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Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. Many of the works, sometimes called installations, of the artist Sol LeWitt may be constructed by anyone simply by following a set of written instructions. This method was fundamental to LeWitt's definition of Conceptual art, one of the first to appear in print:
Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965)
In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art.
 —Sol LeWitt
Tony Godfrey, author of "Conceptual Art" (1998), asserts that conceptual art questions the nature of art, a notion that Joseph Kosuth elevated to a definition of art itself in his seminal, early manifesto of conceptual art, "Art after Philosophy" (1969). The notion that art should examine its own nature was already a potent aspect of (the influential art critic) Clement Greenberg's vision of Modern art during the 1950s. With the emergence of an exclusively language-based art in the 1960s, however, conceptual artists such as Joseph Kosuth, Lawrence Weiner and the English Art & Language group began a far more radical interrogation of art than was previously possible (see below). One of the first and most important things they questioned was the common assumption that the role of the artist was to create special kinds of material objects.   Through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, in popular usage, particularly in the UK, "conceptual art" came to denote all contemporary art that does not practise the traditional skills of painting and sculpture. It could be said that one of the reasons why the term "conceptual art" has come to be associated with various contemporary practices far removed from its original aims and forms lies in the problem of defining the term itself. As the artist Mel Bochner suggested as early as 1970, in explaining why he does not like the epithet "conceptual", it is not always entirely clear what "concept" refers to, and it runs the risk of being confused with "intention." Thus, in describing or defining a work of art as conceptual it is important not to confuse what is referred to as "conceptual" with an artist's "intention."
but which could nevertheless provide aesthetic rewards by being contemplated intellectually. 3-D perspective illusion and references to external subject matter were all found to be extraneous to the essence of painting. providing them with examples of prototypically conceptual works — the readymades. The Critique of Formalism and the Commodification of Art Conceptual art emerged as a movement during the 1960s. In 1970 Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects. By the mid-1970s they had produced publications. by its very nature. developed the notion of a work of art which. According to Greenberg Modern art followed a process of progressive reduction and refinement toward the goal of defining the absolutely essential. 1917. Alfred Steiglitz Isidore Isou. saw conceptual art as a radical break with Greenberg's kind of formalist Modernism. Fountain. However. by the end of the 1960s it was certainly clear that Greenberg's stipulations for art to continue within the confines of each medium and to exclude external subject matter no longer held traction. Photograph by could not actually exist except conceptually. In 1961 the term "concept art. the current incarnation of the Isouian movement. such things as figuration.W. nor is it unique or hand-crafted. is excoördism. and ought to be removed. Duchamp's relevance and theoretical importance for future "conceptualists" was later acknowledged by US artist Joseph Kosuth in his 1969 essay. formal nature of each medium. Later artists continued to share a preference for art to be self-critical. defined as the art of the infinitely large and the infinitely small. The most famous of Duchamp's readymades was Fountain (1917)." when he wrote: "All art (after Duchamp) is conceptual (in nature) because art only exists conceptually. un-juried exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in New York (it was rejected). for example. "Art after Philosophy. a commonplace object such as a urinal cannot be said to be art because it is not made by an artist or with any intention of being art. texts and paintings to this end." coined by the artist Henry Flynt in his article bearing the term as its title. who discarded the conventional art object in favour of a documented critical inquiry into the artist's social. while others. In traditional terms. as well as a distaste for illusion. In part. including many of the artists themselves. it was a reaction against formalism as it was then articulated by the influential New York art critic Clement Greenberg. Some have argued that conceptual art continued this "dematerialization" of art by removing the need for objects altogether. Also called Art esthapériste ('infinite-aesthetics'). Related to this. . appeared in a Fluxus publication.Mutt". However it assumed a different meaning when employed by Joseph Kosuth and the English Art and Language group. philosophical and psychological status.Conceptual art 2 History The French artist Marcel Duchamp paved the way for the conceptualists. was to define precisely what kind of object a painting truly is: what makes it a painting and nothing else? As it is of the nature of paintings to be flat objects with canvas surfaces onto which colored pigment is applied. performances. indexes. Those elements that ran counter to this nature were to be reduced. and arising out of it. recalling the infinitesimals of G. was mounted at the New York Cultural Center. for instance. quantities which Marcel Duchamp." In 1956. a standard urinal basin signed by the artist with the pseudonym "R. the first dedicated conceptual art exhibition. and submitted for inclusion in the annual. could never be created in reality. Leibniz. The task of painting. the founder of Lettrism.
photographs. Barry. Of Lawrence Weiner's works Anne Rorimer writes. Bits & Pieces Put Together to subordinate to an overarching composition (see for example Synthetic Present a Semblance of a Whole. and allowed it to signify in its own right. it attempted a subversion of the gallery or museum as the location and determiner of art." An important difference between conceptual art and more "traditional" forms of art-making goes to the question of artistic skill. and the art market as the owner and distributor of art. and many conceptual performance artists (e. and Lawrence Weiner. and Weiner himself) reduced to a set of written instructions describing a work. while presentational means and contextual placement play crucial. Minneapolis. John Baldessari. yet separate. Lawrence Weiner said: "Once you know about a work of mine you own it. There's no way I can climb inside somebody's head and remove it. Joseph Kosuth. and structuralist and post structuralist Continental philosophy during the middle of the twentieth century. Weiner. for instance. it is difficult to argue that no skill is required to make conceptual works. Edward Ruscha. of vital importance for conceptualism was the turn to linguistic theories of meaning in both Anglo-American analytic philosophy.Conceptual art Conceptual art also reacted against the commodification of art. Conceptual Art and Artistic Skill "By adopting language as their exclusive medium. has presented realist pictures that he commissioned professional sign-writers to paint. Where previously language was presented as one kind of visual element alongside others. or that skill is always absent from them. 3 Language and/as art Language was a central concern for the first wave of conceptual artists of the 1960s and early 1970s. roles. 2005. It is sometimes (as in the work of Robert Barry. written texts or displayed objects. Robert Barry. Marina Abramovic) are technically accomplished performers and skilled manipulators of their own bodies. Stelarc. e. but stopping short of actually making it—emphasising that the idea is more important than the artifact.  canvas. Osborne also notes that the early conceptualists were the first generation of artists to complete degree-based university training in art. .g. modern notions of authorial presence and individual artistic expression (or genius). Kosuth and Art & Language were able to sweep aside the vestiges of authorial presence manifested by formal invention and the handling of materials. "The thematic content of individual works derives solely from the import of the language employed. which some might argue are not in themselves the art." The British philosopher and theorist of conceptual art Peter Osborne suggests that among the many factors that influenced the gravitation toward language-based art. The Walker Art Cubism). Although the appearance of text in art was by no means novel.g. This linguistic turn "reinforced and legitimized" the direction the conceptual artists took. Although it is often the case that skill in the handling of traditional media plays little role in conceptual art. Yoko Ono." Many conceptual artists' work can therefore only be known about through documentation which is manifested by it. and the English Art & Language group began to produce art by exclusively linguistic means. Wilson. it was not until the 1960s that the artists Lawrence Weiner. the conceptual artists used language in place of brush and Center. It is thus not so much an absence of skill or hostility toward tradition that defines conceptual art as an evident disregard for conventional.
Early "concept" artists like Henry Flynt. social and/or political critique. Controversy in the UK In Britain. 2002. or "post-conceptual" artists. and subsequent promotion of the group by the Saatchi Gallery during the 1990s. founded in 1999. the Chairman of the Institute of Contemporary Arts branded conceptual art "pretentious. mainly because of its lack of concepts. In 2002. net. At the end of the year. Ivan Massow. widely accepted movement of conceptual art. The Stuckist group of artists. This was amplified by the Turner Prize whose more extreme nominees (most notably Hirst and Emin) caused a controversy annually." Massow was consequently forced to resign. and Ray Johnson influenced the later. especially among artists working with installation art. pretentious. and ideas/information as medium continue to be aspects of contemporary art. In October 2004 the Saatchi Gallery told the media that "painting continues to be the most relevant and vital way that artists choose to communicate.  They staged yearly demonstrations outside the Turner Prize. led by cultural tsars such as the Tate's Sir Nicholas Serota. and Lawrence Weiner have proven very influential on subsequent artists. 2002 deposited a coffin outside the White Cube gallery. Conceptual artists like Dan Graham. marked "The death "pro-contemporary figurative painting with ideas and anti-conceptual of conceptual art".or third-generation" conceptualists. performance art. Robert Morris.art and electronic/digital art. the Culture Minister. While they may or may not term themselves "conceptual artists". proclaimed themselves Stuckist artists leave a coffin. curated by Damien Hirst. mechanical. Kim Howells (an art school graduate) denounced the Turner Prize as "cold. generated a media backlash. July 25. and well known contemporary artists such as Mike Kelley or Tracey Emin are sometimes labeled "second. conceptual bullshit". "unremarkable and boring" and on July 25. Many of the concerns of the conceptual art movement have been taken up by contemporary artists. Hans Haacke." . the rise to prominence of the Young British Artists (YBAs) after the 1988 Freeze show. craftless tat" and in "danger of disappearing up its own arse .. self-indulgent." They also called it in Shoreditch. ideas such as anti-commodification.. where the phrase "conceptual art" came to be a term of derision applied to much contemporary art.Conceptual art 4 Contemporary Influence The first wave of the "conceptual art" movement extended from approximately 1967 to 1978. marked "The Death of Conceptual Art". outside the White Cube gallery art.
Thing Co. and signed people's bodies.E. challenging the viewer to consider whether erasing another artist's work could be a creative act. in which he attempts to fly by leaping out of a window. Blue Epoch exhibition. • 1961: Robert Rauschenberg sent a telegram to the Galerie Iris Clert which said: 'This is a portrait of Iris Clert if I say so. constantly. exhibited the contents of a four room apartment wrapped in plastic bags. • 1956 : Isidore Isou introduces the concept of infinitesimal art in Introduction à une esthétique imaginaire (Introduction to Imaginary Aesthetics). Aerostatic Sculpture (Paris).Conceptual art 5 Notable examples of conceptual art • 1953 : Robert Rauschenberg exhibits Erased De Kooning Drawing. a drawing by Willem De Kooning which Rauschenberg erased. For his next major exhibition. • 1957: Yves Klein.' as his contribution to an exhibition of portraits. The Void in 1958. In Vancouver. no-one has been able to say for sure). himself. This was composed of 1001 blue balloons released into the sky from Galerie Iris Clert to promote his Proposition Monochrome. • 1960: Yves Klein's action called A Leap Into The Void. He put the tins on sale for their own weight in gold. Klein also exhibited 'One Minute Fire Painting' which was a blue panel into which 16 firecrackers were set. • 1961: Piero Manzoni exhibited Artist's shit. It raised many questions about the fundamental nature of art. Iain and Ingrid Baxter of N. Portrait of Iris Clert 1961 the shoe shops in Amsterdam constitute an exhibition of his work. tins purportedly containing his own feces (although since the work would be destroyed if opened. He stated: "The painter has only to create one masterpiece. Klein declared that his paintings were now invisible and to prove it he exhibited an empty room. He also sold his own breath (enclosed in balloons) as Bodies of Air." • 1960: The artist Stanley Brouwn declares that all Robert Rauschenberg. thus Yves Klein Le Vide (The Void) displayed at the Iris Clert Gallery 1958 . as well as whether the work was only "art" because the famous Rauschenberg had done it.
its photo and a blow up of a definition of the word "chair". • 1962: Christo's Iron Curtain work. Kosuth has chosen the definition from a dictionary. thereby exhibiting the entire planet as his artwork. Marcel Broodthaers and Primo Levi are amongst the designated 'artworks'. (This depended on how much they are prepared to pay). he did not define it) in exchange for gold leaf. He offers to sell his own 'pictorial sensitivity' (whatever that was. An example of Heuristic art. Pages of Greenberg's book (borrowed from the college library) are chewed by the students. Flynt's "concept art" devolved from his idea of "cognitive nihilism" and from his insights about the vulnerabilities of logic and mathematics.). This consists of a barricade of oil barrels in a narrow Paris street which caused a large traffic jam. This copy in Water Yam . • Joseph Kosuth dates the concept of One and Three Chairs in the year 1965. • 1964: Yoko Ono publishes Grapefruit: A Book of Instructions and Drawings. the purchaser was then required to burn the certificate whilst Klein threw half the gold leaf into the Seine. • 1965: A complex conceptual art piece by John Latham called Still and Chew. or a series of instructions for how to obtain an aesthetic experience. Latham was then fired from his part-time position. "An Anthology of Chance Operations" documented the development of Dick Higgins vision of intermedia art in the context of the ideas of John Cage and became an early Fluxus masterpiece. 2008 Jackson Mac Low and La Monte Young (ed.Conceptual art 6 declaring them to be living works of art either for all time or for specified periods. India. He invites art students to protest against the values of Clement Greenberg's Art and Culture (much praised and taught in London's St. • 1962: Yves Klein presents Immaterial Pictorial Sensitivity in various ceremonies on the banks of the Seine. a collection of artworks and concepts Jacek Tylicki. Water Yam. Stone sculpture. The presentation of the work consists of a chair.Take If You Have by artists and musicians that was published by To". Since Klein's sensitivity was immaterial. (There were seven purchasers. Martin's School of Art where Latham taught). "Give If You Can . Four versions with different definitions are known. • 1963: Henry Flynts article Concept Art is published in "An Anthology of Chance Operations". In these ceremonies the purchaser gave Klein the gold leaf in return for a certificate. dissolved in acid and the resulting solution returned to the library bottled and labelled.) • 1962: Piero Manzoni created The Base of the World. 1962. The artwork was not the barricade itself but the resulting traffic jam. Palolem Island. is published as the first Fluxkit by George Maciunas. • 1963: George Brecht's collection of Event-Scores. Flute Solo • Disassembling • Assembling by George Brecht.
• 1968: Lawrence Weiner relenquishes the physical making of his work and formulates his "Declaration of Intent. Ian Burn." The declaration. The artist may construct the piece. Mel Ramsden and Terry Smith wrote articles which thematized the context of contemporary art. • 1977: John Fekner creates hundreds of environmental and conceptual outdoor works consisting of stenciled words. 7 . • 1974: Cadillac Ranch near Amarillo. were decrepit and poorly maintained. including recent sales between companies owned or controlled by the same family. Each being equal and consistent with the intent of the artist the decision as to condition rests with the receiver upon the occasion of receivership. The properties were mostly in Harlem and the Lower East Side. this work exists mostly in the viewer's mind. The Guggenheim museum cancelled the exhibition. Texas. and represented the largest concentration of real estate in those areas under the control of a single group. dates and icons spray painted in New York. which underscores his subsequent practice reads: "1. • The first issue of "Art-Language" is published in May. The criticism of the art world integrates social. Sarah Charlesworth. by some accounts. These articles exemplify the development of an institutional critique within the inner circle of Conceptual Art. • 1970: Painter John Baldessari exhibits a film in which he sets a series of erudite statements by Sol LeWitt on the subject of conceptual art to popular tunes like 'Camptown Races' and 'Some Enchanted Evening'. • 1977: Walter De Maria's 'Vertical Earth Kilometer' in Kassel. Andrew Menard." • 1969: Robert Barry's Telepathic Piece of which he said 'During the exhibition I will try to communicate telepathically a work of art. Michael Corris. • 1971: Hans Haacke's 'Real Time Social System'. Despite its size. symbols. David Bainbridge. • 1975-76: Three issues of the journal "The Fox" were published in New York. 3. Karl Beveridge. • 1972: Fred Forest buys an area of blank space in the newspaper Le Monde and invites readers to fill it with their own works of art. The resulting 1800 documents are compiled into a book which. England and Germany. It is subtitled as "The Journal of conceptual art" and edited by Terry Atkinson. • 1970: Douglas Huebler asks museum visitors to write down 'one authentic secret'. Michael Baldwin and Harold Hurrell. The piece need not be built. The captions gave various financial details about the buildings." one of the most important conceptual art statements following LeWitt's "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art. stating that the overt political implications of the work constituted "an alien substance that had entered the art museum organism". Joseph Kosuth. Sweden. It became the most discussed article on "Conceptual Art". "The Fox" became an important platform for the American members of Art & Language. Germany. makes for very repetitive reading as most secrets are similar. • The English journal "Studio International" published Joseph Kosuth´s article "Art after Philosophy" in three parts (October–December). political and economic reasons. This piece of systems art detailed the real estate holdings of the third largest landowners in New York City. There is no evidence to suggest that the trustees of the Guggenheim were linked financially to the family which was the subject of the work. The editor was Joseph Kosuth. the nature of which is a series of thoughts that are not applicable to language or image'. 2.Conceptual art • 1967: Sol LeWitt´s Paragraphs on Conceptual Art were published by the American art journal Artforum. The Paragraphs mark the progression from Minimal to Conceptual Art. • 1970: Douglas Huebler exhibits a series of photographs which were taken every two minutes whilst driving along a road for 24 minutes. Canada. This was a one kilometer brass rod which was sunk into the earth so that nothing remained visible except a few centimeters. therefore. The editors are English members of the artists group Art & Language. The piece may be fabricated.
Italy. It is accompanied by her 1993 work Don't Postpone Joy. • 1993: Matthieu Laurette established his artistic birth certificate by taking part in a French TV game called 'Tournez manège' (The Dating Game) where the female presenter asked him who he was. 8 Notable conceptual artists • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vikky Alexander Art & Language Marina Abramović Billy Apple Shusaku Arakawa Michael Asher Mireille Astore John Baldessari Artur Barrio Robert Barry Joseph Beuys Mel Bochner Allan Bridge • • • • • • • • • • • • • John Fekner Henry Flynt Andrea Fraser Kendell Geers Thierry Geoffroy Allan Graham Dan Graham Hans Haacke Iris Häussler Oliver Herring Jenny Holzer Greer Honeywill Zhang Huan Douglas Huebler • • • • • • • • • • • • • • John Latham Matthieu Laurette Sol LeWitt Mark Lombardi Piero Manzoni Danny Matthys Allan McCollum Cildo Meireles Marta Minujín Bruce Nauman Yoko Ono Dennis Oppenheim Adrian Piper William Pope. • 1993: Vanessa Beecroft holds her first performance in Milan. Part of her exhibit is My Bed. The work consists of a series of black-and-white photographs of glass botanical specimens from the Botanical Museum at Harvard University. • 1992: Maurizio Bolognini starts to "seal" his Programmed Machines: hundreds of computers are programmed and left to run ad infinitum to generate inexhaustible flows of random images which nobody would see. • 1999: Tracey Emin is nominated for the Turner Prize. a shark in formaldehyde in a vitrine. • 2004: Andrea Fraser's video Untitled. a wooden shed which he had turned into a boat.Conceptual art • 1989: Christopher Williams' Angola to Vietnam is first exhibited. bottles and her bedroom slippers. chosen according to a list of the thirty-six countries in which political disappearances were known to have taken place during the year 1985. her dishevelled bed. Laurette had sent out invitations to an art audience to view the show on TV from their home. • 2005: Simon Starling wins the Turner Prize for Shedboatshed. using models to act as a second audience to the display of her diary of food. turning his staging of the artist into a performed reality. or Collecting Can Be Fun. a 27-page transcript of an interview with a collector in which the majority of the text has been deleted. a document of her sexual encounter in a hotel room with a collector (the collector having agreed to help finance the technical costs for enacting and filming the encounter) is exhibited at the Friedrich Petzel Gallery. • 2001: Martin Creed wins the Turner Prize for The Lights Going On and Off. an empty room in which the lights go on and off. • 1991: Ronald Jones exhibits objects and text. to which he replied: 'A multimedia artist'. history and science rooted in grim political reality at Metro Pictures Gallery. blood-stained knickers. • 1990: Ashley Bickerton and Ronald Jones included in "Mind Over Matter: Concept and Object" exhibition of ”third generation Conceptual artists” at the Whitney Museum of American Art.L Dmitri Prigov Gilbert and George • Lothar Baumgarten • Marcel Broodthaers • . art. floated down the Rhine and turned back into a shed again. surrounded by detritus such as condoms. • 1991: Charles Saatchi funds Damien Hirst and the next year in the Saatchi Gallery exhibits his The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living.
: Cambridge University Press. Morgan. ed. 2001 • Daniel Marzona. 2002 (See also the external links for Robert Smithson) • Klaus Honnef. 2010. London: MIT Press. 2005 • Michael Corris. Bern: Kunsthalle Bern. Museum Leverkusen et al. Cambridge. Mass. Myth. P.cat. Ohio: Allen Memorial Art Museum. Art into Ideas: Essays on Conceptual Art. exh. New York: New York Cultural Center..cat.. 1999 • John Roberts. Leverkusen: Städt.cat. exh. Morgan. Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology. Mass.. NC/London: McFarland. 1972 • Gregory Battcock. Arte Conceptual Revisado/Conceptual Art Revisited. ed. Conceptual Art. New Art in the 60s and 70s: Redefining Reality. New York: E. Rewriting Conceptual Art.. 1970 ... 2007 • Michael Newman & Jon Bird. London: 1998 • Alexander Alberro & Blake Stimson.. 1970 Information. Idea Art: A Critical Anthology. Conceptual Art. Valencia: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. New York: Dutton. London and New York: Verso Books. 1990 • Thomas Dreher. Jefferson. Practice.: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge et al. 1973 • Juan Vicente Aliaga & José Miguel G.. ed. Conceptual Art. ed. New York: Museum of Modern Art. 1972 • Ermanno Migliorini. 1999 • Anne Rorimer. Cambridge. München). Concept Art. 1970 Art in the Mind.087. Who's afraid of conceptual art?. London: Reaktion.cat. Conceptual Art: Theory. 1969 Konzeption/Conception... New York: Seth Siegelaub. 152 p. Conceptual Art (Themes and Movements). exh. Konzeptuelle Kunst in Amerika und England zwischen 1963 und 1976 (Thesis Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität. 1969. Cologne: Phaidon. 1969 When Attitudes Become Form. ed.. exh. Conceptual Art. 1969 Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects. 2004 • Peter Goldie and Elisabeth Schellekens.. London: Thames & Hudson. exh. 1992 • Robert C.cat. 1994 • Robert C. exh. Conceptual Art: An American Perspective. 1969 557. : ill..cat. ..] : Routledge. Phaidon. Cologne: Taschen. exh. Florence: 1971 • Ursula Meyer. Seattle: Seattle Art Museum. Oberlin.Conceptual art • • • • • • • • • Victor Burgin Chris Burden Daniel Buren Sophie Calle Roberto Chabet Martin Creed Mark Divo Marcel Duchamp Olafur Eliasson • • • • • • • • • David Ireland Ray Johnson Ronald Jones Ilya Kabakov On Kawara Jonathon Keats Mary Kelly Yves Klein Joseph Kosuth • • • • • • • • • • Martha Rosler Allen Ruppersberg Hiroshi Sugimoto Stelarc Tyler Turkle Wolf Vostell Peter Weibel Lawrence Weiner Gillian Wearing Christopher Williams 9 Further reading Books: • Peter Osborne. The Intangibilities of Form: Skill and Deskilling in Art After the Readymade. ed. VIII. 20 cm ISBN 0-415-42281-7 hbk : ISBN 978-0-415-42281-9 hbk : ISBN 0-415-42282-5 pbk : ISBN 978-0-415-42282-6 pbk Exhibit catalogues: • • • • • • • January 5–31. 1996 • Tony Godfrey. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Cortés.. Dutton.cat.. Abingdon [etc.
cat. . 1999 10 Notes and references  Facsimile of original instructions for Wall Drawing 811 by Phil Gleason. "The outcome of much of the 'conceptual' work of the past two years has been to carefully clear the air of objects. co. Conceptual Art. com/ ArtLex/ c/ conceptualart. html?res=9C0CEFDA113CF93AA25753C1A966958260& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=all).  Sandra Solimano (ed. p. p. 1970 Situation Concepts. html)  "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art"."  Turner prize history: Conceptual art Tate gallery (http:/ / web. Art-Language (journal): Introduction (1969). html?res=9D0CE2DB1539F934A15751C1A967958260). New York: Jewish Museum. stm)  The Times (http:/ / www. 2008. 218  Rorimer. (http:/ / www.  The Guardian (http:/ / www. com/ clown2000. New Art in the Sixties and Seventies. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4158/ is_20040907/ ai_n12797891). artlex. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2002/ 11/ 01/ nart01. com/ gst/ fullpage. franklinfurnace. 28  Osborne (2002).org.. org/ web/ 20041211013930/ http:/ / www. 76  Peter Osborne. 1989 Christian Schlatter. exh.. Accessed August 8. London. exh. guardian. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art. 2006  Tony Godfrey. uk/ britain/ turnerprize/ history/ issue_conceptual.cat. p. Conceptual Art. "Art After Philosophy" (1969). p. Artforum. p. E. Charlotte. London: 1998. "Visual arts: Saying knickers to Sir Nicholas (http:/ / findarticles. 28  The first text in which the category "concept art" appeared was written by Henry Flynt around 1961-1963. "Review/Art. p. 237. archive.  Tony Godfrey.. tate. Maurizio Bolognini. 11  Lucy Lippard & John Chandler. xml) The Daily Telegraph 10 February 2004. London. html) . 2001. March 1–June 1. Reprinted in Peter Osborne. telegraph. 2002. London: 1998  Joseph Kosuth. Innsbruck: Forum für aktuelle Kunst. 232  Art & Language. Conceptual Art: Themes and movements. 12  "Ed Ruscha and Photography" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 8 July 2008. Mel Ramsden: "Notes On Analysis" (1970).2-1905555. In the Arena of the Mind. (http:/ / www. "The Dematerialization of Art"..  Anne Rorimer. Art International 12:2. Paris: ARC–Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. Michael (19 October 1990). org/ aesthetics/ conart. stuckism. Paris: Galerie 1900–2000 and Galerie de Poche. exh. uk/ uk_news/ story/ 0. exh. html)  Cripps. ISBN 8887262470  BBC Online (http:/ / news. uk/ news/ main. nytimes. telegraph.. The New York Times. The Art Institute of Chicago. 71  Rorimer.cat. 1950s-1980s. Art Conceptuel Formes Conceptuelles/Conceptual Art Conceptual Forms.. 2006  Brenson.com.cat. co. co. Retrieved 14 September 2010. Phaidon. timesonline.00. "Art in review: Ronald Jones Metro Pictures" (http:/ / query.. 7 September 2004.  Smith.3604. 1971 Art conceptuel I. p. October 1996. p. co. with a view of the installed work at Franklin Furnace. exh. New York: Queens Museum of Art. The New York Times. June 1967. Reprinted in Osborne (2002). org.cat.. Reprinted in Osborne (2002) p.cat. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ arts/ 1698032. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2004/ 10/ 02/ nsaat02. 1995 • Global Conceptualism: Points of Origin. p. html)  The Daily Telegraph (http:/ / www. Accessed April 15. bbc. xml)  Reynolds. Roberta. nytimes.cat.g. 1990 • Reconsidering the Object of Art: 1965-1975. Phaidon. artic. com/ gst/ fullpage. html)  Artlex. 28  stuckism. . uk/ news/ main. February 1968. 230  Ian Burn.. Neos. edu/ aic/ exhibitions/ exhibition/ ruscha).Conceptual art • • • • • Software. org/ history/ flow/ lewitt/ lewitt. Retrieved from findarticles. 2002. 27 December 1991. html)  Rorimer. ed. Bordeaux: capcMusée d’art contemporain de Bordeaux. henryflynt. uk/ article/ 0.uk. Nigel 2004 "Saatchi's latest shock for the art world is – painting" (http:/ / www.634797.com (http:/ / www. 1988 L'art conceptuel. exh. exh. at the Whitney" (http:/ / query. The Independent. Programmed Machines 1990-2005. co.00. htm) tate. Conceptual Art: Themes and movements. Genoa: Villa Croce Museum of Contemporary Art.) (2005) (in English). Reprinted in Osborne (2003). Thames & Hudson. 7 April 2008. p.com (http:/ / www.
htm) • Conceptualism (http://www.ddooss.org/articulos/idiomas/Sol_Lewitt.com/) • pdf file of An Anthology of Chance Operations (1963) (http://ubu.org/ artistsbymovement/Conceptual-Art/) .com (http://www.edu/entries/conceptual-art) entry by Elisabet Shellekens in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Sol LeWitt. "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art" (http://www.minusspace.Conceptual art 11 External links • Conceptual Art (http://plato.art.com/). books on conceptual art and links to further reading (http://the-artists.stanford.com/historical/young/index.dostweb. reductive and concept-based art • conceptual artists.html) containing Henry Flynt's "Concept Art" essay at UbuWeb • Minus Space.
dedalus. Anotheryearinla.org/w/index.wikipedia. AgitpropDK. 0/ . Auteurdevie. Mattis. Kramer J. Palletknife. Navstar. Hearst78. Labeinnale. BenFrantzDale.jpg Source: http://en.heintz.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. James Log.jpg Source: http://en. Prof saxx. Jujutacular. Chopchopwhitey. Anngram. Progettualita. J. Killick. BullRangifer. Alethe. Nancy. Steelandglass. Spinster.org/w/index.jpg Source: http://en. Flyguy649.org/w/index. Pink!Teen. Fearfulsymmetry. Jahsonic. Mdd. Hakeem.php?oldid=425649203 Contributors: $yeti. OddArt. Justin Foote. Steipe. Drewcifer3000. CommonsDelinker. D0762.A. Joaquin A. Artintegrated. JenSilver. Newton-noze. Ozero22. Ecoartnet. Ronaldino. Camembert. Originale. Maddoctor. Licenses and Contributors Image:Kosuth OneAndThreeChairs. Captaindavidson. Valueyou. Dogears.org/w/index. Tahmoores. Mcameronboyd. Ralphwiggam75. Grhabyt. Ignacio Icke. Christina Staub.wikipedia. Ambulancevoice. Ida Shaw. DrGML. Cowboy456. Servicerecherche. Mircea. Park lane1212. RuthieK. See to. Meldor. Aviados. Robertsan. Aldux. Neelix. From That Show!. Peterfoxny. Epinette M. Isquitenice.org/w/index. PrimusNirvana.php?title=File:Le_Vide. Pepso. Chris Roy.A. Lord High Munchkin. Schekinov Alexey Victorovich. Gaius Cornelius. Dr. Beatesandor. Mycotn.wikipedia. Art&concepts. Mild Bill Hiccup. Mtribe. Friedco. Junjk.wikipedia.org/w/index. Phoe.JPG Source: http://en. Haakon. HISTOIRE ET D'ART. Bloodofox. S. Trackway. Joebunkeo. Aida CZ. Tyrenius. SelfStudyBuddy. Eug. Whitenoise666. Ubu Roi.php?title=File:Kosuth_OneAndThreeChairs.jpg License: Free Art License Contributors: User:Tylicki License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. SCEhardt. Znethru. Huvias. Ed Shanken. Some jerk on the Internet. That Guy. Jeffmilner. Thegirlinwhite. Sean3000. 399 anonymous edits Image Sources. Vasiľ. \rm dV \infty. Marcus22. Piero. Mervyn. Twas Now. Sparklephobia. I. Jni. Jossi. Setwisohi. Infrogmation. Aroundthewayboy. Ethicoaestheticist. Franciselliott.wikipedia.org/w/index. Soane. Seidenstud. Arsene. Mbuitron.wikipedia. Pbjonathanesquire. Guerrillagirlz. JFMS. Sarigreene.org/w/index. Postdlf.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Joseph Kosuth File:Duchamp Fountaine. Internow. Planetneutral. Charivari. Manuel128. Deadchildstar.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Franciselliott Image:Give-if-you-can.jpg Source: http://en. Kieff. Teapotgeorge. Taxisfolder. JoanneB. Aaron045. AQUIMISMO. Philip Trueman. Zxconcept.jpg Source: http://en. Prsephone1674. Rocksaid82. NoMass. Garvinpr.0 Contributors: User:GearedBull Image:Stuckists Death of Conceptual Art demo. Stevage. Routinerob!.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Drewcifer3000. Smithtone. Art4em. Trexsf. Andre Engels. Dart evader.php?title=File:WeinerText..jpg License: unknown Contributors: Drewcifer3000 Image:Iris Clert Portrait Rauschenberg. Sparkit.gadi. Pbryant. Xeno. Gregbard.Contino. ClassA. MarylandArtLover. Mostyn. Michelangeloh. Angelalive.php?title=File:Iris_Clert_Portrait_Rauschenberg. Momirt. Mecarroll. Nofoto. Altenmann. Esnelson. Tyrenius Image:Le Vide.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Kipof.php?title=File:Flute_solo. Neg. Eusebius.wikipedia. Adrian Robson. WLU.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abiyoyo.wikipedia. Vingerhoet. Mandarax. BTfromLA. Avantguarde. Manuel Anastácio. PaulGriffinArtArchivist. Research Method. Thepress. Elithea. Clubmarx. Okc. Artclay. EidM. Pragmatic.org/w/index. Trugster. Bubbahey. Lestrade. Lauriehaycock. Invertebra. Pax:Vobiscum. Icarus of old.fool. Showoffsg. Skierpage.php?title=File:Give-if-you-can. Bus stop. Armando Navarro. DarkEvil. Emanuel Kingsley.wikipedia. 7 anonymous edits Image:WeinerText.php?title=File:Stuckists_Death_of_Conceptual_Art_demo. Allanmcnyc. 1 anonymous edits Image:Flute solo. DVD R W. Talmoryair. Diannaa. Immunize. Cryoboy. Modernist. Curator2000. Lou Riguis. DanielRigal. Blakeud. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. Kipof. Wembwandt. Laurascudder. Pitor2. Yconnan.jpg Source: http://en. Rasmus Faber. JoeSmack. Smjg.Burrell.Article Sources and Contributors 12 Article Sources and Contributors Conceptual art Source: http://en. Mato.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. Noccie. Yann. Pliny.php?title=File:Duchamp_Fountaine. Discospinster.jpg Source: http://en. Freshacconci. Lisatruman.
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