Strength of Materials 1

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Strength of Materials 1

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Preamble: A structure is made up of constituent elements like beam, column and membrane. The constituent elements should have adequate size to resist applied loads to build a safe structure. Their size is decided by material properties of the elements, particularly their strength. Man seems to have had information regarding the strength of structural material even in ancient times. They had worked out empirical rules which they used to dimension elements of structures like the pyramid, coliseum, harbors, bridges and aqua ducts that bring awe to the beholder even today. The Greek had even developed statics, the foundation of mechanics of materials, and people like Archimedes put this into practice by hoisting huge structural elements and putting them in place. But this ancient knowledge was lost during the middle ages and only during the renaissance the science of material strength was recovered. At that time people like Leonardo da Vinci took mechanics of structures to great heights. He investigated the strength of materials experimentally, the bending of beam and its variation with different lengths and loads. He even investigated the strength of columns. But the first attempt to find safe dimension for a structural element, analytically, was attempted only in the 17th century. It started with Galileos famous book on strength and mechanics of materials, called, Two New Sciences. That was the start of Strength of Materials. There was rapid development in the field of mechanics of materials at the end of the 19th century. Testing of materials attracted attention and soon the National Bureau of Standards was born in USA. Research took on a new turn facilitating closer contact between engineers and physicists. Meanwhile in the field of Strength of Materials, refinements in stress analysis, both analytical and experimental took place. Fields like fracture mechanics, stress concentration, ductility, strength theories, fatigue, experimental stress analysis are few among a vast horde of new fields of study that have emerged from a renewed interest in Strength of Materials in twentieth century. Outcomes addressed a. An ability to apply knowledge of engineering, information technology, mathematics, and science d. An ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems

Department of Civil Engineering 1. Determine the maximum and minimum normal and shear stresses at a point in body. 2. Determine the maximum and minimum normal and shear strain at a point in body. 3. Determine elastic constants of materials (wood, steel and aluminum). 4. Represent three-dimensional structural elements (beams, columns and slabs) as two-dimensional rigid bodies with end conditions and loads. 5. Determine the internal stresses (compression, tension, shear and shear stress, bending moment and stress, deflection, torsion and torsion stress) conditions and loads. 6. Determine the internal stresses (compression, tension, shear and shear stress, bending moment and stress, deflection, torsion and torsion stress) conditions and loads. Assessment Pattern Blooms Category 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Test 1 30 30 20 10 10 0 Test 2 20 20 30 20 10 0 End-semester examination 10 10 40 20 20 0 in twodimensional indeterminate (rigid bodies) structural elements for different end in twodimensional determinate (rigid bodies) structural elements for different end

Department of Civil Engineering Course Level Learning Objectives: Sample problems the students should be able to solve at the end of the course Remember 1. Sate the assumptions made in the analysis of elastic bodies? 2. Derive the equation for stress / strain transformation? 3. Derive the equation for the relationship among the elastic constants? 4. Derive the expression for the bending stress? 5. Derive the expression for the shear stress? 6. Derive the equation for shear stress due to torsion in a shaft? 7. Derive the equation for the elastic line of a beam in bending? 8. What are the derivations used in Singularity Function Method. 9. Derive the equation for Eulers Critical load for a column with a particular end condition? 10. Sate the empirical formula used in the design of column? 11. Sate the failure theories used to predict the strength of materials? 12. Derive the secant formula? Understand 1. Explain how the equations for stress / strain transformation give rise to the Mohrs circle. 2. Explain the Moment Area Method. 3. Discuss the stress variation along the depth of the beam and its implication (bending and shear stress). 1. Sketch the state of plane-stress in an element on the surface of a shaft under torsion T? 2. Sketch the state of plane-stress in an element situated at the level of the neutral axis of a simply supported beam of span l carrying a udl of w per unit length? 4. How is the determination of principal stresses at a point in a body essential for predicting the failure of the material? 5. Explain the mechanism with which a beam resists applied external lateral loads. 6. What is an indeterminate beam? 7. Explain the principle of superposition? 8. Write the two theorems used in the Moment Area Method? 9. What is the advantage of Macaulys method in the determination of slope and deflection in a beam? 10. Explain the concept of effective length in columns and how it is useful. 3

Department of Civil Engineering 11. Explain the mechanism with which a column resists applied external axial / eccentric loads. 12. Discuss the load carrying capacity as reflected by the length of a column and explain the concept of a short and long column. What is the shape of the core of a circular cross-section? Explain the concept of effective length in columns. Discuss the critical stress variation with slenderness ratio. In designing a column cross-section why must the yield or allowable stress should also be taken into consideration? Apply 1. A bar of cross section 850mm2 is acted upon by axial tensile forces of 60kN applied at each end of the bar. Determine the normal and shearing stresses on a plane inclined at 30O to the direction of loading. 2. A bar of cross section 600 mm2 is acted upon by axial compressive forces of 100 kN at each end of the bar. Using Mohrs circle, find the normal and shearing stresses on a plane inclined at 30O to the direction of loading. Neglect the possibility of buckling of the bar. 3. Find 1, 2, max and their orientations for the following stress system: x = 40 MPa, y = -20 Mpa, xy = -30 Mpa. Find 1, 2, max and their orientations for the following stress system: x = 40 MPa, y = -20 Mpa, xy = -30 Mpa.

4. The strain at a point has x = 350x10-6, y = -460x10-6 and xy = -560x10-6. Determine the principal strains at the point and the maximum shear strain at the point. 5. A state of plane strain is defined by, x = +0.00050, y = +0.00030, xy = 0.00105. Construct a Mohrs circle and fine the magnitude and directions of the principal strains (1 = 935x10-6, 2 = -135x10-6, p = 3936). 6. A cantilever beam 1.5 m long carries point loads of 1 kN, 2 kN and 3 kN at 0.5 m, 1.0m and 1.5 m from the fixed end. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam? 4

Department of Civil Engineering 7. A simply supported beam of span 9m is subjected to three point loads of 10 kN, 15 kN and 5 kN at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m respectively from the left end. Construct the shear force and bending moment diagram? 8. A simply supported beam of span 8m is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of 20 kN/m over a length of 4 m from the left end. Determine the support reactions, Shear Force at 2 m from left end and bending moment at the centre of the span? 9. Determine the reaction loads in the indeterminate beam with a point force P applied at 2/3L, as shown in the figure?

10. Determine the reactions at the supports for the prismatic beam and loading shown in the figure.

11. Calculate the maximum torque a shaft of 125mm diameter can transmit, if the maximum angle of which is 1 degree in a length of 1.5m. Take C = 70GPa. 12. A copper rod of 25mm diameter is bent into a circular arc of 7.5m radius. Determine the maximum intensity of stress induced in the metal. 13. A beam 2.5m long has rectangular section of 80mm width and 120mm depth. If the beam is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 15kN/m, find the maximum bending stress developed in the beam. 14. A triangular beam of base width 75mm and height 100mm is subjected to a shear force of 10kN. What is the value of maximum shear stress? Also, draw the shear stress distribution diagram over the beam section. 15. A T-section beam with 100 mm x 15 mm flange and 150 mm x 10 mm web is subjected to a shear force of 15 kN at a section. Draw the shear stress variation across the depth of the beam and obtain the value of maximum shear stress at the section. 16. An I section consists of the following sections: Upper flange : 120 mm x 30 mm; Web:200 mm x 40 mm; Bottom flange: 200 mm x 40 mm; If the beam is

Department of Civil Engineering subjected to a shearing force of 50 kN, find the maximum shear stress across the section. Take I as 285 x 106 mm4. 17. A cantilever beam of span 2.5m has a T-section having flange dimensions as 100 mm x 25 mm and web dimensions as 125 mm x 15 mm. Find the point load, which the cantilever beam can carry at its free end, if the bending stress is not to exceed 50MPa. 18. An I section is having top flange dimensions as 75mm x 20mm, web dimensions as 20mm x 200mm and bottom flange dimensions as 150mm x 40mm. The beam is simply supported over a span of 5m. If the tensile stress is not to exceed 20MPa, find the safe uniformly distributed load, the beam can carry. 19. A solid steel shaft is to transmit a torque of 15 kN-m. If the shearing stress is not to exceed 50 MPa, find the minimum diameter of the shaft. 20. A solid shaft of 80 mm diameter is to be replaced by a hollow shaft of external diameter 100 mm. Determine the internal diameter of the hollow shaft if the same power is to be transmitted by both the shafts at the same angular velocity and shear stress. 21. A cantilever beam 2m long is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of 5 kN/m over its entire length. Find the slope and deflection of the cantilever beam at its free end. Take EI = 2.5 x 1012 N-mm2. 22. A simply supported beam of span 6m carries a point load of 40kN at 1.2m from the left support. Find the position and magnitude of the maximum deflection. Take EI = 14 x 1012 N-mm2. 23. Look at a cantilever beam where I = I0 for the left half of beam and I = I 0 / 2, for the right half. Find the slope = dv/dx and at the end C.

24. A wooden beam 150mm wide and 250mm deep has a span of 4m. Determine the load that can be placed at its centre to cause the beam a maximum deflection of 10mm. Take E = 6 GPa. 25. Consider a rectangular steel bar 40 mm x 50 mm in cross section, pinned at each end and subject to axial compression. The bar is 2 m long and E = 200 GPa. Determine the buckling load using Eulers formula. 26. A 2m long pin ended column of square cross section. Assuming E = 12.5 GPa, allow = 12 MPa for compression parallel to the grain, and using a factor of safety of 6

Department of Civil Engineering 2.5 in computing Eulers critical load for buckling, determining the size of the cross section if the column is to safely support P = 200 kN. 27. Using Eulers formula and a factor of safety of two, determine the allowable centric load for the column and the corresponding normal stress. Assuming that the allowable load, found in part a, is applied at a point 0.75 in. from the geometric axis of the column, determine the horizontal deflection of the top of the column and the maximum normal stress in the column

Analyze 1. In what way is the solution of the equations of transformation of stresses resemble the equation of a circle from which the Morhs circle results? 2. What are the assumptions made in the methods used for finding deflection of a beam? Explain the significance of each assumption? 3. What are the similarities between the many methods of finding deflection in a beam? 4. Idealize a three dimensional structure into constituent elements, support conditions and loads? Evaluate 1. For a given stress condition which theory of failure would give realistic prediction? 2. For a particular loading condition in a beam which method would you use to determine the deflection? Why? 3. For a given design of a column, which approximate method is suitable?

Course Contents 1. Internal Forces 1.1 Tension 1.2 Compression 1.3 Moment 1.4 Shear 1.5 Torsion 2. Internal Stresses 2.1 Tensile Stresses 2.2 Compressive Stresses 2.3 Bending Stresses 2.4 Shear Stresses 3. Structural Elements 3.1 Supports (free, pinned or fixed) and loads (concentrated and axial) 3.2 Columns: Short Columns Core and stresses, Long Columns Eulers critical load, empirical formula, secant formula, and effective length 3.3 Supports (free, pinned or fixed) and loads (concentrated, varying and twisted) 3.4 Beams Slope and deflection: Double integration method, Moment area method and Macaulays method 8

Department of Civil Engineering Syllabus: Internal Forces: Tension, Compression, Moment, Shear, Torsion Internal Stresses: Tensile Stresses, Compressive Stresses, Bending Stresses, Shear Stresses Structural Elements: Supports (free, pinned or fixed) and loads (concentrated and axial), Columns: Short Columns Core and stresses, Long Columns Eulers critical load, empirical formula, secant formula, effective length; Supports (free, pinned or fixed) and loads (concentrated, varying and twisted), Beams Slope and deflection: Double integration method, Moment area method and Macaulays method References 1. Ferdinand P. Beer and E. Russell Johnston Jr: Mechanics of Materials, 1992, McGraw Hill Book Company, Singapore 2. James M. Gere and Stephen P. Timoshenko: Mechanics of Materials (3rd edition), 2002, McGraw Hill Book Company, Singapore. 3. Timoshenko, S.P. and D.H. Young. Elements of Strength of Materials, 5th edition. (SI Units) Affiliated East-West Prent. Ltd. New Delhi Lecture Schedule Sl. No. 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3. 3.1 Internal Forces Tension Compression Moment Shear Torsion Internal Stresses Tensile Stresses Compressive Stresses Bending Stresses Shear Stresses Structural Elements Supports (free, pinned or fixed) and loads (concentrated and axial) 2 1 1 3 3 2 1 4 4 4 Topic Hrs

Department of Civil Engineering 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 Columns Short Columns Core and stresses Long Columns Eulers critical load, empirical formula, secant formula, effective length Supports (free, pinned or fixed) (concentrated, varying and twisted) Beams Slope and deflection Double integration method Moment area method Macaulays method and loads 6 3 3 2 7 3 2 2

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