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INTRODUCTION Health Professionals such as nurses doctors, Pharmacist and many others are regulated and licensed by regulatory bodies as required by provincial legislation. All nurses are required to be licensed to practice with their designated provincial nursing regulatory body. Legal responsibility in nursing practice is becoming of greater importance as each year passes. In order to provide safe and competent nursing care an understanding of legal boundaries is very essential. It is important to know the law in one state and the authorities enforcing these laws. VITAL ROLE OF REGULATORY BODIES To ensure the publics light to quality health care service. To support and assist professional members. Set and enforce standards of nursing practice. Monitor and enforce standards for nursing education. Monitor and enforce standards of nursing practice. Set the requirements for registration of nursing professionals. Nursing regulatory bodies also known as colleges or associations, are responsible for the licensing of nurses with in their respective provinces territory. The Nursing Regulatory bodies receives their authority from legislation. MAJOR TYPES OF REGULATORY BODIES

The central government. The state government Institutional Rules Trained Nurses Association of India International council for Nurses American Nurses Association Canadian Nurses Association National League for Nursing ROLE OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT The central government is a source of regulatory body in three ways, through. 1) Government service conduct rules 2) The Indian Nursing council Act 3) The English law THE GOVERNMENT SERVICE CONDUCT RULES These are detailed rules of conduct for are government employees. Examples of these are the requirement to maintain absolute integrity, devotion to duty and high standards of moral behaviour. Only a few are applicable to the nursing practice, but all would be applicable to the practice of a nurse employed by the government.

INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL ACT The Indian Nursing Council, which was authorised by the Indian Nursing Council Act of 1947, was established In 1949 for the purpose providing uniform standards in nursing education and reciprocity in nursing registration throughout the country. The only national legislation directly related to nursing practice, also provides a basis from which rules for nursing practice can be developed. Among other responsibilities, this Act gives authority to the Indian Nursing Council for prescribing curricula for nursing education and recognising qualifications of institutions with teaching programmes for nursing. This means that the INC has authority to control nursing education and what the nurse is prepared to do. It is important because legal responsibility does finally depend upon what you should be able to do and how you should do it as well as what you are not prepared to do. The INC uses this authority in nursing education but it delegates authority for control of nursing practice to the State Nurses Registration Councils. INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL

The Indian Nursing Council was authorized by the Indian Nursing Act of 1947. It was established in 1949 to providing uniform standards in nursing education and reciprocity in nursing registration through out the country. Nurses registered in one stat were not necessarily recognized for registration in another state before this time. The Condition of mutual recognition by the state Nurses Registration Councils, which is called reciprocity, was possible only if uniform standards of nursing education were maintained. FUNCTIONS OF INC

1) It provide uniform standards of in nursing education and reciprocity in nursing registration. 2) It has authority to prescribe curriculum for nursing education in all states. 3) It has authority to recognize programme for nursing education or to refuse recognition of a programme if it did not meet the standards required by the council. 4) To provide the Registration of foreign nurses and for the maintance of the Indian Nurses Register. 5) The INC authorizes State Nurses Registration Council and Examining Board to issue qualifying certificates. The INC has been given heavy responsibilities for nursing practice and nursing education but it has not been able to exert enough power to support high standards in nursing. ENGLISH LAW The law based upon the English Pattern is the third way in which the Central Government is a source of legal authority. These laws are very specific and make you liable for negligence or answerable to the laws for acts of carelessness. The laws summarised below are given for medical practitioners including nurses. 1) The right to refuse to the treat a patient expect in an emergency situation. 2) The right to sue for fees. (Applicable only to private duty nurse or private practitioners: other nurses are salaried.) 3) The right to add a titile descriptions to ones name. Any title, description, abbreviation or letter which implies nolding a degree, diploma, license or certificate showing particular qualifications may be added. (Improper use of these is often prohibited by State Nurses Registration Acts.) The right to wear the Red Cross Emblem is given only to members of the Army medical service. 4) Unregistered practitioners are not allowed to hold positions or appointments in public and local hospitals

5) Fundamental duties. a) To exercise a reasonable degree of skill and knowledge in treating patients. The standard held is that exercised by other reputable members of the same profession in similar circumstances. b) Once a relationship to a patient has been established, there is an obligation to attend the patient as long as necessary unlessthe patient requests withdrawal or notice is given of intention to withdraw. c) A practitioner must give personal attention to his cases and answer calls with reasonable promptness. d) Children must be protected from harming themselves. e) Special precautions must be taken in the case of adults who are incapable of taking care of themselves. 6) The Indian Penal Code demands that poisonous drugs be kept in separate containers properly labeled and marked. Care must be taken not to mix with nonpoisonous drugs. 7) There is a duty of secrecy to the patients. Records must be treated as confidential unless the practitioner is called upon to give evidence in court. 8) Dangerous diseases must be reported. (Theses will vary in different parts of the country.) 9) Nurses as considered solely responsible for their own professional acts irrespective of the employing authority. A fine is the usual penalty imposed for disobeying the law stated above, although imprisonment is also possible. The central responsibility consists mainly of Policy making, palnning, guiding, assisting evaluating and Co. ordinating the work. ROLE OF STATE GOVERNMENT

The state government controls nursing practice through the state Nurses Registration Acts. The state Nurses Registration Councils have authority to prescribe rules of conduct, to take disciplinary action and to maintain registers of nurses. Except for the uniform standards given by the INC, the state nurse practice act is the important law affecting one nursing practice act that protect the public by broadly defining the legal scope of nursing practice. Functions: 1) It registers Nurse / Midwives 2) It serves as legal protections to the nurse 3) It protect the public from incompetent nursing practice or poor nursing care 4) It accredits and inspects schools of nursing and college of nursing 5) It prescribes the rules of conduct, table disciplinary action 6) It takes united efforts to elevate the standards of nursing 7) It works for the welfare of the members UNETHICAL PRACTICES COMMONLY PROHIBITED BY STATE The dishonest use of certificate Procuring registration by false means Falsification of the register Representation of registration by an unrecognised person Representation of a registrant as a medical practitioner Many states prohibit an unregistered person from holding a nursing position in an institution wholly or partially supported by government funds. Some states prohibit practice of any unregistered nurse. A fine is the usual penalty imposed for disobeying the laws stated above although imprisonment is also possible. In actual practice, the state Council often delegates responsibility for the supervision of nurses to local authorities such as the District

Civil Surgeon or a board appointed for this purpose. The Trained Nurses Association of India bases its standards for conduct of professional nurses upon the International Code for Nurses. INSTITUTION RULES Institution acts as a regulatory body for all employees by formulating some rules and regulation Professional rules of conduct may be stated by the institution regarding conditions of agreement for employment such as periods of time needed when giving notification of registration. TRAINED NURSES ASSOCIATION OF INDIA TNAI means Trained Nurses Association of India, is a national professional association of nurses. The level of organization moves to the district, state and national levels. Members of TNAI are usually most active on the level of the local unit. Activities and conference however are planned regularly by the state branches and provide opportunities for valuable professional participation and development of the individual member. Functions: Up grading development and standardization of nursing education Improvement of living and working condition for nurses in India Registration for qualified nurses It has promoted the development of courses in higher education for nurses It gives scholarships for nurses who wish to go on for advanced study Helped to organize the state nurse and midwives Registration Council Helps to develop leadership ability Helps to share and solve professional problems Helped to remove discrimination against male nurses Helped to improve economic conditions for nurses The official organ of TNAI is the Nursing journal of India which is published monthly THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF NURSE The International council of nurses, founded in 1899 by Mrs.Bedford Fenwick, is a federation of non-political and selfgoverning national nurses association. The head quarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. The main purpose of the ICN is to provide a mean through which the national associations can share their interest in the promotion of health and care of the sick. Functions: 1) To promote the development of strong national nurses associations 2) To assist national nurses association to improve the standards of nursing and the competencies of nurses 3) To assist national nurses associations to improve the status of nurses within their countries. 4) To serve as the authoritative voice for nurse and nursing internationally. The international council of nurses is the global voice of nursing. The governing body of the ICN is the council of national representative which is made up of the ICN Honorary officers and the presidents of the national members associations.

The ICN code of ethics for nurses has four principles elements. Elements of the code: NURSES AND PEOPLE The nurses primary responsibility is to people requiring nursing care. In providing care, the nurse promotes an environment in which the human rights, values customs and spiritual belief of the individual, family and community are respected. The nurse ensures that the individual receives sufficient information on which to base consent for care and related treatment. The nurse hold in confidence personal information and uses judgement in sharing this information. The nurse shares with society the responsibility for initiating and supporting action to meet the health and social needs of the public in particular those of vulnerable populations. The nurses also hares responsibility to sustain and protect the natural environment from depletion, pollution, degradation and destruction. NURSE AND PRACTICE The nurse carries personal responsibility and accountability for nursing practice, and for maintaining competence by continual learning. The nurse maintains a standard of personal health. Such that the ability to provide care is not compromised. The nurse uses judgments regarding individual competence when accepting and delegating responsibility. The nurses at all times maintains standards of personal conduct which respect well on the profession and enhance public confidence. The nurse, in providing care ensures that uses of technology and scientific advances are compatible with safety, dignity and rights of people. NURSES AND THE PROFESSION The nurses assumes the major role in determining and implanting acceptable standards of clinical nursing practice, managent research and education. The nurse is active is developing a core of research-based professional knowledge. The nurse, acting through the professional organization, participate in creating and maintaining safe, equitable social and economic working conditions in nursing. NURSES AND CO-WORKERS The nurse sustains a co operative relationship with co-workers in nursing and other field. The nurse takes appropriate action to safeguard individuals, families and communities when their health is endangered by a coworkers or any other person. AMERICAN NURSES ASSOCIATION The ANA is the professional organization for registered nurses in the united states to advance and protect the profession of nursing the purpose of ANA are; - To work for the improvement of health standards and the availability of health care services for all people. - To foster high standards of nursing and to stimulate and promote the professional development of nurses and advances their economic and general welfare. Functions: Accredits containing education programs Provide certification for individual registered nurse Supplies data for research analysis. Provide public policy analysis and political education and maintains government relations and political action activities. Implements an economic and general welfare program. Publishes a variety of publications including the American Nurses Holds conferences and a biennial convention. They are responsible for creating code o f ethics for nurses. 1. The nurse, in all professional relationships, practice with compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth and uniqueness of every individuals, unrestricted by considerations of social or economic status, personal attributes or the nature of health problems. 2. The nurses primary commitment is to patient whether an individual, family, group or community. 3. The nurse promotes advocates for and strives to protect the health, safety and rights of the patient. 4. The nurse is responsible and accountable for individual nursing practice and determines the appropriate delegation of tasks consistent with the nurses obligation to provide optimum patient care. 5. The nurse owes the same duties to self as to other including the responsibility to preserve integrity, to maintain competence, and to continue personal and professional

growth. 6. The nurse participates in establishing maintaining and improving health care environment and improving health care environment and conditions of employments conducive to the provision of quality health care and consistent with the values of the profession through individual and collective action. 7. The nurse participates in the advancement of the profession through contributions to practice, education, administration and acknowledge development. 8. The nurse collaborates with other health professionals and with the public in promoting community, national and international efforts to meet health needs. 9. The profession of nursing as represented by associations and their members is responsible for the articulating of nursing values, for maintaining the integrity of the profession and its practice, and for shaping social policy. CANADIAN NURSES ASSOCIATION It is the national nursing association of Canada. The Canadian Nurses Association has developed national standards and a code of ethics and it offers support to all professional associations. Though this foundation research grants, fellowships and scholarships and offered to Canadian Nurses. The nursing profession in Canada is regulated in the public interest meaning that a person is not allowed to work in a nursing job or even use the little nurse unless he/she is registered with a provincial regulatory authority. Functions Regulating nursing education standards for nursing programs. Setting criteria for admission to the professional Setting standards for practice Acting on complaints from the public Disciplining members who fail to meet the necessary standards of life practice. Providing support for nursing practice to registered members. NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR NURSING The mission of the national league for nursing is to advance the promotion of health and the provision of quality health care within a changing health care environment by promoting and monitoring effective nursing education and practice through collaborative efforts of nursing leaders, representatives of relevant agencies, and the general public. Functions Strengthen nursings role in the promotion of quality health care that is both accessible and affordable. Promote quality in nursing practice. Assure quality in nursing education. Enhance the consumer involvement in attaining the goals of the organization. Develop creative and collaborative approaches to the resolution of health care problems. Restructure the organization to provide flexibility for fixture growth and development. Ensure the financial solvency of the organization. The NLN is recognized in the united states as the national accrediting body for all basic nursing education, programs, as well as for masters degree nursing programs. Provide peers-review accreditation programs for home health agencies and community nursing service. Provide consultation services, continuing education, programs, analysis of statistical data related to nursing education and a variety of information package to affect recruitment image and legislative affairs. CONCLUSION The provincial regulatory bodies have responsibility for monitoring and approving nursing education. All nursing education programs must prove that their nursing curriculum. Prepares graduates to practice professionally and meet the required standards and competencies. The government sets out the legislation for the protection of the public it is the nurses themselves who carry out this legislation under the specific mandate and structure required by the law.