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Radio propagation channel Model tuning overview

Peter Cheung Mentum (HK)

29 Sep 2009

Overview of propagation model used in planet

Scanner or CW drive test Map, projection Site configurations used (e.g, link budget, GPS)

Planet general model (PGM)

Slope based Okumura-Hata type model

CRC- predict4 model

Deterministic (i.e., map dependent, instead of survey), physical-optics based model

Universal model (UM)

Additional license required Unmasked and masked version Unmasked means that antenna correction is done by planet prediction engine, instead of UM calculation

PGM overview (1)

PGM overview (2)

Account for FSL
K1 (freq-dependent intercept), K2 (slope) K5 (multiplier for effective antenna height)

This is why only CW should be used for PGM tuning, since only CW can estimate K2 slope accurately

Effective antenna height gain

BTS ht gain side as K3 MS ht gain as K6 Use absolute spot height as effective base station height

Clutter effect
Weight factor K in last 1km to rx

multiply by K4 for non-LOS Calculation based on Epstein-Peterson method for 3 diffracting edge Use clutter height evaluate diffraction for non-LOS Use Clutter separation as distance between last effective diffracting clutter obstruction to rx antenna

PGM tuning
PGM only compute vertical diffraction In DU/U environment where horizontal diffraction can be significant, PGM often over-estimate vertical diffraction loss Compensate with clutter gain PGM effective where BTS ht >= surrounding clutter Using AMT manual Use Hata for K3 and K5, clutter offset = optimize Optimize K1, K2 and K4 smart Optimize K1 to K5 and CAL in one pass Optional 2nd step Fix tuned K and using clutter tuner to re-tune CAL or do manual change

CRCCRC -predict4

Clutter effect specified as clear distance and obstacle height to receiver Map pixel

Huygen principle
(vector summation of secondary radiation sources)

Comparison of PGM and CRC predict4

Application Urban to suburban

CRC predict
Accurate clutter/terrain maps, secondary radiation sources Detailed prediction along many radials 360 Easy to tune, since accuracy dependent on clutter/terrain, NOT DT data Deterministic model based on Physical optics to calculate diffraction over terrain/clutter All mobile have same height for all clutter class Optimize clutter absorption property


Fast, good for long distance propagation 720 Needs more CW data to estimate slope Similar to COST231/HataOkumura, slope-based model with various K parameters Different value assigned to each clutter Optimize K, clutter absorption/ separation

Typical prediction resolution (No of radial) Weakness


Receiver height Auto tune tool


Before model tuning

Add new sites
Setup link budget to get correct EIRP (e..g., PA power, pilot %, cable loss, rx antenna gain) Add combined gain/loss = receiver antenna gain receiver cable loss,
to DL link budget for all sectors Similar to manually adjust K1 in PGM

If scanner DT is used
Planet uses RSSI as CPICH RSCP/pilot power for CDMA based network Allocate scanner record to sector and export as survey

If needed, combine multiple scanner log from same sector to 1 log Create header for each survey data per sector Filter survey data Average survey data
Assign filtered/averaged survey data to associated sector

Model tuning work flow (1) import survey

Model tuning work flow (2) create header

Site configuration is assigned to that survey

Select sector which survey belongs to

Survey changes color after header is generated


Model tuning work flow (3) filter survey

Extract valid survey data for model tuning


Model tuning work flow (4) average survey

Remove fast Rayleigh fading (e.g., Lee criterion is 40 ) 10~20 or about 2m for 2.5GHz Average by distance to avoid bias effect or 1/3 of map pixel or 5m (use 2m since it is smaller)

Model tuning work flow (5) assign to sector


Used to compare prediction coverage with survey data by calculating mean/std/RMS error

Survey histogram (after filter and averaging)

Dense urban sites

Smooth monotonically rolloff on both ends of dBm

urban sites

suburban sites

Clutter distribution (after filter and averaging)

Dense urban sites

urban sites (recommend 2000~3000 sample per clutter class for good model tuning, absolute minimum is 200~300 sample per clutter class)

suburban sites

Distance regression (after filter and averaging)

Dense urban sites DU model should has steepest slope (i.e., larger K2 magnitude) compared to U and SU model

urban sites

suburban sites

Model tuning (1) create untuned version

Clutter separation ~ 1 or 2 pixel distance, depending on environment Most clutter have some diffraction loss (except water) For PGM Diffraction loss is pre-calculated based on clutter separation/height, only clutter absorption loss is tuned

Model tuning (2) automatic model tuner (PGM)

Use smart to tune all K values and CAL in one pass Optional 2nd step after running AMT, run CAL tuner to tune CAL only with fixed K values obtained from AMT

Model tuning (3) verify tuned model (PGM)

Check model tuning report K and CAL comparison BEFORE and AFTER running AMT (automatic model tuner)

Check error
If negative model error model is over-predicting (i.e., predicted dBm is higher than survey) CAL is only calculated if survey available in that clutter class (if no survey, set to 0 by default) If clutter separation is too short, diffraction loss calculated will be too high. If clutter has gain, it basically means clutter separation is too low or clutter height too high uses clutter class with most sample as a reference to compute K1 and compare with other clutter type give -/+ clutter absorption loss


Model tuning (4) check error between survey vs prediction based on tuned model
Rerun prediction using tuned model, and check error for each sector (if scanner DT is used, mean and std will be expected to be larger than CW survey) Rule of thumb <3dB mean, std dev is <9dB std (for live network survey) and <7dB for CW survey

Error = survey modeled prediction


Model tuning (5) sanity check for PGM models

DU site with PGM DU model DU sites with PGM U model DU site with PGM SU model


Model tuning (6) predicted coverage with survey

Legends for predicted coverage and thematic map of survey are same


Model tuning (7) check location of survey error

When computing survey error (i.e., compare survey with modeled prediction), save delta

Find out where are those delta located, especially large error (e.g., check for map coverage, coverage holes etc)


Merge prediction with survey data

For bin with survey, prediction replace by survey data. For other bins which are within neighborhood of <interpolation distance>, averaging between prediction/survey is done



Merged Predictions

Other tips
Tuning results depends on # sites used
Hyper tuning = 1 sector or 1 site, will give bias result Typical use 5 site or 5 sector to tune model

After model tuning, need to ensure std dev error is less than slow fading margin in environment
Because cell edge coverage probability is (from Jakes curve) is based on C/I margin (between achieved and required) >0

Clutter absorption loss

For PGM, if AMT tuner is used, CAL is tuned by smart tuner ONLY, not standard tuner For CRC P4 model, typical CAL range is 6~20dB (e.g, open=10dB, grassland (12~20dB, suburban=18~25dB, urban>20dB) Small negative CAL (0~-5dB) is not of great concern Large negative CAL indicate clutter height is set too high or clutter separation set too small

For CRC P4 model

Max scattering dist=2km (given cell radius about 10~20km for 900MHz) Fraction of incident power scattered = 0.5, 0.1, 0.1

Time and location availability should be set as 50% for both (default)