a x when t
= =
= =
β
α
) ( ' t F
dt
dx
= is a continuous function on ] , [ β α , and ) ( ' t F does not change sign is in ) , ( β α ,
then the area of the region bounded by the curve
¹
´
¦
=
=
) (
) (
t G y
t F x
, the xaxis and the lines a x = ,
b x = is dt ) ( ' dt ) ( ' ) ( t x y t F t G
∫ ∫
=
β
α
β
α
. ( Integration by substitution )
This formula is also true when if β α > . In this case 0 ) ( ' ≤ = t F
dt
dx
for all ) , ( α β ∈ t .
5.Arc Lengths
(1)Equations of curves are in Rectangular Form
Theorem If a curve ) (x f y = has a continuous derivative on ] , [ b a , then the length of the curve
from a x = to b x = is given by dx
dx
dy
1 dx )) ( ' ( 1
2
2
∫ ∫

¹

\

+ = +
b
a
b
a
x f .
Remark：If the equation of the curve is in the form ) y ( g x = == = , then the length of the arc between
c y = and d y = is given by dy
dy
dx
1 dy )) ( ' ( 1
2
2
∫ ∫ 

¹

\

+ = +
d
c
d
c
x g .
6. Equations of Curves are in Parametric Form
Theorem When a function is expressed in parametric form ) (t f x = and ) (t g y = , the arc length
s of the curve from a t = to b t = is given by dt )) ( ' ( )) ( ' (
2 2
∫
+ =
b
a
t g t f s .
7. Disc Method
(1)Theorem Let ) (x f y = be a continuous function defined on ] , [ b a , and S be the region
ounded by the curve ) (x f y = , the lines a x = , b x = and the xaxis. Then the volume V of the
solid generated by revolving the region S one complete revolution about the xaxis is given by
[ ] dx ) ( dx
2
2
∫ ∫
= =
b
a
b
a
x f y V π π .
Remark In parametric form
¹
´
¦
=
=
) (
) (
t g y
t h x
, the volume of solid of resolution generated by
revolving the region enclosed by the graph, xaxis and from
1
t to
2
t about xaxis.
dt ) ( ' )) ( (
2
1
2
t h t g V
t
t
∫
= π
(2)Theorem Let ) (x f y = be a continuous function defined on ] , [ b a , and S be the region
bounded by the curve ) (x f y = , the lines a x = , b x = and h y = . Then the volume V of the
solid generated by revolving the region S one complete revolution about the h y = is given by
[ ] dx ) ( dx ) (
2
2
∫ ∫
− = − =
b
a
b
a
h x f h y V π π
Example Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the cycloid
) sin ( t t a x − = , ) cos 1 ( t a y − = , where 0 > a and π 2 0 ≤ ≤ t , and the xaxis about the xaxis.
8. Theorem Let f be a function continuous on ] , [ b a . If the area bounded by the graph of
) (x f , the xaxis and the lines a x = and b x = is revolved about the yaxis, the volume V of
solid generated is
∫
b
a
x xf dx ) ( 2π .
9. Theorem Suppose ) (x f y = has a continuous derivative on ] , [ b a . Then the area S of the
surface of revolution by the arc of the curve ) (x f y = between a x = and b x = about the
xaxis is
S = [ ] dx ) ( ' 1 ) ( 2
2
x f x f
b
a
+
∫
π = dx 1 2
2

¹

\

+
∫
dx
dy
y
b
a
π
Remark The corresponding formula for the area of the surface of revolution obtained by
revolving an arc of a curve ) ( y g x = from c y = to d y = about the yaxis is
S = [ ] dy ) ( ' 1 ) ( 2
2
y g y g
d
c
+
∫
π = dy 1 2
2


¹

\

+
∫
dy
dx
x
d
c
π
Theorem If a portion of the curve of parametric equations ) (t x x = , ) (t y y = between the points
corresponding to
1
t and
2
t is revolved about the xaxis, the surface area S is
S = dt )] ( ' [ )] ( ' [ ) ( 2 ds ) ( 2
2
1
2
1
2 2
∫ ∫
+ =
t
t
t
t
t y t x t y t y π π .
Chapter 6 Sequence and Series
1.Definition: A sequence can be written as a list of numbers in a definite order like
L L , , , , ,
3 2 1 n
a a a a The number
1
a is called the first term,
2
a is the second term, and in general
n
a is the nth term . In this section we will consider infinite sequence having infinitely many terms.
We represent an infinite sequence by { L L , , , , ,
3 2 1 n
a a a a } or
∞
=1
} {
n n
a or simply by } {
n
a .
2. Convergence and Divergence of a sequence:
A sequence {
n
a } is convergent if L a
n
n
=
∞ →
lim exists, otherwise the sequence is divergent.
3.Theorem 1. If 0 lim =
∞ →
n
n
a , then 0 lim =
∞ →
n
n
a
4.Increasing and Decreasing sequence:
A sequence {
n
a } is called increasing if
1 +
<
n n
a a for all 1 ≥ n . It called decreasing if
1 +
>
n n
a a
for all 1 ≥ n . It is called monotonic if it is either increasing or decreasing.
5. Theorem Every bounded, monotonic sequence is convergent.
6. Arithmetic and geometric sequences
(1)A sequence of the form L L , ) 1 ( , , 3 , 2 , , d n a d a d a d a a − + + + + is an arithmetic sequence,
where a is the first term and d is the common difference.
(2)A sequence of the form L L , , , , , ,
1 3 2 − n
ar ar ar ar a is a geometric sequence, where a is the
first term and r is the common ratio.
7. An infinite series can be written as L L + + + + + =
∑
∞
=
n
n
n
a a a a a
3 2 1
1
(1) Arithmetic and geometric series
○1 A series of the form L L ) ) 1 ( ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) ( d n a d a d a d a a − + + + + + + + + + is an arithmetic
series, where a is the first term and d is the common difference. The partial sum of n terms of an
arithmetic series is given by d n a l where l a
n
a a a a a
n
n
i
i
) 1 ( ), (
2
1 1 3 2 1
1
− + = + = + + + + =
∑
=
L , the
nth term.
○2 A series of the form L L + + + + + +
−1 3 2 n
ar ar ar ar a is a geometric series, where a is the
first term and r is the common ratio. The partial sum of n terms of a geometric series is given by
1
1
1 3 2 1
1
−
−
= + + + + =
∑
=
r
r
a a a a a a
n
n
n
i
i
L .
8. Convergent series Given a series L L + + + + + =
∑
∞
=
n
n
n
a a a a a
3 2 1
1
. Suppose
n n
a a a a s + + + + = L
3 2 1
be the partial sum of n terms of the infinite series then if } {
n
s is a
convergent sequence and s s
n
n
=
∞ →
lim exists as a real number, the series written as
s a a a a a
n
n
n
= + + + + + =
∑
∞
=
L L
3 2 1
1
is also a convergent series. The number s is called the sum of
the series. Otherwise the series is divergent.
9. Convergent Geometric series
The geometric series L L + + + + + + =
−
∞
=
−
∑
1 3 2
1
1 n
n
n
ar ar ar ar a ar is convergent if 1 < r and
its sum is given by
r
a
ar
n
n
−
=
∑
∞
=
−
1
1
1
. The geometric series is divergent if 1 ≥ r
10.The n
th
Term Test for divergence
If
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a converges, then
n
n
a
∞ →
lim =0.
[Remark] : If
n
n
a
∞ →
lim does not exist or if 0 lim ≠
∞ →
n
n
a then the series is divergent.
11.Properties of Series If
∑ n
a and
∑ n
b are convergent series, then
(1) constant. a is ,
1 1
c a c ca
n
n
n
n ∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
=
(2)
∑ ∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
∞
=
+ = +
1 1 1
) (
n
n
n
n
n
n n
b a b a
(3)
∑ ∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
∞
=
− = −
1 1 1
) (
n
n
n
n
n
n n
b a b a
12. The integral test
Suppose f is continuous, positive decreasing function on [1, ∞] and let ) (n f a
n
= then the series
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is convergent if and only if the improper integral
∫
∞
1
) ( dx x f is convergent. Otherwise it will
be divergent.
13. The p – series
The p – series
∑
∞
=1
1
n
p
n
is convergent if p > 1. Otherwise it is divergent.
[Remark] : Find p so that
∑
∞
=2
) (ln
1
n
p
n n
. For convergence
∞
−
∞ → ∞ →
∞
(
¸
(
¸
−
= =
∫ ∫
2
1
2 2
1
) (ln
lim
) (ln
1
lim
) (ln
1
p
x
dx
x x
dx
x x
p
b
b
p
b
p
must exist.
The integral will exist if 1 0 1 > ⇒ < − p p .
14. Comparison Test
If
∑
∞
=1
n
n
b converges and
n n
b a ≤ then
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a converges.
If
∑
∞
=1
n
n
b diverges and
n n
b a ≥ then
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a converges.
15.Limit Comparison Test
Let
n
n
n
b
a
∞ →
lim = 0. If c ≠ 0, then
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a and
∑
∞
=1
n
n
b both converge or both diverge.
If c = 0, and
∑
∞
=1
n
n
b converges, then
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a converges
If c →∞ and
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a diverges, then
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a diverges
16. Ratio Test
Let r
a
a
n
n
n
=
+
∞ →
1
lim .
If r < 1,
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a converges.
If r > 1,
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a diverges
If r = 1, test fails
17.Root Test
Let r a
n
n
n
=
∞ →
lim .
If r < 1,
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a converges.
If r > 1,
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a diverges
If r = 1, test fails
18. The alternating series test
An alternating series is a series whose terms are alternately positive and negative. An alternating
series
∑
∞
=
−
0
) 1 (
n
n
n
b is convergent if( i)
n n
b b ≤
+1
and (ii) 0 lim =
∞ →
n
n
b , for all n and 0 >
n
b
Estimation: If
∑
∞
=
−
− =
0
1
) 1 (
n
n
n
b s is the sum of an alternating series, with( i)
n n
b b ≤ ≤
+1
0 and
(ii) 0 lim =
∞ →
n
n
b then
1 +
≤ − =
n n n
b s s R .
19. The Absolute convergence: Ratio and root test
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is called absolutely convergent if the series of absolute values
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is convergent.
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is called conditionally convergent if the series is convergent but not absolutely convergent
Theorem If a series
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is absolutely convergent then the series is convergent.
The ratio test:
(1)If 1 lim
1
< =
+
∞ →
L
a
a
n
n
n
, then the series
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is absolutely convergent and therefore convergent.
(2)If 1 lim
1
> =
+
∞ →
L
a
a
n
n
n
, or ∞ =
+
∞ →
n
n
n
a
a
1
lim then the series
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is divergent
(3)If 1 lim
1
= =
+
∞ →
L
a
a
n
n
n
, then the ratio test is inconclusive.
The root test:
(1)If 1 lim < =
∞ →
L a
n
n
n
, then the series
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is absolutely convergent and therefore convergent.
(2)If 1 lim > =
∞ →
L a
n
n
n
, or ∞ =
+
∞ →
n
n
n
a
a
1
lim then the series
∑
∞
=1 n
n
a is divergent
(3)If 1 lim = =
∞ →
L a
n
n
n
, then the root test is inconclusive.
20. The Power Series
A power series is a series of the form
∑
∞
=
+ + + =
0
2
2 1 0
n
n
n
x c x c c x c L where x is a variable and
s c
n
' are called the coefficients of the series. The sum of a power series is a function
L + + + =
2
2 1 0
) ( x c x c c x f whose domain is the set of all x for which the series is convergent.
A power series of the form
∑
∞
=
+ − + − + = −
0
2
2 1 0
) ( ) ( ) (
n
n
n
a x c a x c c a x c Lis power series in (x – a)
or a power series centered at a or a power series about a.
Theorem: The power series
∑
∞
=
+ − + − + = −
0
2
2 1 0
) ( ) ( ) (
n
n
n
a x c a x c c a x c Lmay have three
possibilities:
the series converges for x = a
the series converges for all x
There exists R > 0 such that the series converges if x – a  < R, diverges for
x – a  > R， the number R is called the radius of convergence.
There four possibilities of interval of convergence a) I = (a – R, a + R), b) ) I = (a – R, a + R], c)
I = [a – R, a + R), d) ) I = [a – R, a + R]
21. Representation of a function as a Power Series
1.
∑
∞
=
= + + + + + + + = =
0
4 3 2
! ! ! 4 ! 3 ! 2 ! 1
1 ) (
n
n n
x
n
x
n
x x x x x
e x f L L , R = 1, ) , ( ∞ −∞ = I
2. 1 , 1 ) 1 (
1
1
) (
0
4 3 2 1
< = + + + + + + = − =
−
=
∑
∞
=
−
x x x x x x x x
x
x f
n
n n
L L , R = 1
3. 1 , ) 1 ( 1 ) 1 (
1
1
) (
0
4 3 2 1
= − = + − + − + − = + =
+
=
∑
∞
=
−
R x x x x x x x
x
x f
n
n n n
L L ,
4.
∑
∞
=
− −
− = − + + − + − = + =
1
1 1
4 3 2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
4 3 2
) 1 ln( ) (
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x x x x
x x x f L L , R = 1,
5.
∑
∞
=
− = − − − − − − = − =
1
4 3 2
4 3 2
) 1 ln( ) (
n
n n
n
x
n
x x x x
x x x f L L , R = 1
6.
∑
∞
=
+ +
+
− =
+
− + + − + − = =
1
1 2 1 2 7 5 3
)! 1 2 (
) 1 (
)! 1 2 (
) 1 (
! 7 ! 5 ! 3
sin ) (
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x x x x
x x x f L L
7.
∑
∞
=
− = + − + + − + − = =
1
2 2 6 4 2
)! 2 (
) 1 (
)! 2 (
) 1 (
! 6 ! 4 ! 2
1 cos ) (
n
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x x x x
x x f L L
22. Differentiation and integration of power series:
The sum of a power series is a function
∑
∞
=
+ − + − + − + − + = − =
0
4
4
3
3
2
2 1 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
n
n
n
a x c a x c a x c a x c c a x c x f L whose domain is
the interval of convergence of the series.
Theorem The power series
∑
∞
=
− =
0
) ( ) (
n
n
n
a x c x f has radius of convergence R > 0, then the
function is differentiable and therefore continuous on the interval (a – R, a + R).
Observe that
(1)
∑
∞
=
−
+ − + − + − + = − = ′
1
3
4
2
3 2 1
1
) ( 4 ) ( 3 ) ( 2 ) ( ) (
n
n
n
a x c a x c a x c c a x nc x f L
(2)
∑
∫
∞
=
+
+
−
+
−
+ + =
+
−
+ =
0
3
2
2
1 0
1
3
) (
2
) (
1
) (
) (
n
n
n
a x
c
a x
c x c c
n
a x
c c dx x f L
(3)
∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
− = −
0 0
) ( ) (
n n
n
n
n
n
a x c
dx
d
a x c
dx
d
(4) dx a x c dx a x c
n n
n
n
n
n ∑ ∑
∫ ∫
∞
=
∞
=
− = −
0 0
) ( ) (
Calculus Operations on a Power Series
If we define a function f(x) on the interval of convergence of a power series:
( ) ( )
0
k
k
k
f x b x c
∞
=
= −
∑
, then we can obtain the derivative and integral of the function by
differentiating or integrating each term of the power series.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 3
0 1 2 3
2
1 2 3
1
1
2 3
k
k
k
d
f x b b x c b x c b x c
dx
b b x c b x c
k b x c
∞
−
=
′ = + − + − + − +
= + − + − +
= ⋅ −
∑
K
K
And
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 3
0 1 2 3
2 3 4
0 1 2 3
1
1
1 1 1
2 3 4
1
1
I
k
k I
k
f x dx b b x c b x c b x c dx
b x b x c b x c b x c K
b x c K
k
∞
+
=
= + − + − + − +
= + − + − + − + +
= ⋅ − +
+
∫ ∫
∑
K
K
Note: These formulas only apply to power series, and not to any series in general.