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Foy Scalf Oriental Institute 1. Chronological List of Important Source Material a. Old Kingdom-First Intermediate Period (2686-2055 BCE) • Pyramid Texts1 b. Middle Kingdom-Second Intermediate Period (2055-1550 BCE) • Coffin Texts2 • Magical Texts c. New Kingdom-Third Intermediate Period (1550-664 BCE) • Book of the Dead Papyri3 • Underworld Books: Amduat, Book of the Day, Book of the Night, Book of Nut, Book of Caverns, Book of the Earth4 • Magical Texts: Magical Papyrus Harris (pBM 10042),5 Zaubersprüche für Mutter und Kind (pBerlin 3027, 5/9-6/1)6 • Religious Texts: The Book of the Celestial Cow,7 Hymns (to Amun: pLeiden I 350),8 Temple Texts d. Late Period (664-332 BCE) • Book of the Dead Papyri • Underworld Books: Amduat, Book of the Day, Book of the Night, Book of Nut, Book of Caverns, Book of the Earth • Magical Texts • Religious Texts: Shabaqo Stone (BM 498), Confirmation of Royal Power (pBrooklyn 47.218.50),9 Hymns (to Ptah: pBerlin 3048), Temple Texts e. Ptolemaic-Roman Period (332 BCE-395 CE) • Book of the Dead Papyri • Funerary Compositions: o pBremner-Rhind (pBM 10188)10 • Magical Texts (Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden) • Religious Texts: Cosmogony of Memphis (pBerlin 13603),11 Nun Cosmogony,12 Hymns, Temple Texts
. that is the entire Duat. Excerpts from the Book of Nut (Following Translation of Allen): Outside the Cosmos “The uniform darkness. becoming effective again in the embrace of his father Osiris. it stays open after he sails inside her. the place from which birds come: this is from her (i.” Cycle of the Sun “The incarnation of this god enters at her first hour of evening..2. and eastern limits of which are unknown. Then he parts the thighs of his mother Nut. Nut swallows the sun in the western horizon and the sun travels through the netherworld located within the body of Nut. The upper side of this sky exists in uniform darkness. and becoming purified therein. the Egyptian's understanding of the cosmos. . In the second century CE. with her rear in the east and her head in the west. there being no brightness there. In the evening. Then he goes away to the sky. . There is no light of the Ram there: he does not appear there. Then he is on course toward the world. Nut gives birth to the sun every day in the eastern horizon and the sun travels along her body during the daylight hours. west and east land is unknown by the gods or akhs.” . the southern. . the divine personification of air. open to the Duat that is on her northern side. apparent and born.. north. northern. ocean of the gods. When the incarnation of this god enters her mouth.. in addition to Shu. these having been fixed in the Waters. in inertness. so that these sailing stars may enter after him and come forth after him.. Nut’s) northwestern side up to her northeastern side. western. Ancient Egyptian Cosmology: How the Universe Works Book of Nut from the Ceiling of the cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos The astronomical ceiling from the cenotaph of Seti I (Dynasty 19) at Abydos encapsulates... Then he produces himself above. inside the Duat.13 We find two other versions in the tomb of Ramses IV (Dynasty 20) in the Valley of the Kings and in the tomb (TT 410) of Mutirdis (Dynasty 26).. hold up the sky.14 The scene depicts the sky goddess Nut held aloft by her son Shu. And as for every place void of sky and void of land. The incarnation of this god comes forth from her rear. in picture and text.e. (a place) whose south. . versions of these texts were copied onto two papyri and provided with Demotic commentary. Nut’s limbs represent the four pillars which.
3. PT 600 b. Religious Texts: pBremner-Rhind (pBM 10188).50) . Heliopolitan Cosmogony: Greek Heliopolis Egyptian Iwnw Heliopolitan Ennead Important Attestations: a. CT 335. Magical Texts: Magical Spells for Mother and Child (pBerlin 3027) e. Pyramid Text Spells: PT 527.218. Book of the Dead Spells: BD 17 d. CT 714. Coffin Text Spells: CT 75-81. c. Confirmation of Royal Power (pBrooklyn 47. Ancient Egyptian Cosmogony: Creation Myths a.
Pyramid Texts: PT 301. CT 80. Hermopolitan Cosmology: Greek Hermopolis Egyptian #mnw Hermopolitan Ogdoad Important Attestations: a. Book of the Dead: BD 17 d. Coffin Texts: CT 76. Magical Texts: Magical Papyrus Harris (pBM 10042) . CT 107 c.b. Underworld Books: Amduat Papyrus of Khonsumose e. PT 446 b.
I wept over them: That is the evolution of people. and brought me my Eye after them. in the respective womb. And after I joined together my parts. is plotting against me.” pBremner-Rhind (pBM 10188) “When I evolved into this world. Book of the Dead: BD 82 d. Memphite Theology Greek Memphis Egyptian Mn-nfr Important Attestations: a. Creation of Mankind Illustration from the Book of the Celestial Cow Important Attestations: CT 80 “It is my son who shall live. mankind. as people. Magical Texts e.” The Book of the Celestial Cow “Then Re said to Nun: ‘O eldest god in whom I came into being.” . Memphite Cosmogony (pBerlin 13603) 4.c. from the tears that came from my Eye. he whom I begot in my identity. Pyramid Texts: PT 345 b. Hymn to Ptah (pBerlin 3048). Stele Copenhagen GNC 897/AEIN 54. Shu and Tefnut grew excited in the inert waters in which they were. Religious Texts: Shabaqo Stone (BM 498). for he has learned how to enliven the one in the egg. and ancestor gods – look. Coffin Texts: CT 647 c. that emerged from my eye. which issued from my Eye.
The Context of Scripture. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 134. James K. Yale Egyptological Studies 3. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many. Hoffmeier. London: The British Museum Press. Ideology and Personal Religious Practice in Ancient Egyptian Rock Art. http://oi.3 (1959). 1-28. Rudolf.edu/Documents/pagedocs/JANES/1983 15/Hoffmeier15.jtsa. New Haven: Yale University.Select Bibliography Allen. Dirk. La cosmogonie égyptienne avant le Nouvel Empire. Erik. Silverman (ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Creation Legends in the Ancient Near East. . Mubabinge. Paris: Armond Colin. _____. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.). 1991. 1982. Frankfort. Les Cosmo-Théologies philosophiques d'Héliopolis et d'Hermopolis. F. Bickel.uchicago.” In: René Friedman (ed. James P. Susanne. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. New Haven: Yale Egyptological Seminar.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 18. 114-131.). Yale Egyptological Studies 2. 1989. 1994. Huyge. Brandon. Kinshasa: Publications Universitaires Africaines. Françoise and Christiane Zivie-Coche. 1997. Ancient Egypt. Conman. “Some Thoughts on Genesis 1 & 2 and Egyptian Cosmology. 39-49 http://www.edu/research/pubs/catalog/misc/kingship. 33-71. Genesis in Egypt: The Philosophy of Ancient Egyptian Creation Accounts. 3-31. 52-79. S.).” In William Kelly Simpson (ed. Leiden: Brill 1997.. Henri. G.” Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 31 (2003). “The Cosmology of the Pyramid Texts. 1948. Anthes. “Egyptian Theology in the Third Millennium B. 169-212. London: Hodder and Stoughton. 1986. Bilolo. William W.” in David P. Joanne. Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt. C. New York: Oxford University Press. 1963. “The Celestial Realm. 2002. 192-206.pdf Hornung. “Cosmology. Dieux et hommes en Égypte. Dunand. _____. 1988. Hallo. Kingship and the Gods.” Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 15 (1983). “It's About Time: Ancient Egyptian Cosmology. Volume 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Egypt and Nubia: Gifts of the Desert.html.
17-91. 1991. Leonard H. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Myths. Quirke. Imagining Creation. CNI Publications 26. Translated by G. Sauneron. 6186.” In Donald B. Lásló. Plumley. M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bernadette.” In Markham J. “La Naissance du Monde selon l’Égypte Ancienne. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt.” In La création dans l’Orient ancien. 2001.).” In La Naissance du Monde. and Personal Practice. Richard H. 1075-1080. M. Leiden: Brill.). 2008. 1987. Redford (ed. 17-41. 97-120. H. 1996. “Myths: Creation Myths. 1998. “The Theme of the Separation of Heaven and Earth in Egyptian Mythology. Vincent Arieh. _____. Te Velde. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Studies in Judaica 5.” Studia Aegyptiaca 3 (1977). “Probleme der ägyptischen Kosmogonien der Ptolemäer und Römerzeit. Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods. Meeks. J. Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods. Dimitri and Christine Favard-Meeks.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Eyre (ed. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf. 1986. “Les cosmogonies de l’ancienne Égypte.” In Hommages à François Daumas. 88-122. Tobin. Montpellier: Institut d’Égyptologie – Université Paul Valéry. M. J. “Ancient Egyptian Cosmogonies and Cosmology. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Geller and Mineke Schipper (eds. Michael Loewe (eds.).” In Byron E. Goshgarian. 469-472. Serge and Jean Yoyotte. Menu. “The Cosmology of Ancient Egypt. Shafer (ed. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.). . Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Egyptologists. On the Primaeval Ocean. 1975. Ancient Cosmologies.” In: Carmen Blacker. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters. Wilkinson. 2003. Lesko. 429-434. “Creation Stories in Ancient Egypt. 161-170. “A New Egyptian Cosmology. Stephen.Kákosy. 1959.” In: C. 2002. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. Smith. London: Thames & Hudson. Carlsberg Papyri 5.
Volume 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill 1997). 5-6. 2 Accessible English translation: R. Schott. Faulkner. Trench. “From Papyrus Bremner-Rhind.50. Brown Egyptological Studies 3 (Providence: Brown University Press. 14 The two papyri with Demotic commentary (pCarlsberg 1 and 1a) were published in Otto Neugebauer and Richard A. 14-15. 1933). Allen. The Context of Scripture. Der magische Papyrus Harris (Copenhagen: A. ACHET: Schriften zur Egyptologie B2 (Berlin: Achet Verlag. Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum 7 (London: British Museum Press. 8 English translation of relevant sections can be found in James P. 126. 1 . Hornung. 1999). 1978). Erichsen and S.218. Faulkner. Christian Leitz. “From the 'Book of Nut. “The Destruction of Mankind. nr. 1901). Trubner & Co. F. 31-50 and pls. 11 Published in W. W. 6 Originally published in Adolf Erman. Parker. 3-4 (Bruxelles: Edition de la Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth. Lichtheim. 1972). O. 13 The text of Seti I was originally published in Henri Frankfort. 1960). Magical and Medical Papyri of the New Kingdom. 9 Originally published in Jean-Claude Goyon. Fragmente memphitischer Theologie in demotischer Schrift (Pap. Volume 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill 1997). W. 12-25. 1933). Allen. Høst & søn. 23-26. The Context of Scripture. Allen. 1988).. Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca. This spell is translated in J. 2002). 1999). CNI Publications 26. On the Primaeval Ocean. The Papyrus Bremner-Rhind (British Museum No. Recently re-edited in Naoko Yamazaki. Allen. The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day (San Francisco: Chronicle Books. Confirmation du Pouvoir Royal au Neuvel An: Brooklyn Museum Papyrus 47.” in W. 5 H. J. Excavation Memoir 39 (London: Kegan Paul. 2003). The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Hallo. 1998). W. Lange. Brill: Leiden. 12 Published in M. 7 M. Volume 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill 1997). F. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts Translated into English (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2004). W. Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts (E. 36-37. The ancient Egyptian coffin texts : Spells 1-1185 & Indexes (Warminster: Aris & Phillips.” in W. Akademie der Wissenschaften. The Context of Scripture. 87. Faulkner. 4 Accessible English summary: E. 10188). English translation of the relevant section can be found in James P. Egyptian Astronomical Texts I: The Early Decans. Hallo. “From Papyrus Bremner-Rhind. Museum Tusculanum Press. 1-7 and James P. Genesis in Egypt: The Philosophy of Ancient Egyptian Creation Accounts. Hallo. Denmark : The Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Near Eastern Studies : University of Copenhagen. Volume 1: Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill 1997). Smith. 3 Accessible English translation: R. A reliable translation can be found in James P. 1927). Zaubersprüche für Mutter und Kind aus dem Papyrus 3027 des Berliner Museums (Berlin: Königl. 1994). Carlsberg Papyri 5 (Copenhagen. The Context of Scripture. Bibliotheque d’Étude 52 (Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale. The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos. Yale Egyptological Studies 2 (New Haven: Yale University.” in W. Borghouts. 10 Published in Raymond O. Zaubersprüche für Mutter und Kind: Papyrus Berlin 3027. demot. 1954).NOTES Accessible English translation: R. Faulkner.” in W. Hallo. Berlin 13603) (Wiesbaden: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz.
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