{At the School of Art Needlework, South Kensington^




LIMITED ISTEWNES GEORGE iffraud: Wf C Woumampfan




List of Illustrations



Oak Furniture



The Walnut Wood Period
The Introduction of Mahogany



Mahogany and Satinwood

.... ....

35 53

Painted Furniture
Chairs and Sofas
List of Books of Reference






XXI. Six-legged. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE I. Oak press. III.or side-table. Sussex. Club-footed oak writing-table.. Norfolk Oak " grandfather " or long-case clock Oak chest of drawers made in two pieces. . veneer of walnut on the front only. Oak dresser. Carved-oak flour-hutch Oak bedstead at Goodwood House. XIV. six-sided oak table. XVIII. Large oak gate-leg Stuart Period VIII. . XVI. Stuart Period X. Round oak club-footed table. dining-table. XIII. XVII. xxiL XXIII. . TO FACE PAGE Early English carved-oak bedstead Frontispiece . Stuart Period XV. II. Lancashire Stuart Period 20 20 22 22 XX. . XI. Jacobean The King's Room.. Stuart Period Carved-oak bedstead at Agecroft Hall.16 XIX. Small oblong oak table XII. with . with adjustable slab .. Sixteenth century Oak panelling from Sizergh Castle Oak cabinet inlaid with mother-of-pearl. Oxburgh Hall. i 6 Henry VIII. Stuart Period 24 vii . with mouldings as decoration. Small oak gate-leg table. .. Tudor Period Seventeenth century lo IX. Plain oak Yorkshire dower-chest with drawers VII. 14 16 18 18 Room at Lenham Court. Henry VII . IV. Oak Oak dining.. Period table. Early chest Early chest or V. . VI. Kent . Tudor Period Tudor Period with " linen-fold " carving and old lock with " linen-fold " carving.

Stuart The dining-room.. Stuart period Place.. xxvii. Jacobean Inlaid . 26 26 Early eighteenth century Small walnut bureau.) tallboy. XXXVI. XXVI. with panelled doors. XLiii. . shaped.. .fronted. .. 32 34 3^ 36 38 3^ 40 42 and XXXV. Walnut knee-hole table. XLV. XLVii. XLi.) top. Stuart ' Period xLviii. . 28 30 30 - glass. with Ince & Mayhew . . XXIX." 24 XXV.'s . . (Plate xxiii. Lignum Inlaid Vitae chest of drawers on stand. XXXVIII... . Early form of cross-cutting on Stuart chest of drawers. XXXIII.. XL. XXXIX. Mahogany occasional. Adam Adam George bedstead in the State Bedroom. XLii. • • 44 44 46 46 4^ 4^ 5° ^^ XLiv. XXXVII. Hepplewhite Adam Plain Plain cabinet. Seventeenth century XXVIII. TO FACE PAGE Specimen of cross-cutting on walnut " (Plate XXVII. Sussex Goodwood House. Late period Chippendale china cabinet mahogany corner-table mahogany dumb-waiter sideboard mirror III.. XXXI. tortoiseshell cabinet occasional-table.. . XXXII. mahogany bookcase and secretaire. Chippendale Plain mahogany shell-edged occasional.mahogany. Old Period XXXIV.. shield . 24 William and Walnut bureau. XXX.table. with cabinet Mary Period Walnut " tallboy " chest of drawers. with mirror frame in waJnut.... toilette-glass Inlaid -oak toilette - .OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE PLATE XXIV. 3° Sussex. Ebony and Mahogany brackets. fret rail ..table Plain mahogany card-table Plain mahogany bow-fronted chest of drawers Plain mahogany wardrobe.. serpentine . Sheraton 54 viii . XLVi...

inlaid with tulip- LX. Satinwood cabinet. century . . with marble top plinth and marble 70 . LVi. .-58 Late eighteenth 60 inlaid Lvii. . LXi. Eighteenth century Satinwood card-table. 56 with oval mirror LiiL 58 toilette-glass.A. James I. 64 Eighteenth century 64 green. ebony.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE XLix. inlaid with satinwood bands. LXiL LXiii. . One of a pair of satinwood pier-tables. inlaid with satinwood bands. bow-fronted. Lxvii. and boxwood stained Late eighteenth century 66 Sheraton painted . . TO FACE PAGE Light - coloured mahogany chest of drawers. Pergolesi china cabinet. 62 Lix. stained dark brown. Small satinwood Pembroke table. Light mahogany square piano. Mahogany sideboard. white enamel with painted decorations Lxvi. with panels 66 68 69 7° Satinwood commode. Carved chair. 62 Inlaid corner cupboard. . work 60 decoration and carved legs. with shaped front. with panels painted by Angelica Kaufmann. -72 7* Stuart Period ix . R. 56 Eighteenth century . period Carved wood chair. mirror placed lengthwise Inlaid-harewood pier-table.A LXiv. Lxv. Enclosed washstand of mahogany. LI. Lv. with 58 plaster . Angelica Kaufmann. Late eighteenth century .. Lxviii. inlaid with satinwood. Dressing-table of mahogany. Inlaid-mahogany. Sheraton L. with gilt . Sheraton Bow-fronted satinwood commode. with broad band of harewood inlay. Late eighteenth century Lviii..56 .. Lii. . Liv. commode. Late eighteenth century Inlaid-mahogany serpentine-fronted toilette-glass. Pergolesi china cabinet. Pergolesi by R. wood and greenwood slips.

TO FACE PAGE Stained-wood armchair.84 : Pergolesi settee white enamel. 82 dale xci. Stuart Period LXXiX.82 . Probably by Chippen. Queen Anne Period Early Carved-mahogany stuffed easy-chair. . 76 76 78 Chippendale Lxxx. Pergolesi chair LXXXVL Lxxxvn. . . Lxxxi. William and Mary Period Stuffed easy-chair with wing sides. Probably Stuart Period Mahogany chair with honeysuckle-pattern back 80 80 Walnut-wood chair with carved shell on back and legs.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE PLATE LXix. Carved-wood chair with . Anne Period Lxxiv. Late Chippendale Lxxxiv. . . Lxxvii. Period . . with cane seat and back. Walnut framed chair Carved stained-wood chair. . . Lxxviii. Probably Stuart 84 84 84 84 .•78 . Lxxii. Mahogany stuffed armchair.. . Period Lxxiii. Lxxvi. Lxxxix. Stuart Period single 76 76 cane panel. Walnut-wood chair Walnut-wood settee. Early William and 72 72 Mary Lxx. xciii." Stuart Period Short walnut-wood settee. Lxxxii. .74 . Chippendale Chippendale Hepplewhite Hepplewhite ribbon-back settee ribbon-back chair chair chair . Carved-walnut " chaise longue. Lxxv. . . .. Lxxxiii. Lxxxvin. 74 Queen Anne 74 rail. .. Walnut-wood chair with turned Queen 74 . gold. Lxxi. Pergolesi settee xciv.80 80 Lxxxv. Carved chair. xc. picked out with . . Wheel-back Windsor chair Rail-back beechwood chair. painted woollen upholstering XCI I. Probably by Main waring Carved-mahogany settee. Early Georgian Mahogany chair... . 78 78 78 .

Esq.. OR . R. the cutting. {In the possession of Seymour.Plate II OAK-DINING SIDE TABLE. nearly square in section.A.) The chief features of this piece are the undecorated of the corners of the square of the legs at the top and bottom of the turned part. Tudor period. and the carved brackets.Lucas.

and you did not hear every couple setting up housekeeping chatter about old oak and Chippendale. the present craze was almost in its infancy. Most people were then content to furnish according to the housefurnisher's taste. but the vast army of small bargain hunters had not sprung into being. There were. a host of distinguished collectors. The modern movement is undoubtedly a change in the right direction. in a small way. the eighteenth century masters. for despite the fact that it has I first HEN created a and brought into existence a vast array of bad imitations of the for demand work of copies before. these are an It improvement on what went does violence to one's feelings to see the twelve by ten drawing-room in a suburban villa furnished with *'old carved I B . of course. to collect a few pieces of old English furniture.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE THE FIRST CHAPTER INTRODUCTION began.

and I am not at all sure that the vast majority are not much to be congratulated on the circumstance. Adams. The modest who has scraped up a little knowledge and is the easy prey of the modern manufacturer. often forgets. if he ever knew. or to see cottage chairs of the Chippendale period in the drawing-rooms of the wealthy. collector. Divorced from their proper surroundings. The oak-panelled rooms and tapestry-hung walls took their dignified solid oak and exquisite walnut-wood work. that the furniture of the great makers was intended for certain styles of rooms. suggest that there are not a fair number of people who have this inborn knowledge which . and Hepplewhite.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE oak " (made in Belgium or the Midlands) backed by an **art" wall-paper. and the painted rooms of a later period show up the dainty work of Sheraton. but at least these things show a hankering after improvement. you miss half I do not the effect which the designer saw. It is not every one who has instinctive feeling for what is beautiful in design and correct in form not every one who is born with a sensitiveness which is — outraged when a beautiful piece of furniture is insulted by being placed in unsympathetic surroundings.

_ TO .2 ' L.•^l c dj QJ c nj OJ !>. -M o. o -S 3 § '^ . aj ^ <jj ^_. c H 3 2 o Qj ^^ CO f^ i« 1rr< cti X^ ''^ _ <u /1i ?^ .^^^'^ c " S ^ ^^ u *" rn O ^ 2i OJ hr -C — . OJ o) ^ § .

not prepared to say that I am one of them. to Mrs. to Mr. Orrock's collection. unrivalled in England. W. I imagine. 3 . and approximately date every piece of furniture.INTRODUCTION enables them to detect at once the false from the genuine. to superiority in ture. E. secondly. think it is much he widely known how has done to uphold the merits of sufficiently English furniture. there was at one time no better education for the would-be collector than a visit to his house under the owner's intelligent guidance. undoubted workmanship to French furniinsist on its and to arouse a feeling of national pride in the work of the best makers. Wyllie. and whose knowledge of Chippendale furniture is. and who has come to my assistance in the writing of this I am book. who has also lent photographs. because I do not . Letts. S. whose intuitive knowledge exceeds that of any one I have met. James Orrock for allowing me to include certain photographs of examples in his fine collection and thirdly. to Mr. and though it has now been dispersed under the hammer. but I wish here to express my thanks firstly. He gathered round him an almost priceless collection. C. I am particularly glad to include specimens of Mr.

for long had the services .OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE And now to go back for a moment. did not cost more than a japanned deal atrocity. and those fine old wardrobes and tall chests of drawers stood neglected in dark corners of dealers' shops. can do real service. I take a myself that I have saved sundry beautiful pieces from the rubbish heap.of an extremely little credit to 4 . When some years ago I first began buying a little furniture. they were very much cheaper than their modern equivalents. one of the charms of acquiring old things was that. beautiful Sheraton chest of drawers. There is one direction though in which the enthusiast. Chairs could be acquired from half a crown upwards. with a little knowledge. Few people are courageous enough to buy a much dilapidated article which appears to be tottering on broken legs to the wood heap. It is either on its way to A A . bureau was the cheapest form of writingtable in existence. but I have been occasionally I have marvellously repaid for so daring. America or its price is prohibitive to those of moderate means. apart from their aesthetic value. Now all is changed the genuine antique is hard to find. with dressingtable fittings.

and bits of the old wood are put into half a dozen new imitations. although nine-tenths of the chair seen in .INTRODUCTION skilful and intelligent workman at my command. and hugging himself with the thought that he has secured a bargain. but it saves many full swing the horrid work of transforming genuine but faulty pieces of furniture. cabinet which he took in hand when the poor collector that he will reluctantly pass by a table or cabinet offered to him in considering perfect condition for. say £\o. Restorathat the price is . he will cheerfully pay another £\^ for having it restored. say £2^ — beyond him but if he can buy it for. I have been over factories in the Midlands and elsewhere and tion is often difficult. The clever ignoramus is then allowed to scrape a genuine leg with his pocket-knife. . and nothing in my possession gives me greater pleasure than a little Stuart it was to and in the last stages of decrepitude. 5 . a gem from a terrible fate. and goes away quite satisfied about the antiquity of the wood. Beautiful square pianos are transmogrified carved chests are cut up into secretaires into cupboards chairs are taken to pieces. which he devoted three weeks of careful It is one of the curious things about work.

they it over a given task know 6 . This same clever ignoramus is responsible for much. No fool is so easily imposed upon as the clever fool. not by reason of its age and the most finished workmanship can be put into anything at the present day. The great difficulty lies in the fact that the public will not pay for the best work. The little knowledge about old furniture. A . piece of furniture is beautiful in itself. he then snaps up greedily a thing which he would not have touched in the first instance. so far from alarming the dealer in frauds has made him rub his hands. The best work is necessarily very costly. He has felt that he had not enough work to show if he devoted a day to some tiny but all important detail. which every one has nowadays. my chief difficulty has been to make him take long enough over the task. Masters and men alike are afraid of spending too long : does not pay. One more point. when I have had a skilled workman repairing things for me.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE are new. tion that fine It is for his delecta- and whole pieces of china are broken up and then rivetted together. and that is that it is a mistake to suppose that the finest furniture cannot be made nowadays. and I know.

/ This is a particularly the possession of Seymour Lucas^ Esq. {^bi the possession of Seymour Liicas. A ^ interesting chest. ^ R. (/. first on account of the great beauty of the " linen-foid " carving-.Plate IV CHEST. This period. EARLY Plate V EARLY CHEST. and secondly on account of the short centre panel. Esq. R. VH . VHI Henry or Henry with "Unen-fold" carving. A. obviously made to allow space for the lock. legs are also noteworthy.and old lock.) piece is interesting by reason of the carving being on the spandrils The brackets under the front and framing as well as on the panels. with "linen-fold" carving..

INTRODUCTION Lastly. but there is really no occasion for the Londoner to go wanderLondon is the happiest hunting-ground ing. and the time comes when you would as soon sell your chief gems of furniture as a mother would sell her children. will find the possession of it a constant joy. I would say that all I have bought furniture in parts of the country from Penzance. 7 book is to point and fitness the great . but the treasure which you parted with in an evil hour becomes yearly more difficult to acquire again. to Dundee A My chief object in this out what admirable taste masters showed. for its value constantly increases. You never tire of the really good thing as you do of something emanating from a bad period. but do not regard a hobby in this light. be weathered. in the world. do bad financial crisis may not sell anything. and those who are able to add anything rare and beautiful to their household treasures. in the different periods. Buying good furniture is a sound investment. in constructing furniture which was at once beautiful and perfectly adapted to people's requirements. Above all. and to show the collector of moderate means what is worth buying. You only get an aesthetic dividend.

The tops of these tables are one and a half to two inches thick. difficult to date It is these tables probably none are later than Elizabeth how much earlier they may be one can only guess. and generally their sole decoration consists of carving on the frame just some under the top. oak furniture are the long narrow tables on massive pillared legs. otherwise we might presume that oak was *'the only wear" in furniture up to the end of Henry VIII/s reign. Most people err in thinking them much less old than . These stretchers served to strengthen the table and also made a rest for the feet. but that they are not later is certain. with stretchers or struts at a short distance from the floor.THE SECOND CHAPTER OAK FURNITURE mentions ''wicker chairs" in one of his Canterbury Tales. HAUCER 8 . as is shown in Plates 2 and 3. as we have no remains of anything but oak furniture of that Probably the oldest pieces of early period. in the days when carpets were unknown and rooms were very far from draught proof.

.) with drawers. as this kind was made in Yorkshire until about lOO years ago. {In the This chest may be of a fairly late date. There is a curious hinged flap on the inside to hold up the lid. and the chest is pegged together with wooden pegs after the manner of quite remote times. The form of the rising panels. Wyllie. belongs to the Stuart period. however. PLAIN OAK YORKSHIRE DOWER-CHEST.Plate VI possession of Mrs.

This table possesses .) very fine deeply cut spiral legs. Stuart period.Plate VII LARGE OAK GATE-LEG TABLE. {In the possession of Mrs. Wyllie.

R. and most of them probably date from the early Henrys. There is really nothing short of fire.or side-tables are so thick and substantial in every way. Some of the dower-chests must also date from the Tudor kings. which shows influence of the Roman shaped tables appear in early Italian pictures. It is the only one I have ever heard they really are. are not materially damaged. of that was decorated in this way the two illustrated are probably of earlier date.OAK FURNITURE Mr. that there is no reason why they should not date from the earliest times of English history. for the same longin my opinion. since even those that have been put away in a barn or disused stable for centuries. or chopping them up. There is no furniture. traces of the occupation of Britain. which may have been derived from furniture in use by the Romans. These . possibly from the c 9 . very massive dining. (who is one of the best authorities on antique oak) had formerly in his possession an extremely fine one with the top inlaid with bog oak and holly. which he dated Henry VIII. that will get rid of them. Seymour Lucas.A. unless it is these long-shaped massive tables. and we may reasonably suppose them to be the outcome of Roman furniture.

for there are immense numbers ones too genuine old the country. but interesting as showing the beginning of the . being of thinner wood. Oak settles and oak dressers plain. —remaining and of them — and over all The earliest. which was each bride's possession when she went to her new home. as distinct from the necessary tables and chairs. was really the beginning of all our elaborate wardrobes and chests of drawers and cabinets. not inlaid are often very old too though. After the plain thick-plank chests came the carved ID chests. unlikely that any of the earliest of them remain to us. rarest of these with the lid made of one very thick plank. with great wrought-iron hinges on the inside of the lid. or may — — . and tables were made. the dawn of the first idea for furniture. or could not. They are not espiecially beautiful they are rude and heavy. It shows Conquest. Apparently even the poorest bride would not. The dowerchest. these first When chests thick. it is. the finest of which .OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE be even from Saxon times. which would explain why the wood is so dower-chest. filled with linen of her own spinning. be married without one. are plain. probably the planks were all cut from the felled tree with an axe.

en l^kl o o ^^ (u . .H S S -S 1^ W ^_l ft.

irf^ ROUND OAK CLUB-FOOTED TABLE. Early XVIII century. . in oak. and less usual. This form (/« the possession of F. though not rare. Esq. Fenn.) of table is common in mahogany.

show the Norman arch and sometimes the Tudor rose. Genuine oak chests with the Norman arch and the Tudor rose are not



any reader of

this should

come across one, I counsel him, or her, to buy it, no matter what its condition. One of the objects of this book is to try to persuade people to save what little remains of the oldest furniture which still exists in the
remote parts of the country, before it is used for firewood. And here let me say generally that the shabbiest, dustiest, greyest looking piece of old oak, may be made quite beautiful. It should first be scrubbed with a good scrubbing brush and hot water and soap, then allowed to get thoroughly dry; and afterwards well rubbed, first with boiled oil,
'*to feed

as the carpenters say,

and then

with good bees-wax and turpentine, to give it a wear resisting surface. Let no one be afraid of the shabbiness of old things, they only want cleaning and rubbing up they cannot be scratched or warped or blistered, for they are so hard that they will turn the edge of the very best steel tools, and there is no easy way of hurting them short of burning. One reason why so many of these oldest oak pieces have survived until


that the labour of chopping

them up

would have been so great that it has been found easier to gather sticks If you chance upon one of these oldest oak chests, with the lid in one piece, and its long wrought-iron hinges, you may feel you have found a prize; if, in addition, it happens to
for firewood

you may know that you have lighted on something dear to the
retain its old iron lock,

heart of the collector.

Next after the plain or carved chest with the lid in one piece, comes the chest with
5 inches to 8 feet long. Those of the smaller size, a little carved and really genuine and ancient, are still very plentiful and very moderate in price. They should be brown in colour, or if nearly black, they should not be a purple black, and the little pip marks in the grain of the oak should be lighter than the surrounding wood in stained or fumed oak these pip marks are darker than the surrounding wood, because they absorb the stain more readily than the rest of the wood. It is easy to give directions by which the amateur may know really old oak so far as the wood is concerned. The worst of it is that

varying from 3


fine old

oak chests,

tables, dressers, etc.,

Plate XI

Mrs. Wyllie.)

the possession of the pattern of the turned legs prove this to be a table of an early date. The feet have obviously been cut off at some time.

The dog-tooth carving and

A. XVI century. R.Plate XII PRESS. {In the possession of Seymour This press is a remarkably fine example on Lucas..) account of its untouched condition. Esq. OAK . The design of the carving is unusually good.

who told me it had always been so called and was an old family is a well-known old possession. Quite the most desirable thing in oak chests. This chest was called *'the hutch" by its owners. often *' '* in Hampton Court Palace. geometrical in pattern and of uniform depth. The longest oak chest I have seen was 8 feet 6 inches in length. which comes from studying really fine old carving and learning to understand its character and details. which looks like fretwork laid on. and when utterly ruined. in the older part.'s time. have been cheaply carved by the sinful antique furniture dealer. entirely panelled with so that any linen-fold 13 . One can only say live and observe and learn. they are sold to the inexperienced as old carved oak. it. simple and perfectly plain.OAK FURNITURE which were genuine. will teach the non-expert the difference between these spoilt oak articles and the valuable antique carved treasures. ** Hutch" term for these chests. though one does not come across it in use nowadays. panels with the carving. with what is called Linen-fold carving was the fashionable thing There is one room in Henry VHI. is one linen-fold panels. decorated all over its place. first Nothing but talent in the and experience in the second.

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE chest probably dates from then or the two or three following reigns. there is an old dower house in which several rooms have this panelling in fine preservation. I imagine there must with two drawers. is the plain panelled chest. tion of a rare '' Another illustra- linen-fold because the mirable. Buntingford. have been some dower-chests made inlaid with 14 . with two. but original lid appears to have been replaced at some time by the present one. This panelling may be found in many country At Coles Park. which is slightly too large. on the houses. Seymour Lucas. This is especially interesting because its it has its old iron lock on the front. to Yorkshire and the northern counties. which is " and curious. R. peculiar better. or four drawers under the The illustration (Plate 6) shows one chest. The most ordinary carved oak chest is one with a little carving along the top spandril just under the lid. One of the illustra- tions (Plate 4) shows a very fine chest. so much the Another very common kind. if dated. though not. rather large and high. three. which is in the possession of Mr. I think. P. Seymour Lucas. Greg. chest (Plate 5) is given spandrils are carved. adThis also is in the possession of Mr. estate of Mr.


(/. carved figures. . Stuart period. R. whilst the spiral legs and curved struts are characteristically Stuart. and the capitals of the columns are un-English. inlaid with mother-of-pearl.) considered an English piece it was probably made by a foreign workman. The lions' heads. Esq.A./ Though this may be the possession of Seymour Lucas..OAK CABINET.

. and the club-footed table. and probably date from Charles I. with the tops fixed on to the framework by large oak pegs. not advocate the refusal of any gate-legged table unless it has spiral legs but what I do say emphatically is. or Cromwell. Those of the large table are spiral legs of considerable beauty. rare the most usual form being variants on I do the turned legs of the smaller table. buy any table. as there are dressers. The present writer has one so small that it is an ideal sofa table for serving afternoon tea on. These are both oval tables of solid oak.OAK FURNITURE holly and bog-oak. however bad its condition. 15 . of oak furniture. and another which is large enough to seat ten people. The gate-leg table may be of any that is size. but I have never chanced to see one nor have I seen an English chest inlaid with mother-of. pearl or decorated with mouldings in what we call the Jacobean style. Illustrations (Plates 7 and 9) of both of these are given in order that the differ- ence in the legs may be pointed out. unluckily. even if only the framework . The commonest form using commonest in its meaning of plentiful after dower-chests is the gate-leg table. and cabinets with that ornamentation. beds. These spiral legs are.

than the gate-leg table. but more common in mahogany. There are many forms of small tables in oak with one or three drawers. and the table can thus be . but I have one (Plate lo) which is round. personally. if it The club-footed table is more attractive to me. it is generally oval in shape when both leaves are extended. it will serve to have copies made from. brasses should remain. They are all interesting. Never make the tasteless off the old handles because taking mistake of they are incomplete. get some good brass worker to make the best copy he can of the i6 made complete. which occurs in both oak and mahogany. It is of a later date and is fairly common in oak. It is the only round oak one I have ever come across. There is a still finer form of club-footed table with high-shouldered (cabriole) legs. pieces illustrated possesses a drawer. is left and a new top is necessary. though one drawer is often met with in such tables. .OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE has Neither of the these beautiful spiral legs. but the piece to look for is one with its Even if only one of these original brasses. These have turned legs with strengthening the later ones have rails at the foot (Plate 1 1) legs without the cabriole or club-footed strengthening rails.

before the bureau form was evolved.Plate XV with adjustThis is {In the possession of F. and three lower drawers. Fejm. able slab. The brasses. and might date back to Elizabeth or Henry VI 11. .) probably an early attempt at a writing table or desk. Esq. The table contains a narrow pen drawer and deep well above. CLUB-FOOTED OAK WRITING TABLE. which are original. are of the engraved type common on Stuart furniture.


is a handsome one of the ordinary form. but can generally be bought. which is most likely to be the case the set of handles and key plates is not is original. judging from the panelled room from Sizergh Castle in the South Kensington Museum (Plate 13). (Plate 12). with characteristic carving. It is certainly later in date than the earliest carving. with mouldings put on in patterns. if they are especially wished for. Seymour Lucas. for anything The one illustrated from £^^^ upwards. or quite where it dates from. or Elizabeth. there are the so-called Jacobean oak chests of drawers. which should have drop brass handles. though it may belong to as early a period as Edward VI. and are always desirable. They are not to be picked up for an old song nowadays. Large carved oak presses chiefly belong to the North of England and the Lake Country. complete.OAK FURNITURE one that is if always supposing that it original. which is inlaid with bog-oak and holly in the characteristic pattern found on D 17 . and it is Then in an unusually untouched condition. I do not think any one knows who brought the fashion of inlaying into this country. by kind permission of Mr. Next we come to inlaid oak..

there are cabinets of the early Stuart period. though The one illustrated their feeling is not. These are grooves in the sides of 18 . I . more strictly speaking. carving and inlay in oak seem to have been considered the right thing at one period. as all that have been found have come from that district. namely. un-English character of these particular pieces. oak furniture. To come to still more elaborate oak inlaid furniture. what are technically called double runners. who were brought over to the Eastern counties by one of the numerous patrons of art at that time. both inlaid with bog-oak and holly in this manner both were also decorated with carving. and that a very beautiful period. Here. have been made by Italian workmen. In fact. perhaps. or. (Plate 14) is a specially good one from Mr. mention should be made a of detail to be looked for in early chests of drawers. or tables with drawers in them. Their workmanship is undoubtedly English. which were carved and inlaid These are believed to with mother-of-pearl. Seymour Lucas's collection. This would explain the foreign.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE have seen two oak bedsteads of exceeding beauty. which would otherwise be puzzling.

Plate XVII CARVED OAK FLOUR HUTCH. which is totally different in character from most other English carving on oak. Esq. . The origin of the design may have been Scandinavian. Letts.) Plain flour hutches are still to be found in the Eastern counties. It is difficult to assign any date to this piece. E. but not with carving like that on the one shown in the illustration. {A^ one time in the possession of S.



Stuart period. This at Goodwood House, Sussex. very richly carved, the pillars with enwreathed floral designs, and the tester with characteristic perforated work.

drawers about halfway up the sides, which run on mouldings in the inside of the chest, thus preventing the drawers from shaking as they pull in and out, and also serving to hold them up when they are pulled out to more than half their length a prethe

caution which
the depth,
it is

was more necessary

then, since

length from back to front of the drawers, was considerably greater than




In writing of oak furniture, mention must also be made of the carved-oak desk and Biblebox, of which many examples exist all over
the country.
Strictly speaking, these


be regarded as





club-footed oak writing-table (Plate 15), obviously the outcome of the desk placed

upon legs. After this was evolved the bureau, which is one of the most usual as well as most useful pieces of antique furniture of
later date.

Bureaux, of plain oak, generally

with one or more secret drawers, and often with a well, used to be as plentiful as apples in autumn and almost as cheap. This was when writing-tables were the fashion, and before the public taste had revolted from the
gentility of early, or rather middle, Victorian

Nowadays one must pay

at least


;^4 for a good oak bureau, though this is not an extravagant price for an article which


worth ;£8 on





well to reflect that, in spite of the
rise in the price

enormous of antique furniture, you may

buy a few things for far less than it would cost to reproduce them, even with modern machinery. If you want a piece
really reproduced, with the beautiful joinery

workmanship accurately copied, have to pay considerably more, t.e, ;^io or ;j^i2 for the bureau which you now buy for ;^4 from a second-hand dealer.

and you

one of the great safeguards fraud with the commoner pieces of antique furniture, that ordinarily you can buy them for less than cheap reproductions can be made; but very few, if any, genuine antique carved bureaux exist. Only once in all my wanderings have I come across a Jacobean oak bureau with mouldings for ornament. Besides the articles of oak furniture mentioned above, there were large cupboards, sometimes six feet long, made of panelled oak like the panelling of rooms. I am not sure that they were originally made as cupboards at all some of them, no doubt, were 20
Indeed, against



at Aoecrott Haii. btuart . J.Plate XIX CARVED OAK BEDSTEAD period.ancashirc.

E. the possession of with mouldings as decoration.Plate XX OAK DRESSER. Grew. {In . S. Esq.) Jacobean.

oak seat settle. Oak cradles there were. There remain only the oak settles and The oak oak chairs with which to deal. and they should be looked upon as objects for museums rather than furniture to be put home. It is Lenham it Court. to say that. Elam at Kent. perhaps. with plenty of cushions.OAK FURNITURE cupboards built in a panelled room but most of them. that there appear to have been no oak wash. which I saw once. just as are the oak kneading-troughs. settle is well-known to most people. had the whole made of plaited strips of leather. One of the curious things about antique furniture is. which is a very nice one in the into the possession of Mrs. an oak settle makes a very admirable piece of furniOne ture for a hall or large dining-room. and varies very little from the one illustrated (Plate 1 6). stands or towel-airers. who has kindly had for use here. were made out of old panelling when it was pulled out of the houses to make way for the plastered walls necessary to hang wall-papers upon. about 21 . though there is no longer any possible way of using them. I suspect. photographed hardly necessary. and some of them are quite beautiful and worthy of preservation.

22 .OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE a quarter of an inch thick and of the same width. the leather giving with the weight of one's body. Oak chairs will be dealt with in a special all chapter devoted to chairs of periods. X. It was very curious and remarkably comfortable.

> u r. 5 O 03 '"^ cfi c o-^ oJ " S 03 P^--" ii ^ n 03 .cj 't: Ti "^ 03 (£ o 2 "i cu "i: 3 03 _ b/) C ^ P CTJ _ crt ^ ^c — -^ --: "" aj u ^ b ? 03 "^3 « r^ a." S.2 S ^ ^ ':5 (1) n3 >-. <H j:^ c/j O c oj d) _ o O 03 ^ t'' ^^ . u.5 dj 'tj 03 -Q^ ^- g :S ^ 'd g. <D iD .

Plate XXII OAK "GRANDFATHER. {A^ the School of Art Needle-work^ South Kefisington ) ." OR LONG-CASE CLOCK.

THE THIRD CHAPTER THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD EXT after oak It came is walnut furniture. and it is perhaps because of them that I find walnut- wood until I alive furniture to so attractive. when. shall try to point out differences in detail by which the probable period of walnut furniture may be determined. and workmanship the material. and for its unforced effects and I charm of the little colour. not the fashion . Thus the bringing into use of saw-cut 23 . One puts down changes in furniture^ to fashion and the individual influence of certain makers. It began to acquire the pieces. for the study of these details has been a special pleasure to me. like most way from fashions. the change is due more to the bringing into use of a new material than to anything else for the material controls the fashion and workmanship. that was not I became developed furniture had gradually carved oak to inlaid mahogany. particularly attractive by reason of its beauty and delicacy of workmanship.

No the first workman or master-craftsman who started inlaying oak in patterns with bog- There is a very fine oak and holly woods. new thing. example of this style of work in South Kensington Museum.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE pollard walnut-wood veneer threw carved-oak doubt the beginning of the decline of carving was due to furniture out of fashion. oak chests. therefore. sawn wood was that is I imagine that all cut across the grain to say. and no one. thought of inlaying as a form of decoration. Later. instead of lengthwise in planks . when sawing became more of and it was possible to get wood the astonishingly delicate thinness sawn to of an eighth or the sixteenth of an inch. and oak bed. before referred and there are occasional pieces of furnito ture to be met with with this decoration such as dressers. In the beginning of furniture making. the trunk of the tree was cut up 24 in rounds from the root to the branches. an art. and carving was the only course open. steads. people naturally delighted in the use of the wonderful thinly at first . Westmoreland. probably it was not possible to get wood in planks much less than an inch thick. the panelled room from Sizergh Castle.

Fen?t. and consequently it is an example of the first step in the departure from carved oak.Plate XXIII OAK CHEST OF DRAWERS MADE IN TWO PIECES. . {^In the This interesting piece of furniture Possession of F. with veneer of walnut on the front only. Esq. Stuart period.) shows the beginning of the use of veneering.

ns^s < .


we have


thank the man who sawing thin rounds of wood off

a tree for much of the beautiful furniture Boxwood is cut that has come down to us. across the grain to the present day, and so was all the wood used in inlaying old oak Having once obtained thin wood furniture.
it on oak in patterns, the idea of covering the whole surface of a piece of oak furniture (when finely figured oak was becoming more difficult to obtain) with these thin pieces of walnut wood, soon followed. A modern overworked furniture maker would have produced a quite ugly result in all probability, for he would, in his hurry, hardly have had time to invent one of the chief beauties of walnut-wood furniture, i.e. the accurate match-

of beautiful colour and started glueing


ing of the figure of the wood so that the grain makes a beautiful pattern. The wood used on any piece of old walnut furniture always appears to have been taken from the same tree. It is possible to trace the figure growing smaller through the various pieces, but these are always so exquisitely arranged that the pattern is an added charm.


oldest pieces of walnut




met with have the oak upon which the walnut E 25

is laid

showing quite frankly

For instance,

some the chest of drawers shown


in the

which is a peculiarly beautiful example of walnut wood, is oak at the top and sides flush with the moulding, though Another the moulding itself is walnut.
illustration (Plate 23),

thing that is interesting about this chest is, that it has rounded mouldings between and around the drawers and no moulding on the edge of the drawers themselves. If you want to understand this difference, pull out the drawer of a later piece of furniture, a quite

you will find that the little moulded finish comes out with the drawer, because it is on the drawer itself and not on the chest, or ''carcase'' as the workman would call it. I was lucky enough to find most of the old handles and key-hole plates on this chest, all being perfect except for one or two of the handles, which have been care-


chest will do, and

In order to prevent the chipping off of the veneer or " facing," the drawers are bordered all round for about half an inch with walnut cut a different way of the wood, like a piece of stuff cut on the cross instead of
fully copied.

on the straight


this is called ''cross-cutting."

In later pieces of walnut furniture you seldom find this at the edge of the drawers, and


Plate XXVI


with cabinet top.

the possession of

has unusually

Ashby Sterry, Esq.) mouldings and panelled doors.

William and Mary This bureau

Esq. {In key plates are original. the Possession of F. . Fenn.) The handles and The slide in the centre is unusual in a walnut chest. XVII century.Plate XXVII WALNUT " TALLBOY" CHEST OF DRAWERS.

It was then that the exceedingly fine marqueterie work of boxwood or sycamore inlaid in walnut was made. which It is made in two parts. it when you is . is so instructive. To return to this James I. and is very familiar in later furniture in 27 . being quite separate from the chest itself. the base or short stand (the part consisting of the three small drawers at the bottom) on which the actual chest of drawers stands. to my thinking. do. it has never since been equalled. and one marvels afresh every time one sees any of it. one of which occurs on the chest of drawers (Plate 23). This is sometimes so delicate that it is more like brush work than anything else. at the beauty of both design and workmanship. I have had photographs made of the two different kinds of cross-cutting (Plates 24 and 25). As it does not show very clearly in an illustration of a complete piece of furniture. This is very characteristic of Stuart work. the art of furniture making in walnut wood had become so highly finished and elaborate in workmanship that it has never been surpassed indeed. By the time of Charles II.THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD always much less broad. which probably dates from James I. and there is often a double row. chest.

are what make one certain of its early date. this of furniture many features that are illuminative. often of fine lacquer work. chest of drawers (Plate 20) I pointed out.: OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE such articles as the cabinets of small drawers enclosed with two doors. that have had to 28 give a considerable amount of . but they are shaped so that they are smaller In at the top. to- ball foot chairs of Stuart period have their back legs shaped at the bottom feet of this James piece I. and curved at front and sides. One more interesting feature of the James I. which had spiral rails at the bottom of the frame This was a Charles II. covered with exquisite English marqueterie work. and also the beginning of the idea which later developed Many claw-andinto the claw-and-ball foot. chest. piece. The very finest piece of Stuart furniture I ever saw was a large cabinet of walnut wood. on a walnut-wood stand. They do not show very clearly in the reproduction their ground-plan is the square block of oak. to strengthen it. which. one can just see the beginning of the hoof foot of later date. remains to be refer to the feet. them. I think. gether with the other characteristics. much like the As an object possesses so I lesson.

(/w the Early XVIII The possession of F. . Esq. century.Plate XXVIII SMALL WALNUT BUREAU.) mouldings on this piece are on the drawers. Fenn.

the peculiar quality of which is that it retains its absolute transparency and whiteness so that the wood is unchanged after centuries. if in too bad a condition for that. who knows that without the old varnish the colour of the walnut will certainly change. Ashby . and on no account to let it go to an ordinary furniture man to be repaired or restored. was French polished.. Next in beauty and age to the James I. THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD I only hope I have said enough space to it. ture. any furniture of the same period to do all they can to preserve it untouched if possible or. which is the property of Mr. or comes upon. The exceedingly beautiful bright polish on walnutwood furniture. if a piece of old walnut-wood furniture is French polished. and on no account No Stuart furnito have its polish touched. to call in some expert to put it right. 29 . half its value is destroyed for the connoisseur. because French polish was not invented until a much later date. comes the bureau with cabinet top. was obtained by the use of some remarkable varnish. or any made before that period. probably within ten years* time. the secret of which has been lost since the invention of French polish therefore. to induce any one who possesses. chest (referring only to pieces of which illustrations are given).

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE have seen very many after this pattern. when they had less furniture perhaps. of their household gods seems an absolute necessity which has been only held in check by the spirit of economy this was a feeling unknown to people in the old days. the other produces restlessness and a desire for change for something else in its place a feeling which the perfectly planned and made work of the true artist never produces. with the doors made hideous by having had looking-glass panels inserted but Mr. why this is so superior to the majority of others. or even young people. because the differences are so slight. Think how common it is nowadays for middle-aged. The one thing is eminently satisfactory to live with. called by the dealers Queen Anne. often. and had probably cost as — — : 30 . I regret to say. I . but each piece was perfect of its kind. who can see at once the superiority in the planning of the old work as well as in the workmanship. and I should date it William and Mary. to refurnish as soon as they can Think how the getting rid of most afford it. though so all-important to the real lover of old furniture. It is difficult to point out from a photographic reproduction Sterry (Plate 26). Ashby Sterry's is the earliest and best I have ever yet seen.


or a great deal more. suite of furniture. How many years of saving and waiting But did a grandfather clock represent ? now there is no saving and no waiting the — — — rustic or townsman invests in a i^. because he knows instinctively that it would stand no wear and tear. If they will have it. and a £\ \os. to say whether good workmanship shall cease in the country or not. and who retain. and will not mind paying for it. than a whole suite The of modern machine-made furniture. which is renewed every two or three years. cottager one hundred and fifty years ago paid £^c) sterling when money was worth more than it is now for his grandfather clock. and there is no with the middle classes. It rests the traditions to hand on to teach the younger men what joinery and cabinet-making should be. and the rich tradesmen who have made a sufficiency in business.THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD much. which is kept in an unused parlour. there are still enough of the older men left who have learnt their trades of joinery and cabinet-making from those that have gone before. therefore. \o\d. It would be a much greater thing to save 31 . and had it made for him by the best clockmaker of his county town or nearest large town. all pride of possession. American alarm clock.

than to spend large sums in constantly redecorating and refurnishing with the latest production of some well-known firm that makes furniture by the stack for the million. and as all rooms were until cheap wall-paper pushed out wooden panelling. In an overcrowded. unnoticed. is going out and a hope may be expressed that the large sums which were formerly spent upon pictures will now be devoted to fostering . of beautiful furniture will make itself felt. which has produced unquestionably the finest furniture in the world. overcurtained room the furniture is not a feature. the need for a small amount. I do not want to live in a room without any pictures at all. 32 . spaced as though the room were panelled. With the pictures so hung. and a small amount only. What is written above may give the impression that I dislike but that would be entirely wrong. Good pictures should be hung separately on the walls.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE these traditions of the country. and it passes almost pictures. any more than I want to live in one that is overloaded with them. hung so closely that they jostle each other in subject and design. the art of furniture-making. Happily the fashion for covering up ugly walls with pictures. as all rooms should be.


The handles on this chest are original. which pulls out at will from among the drawers and forms a table on which to work or place things out of one s hands table which is always at hand and always empty. — first-mentioned chest of drawers. with sunk places for the candlesticks and deeper sunk oval-shaped hollows for the counters or money of the players. but the lower half is higher. That is there are no old walnut-wood dining-tables probably because our practical ancestors did F 33 . as no ordinary table ever is. there is more room given for putting things away. both charming pieces of later date.a THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD (Plate 27) of a walnut wood. Note that this chest has a writing slide. Pictures of a walnut-wood bureau and kneehole table (Plates 28 and 29). are without the engraving or punched work of the earlier handles on the . and although no tall An illustration is given chest of drawers in more floor space is taken up. are also given. or slide on which to fold clothes a most convenient shelf. There were beautiful walnut-wood card-tables (there is one in Hampton Court Palace) on club feet. This chest also is in two pieces. but though a beautiful shape. the natural development of the shorter chest on a stand.

and made of walnut wood. and invented the shield-shape and oval toilette-glass. and looking-glasses hung upon the wall were common. Probably any sort of small table was used (possibly the knee-hole table was made for that purpose) as a dressing-table. or the remains of one. as it is now the fashion to call them debased the most attractive and most suitable toilette glasses one that is partly oak .— OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE not consider a veneered surface sufficiently durable for a dining-table. There do not appear to have been any! I certainly have never seen one. Of the regular on standards to tilt. I have and partly walnut. 34 . — shape for a toilette-glass when they varied from the Jacobean form. I am always puzzled about the washstands of the walnut-wood period. a tolerably early one (Plate 31 ) while Jacobean toilette glasses often with two tiers of drawers. To me it seems that the much appreciated Chippendale and later makers or masters. used to be fairly common.

The framework is ebony and some lighter wood. and it is reproduced here by permission of Mrs. a lineal descendant of Sir Christopher to Sir Cliristopher EBONY AND TORTOISESHELL CABINET. Pigott. and contains four mirrors divided by black pillars with gold capitals. This piece of furniture has never been out of the possession of the Wren family.Plate XXXII This cabinet was given doubtful whether it is of that date. The raised parts and the flats inside the moulding round the drawers and doors are of tortoiseshell laid over a bright red paste. The inside is inlaid with white ivory. but it is Wren. The insides of the doors are inlaid with ivory. . Wren by Queen Anne.

finding that the workmen. Thomas who was 35 . would not use it. possibly by a cabinetmaker living in St. the wood not having come into this country until 1724. alleging it to be mahogany unworkable for their purpose. appears to have been one of the first cabinetmakers to become enamoured of the new material.THE FOURTH CHAPTER THE INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY NLIKE oak and walnut wood. He. so the story goes. Gibbon. if he was in business as a cabinet-maker when the Chippendale. afterwards had a candle box made of some of it. when some was sent from the West Indies as a present to a certain Dr. though the difficulty of dating it is not great. made mahogany furniture is impossible. Thomas Chippendale the doctor. near by Anyhow. Martin s Lane. who were building a house for him. furniture is very frequently dated earlier than its actual age by the non-expert. and his name has come down to us with renown as the producer of extremely That he only beautiful mahogany furniture.

when faced walnut furniture took the place of He was an artist. a fact . which had gone almost entirely out of fashion. He must have learnt his trade on the Queen Anne furniture of his immediate forerunners. . That carving had never entirely ceased to be used on furniture we see by the familiar shell on the legs of tables and the legs and backs of Queen Anne chairs but less and less of it had been used. which has been rather overlooked and one wonders what he was making in the way of walnut-wood cabinets before his genius had its way with mahogany.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE new wood was brought to this country. on account of its unsuitability to the material. . and it was little short of a stroke of genius on Chippendale's part to 36 . He straightway went to carving. solid oak. and the son of a woodlearned cabinet at all: I making carver. and must have been the possessor of a considerable personality. undoubtedly. if he ever say **if" because he is reputed to have been a woodcarver by trade. which enabled him to inspire his work-people with his own individuality and ideas so we owe to him the great revolt from inlaying or veneering as a means of furniture decoration.

Ince and Mayhew. WITH FRET RAIL AND BRACKETS. The two turned rails. held together carving. show marvellous skill in the art of . This is a beautiful example of the in mahogany by fretwork cabinet making.Plate XXXIV MAHOGANY OCCASIONAL TABLE. possibility of combining lightness with strength furniture.

. and the carved rail-support very fine.Plate XXXV MAHOGANY OCCASIONAL is is TABLE. This a good specimen of fretwork edge. Chippendale.

and greatly as one may admire the beauty and decorative quality of Tudor carving on oak. walnut. it on a finer wood calling for more elaborate it is Still to hear Chippendale spoken of as is often done as a master who came suddenly into being. INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY perceive that the way its to bring the new wood and into fashion against exquisitely figured much more delicately coloured predecessor. irritating — — 37 . in order to the new Chippendale might have gone back to the Tudor for his models of decorative carving on furniture. of the effect which would have been the result and once again one places Chippendale on his high pedestal. in his earliest and finest work. One thinks. and to me it seems that Chippendale. was to return to carving. clearly shows his indebtedness to Grinling Gibbons. with a shudder. This he did in a style which was his own certainly but even the greatest artists are invariably indebted to the work of other men who have gone before them. utilise it is possible material. one would dislike . But for the Grinling Gibbons tradition that. and produced from nothing a great period treatment. He suited his workmanship to his material.. and the great school of wood-carvers of Stuart times. in carving.

and made again a great period in furniture.. with beautiful struts giving rigidity to the openwork frame on which the necessarily heavy top part stands. To older English furniture this in before his time. Look at the Chippendale cabinet. Chippendale fails this is what in the end I have met many sent him out of fashion. and your satisfaction will be absolute. or will not. on its beautifully carved straight legs. You will find the Stuart piece perfectly proportioned and perfectly constructed. fortable feeling that the china within the glazed This is where doors is not safe. workmanship and carving of which are so exquisite that they compel admiration. besides. His work was excellent. which had been slowly but surely growing less beautiful as all it fell away from the earlier Stuart models but in no case did he improve the form of a single piece of furniture which had existed English furniture. the Take an undoubted Chippendale cabinet. an uncom. OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE students of is sheer heresy. can possibly support the heavy top and you will have. 38 . care for his . people who cannot. and compare it with a Stuart cabinet. and you will find yourself wondering how the absolutely unstrengthened frame.

'S ^ O >-H *~j i>^ ••- 1-1 Q^*^ .c/}H g ^ « g c 4) <U c c 5 -^ ^^ SO <^ iJ .

and The bracket shows in most cases his fret-work or Chinese period. chairs. Still. much as I admire Chippendale's workmanship.INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY slighter chairs insecurity. later years. which he has much eulogy. and is an enhancement to the beauty of the furniture. of the features for One received 39 . on account of this feeling of In both cases there is nothing really weak in the construction. cabinet-stands. in his . for he commenced the use of the obvious bracket in his tables. much credit is due to him for the skilful way in which he treated their revival. is the claw-and-ball foot. This is absurd. . The great cabinet-maker himself. or the furniture would not have lasted for one hundred and fifty years but any form which produces such an uncomfortable impression is removed from perfect taste and therefore. seems to have felt the necessity of showing that his forms were not so weak as they seemed. I consider him a decadent in furniture-making. There comes to my memory as I write. though I shall probably get few people to agree with me. and he merely revived the use of them. as though he had invented it. for claw-and-ball feet were used over and over again on Stuart chairs.

It is now in the possession of Mr. the supporting stand larger than the cabinet. in fact. cabriole legs and claw-and-ball feet. departed from it. tendency in taste. In his later work he used frets. largely. legs. it had been used for a century before He. and his time. 40 . This may have been because he found. on account of the cabriole which make. from the famous Strawberry Hill collection. But Chipon the pendale did not invent that form contrary. with high shouldered. and thus produce the most complete feeling of satisfaction. Horace Walpole. and shows a retrograde . which is perhaps the most perfect thing in mahogany cabinets that has ever been made. employed the straight leg.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE a small mahogany medal cabinet on a stand. as he calls them. which I maintain is structurally weak. and departed more and more from the carving of his early Grinling Gibbons inspired days. or. as his business developed into a large one. All uncomfortable feeling originally but came as to lack of strength is absent in this piece. without heaviness. the cost of production of his earlier work too great and he had to make furniture for . and is supposed to have been made for that apostle of taste. technically speaking. Letts.

) This chest of drawers unusually fine shape.Plate XXXVIII PLAIN {hi MAHOGANY BOW-FRONTED CHEST OF DRAWERS. The beautiful handles are original. Fenn. is of F. Esq. the possession of an .

which was in the end to kill possible amount of craftsmanship. Many of the older houses in G 41 . blame Chippendale for that. in fact. They might inaugurate workshops where furniture for themselves could be made without thought of a profit. or making furniture for the masses instead of for the classes. strong enough to induce the wealthy people of to-day or to- morrow to interest themselves in the production of beautiful things. come sooner or later —as soon.INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY people of moderate means. certain to fact. is what we should call it Supplying a want now. This was an inevitable development. in as the poorer people began to ape the manners and customs of the richer. it was the factory creeping into existence. I suppose. — employment for his workpeople. cheaper sort of copy of the furniture made for the palace but we must not. The only chance of the revival of crafts- manship possibly lies in the rather hopeless hope of a revival in taste. He was a tradesman doing the best for his trade a master endeavouring to get the largest . It was a much more beautiful world when the furniture made for cottages and farmhouses was designed for use in them instead of being a plainer.

Other large pieces of plain mahogany furniture were the tall chests of drawers on 42 . though never so fine in the mahogany as in the older walnut-wood specimens. show a striking variation from the straightness usual to the legs of chests of drawers. or less worthy of esteem. such as this one. and the legs. These are French in feeling. used as models. and the handles in particular should be observed. are rare. would soon teach taste to the artisan. Another illustration (Plate 38) shows a very excellent bow-fronted chest of drawers. though not in workmanship. and should not be neglected by the collector. and the design pleasing. who often has a great deal of that quality born in him. although so It is exceptionally beautiful plain. which. though not less esteemed. Fine bow-fronted chests. Serpentine chests of this period are more common. Their workmanship is irreproachable. if which add so much to the character of the whole. and only needs an outlet for it.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE the country are filled with unique examples of everything that is beautiful in furniture. from which the idea of the serpentine front was probably taken.

/ the possession of Mrs. (/.marks of Hepplewhite. with panelled Hepplewhite.) The carved rose or rosette decoration is one of the distinguishing. MAHOGANY . PLAIN doors.Plate XXXIX WARDROBE. Wyllie.

is best known after Chippendale s for mahogany furniture distinct from inlaid mahogany. were not cabinet-makers or craftsmen. and.INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY the same plan as the walnut one illustrated (Plate 27). though a very plain one. as a cabinetmaker. It is a very perfectly proportioned piece. Their 43 . effect. so restrained and refined in detail as to suggest that it did not come the into existence until after the work of ultimate detail Adam brothers had begun the to influence furniture makers towards floridness of suppression of the belonging to the true Chippendale period. but with the Greek-inspired moulding at the top. of admirable workmanis it interesting because ship. had a wide are well known. The name of Hepplewhite. of the course. whose and far-reaching latter. the designs of Adam brothers. but architects who designed furniture suited to the style of decoration they were using in the houses they were then building in various parts of London. has the roses or rosettes which are one of the distinguishing marks of Hepplewhite's work. The taste however. at the four corners of the panels. similar to that shown on the wardrobe in Plate This wardrobe.

but not original in any way. tables. Ince. book of designs for chairs. the ram s heads holding the wreath. the urn. who published such a book in 1737. Lock. pure and delicate as well as beautiful. except in their application to furniture. but their names have not come down to us. Johnson. put into practice. cabinets. architectural. small makers must have been many. except in the case of Mainwaring. etc. their ornamentation being the honeysuckle pattern. and in 1746 by those of Copeland. and Kent. or in catalogues of designs for cabinet- making. and Mayhew. Jones. strictly speaking. by a certain W.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE inspiration was purely Classic Greek. which was followed in 1744 by the plates of Inigo Jones. or at any rate. was published by Thomas Chippendale first 44 . But these are.. whose The names have been recorded mainly through the fact that they are appended to signed plates of designs published in various books. Copeland. and other unchanged Greek patterns. for The idea of publishing woodwork and interior have been first a book of designs decoration appears to conceived. and deal little with furniture in The first comprehensive its ordinary sense.

Esq. .Plate XL ADAM CABINET.) Late period. {^From the collection of James Orrock.

Plate XLI



the collection

James Orrock, Esq.)


Hepplewhite's 1754. and Upholsterer's Guide "


Cabinet-maker s did not appear

1787; and Sheraton's equally famous and valuable designs were first given to the Had it not trade and the public in 1792. been for the publication of these books or catalogues, we might never have known the names of Chippendale, Hepplewhite, or Sheraton, though the Adam brothers would have been famous in connection with their




However, what



not the finest pieces of furniture made by any of these wellknown masters, but a more or less general description of mahogany furniture of the eighteenth century, in the hope that what I write may be of some help to beginners who are absolutely ignorant on the subject and distrustful of their own taste and judgment. For their benefit I write one easily learnt "tip,'' i.e. that genuine antique mahogany furniture is solid and immensely heavy. This is particularly noticeable in the case of club-footed tables, either of the dining or breakfast pattern, or the folding card-table

chiefly concerned with


pattern. Pembroke tables i.e. oblong tables with semi-circular or else oblong flaps, which, when up, are supported by brackets hinged


on immediately under the top


also of

mahogany but being of much

later date,

and half the thickness
particularly heavy.
tables are of early date.

the top, are not

All club-footed


have even seen

some with the carved cockle-shell decoration, and they are always made of thicker wood than the later date mahogany furniture.


open out

by revolving on their frame into a circular table, and have a deep well between the top and the legs which is only accessible by moving round the top are occasionally seen in mahogany. These, of course, being a Queen Anne pattern, and with club-footed Later mahogany legs, are of early date. card-tables with straight legs and tops based on the plan of the square, though generally with the square relieved by being cut into a serpentine form, are also of solid mahogany. When one comes to bureaux, book-cases, wardrobes, and knee-hole tables, and the
larger pieces

of furniture generally,




early good ones are oak faced with finely Speaking generally, no figured mahogany. mahogany furniture which is made up on deal is of any value. 46






CU -^ > OJ o .

and unless they were quite the finest. the yellow touch of colour of the brass handles is delightful on any furniture. . when buying incontrovertible. In One course of time even.INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY of the most regrettable things that has happened to so many pieces of fine as well as modest mahogany furniture is the replacement of the original charming brass handles by turned wood knobs. but it is history. instead of projecting into space apparently for the express purpose of tearing women's dresses. Certainly brass handles do get out of order occasionally. and never allow the dealer who is selling it you to replace the one or two originals with a complete set of brasses off some other quently offer even genuine old Dealers freto do so in order to effect a sale piece. This is a manifestation of the barbarous want of taste of the early Victorian. an old piece to get it with one or two of the original handles and lock-plates on it. Then. however. so that the change from it to black knobs is incomprehensible. and Try. and had originally undergone a process of mercurial gilding. too. 47 . they needed relacquering. but at least those of the earlier patterns fell down flat against the drawers when they were not in use.

besides knee-hole tables. to be complete. unusually long in the leg. candlestick-stands. and the old ones always with a cupboard in the middle. of the walnut-wood one illustrated on Plate 29. set back about half the depth of the drawers. with wonderful wooden hinges that allow the leaves to turn either way. especially when they are in their places on the furniture. though these will be. small tables. 48 . and varying very little from the form ones . generally small. and show absolutely no daylight through. but there are hosts of smaller articles of furniture urn-stands. It would be far better to get the best copies obtainable made of the remains of the originals. after all. should be in a set of four. when one first comes across a specimen.— OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE but in nine cases out of ten the handles from one piece will be utterly unsuitable to the other almost as much an eyesore as the plain black knob. matter very much. inferior in finish to the old but that does not. when — closely inspected. nest-tables which. These are a revelation in the art of cabinet-making. The mahogany chairs and sofas will be dealt with in a separate chapter. for the imitations will not be apparent to any one but an expert. Then there are mahogany-framed screens. but having done so.

^ .

{From the collection of James Orrock.Plate XLV ADAM MIRROR. Esq.) .

because the hole for the basin is small. placing it at a most comfortable elevation for any one of average height. yet scarcely any one thinks it possible to use them for their original purpose.INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY nothing else will ever satisfy one in the shape of a screen. These. originally the smaller holes in them were filled with turned mahogany shallow cups. and the tops do not get splashed and soapy because the large basin extends over them. with long feet to keep them steady. and also of the small square shape. I them for their original delight in purpose. in plain mahogany. There ! H 49 . These washstands are a for showing china charming shape. they take the largest modern basin. by the way. for there are plenty of dainty towel-horses to match the washstands. unenclosed. while a couple of shelves fixed on the wall above give one more than the usual accommodation for soap and brushes and I should mention that toilette requisites. Every modern luxury seems to have come in with mahogany. They are like miniature kitchen clothes-airers. are rapidly diminishing in number since the antique dealer has hit on the happy idea of converting them into tables with glass sides. Of washstands there are great numbers of the well-known corner shape.

of the period before satinwood inlaying became the fashion. This is perhaps the finest known. is a thing to search for. and very delightful plain usually round ones but there are singu. with its two end cupboards surmounted by their urn knifeboxes. not brass. but made more exquisitely than it has ever been made before or since. that to say. Knife-boxes and wine-coolers in mahogany are also worth the attention of collectors. larly few sideboards of the carved mahogany is period. carving-tables of un- mahogany. across the back. the bracket. and the same may be said of the thing which Chippendale not only invented. and an elaborate rail of ormolu. and when found to save at any cost. and have it carefully copied without trying to improve upon 50 it . with fret sides jutting out slightly in the centre front of the lower shelves. One of his fine sets of bracket shelves. Orrock had in his possession a truly magnificent Adam sideboard (Plate 44).! OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE are dumb-waiters and inlaid trays. namely. Reproductions of these brackets should sell by the thousand if any modern maker had the enterprise to buy one of the originals. Mr. and possibly one of the finest ever made.

Sussex.Plate XLVI IIEb JiEDSTEAl) in the State Bedroom at House. A typical XVIII century bedstead. GEORGE Goodwood fine carved . with posts in the Chippendale manner.

INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY Mahogany quite four-post bedsteads used to be plentiful. They had gone mostly to the cottagers. though 51 . often to be met with which were not unlike those drawn by him. wood is all unsightly. of many people However. Many of the fine old country houses in posts at the present time. as far as the cornices are concerned. and saving of trouble to the servants." remunerative that it is quite difficult to find an old mahogany bedstead with beautiful lady. who bought them because they were to be had for less money than the new iron ones and they would still be in existence in quantities but for the bright idea invented by some clever in . of the elaborate style shown Posts were Chippendale's book. which brought in the iron or brass bedstead. completely ousted the four-poster. using up the best of the old posts by turning them into what are called ** lampThis idea was so successful and stands. but the craze for easy cleanliness. are willing to purchase metal bedstead has proved just as difficult to keep clean and in order as the wooden one. in favour once more. the them. though not. and the few four-posters remaining may therefore escape cutting up. and fashion has decreed that wood is less At the time of writing.

52 . the state bedroom in an important which England ful house invariably contains a most imposing bed.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE is so rich contain very beauticarved bedsteads in oak and mahogany. Indeed. and some of these. produce with their elaborate carving a very rich effect. though rather florid in design.

Other features of interest are the rounded mouldings between the drawers.) The spiral legs tapering towards the top are very fine. period.Plate XLVIl LIGNUM VIT^ CHEST OF DRAWERS ON STAND. (/./ Stuart Fenn^ Esq. and the geometrical inlay of sycamore wood. . the possession of F.

Whether Sheraton was the actual originator of the new style or not. to possibili- Adam the and have to others seemed almost exhausted ties of mahogany. just as much as his pieces of furniture born colourist. show that he was also a Born at Stockton-on-Tees. Hepplebrothers. though very few people can ever hope to be possessors of a veritable piece from his own small workshop in Soho. with its insistence on the necessity of drawing according to the rules of perspective. were so exquisite that this particular style is known exclusively by his name.THE FIFTH CHAPTER INLAID MAHOGANY AND Chippendale. shows in a pathetic way that he was a born artist. the designs he drew for it. the SATINWOOD HEN white. it occurred some one (we do not know for certain that it was Sheraton) to revert to inlaying as a means of decoration or embellishment for furniture. and the pieces which he had made of it. The poor unsuccessful drawing masters book on furniture making. he 53 .

for by attempting to do everything he does nothing. Hepplewhite. He was an author. in the presence of a true help piece of Sheraton's work. a teacher of drawing. Much as one may appreciate the workmanship of Chippendale. one cannot that their .— OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE had served his time at cabinet-making. and the Adam feeling brothers. he perforce lived by the making of furniture.** Would that most people s nothing " might prove to be as much I find myself wondering if his paintings or his writings would have '* ! given as much pleasure to the world as his furniture has undoubtedly given. Of seeing genuine pieces of these two masters side by side only the fortunate few ever have a chance." says his memoirs. a bookseller. ** I believe and resources are his ruin. he could not content himself with being '' a tradesman. Still. and in spite of all his efforts to do other things. and a preacher besides. productions are coarse. and a poet blessed with the sense of colour. writing of him in he says also. for our national museums are wretchedly poor in specimens of any period of English 54 . almost blatant that they were workmen while Sheraton was a poet. his abilities Adam And Black. supposing he had been able to devote himself to these arts.

Plate XLVIII INLAID MAHOGANY BOOKCASE AND From the collection SECRETAI RE. Esq.) . Sheraton ( of James Orrock.

in seeking after colour. just at that time ? Accident. see Plate 47). was seeing one of them which urged him to seek for new kinds ? or was it accident which it brought satinwood into England. did not bring him harewood. Was Sheraton the introducer of satinwood. of kingwood." which is sycamore dyed a delicate pale shade of brown ? Was he who. in Stuart times. to make cabinets and secretaires. it His 55 exquisite satinwood pieces is impossible . invent what is known as *'harewood. which seems most exquisite of ^11 as a companion to the apricot of satinwood ? Strange woods had been used in the past (there were cabinets made of lignum vitae or guaiacum. we are lucky in the possession Sheraton's furniture. dyeing sycamore. However it came of about. but not to inlay with. both of which are peculiar to English furniture. and of tulipwood ? Did he. who is also a man of taste.MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD furniture . Tulipwood was much used in France. when its value is at last appreciated. or the green stained wood. and only the rich man. and within his reach. is likely to be able to acquire a fine piece of Sheraton nowadays. at any rate. thought also of staining some white wood the delicate it green.

far away from the originals. only was his in furniture colour. so that when finished they might be placed in different buildings. fills me with something of alarm and a sense of responsibility towards my fellows. especially of a beautiful thing. possible Perhaps hear that absolutely indistinguishable reproductions can be made. of all other. ! some people be sorry to the reproduction of them is possible. but this does not mean that I have not a unique thing in my possession It means that to possess the only one of its kind of anything. exquisite in shape. the copies should remain. which I should be freed from could I commission the production of a Therefore I am glad to know that duplicate. in order that. though the exact reproduction is. I should like immediately to order the most perfect possible reproductions to be put in hand. for a consideration. at any rate. will I know. in case the regrettable accident of fire or a falling house should destroy the I do not hanker after the pleasure originals. I am most glad. in to the outside. of possessing a unique thing. Not form. and in decoration as but it was also full of neat 56 . To return to the work of Sheraton.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE to reproduce. even the finest furniture.

Plate XLIX \ LIGHT -COLOURED MAHOGANY CHEST OF Sheraton. . {In the possession of F. Fenn^ Esq.) This chest of drawers contains elaborate dressingtable and writing-table fittings. DRAWERS.

o .

as another of his inventions has library steps taken a permanent folding One of the place in domestic furniture. which are a clever Neither did he. to add to the comfort of the owners without spoiling the appearance of the object. held in position by a spring when the door was to be closed. I think. He did not really invent the idea of his famous drawing. time. — — I 57 . carefully planned with much ingenuity.MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD contrivances in the inside. due entirely the invention of the screen-table. was made many years before he was born. the enclosed washstand and more elaborate with their collapsible toiletglasses. though of this we cannot be sure. invent addition. and consisted of a mirror swung on pivots in the doors of the upper part of the table. and its plan is much the same except for the side slides. shaving tables. neatest of his contrivances was for the toilettetable. which is both so elegant and so practical that one wonders why it has not But to him is continued to be made down to the present namely.or writing-table. This mirror could be adjusted to any angle when released by touching the button attached to the spring. for the clubfooted oak table (of which an illustration is given on Plate 15).

This is a characteristic Sheraton piece. on first being opened. Judging by the inlay. though of mahogany. almost as if it were made of satinwood stained red.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE and with one fixed in each door of the any lady would be furnished with a table. for many of the boxes are lined with tinfoil. It is very light. When this is done a looking-glass is revealed in the centre. are the most elaborate fittings on the right hand for writing materials. triple mirror such as we know the use of nowadays. obvious handle places. while on both sides. One apparently ordinary chest of drawers in my possession (Plate 49) is an excellent example of this. discloses a baize-covered writingslide. He seems to have revelled in designing dressing-table fitments. and it has a curious translucent appearance. Its colour is curious. The top drawer. a band of satinwood half an inch wide close to the edge. it is an early piece. only different from an ordinary writingtable by reason of two sunk half-circles near the front. only far superior on account of the adjustability of the glasses. I have seen a few other pieces with this same curious — 58 . exquisitely made in unpolished cedar-wood. and on the left for cosmetics apparently. with the help of which it is easy to slide it back.


decoration and carved legs possession of Mrs. Wyllie. (/« the TOP OF HAREWOOD PIER TABLE. green-stained inlaid with satinwood and wood etched. gilt. .Plate LIV INLAID HAREWOOD PIER TABLE.) with plaster .work Late XVIII century.

in others round or grooved. One of the things most commonly known as *' Sheraton " is the pier-table. It is one of the few details which.MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD a serpentine-fronted chest-of-drawers. I think. though not many have this curious translucent appearance. Sheraton seems to have disliked the deep red mahogany of Chippendale's and Heppleappearance. and to have communicated his dislike toothers." Taste in furniture has been making for delicacy and simplicity from early Chippentherefore entirely Sheraton's dale days right through the Hepplewhite reign. taper legs in some cases. would '* never have been missed. always with an inlaid top. Sheraton is responsible for the introduction of the round leg in English furniture. white's fancy. standing on four legs. It is a half-circle table. for all the pieces of genuinely antique inlaid furniture are of lightish coloured mahogany. containing the toilette-glass and cosmetic boxes in smallsized drawers shut in by solid wood doors. with a serpentine-fronted cabinet above. generally of harewood or satinwood. in one particular. and it was not idiosyncrasy of idea that gave us the new 59 . and carved and decorated with plaster work before they were gilt.

while the desire for delicacy of ornament is said to have spread to us from the Court of Marie Antoinette.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE even though we credit him with inventing inlaying with various coloured The Hepplewhite firm advertised woods. found occasionally all over the country. and all the pieces of mahogany reasonably attributable to him that I have seen have been light made of unusually wood. where everything that was dainty. However much this may have influenced public taste and private enterprise. their readiness to undertake orders for painted furniture some time earlier. Sheraton was the great designer of this style. Of these. and minutely finished was then the vogue. so the feeling for colour must have been in the air. but evolved a style of their own. though only a few hundred pieces at most can have been made style of furniture. our cabinet-makers were not content to make actual copies from the French. with a singularly pleasing result. was probably the work of 60 . The so-called Sheraton. delicate. to which his name is attached for all time. many pieces were made in satinwood and not in mahogany. under his own personal supervision. which is considered by many people more charming than that from which it was derived.

Plate LV SATINWOOD CABINET. {From the collectton of .) Sheraton. Esq. James Orrock.

.Plate LVI BOW-FRONTED SATINWOOD COMMODE.) This piece is in satinwood with bands of harewood. Fsq. {In the possession of F. Late XVIII century. The handles are the original ones and are said to be by Cipriani. An etched pattern divides the cupboards from the drawers. Fenn.

robes and sideboards particularly. and its plan is little removed from the square or oblong shape.MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD the ordinary cabinet-makers of the time. When a piece appears heavy and a trifle clumsy. The only safeguard against such a mistake is a knowledge of or feeling for the forms which belong to the genuine inlaid period. are " very very good but when they are bad. when they are good. semicircular ones of the same shape as the satinwood commode illustrated on Plate 56. These are much more elegant than the later styles and give the impression of lightness. This is the pitfall into which the unwary may easily fall when starting buying. they are horrid.'* The best are perhaps the large Sideboards. that is to say work which was inlaid at the time it found it was made . who necessary to follow the prevailing fashion. Others of the serpen tine61 . . but a good deal larger and of course with space underneath. '* which " the dealer has had inlaid since Sheraton became easy to sell. it may generally be left unacquired without fear of This applies to inlaid wardafter regrets. though there is a good deal of originally plain mahogany of later date. There is not a vast amount of genuine furniture of the Sheraton period.

Most people have seen these shapes. It is an excellent object lesson for the study of good old inlaying. like the illustration. at the variety in the shells. in the dealer's work- for the taper variety. and in this lies the . too.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE front order. which seem each to have been specially drawn to suit the particular place it fills. — secret of the beauty of the old inlaid work. Those which should not be touched at any price are the ones which would be oblong except that the front ends are just rounded a little at the corners. sometimes circles. and plastered on like postage stamps without any real regard for the plan of the piece they are to embellish. but it serves as a specimen of a two-tier corner cupboard which is somewhat rare and it also shows a pair of excellently designed glazed doors. Nowadays shells of several different sizes are made by the gross. may safely be purchased when found. Observe the ovals in the little The end drawers these ovals. 62 . sideboard illustrated (Plate 57) is untouched and completely in its original state. The corner cupboard (Plate 58) is not a specially good piece of inlaid work. so . which generally had turned legs in their though shop they are changed original state. mark the good period in inlaid work and look.

Late The inlay is (/« the possession of F.Plate LVII MAHOGANY INLAID SIDEBOARD.) kingwood. except the shells and hairlines. XVIII century. There is no appearance of any rail ever having been at the back. The handles are original. with shaped front. . Esq. which are satinwood. Fenn.

{In the possession Late XVIII century. The inside is painted white with gold edges to the shelves.) satinwood bands and shells of a rather uncommon pattern. Wyllie. The inlay consists of of Mrs. .Plate LVI INLAID CORNER CUPBOARD.

This one. though almost any piece of genuine satinwood is worth having on account of its exquisite colour. Satinwood inlaid with roseor tulipwood. similar to that used to form the panels on the doors of many houses which were built at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. veneered upon Other signs of the best period in satinwood are the inlays of greenwood. return to satinwood. though every furniture maker will tell you otherwise. This. like all the later ones. 63 . as realizes I said earlier. like mahogany. yet so charmingly planned and proportioned that few glazed doors are capable One detail of giving one greater pleasure. has a small and well-known moulding. and is absolutely unobtainable with is the chief — inlay— is modern satinwood. This colour is the outcome of age. about glazed doors may be mentioned here. To oak. This is the reason. if of the best period. is. The earlier ones have quite flat woodwork for the pattern or lattice work between the glass.MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD simple that there is nothing remarkable in the design. wood not of the best period. generally speaking especially if rosewood. why old satinwood such high prices. harewood.

too often what they are buying really are the carcase of a Queen Anne piece of furni- ture. it But '' collectors and so inquire for it at every furniture shop." and when they see it is veritably an old one. Genuine old satinwood is really scarce. This has been going on for some years. are satisfied have heard that '' fashionable." OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE While on the subject of colour. and know that genuine satinwood should be upon oak. and one is horrified to think of the destruction of really beautiful old furniture which the satinwood craze is 64 . when which was it was covered with its carefully chosen and matched walnut-wood facing. so they pull out the drawers and examine the ** carcase. toned down to look like the old to the easily satisfied eyes of the ordinary buyer. let one more warning about the tricks of the trade be given. but is now originally beautiful horrible in the sight of the connoisseur be- cause it has been stripped and covered with new satinwood of bad colour. These '* collectors have mostly a smattering of knowledge. and unfailingly commands a high price —a price far beyond the pocket of the generality of people to who is are merely seeking furnish their homes. that they ! Alas is purchasing real satinwood.

) ./ the possesstofi of F. century.Plate LIX SMALL SATINWOOD PEMBROKE TABLE. (/. Fenn^Esq. inlaid XVIII with tulipwood and greenwood slips.

) . XVIIl century. inlay. with broad band of Harewood {In the possession of F.Plate LX SATINWOOD CARD TABLE. Fenn^ Esq.

walnutwood bureaux were plentiful. and so prevent the further destruction of Queen Anne walnut furniture. trays. a bureau in his house. There were satinwood writing-tables. the edge has a rather broad band of wood. while the legs and the drawer with a narrow inlay of the green to match the centre oval. the centre —that the table when the leaves are down — made of four triangular pieces is. sideboards. washstands. satinwood cabinets. The small satinwood table illustrated (Plate 59) is a particularly charming example of a Pembroke table. Firstly. I am doubtful whether satinwood bureaux were ever made. A favourite form for this spurious satinwood for is the bureau two reasons. satinwood bookcases. is of satinwood with the points meeting in the middle then there is an inlaid oval of green . dressing-tables. The top of . I trust the exposure of this very specious fraud may help to stop people buying satinwood bureaux. screens. more delicate in shape than most. secondly. and this every one wants . The satinare decorated wood card-table illustrated (Plate 60) has a K 65 . tea-caddies but to ask for a satinwood bureau is rather like asking for a satinwood four-poster. wood tulip .MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD responsible for.

mellow tone as musical instruments on which to play the simple old accompaniment to the songs belonging to their time. alternating with black wood. 66 .OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE broad band of harewood well set back from the edge. the frame on which it stood being also decorated. personally. the case of which was often elaborately treated with inlay. either grand or cottage. The one illustrated (Plate 6i) is the finest ma. and finished on either side with very narrow strips of boxwood. . there was the square piano. there is a square table of polished satinwood. These square pianos have in many cases been broken up. It seems to me a pleasanter backing to a single human voice than the loud tones of the modern pianoforte. have a weakness for their sweet. because it is lined with satinwood that is to say. no one being able to find a use for them in a room which contains a modern pianoforte. Lately. Besides the articles of furniture mentioned above. I. when it is opened. the dealers have been using up the old cases by converting them into writing-tables while some people use them just as they are for dressingtables. It is unusual. with a band of delicate inlay all round it. instead of there being the usual green cloth common to most card-tables.


[From the collection of James Orrock.Plate LXIf ONE OF A PAIR OF SATINWOOD PIER TABLES. Esq. Sheraton.) .

Its shape shows well in the picture. There is a rosewood border on the outer edge. The other pier-table illus- trated (Plate 54) has a harewood top inlaid with boxwood. with the veins of the leaves and flowers etched. so far as the design goes. green. but the workmanship differs from his and the legs and frame are entirely gilt. but the inlaying comes out rather other piece is (Plate 67 . and red on either side. like from Mr. are generally part gilt that illustrated and part white. Its inlayconsists of a broad band of satinwood. I am fortunate in being able to give an illustration (Plate 62) of one of a pair of Sheraton pier-tables from Mr. while Pergolesi's . of the The satinwood illustrated commode bow-fronted 56) already mentioned. It is believed to be a piece of genuine Sheraton. The legs and frame are carved wood with very delicate applied plaster work. The broad satinwood border has a convolvulus wreath inlaid in it in greenwood and boxwood. bordered by a sort of cable pattern of ebony and boxwood. with strings of black. greenwood. and satinwood.MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD one I have seen. Orrock's very inlaid fine hogany collection. The frame is curiously like Pergolesi's work. Orrock's collection.

are complete. fortunately. The harewood inlay either side of the centre drawers are etched with a delicate pattern diminishing as it goes towards the base. is of harewood finished tiny lines of boxwood and ebony stripes on alternately.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE because it at the edges with faintly. are thought to be by Cipriani. The handles. 68 1 . for they are quite unmatchable by any workmen of the present day. and. which are unusually fine lions' heads.

Plate LXIII SATINWOOD COMMODE. with panels R. Esq. painted by Angelica Kaufmann. {From the collection of James Orrock.) .A.

Esq.) .Plate LXIV PERGOLESI COMMODE. {From with panels painted by Angelica the collection of Jaines Orrock.A. Kaufmann. R.

and painted by Angelica Kauffman. illustrations are here given of two exceptionally fine painted pieces from his collection Besides (Plates 63 and 64). illustrations are included of two Pergolesi china cabinets (Plates 65 and 66). Through the kindness of Mr. with no wood showing. both commodes.THE SIXTH CHAPTER PAINTED FURNITURE UITE one of the most beautiful is pieces of painted furniture at the South Kensington Museum. Pergolesi both from the same collection. it is not attractive to those who price . His work being finely finished and made from their beautiful designs. was an Italian who worked for the Adam brothers. com- enamelled in white picked out with gold. Orrock. these. It is a toilette-table of exquisite shape by Sheraton. value by joinery with paint. mands a very high but as it is appreciate to good cabinet -making at sufficiently be offended the covering up of the Mr. A is fine pier-table in Orrock's collection enhanced in 69 .

which were charming in their way but the most common articles of painted furniture made were chairs. which he should not hesitate to I have also seen satinwood screens and do. and they belong to the next chapter. but it will slight do no harm for them to have some knowledge of such pieces.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE a Wedgewood It is plaque which ornaments the centre of the front. and it is quite possible some reader may rescue one. both of . 70 . unlikely that readers of this will ever acquire a piece of furniture painted by Angelica Kauffman or made by Pergolesi. toilette-glasses painted. Ordinary Pembroke tables of satinwood painted with wreaths of flowers are not very rare.

Plate LXV PERGOLESI CHINA CABINET. with From the collection of James Orrock. Esq. . painted decorations.) ( white enamel.

[From the collection of James with marble top Orrock. Esq.) and marble plinth.Plate LXVI PERGOLESI CHINA CABINET. .

for this kind of furniture. to and sophas.THE SEVENTH CHAPTER CHAIRS AND SOFAS HAVE as thought it better '* to leave the chairs white's book. always used. since in this way it is easier to write of the evolution from the Tudor to the late Sheraton chair with a certain amount of clearness. 71 . would explain the scarcity of very old chairs. even in the earliest times. This. and the supposition that beech was. but they Chairs are a very old institution were not general in early times. stools and forms being considered good enough for every one but the master and mistress of the house. It is a particularly good specimen." they are called in Hepplebe treated by themselves in a separate chapter. perhaps. absolutely untouched by the restorer's hand. for beech has not the staying power of oak. though its owner is of opinion that it is not a church chair. and both the Norman arch and the Tudor rose as well as the holly and bog-oak inlaying . Seymour Lucas has in his possession a massive oak one of the familiar chancel-stall order. Mr.

These are usually almost . though I have been shown several that were originally chests which have had a back and arms supplied by the dealer. a castle. longer than the settle of later date. A plain. the nearest approach to a sofa being the settle. It was a remarkably good specimen." Those modern 72 useful articles are not for the . which may be seen in use yet in some out-of-theway country inns. which was the '* form " grown grand and There were no sofas as early as provided with a back. like the one illustrated (Plate 1 6). well-to-do burgess. This chair was not made class household. few really fine carved settles of early date exist one was to be seen a few years ago at Moyse's Hall. except for the relief afforded by their backs being panelled. Edmunds. It had eight legs along the front. because in that form they have a ready sale as *' nice old oak settles. Bury St. and the back. which was carved.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE of that period are features of its decoration. or else for farm or middleIt must have been made for the house of an exceedingly for a this. was lower than that of the settle we are accustomed to. I have never seen a genuine old settle with its legs enclosed forming a sort of chest. so useful for a hall.

in which James I is supposed to have sat for his portrait to the painter Mytens. E. CARVED . Letts^ Esq.Plate LXVII CHAIR. {At one time in the This chair is somewhat Possession of S. James I period.) similar to the one at Knole.

with all the characteristics of the period namely.Plate LXVIII CARVED CHAIR. Fenn. the claw and ball feet.) This is a good specimen of the double panelled high back chair. and the WOOD — half circle stretcher. stained dark brown. the shell. Esq. Stuart period. [In the possession of F. .

) The scroll-fronted frame and the scroll top of the back are unusually fine. . {In the possession ofJ. Early William and Mary.Plate LXIX STAINED WOOD ARM-CHAIR. Esq. Ashby Sterry.


I have seen a mahogany settle very finely carved with a sort of shell pattern on the back. we find the next thing after the stall shape. and it has a certain charm. and to have been used by him when sitting for his portrait Its seat and back to the painter Mytens. are covered with old velvet. Whence came this name I do not know. the design is really old. which is reputed to have been made for James I.. and continue to look at the evolution as it took place . They were probably made for the hall of some large country house about the middle of the eighteenth century. is the so-called " Hamlet " chair. even the cheapest but a really fine old settle should be saved when found. One is still in existence at Knole. Anyhow.CHAIRS AND SOFAS lover of genuine old furniture at any price. but was told by the dealer who showed it me that he had had a pair. If we leave beech chairs out of count for the present. particularly if a low-backed one of the earlier period. though nothing to the charm L 73 . already referred to. in the chairs of the nobles. I only saw one. To return to chairs. unless it was acquired more or less lately through its having been the fashion for all the Hamlets on the stage to use a chair of this shape.

is that with the double panelled cane back. but most generally they are beech. and are generally smaller in size. Quite one of the most beautiful forms. and is probably of the date of Charles I. By the kindness of Mr." OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE successor the tall-backed chair. It is unusually large in size. Other illustrations include several reproductions of very beautiful high-backed chairs. Letts. like the illustration These and chairs. Letts and Mr. combine almost the every distinguishing mark of Stuart 74 . cabriole front legs. an illustration is of its given of a chair of a similar type (Plate 67). Seymour Lucas. Seymour Lucas's collection and others in the possession of Mr. Occasionally they are of walnut. struttings. some from Mr. half-circular shell carving. This is the low-backed armchair. Ashby Sterry. beech chair carved and painted black is in the possession of Mr. which was apparently the form subsequently displaced by the more dignified and far more comfortable high-backed kind known to us as the '' Stuart and the " William and Mary " chair. Sometimes these tall- A backed chairs are oak. with their claw- and-ball feet. to my thinking. but these are of later date. though still highbacked. (Plate 68).

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Queen of F. with wing sides.Plate LXXII STUFFED EASY CHAIR. Fejut. Esq. Anne period. (/// the possession This chair has a walnut frame.) .

.) settee or chair has the curious wide seat which obtained until Chippendale departed from it in his late period. with turned rail. (/« the possession of Seymour Lucas.WOOD CHAIR.A.Plate LXXIII WALNUT. Esq. R. Queen Anne This period..

A. WALNUT FRAMED . R.Plate LXXIV CHAIR..) The chief features of this chair are the beautiful half-circle rails and finely-turned legs. Esq. (/« the possession of Seymour Lucas.

and their probable date is Charles II. Up to six or seven years ago. they have gone up in I do not remember that the really price. 75 . One may almost back the will not say that the higher the earlier the chair.CHAIRS AND SOFAS They are beech or pearwood. according to our modern William and Marys reign. of course. as will be proved by an examination of the types of Queen Anne chair. Afterwards the height of the backs gradually declined. however. An illustration is given of a stainedwood armchair of the William and Mary period (Plate 69). painted a very dark brown. though this remark apply to makes before the time of Charles I. for every one was seeking Chippendale. which must have been in ordinary use until they were displaced by the Chippendale ideas. The illustration shows one of a set of six. though they were still very high. and would look at nothing else. but now the dealers find there is a ready sale for ''Queen Anne*' pieces. two of which still retain their period. in models. The difference was quite well marked by Queen Anne's reign. original old velvet cushions. so. with an* unusually fine scroll. Queen Anne chairs were tolerably common and extraordinarily cheap.fronted frame.

somewhat is later. have bought Queen Anne and Chippendale as five shillings each years offered a carved Jacobean for less ago. represented by fine carving. Perhaps the reason of this though not always a man of taste. First. but was never chair or Stuart than thirty-five shillings. however. me down many to the Chippendale period. (Plate 71) settee with Another illustration Queen Anne stuffed sides. did generally know the cost of labour I. shows a easy-chair with wing grandfather-chair. chairs for as little personally.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE finely carved Charles or James chairs were ever very cheap. with an exquisitely carved front rail and the characteristic This sofa has a cane seat and Upholstery on sofas or settees and easy-chairs appears to have crept into fashion spiral struts. rail in the front. was that the dealer. I would like to point out the reasons 76 . Of early sofas an illustration is included (Plate 70) of a Stuart piece. or what we call now a and this brings (Plate 72). back. An illustration given of a William and Mary It also has a fine carved a stuffed back. but this rail seems a sadly rude and degenerate one when we compare it with the rail on the Stuart sofa. rich in so varied forms.

) This chair is interesting because it has a carved wood centre panel instead of a cane one./ the possession of J. Sterry^ Esq. Stuart Ashby .Plate LXXV CARVED STAINED -WOOD CHAIR. (/. period.

the cane still exists under the stuffing. single cane panel. indeed. Ashby Sterry.Plate LXXVI STAINED WOOD CHAIR.) This chair is much spoilt in appearance by the stuffed seat. Stuart period. It would have a cane seat in its original condition. with {In Esq. . and. the possession of J.

and hit on the device of pillars at the sides for this purpose. Ashby Sterry.Plate LXXVII WALNUT-WOOD CHAIR.) This is a beautiful specimen of the cane back chair of a period when makers were beginning to tryto strengthen the tall backs. {In the possession of J. . Esq. The chair should of course have the stuffed seat removed in order to uncover the original caning.


— CHAIRS AND SOFAS for dating the It is Queen Anne grandfather-chair. is finer. while the shape. but Generally the caning oftener the seats only. A much finer chair of this period is the s collection one from Mr. is bolder. when compared with a later one. because it is scarcely likely that he will come I across one. want to say particularly that though there are many very fine ones with straight backs witness those from Mr. Letts's collections in my opinion. walnut wood secondly. Before I leave early chairs. The curve of the arms. the legs and . Ashby Sterry's and Mr. Possibly it was because this curve in time was gradually omitted that the high-backed chair went out of fashion. the finest have always curved backs which fit the figure of the person sitting on them so delightfully that the chairs are more comfortable than any others. which were made with cane backs and seats. — — M 77 . Very often Stuart and later chairs. illus- but perhaps less interesttrated (Plate 73) ing to the ordinary buyer of antique furniture. turned struts are typical of the period. too. have been stuffed over sometimes the backs. and the wings are set on to the back not quite at a right angle. as a really straight back is not comfortable. Seymour Lucas . as they are in later chairs.

Like his. Lucas (Plate 73). with club feet. Of course the stuffing should be removed. but underneath them all was the original orange woollen rep. i. looked upon as the great chair period began about 1728. particularly interesting specimen of an early period of Chippendale stuffed chair is given in the illustration (Plate 79). Ashby Sterry*s collection were originally the property of Albert Smith. which shows that there were some literary men with taste even in the early sixties. its seat is wider across the front from arm to arm than it is from back to front. The shape of this differs very little from the Queen Anne one belonging to Mr. The reader may be interested to hear that three of the walnutwood high-backed chairs from Mr. but it has no struts. and the carving is quite different in style from the bolder work of the earlier period. finished all round with brass studs. When I bought this chair. it was covered with several layers of dirty materials.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE remains. Its legs are the cabriole shape. when Chippendale started making use of mahogany. it is shallow. giving is What usually A 78 . and the original caning uncovered.e. and can be felt distinctly by just putting the hand under the seat.

is of a particularly elegant shape.Plate LXXIX CARVED MAHOGANY STUFFED EASY CHAIR. {In the possessio7i of F. with a serpentine front. It had its original woollen covering fixed all round with brass nails when it came into its present owner's possession. Early Chippen- dale.) This chair. Esq. which is very delicately carved. Fenn. .

Esq. A characteristic {In the the late .Plate LXXX MAHOGANY STUFFED ARM-CHAIR.) Chippendale period. Fenji. possession Late Chippendale. chair of of F.

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I in- tend to go on trying. This woollen rep. and its colour is hardly changed. but any stuffed chairs approaching them in shape are worth buying at the full price of any good modern *'easy- 79 . with fretwork rails and carving to match on the arms. I am unable to get the material reproduced. be thankful to be able to obtain a reproduction of one of the characteristic coverings of the period for their chairs or settees. but though I have tried all the largest firms in London.CHAIRS AND SOFAS a good idea of what the chair was like when it left the maker's hands. Though this is is fine of its period. is in Chippendale s later manner. its shape is quite commonplace beside the as is it earlier one. like myself. It not very likely that the ordinary searcher after moderate-priced chairs will find such fine examples as these. Another example of a Chippendale stuffed This one chair is illustrated on Plate 80. I know no covering so harmonious or so durable. is still so strong that it is untearable. however. though not so evident in the reproduction when one sees the actual chair. for I believe most possessors of old furniture would. which are often almost spoilt by incongruous modern upholstering. though one hundred and fifty years old.

As a general rule. and it is impossible for an estimate of the cost to be given satisfactory . Of course. is to have a worki. which had been sent to a well-known London firm of upholsterers to be done up. instead of letting workman.^8 or £^io. and then to make him understand that you intend to have the old work done in the old way as nearly as possible. and to visit him yourself several times during the day in order to make the furniture go to the sure that he is keeping as near as possible to the original. I have seen an old easy-chair and also an old settee or double-ended sofa. should any such purchase be restuffed with down springs or buttoned stuffing. and no more expensive than the ordinary way of procuring an 80 often ." though. utterly ruined in this way. but it is the only way to get the restoring of old it is furniture done. let me say here. at man sent to the furniture. . though not the cheapest perhaps.e.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE chair. either of which styles completely spoils them. for the safe guidance of people who wish for old furniture. The best thing to do. this means paying by time. that there is no way of getting antique furniture done up satisfactorily out of one's own house. In no case. that my experience is.


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His chairs usually show the shield-shaped back. either the wheat-ear. Another celebrated maker of chairs was Hepplewhite (see Plate 83). even if not for their intrinsic beauty. illustrations are given of some very fine examples from Mr. the honey-suckle flower. Wales feathers. Much more elaborate were the beautiful chairs and settees made by Pergolesi for the Adam brothers. and. Yet another chairmaker's style is shown in Plate 89. it the almost certain spoiling of the piece will result if is you take into account which sent away and done by if estimate. Moreover. which or the Prince of is pendale Mainwaring. the first known maker to depart from the square-shaped back. it is decidedly cheaper in the end. since the illustrations speak for themselves. Orrock's These need collection (Plates 8i and 82). These are not so generally characteristic of s N 81 . Of Chippendale's ribbon-backed or carved- back chairs and settees. no description or comment. as the basis for their ornamentation. and nowadays almost every one knows that any chairs approaching these are very well worth saving as a money speculation.CHAIRS AND SOFAS estimate. one of Chipminor contemporaries.

This. and 92). but the style in the illustrations is excellently shown from the very fine and Mr. by the simple process of curving the top rail and replacing the slender perpendicular supports by the incredibly inartistic horizontal one. I believe. What In conclusion I come to Sheraton's chairs. only used in the cheapest form of Windsor chair made for kitchen use. Sheraton's chairs are often very beautiful 82 . He adopted or invented the round leg and the straight square back-rail. supported by the two principal uprights from the back legs. Orrock's collection (Plates 85. at a later period. 91. perfect specimens in does not show in the illustrations is the fact that these pieces are white enamelled picked out with gold. but he did entirely alter the style that had been in favour before. with a light interlaced centre-support. if lucky enough to come across it. which should make it possible for any one to recognize Pergolesi's work. degenerated into the hideous chair of early Victorian days.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE well known. painted with a design exactly suiting the chair or settee. which is now. The prince of cabinet-makers did not make very beautiful chairs. and the coverings are cashmere.

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seeing that Sheraton-style are still the cheapest antique chairs of the later makes on the market.CHAIRS AND SOFAS being generally of satinwood or pale mahogany inlaid with satinwood. the table. but when the in colour. If there are several styles of antique furniture represented in the room it does not matter. the effect being quite incongruous and untasteful. are all and the style. they are far more suitable than any others. and there is the less excuse. and the workmanship is very fine and delicate. for it is quite usual to see a room furnished with delicately inlaid Sheratoninspired furniture with heavy claw-and-ball footed Chippendale chairs. Of course. Few people seem to realize this. for a room which is furnished in Sheraton style. it principal pieces Sheraton in effect if quite spoils the whole out of character. sideboard. the chairs are 83 .

By Thomas Sheraton. Brook. By Falke. Clouston. By Litchfield. Book of Designs. Illustrated History of Furniture. Specimens of Antique Carved Furniture. Elements of Style In Furniture. By Thomas Chippendale. Ogden. By Esther Singleton. Book of Designs. By T. By R. Homes of our Forefathers. Work in Furniture. B. Dictionnaire de TAmeublement. . By Hepplewhite. By W. Warren Chippendale and his Contemporaries. By Thomas Sheraton. By Thomas Sheraton. Mar- Sketches of Antique Furniture. Examples of Carved Oak W. shall. A. C. English Furniture. By R. and J. Cabinet Makers' and Upholsterers' Drawing Book. Strange. Cabinet Makers' Guide. By A. Adam. By K. By Hepplewhite. Furniture.USEFUL BOOKS OF REFERENCE Book of Designs. By Specimens of Furniture. By Henry Shaw. Book of Designs. Cabinet Makers' Dictionary. By Henri Havard. By Wright. Furniture of our Forefathers. Sanders.


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67. Plates xii. v. oak. 47. 46. George the Third's. 19. Plate xix Anne. ii. Armchair. 1 8 . iii. 40. early eighteenthcentury. 43. Ix 65 . xiv. Stuart period. Bedstead. Plates xl. 45. 74. Queen. Plate xix Bedstead. walnut. at Goodwood House. 50 . 77. in the King's room. xxxviii. 64. carvedoak bedstead at. Ivi Brasses. 18. William and Mary. Late pendale. 16. 79 Plate Ixxx . on Sheraton. 78 . 33. 54 Beech. Plate iii Bedstead. Plate xv Bureau. 27. 78 tables. Adam. 54. Lancashire. xl. Plates 15. Cane Card seats. Norfolk. 81. their importance. Plate xxi Bedstead. in State bedroom. Plate . inlaid with mother-ofpearl. Ixxi. 75 Beech-wood chair. 36. n^ 78. xlv 21. Henry VIL. Carved-back chairs and settees of Chippendale. xxxiv Bracket shelves of Chippendale. 48. 40. Cabinet. 'J^ Cane panels. at Agecroft Hall. Plate Cabinet. Plate xxxiii Cabinet. 76. xxvii. 76.makers' and Upholsterers* Guide. 36. 78 . mahogany. 38. 75. Ixxiii. early English carvedoak. oak. 42 Plate xxxviii Carved settees. Plates. Plate xxvi imitations really an improvement on modem designs. temp. ebony and tortoiseshell. 17. carved-oak. Ixx. 18. 48 Cane backs. 66 Bog-oak and holly inlaying. Plate Ixi. Ixxxvi Black knobs. Carved legs. Ixxii. xvii. xlvi. original. Oxburgh Hall.INDEX Adam. carved-oak. Candlestick stands. 65. 45 Cabriole legs. Plate xiv Sheraton. early Plate Armchair. Goodwood Sussex. 17. Stuart period. Ixix. xxix. 47. ma- Sheraton. 30. 75 Ixix . 73. 46. Plate liv Carved rose of Hepplewhite. stained wood. Plate xxxix Bow-fronted chests of drawers. xxxvii. Plate Iv " Cabinet . 19 Black. i Ball-feet. Adam. Plate xciv Bible-box. 68 Boxwood. 68 . 17. 30 . 69. C hip- 16 . Brackets. 71. Ixxvi. 5o»53. 81 71 . 20 late period. Plate xviii Bedstead. xix." the first comprehensive book of designs. Plate Carving. Plate xlvi Cabinet. 16. xxxvii. 50 Brass handles. with cabinet top. xliv. secretaire. 37. Plate xiii Bookcase hogany xlviii and inlaid. xviii. Plates H ouse. Sussex. Ixxviii 85 . Agecroft Hall. stained green. Robert and James. Ixxviii Plates. 72 Bow-fronted commode. xciii 74. 48 Black wood. 25. Plate i (^Frontispiece) Bad Bureaux. Plate xxviii Bureau. William and Mary. walnut. 33 . Plates xxxiii. Lancashire. Plates Ixviii. 66. 67 Ivi . satinwood. Stuart. Boxwood.

Plate Ixiii Chest. 68 . of Chippendale. . Ixxxvii. 11.A. linen-fold panelling at. with cane seat and back. probably Stuart. mahogany. 16. Plates xxxv. Plate Ixxiv Chair. panels painted by Angelica Kaufmann. 43 . Pergolesi. Buntingford. Plate Ixxxix Chair by Pergolisi. 69 . Early. 69 . walnut. xciii. . R. 44 Corner cupboard. xv. 46. mahogany. satinwood. Plate Ixxiii Chair-backs. marble top and plinth. 15. Plate Chair. on stand. 28. Plates Ixviii. Cradles.. with linen-fold carving. carved. XV Coles Park. Plate Ixvi Chinese period. 55 . 76 . Stuart. xxvii China cabinet. inlaid. rail-back. 62 Plate Iviii Corner-table. Ixxxii. probably Stuart period. Plates xxiii. 71 Charles I. 82 . 10. 42 . Plate xli cane panel. Plate Ixxv Chair. 74 Ixviii carved-wood. 69 Ixv . Chair. 26. 74 . 53. with turned rail. walnut. Plate China cabinet.A.." walnut. mahogany. late eighteenth century. 61. 51. with veneer of walnut on front. Stuart. Ixxviii Club-feet. 28. 58. carved. 34-41. Plate xciii 86 . 76. Queen Anne. 74.. Plate xciv Chair. cane panel. Plate Ixxxviii Chair. Chippendale. carved shell on back and legs. 75 Chest. early Georgian. Plate Ixxxvii Chair. Ixxxii Chair. xlvi. 39. 'JT^ 78 . Plate V Chest of drawers. Plate Ivi Commode. Plates Ixxxiii. xxix . 81 . Curved backs. 7^y 79. Ixxxvi Chairs. honeysucklepattern back. 21 Cross-cutting. 77 Curved foot-rail. 83 . Plate Ixiv Commode. 54. 26. Ixxx.OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE Carving tables. 50 Chairs and sofas. 14 j Plate iv 83 Cipriani. walnut. Hepplewhite. 81 . 74. Plate Ivi Claw-and-ball feet. 75 Charles II. 14. Plates x. 59 Cottage chair. Chippendale. Plate Ixx Chancel stall style of chair in the possession of Mr. 33. Plates xxiv. Plate xlii Cosmetic boxes. Plates xxiv. seventeenth century. R. 78 . Stuart. lignum vitae. ribbon-back. 71 Chair. xxv Chest of drawers. 81. Stuart. 15. Plates X. Sheraton. oak. Plate Ixxxv Chair. Plate Ixxvii Chair. xc Chair. carved-wood. mahogany.. 27. Stuart. period. stained-wood. Ixxxi. Seymour Lucas. James I. 40. oak. the. rail-back. 39 Chippendale. Pergolesi. with single Chest of drawers. 75 Chaise longue. carved walnut. 75. Plate xxxviii Chest of drawers. period. 69 . oak. Pergolesi. 27. xli. Plate xlvii Chest of drawers. bowfronted. 45. or VIII. 14 Commode. Ixxxiv China cabinet. 43-45. Plate xciv . late eighteenth century. Plate Ixvii mahogany. mahogany. Plate Ixxvi Chair. with linen-fold carving and old lock. light-coloured Copeland's designs. 67 . 59. bow-fronted. 28 . Stuart. 27 xxv. Ixxix. 58 xlix . 50. Henry VII. carved. xciv Club-footed table. walnut. panels painted by Angelica Kaufmann.framed. probably by Mainwaring. 81 . beechwood. oak. "tallboy. beechwood. 1-3.

Queen Anne period. Plate xx Dressing-table fitments. xlvi Grandfather .. .. R. Plates xxxiv. xlii. 57 Four-post mahogany bedsteads. 9 Dresser. Dower-chest. with drawers. P. Plate Ixxii Ebony. Oxburgh Hall. 37. xxxviii. Plate xx Elam. Ivi. 19 oak. li. Sussex. panelling in dower-house at Coles Park.. first comprehensive book of. the. period. with mouldings as decoration. Sussex. 20 French polish not on Stuart furniture. 17 87 . Plates Edward VI. Ixi. Mrs. Ixi Greg. 14 Plate vi Dower-chest. xxxiii. . Queen Anne. mahogany 78 early Ixxix Chippendale. xliii. Plates x. xlvi 18. 1. Norfolk. Plate 1 Dumb-waiter. early. 13 Dog-tooth carving. mahogany. Plates Ivii. 23 Dining-room. 39. stuffed. lix. 8 ii. 1 INDEX Designs. 12 . 65. liv. 73 Hampton Court Palace. to be preserved. 5 Fraud. 55 Green-wood. 50. 12 Gibbon. S. 14 Grew. 67 . xxix. Plate Plate xxii Greek . Esq. 79 . 33 Handles. the cheapness of commoner pieces. Plate xi Domestic interiors. oak. 21 . Factory system. Easy - chairs. room at Court. of Sheraton. opposed to craftsmanship. late. E. Grinling. . Iviii. with wing sides. xlvii. xxxii. liv. Old Place. decoration. 15 tables.. 44 Green. specimens in the possession of . 67. xxvii. xv. Queen. period. lix. 17 Eighteenth century. mahogany. a safeguard against. Ivi. Plate Ixxiv 74 . oak dresser in the possession of. Kent. W. ix Stuart Plate Plate Georgian. 17 Plate XV Embroidery in the King's room. Plates xviii. 40. Plate xxi. Lenham Half-circle Half-circle Ixviii rails. 9. oak. Tudor. 43. lix 63. 76 . Stuart. 50. Folding library steps. Ixi . Jacobean. 63 Goodwood House. xxxi. and cabinets. eighteenth century. early specimens at. Ix. 40 Glazed doors for cupboards. iii . Plate xxxii Dining-tables. Ivii. 58 Dressing-table. old. 29 Fret-work carving. 8. vii. Plate Hamlet chair. Fenn.. xliii Durability of early oak tables. Ixviii. long-case. imitated by dealers. by Chippendale. 13. Esq. period. . liii. the. Plate xvi. carved. Ix Eighteenth century. the forerunner of wardrobes. of the Sheraton period. oak. 16. stretcher.inspired moulding and Easy-chair. xlix. xxviii. Elizabeth. period.. Plates X.. Dr. 68 Plates. Plates xlvi. Ixxx. 35 Gibbons. Plate Double runners. xxxv Gate-leg period. Frederick. inlaid with satinwood bands. Plates xxi. Ixxii. xxxvi. chests of drawers. the. A. Ixxxviii Distinctive marks on old furniture. period. 76 Plate Ixxii Grandfather clock. 44 Development from carved oak to mahogany. Ixxix.chair. 41. oak. xxiii. Yorkshire. Ixxxviii early.

Plate Ixxxix the. 67. Plate Ixxxvii Hoof-foot. 60. 39 Italian workmen. 18. 62 Inlaid oak. Plate xlv Modern ways of acquiring furniture Plate Mew.A. 78. P. 54. 81 Mary. I Plate Ixxxix Scots. Ixxxvi. xxvi. longing to. Ixxxiv. English taste influenced by specimens from her Court. Ixvii. Egan. of Hepplewhite. 27-29. 66-68. suggested by Chippendale's slighter chairs. Ixxxiii.. 14. Seymour. 73 ... 31. 44. 11. . 53. 20. his book of designs. Iii Mirror by Adam. 44. 3. 17 . 44 Key plates. 32 Mother-of-pearl inlaying. long wrought iron. 71 88 . vitae or walnut root. Plate Ixvii Knee-hole tables. Plates V. 12 Lignum iv. Ixxi. v.. Ixx. time in the Plates iii. Plate xiv Kaufmann. 73 mens. 53. 48 Norman arch. xc . its introduction. specimens bePlates xxxvii. II Esq. V. 77 . Edmunds. 40. 55 . xiv. . 81 . 18 Inlaying. Esq. xii. 71. mahogany. a small maker of furniture. 44 compared with the old. 53. 14 xxi 14. Plates xlix. style. Honeysuckle-flower ornamentation. E.. xlvii Moyse's Hall. feeling of. Plates xxxix. 60. 24. Plates xxvii.. 83 Inlaid mahogany and satinwood. 83 . 72 My tens. 35 made up on deal generally valueless. 13. Ixxxvii. Plate Ivii Insecurity. 76 broidery said to be her work. period. 70. 55 Plates Linen-fold panels. xxix period. 17. 68 . Inigo. 15. 59. 60 Method of dealing with old speci- James Ixvii I. 74. 77. 18. 36. 74. Ivi. 45. Johnson. 44 Jones. at. 28 Hubbard. specimens belonging to . Esq. idea of producing books of designs first practised by. Plates xx. xvii. Plate Ivii xxviii. Ixiv Kent. 60. xxxiv Plate Mahogany. Incongruous effects produced by 46 . 45 . Plates Henry VIII. Lenham Court. Plates 55. 17. the. 18 . room Plate xvi Letts. heaviness and solidity the use of different styles. Queen of . Ixxiv hogany Hutch. 44 Jones. Plates ii. Plate xvii INCE AND Mayhew. 13. of Adams. S. specimens at one possession of . viii. 59. the. 71. iv. 50 33. the. Ixi Mainwaring. em- Jacobean Plates ix. Angelica. Ixxiii. 2. 15. 44 . 26 . carved settles at. Plate xxi Marie Antoinette. 43. xx. Jacobean. ma- Locks. Plate xxix Knife-boxes. Esq. 59. chair. 17. its probable origin. Plates Ixiii. 30.. 21 liv. Period. R.. 81 . XV Hepplewhite. Egerton. 61. 13. OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE Harewood. xxxiii. 48 Nest-tables. Mouldings. Ixxxvii Hinges. Henry VII. . 8. 34. xxi 9. 7 Lucas. 69. W. 44 for London a good hunting-ground old specimens. Ix 63. Bury St. 9. xxix King-wood. v. light-coloured.. 18 indications of genuineness.

21 . troughs. xcii Oxburgh Hall. their influence on inlaying. Satinwood. from Sizergh Castle. a. 59 . 21. Norfolk. 61 Sheraton. ribbon-back.. 29. xci. The King's room at. rails of. 80 Revival of taste. Ivii. 65. 70. the. specimens belonging to . O 89 . Ince and Mayhew. Rosewood. Ixxxiii. its probable influence on furniture. Plate xxi Roses or rosettes. Ivi. Plate xxxiv Occasional-table.. 76 . 4. 41 Ribbon-back. Iv. in the Hall. 82 . William and Mary^ 73 .wood. INDEX Oak furniture. Plate xxi 69. Ixxxii. mahogany framed. Queen Anne. the only hope for craftsmanship. 56 Repairing and restoring. mahogany. 63-^7. Plate xxxvi Old Place. 50 Orrock. 63. xxvi . Ixxxii 81 . Norfolk. 58-61. 67 . dining-room. painted. Plates xl. 70 table. eighteenth-century. Plate Ixii 59. shelledged. lix. probably Chip- pendale.. 3. 6 Reproduction. chairs. James. Norfolk. factor. Ixiii. oak. by Pergolesi. Plate liv Sawing.. 65 Satinwood screens. 57 Serpentine-fronted chest of drawers. Ixii. 82. Ixv. Chippendale. the.. Plate xxxiii Press. 81 . (i^ Painted furniture. Sussex. xliv. 82. harewood. Ixii. xli. Plate xiii Pear. xcii Pier-tables. 17 Plate xii Prince of Wales' feathers. Plate Ixxxi Settee. Ix. xcii Settee. walnut. King's room. mahogany. Chippendale. satinwood. Esq. 21 Occasional-table. satinwood inlaid Satinwood bureaux. painted. 67. Ram's head and wreath. Plate XXXV Occasional-table. li^ Pembroke Pembroke tables. 67 Pigott. 50. 70^ toilette-glasses. 83 . ib with tulipwood. Ixv. Settees. Oxburgh 60. mahogany. Mrs. Plates 1. 72. - kneading 8 . . wash- stands and towel-airers. Ixv Panelling. commode. sixteenth-century. the. 70. Plate xxi. of Adams. 76 Settee. Ixxxv. 75 Ixi. 6. 22 . 5. oak. liv. Plates. Kent. Ixxxv. 2 Settee. Ixiii Satinwood Iviii bands . xlv. Roman occupation. Plate xvi Room. Ixiv. xlviii. Iv. 69. at Oxburgh Hall. improvements in. i7j Pier-table. apparently non-existent. Plate xc Settees. Ixvi. 44 Reason why the finest furniture is not now produced. Plates XXX. Plates Ixxxi. the King's. Plates Ixiii. 81. 43 Room Ixiv. 69. Ixxxi. the. Plate Ixxi Plate xvi Settles. 81 Probable cost of specimens. 69 Pier-table. ebony and tortoiseshell cabinet in her possession. 17 . 76. 21 . xci. mahogany. 48 Screen table. Plate xiii. 81. of unique specimens. walnut. xci. 55. 24 Screens. Plate lix Pergolesi. Plate Ixxviii 80 Proper surroundings an important 20. Plates Ixiv. Plate xxxii Ormolu. 9 at Lenham Court. of Hepplewhite. 70 panels. 67. 45. Ixvi. 5.

16 . Norfolk. Sycamore. Plate liii Toilette-glass. xiv. Plate Ivii six-sided oak table. Spiral rails. the. 67. 16. 78. xxii South Kensington Museum. 30. boy. . xlvii. 48 XXX Side-boards. Plate xiii Spandrils. inlaid. 4. Ixxviii XV. Stuart. bow-fronted. 50 . Ixxxvi. J. Ixxv. 82 Unsuitable Urn. 47. Plate Iii Toilette-glass. 73. 65. 4S» 53-56. 76. xviii.shield-shaped. Iv. 50 Treatment of old specimens. 5. mahogany. xciv . 71. Plate lix Turned legs. ']^ Twisted carving. Ixviii. mahogany. 76 piano. 59 Toilette-glass." Plate xxvii Shell. 72. 55 Plate xlvii Sheraton. Struts or stretchers. Plate viii Sixteenth-century period. 62. Plate xxi Testers. mahogany. 62. Plates xc. xxxii. Plate club-footed. xxxi. 48 90 ... 14 Spiral legs. or " sophas. small oak. Plate xxxi Toilette-table. viii. oak panelling at. Towel-horses. oak. 69. Ixxvi. Table. 15. Ixviii. Plate xi Tables.71 Plates ii. xci. late eighteenth century. 76. 37. Plates xlvii * 17. 55. 6. 71 . Oxburgh Hall. 38. Plate Ixx Spiral struts. 69 Sizergh Castle. Ixix. Plate xliv Side-board. 62 Plate Ixxiy Turned xciv rail. xiv. specimens belonging to Plates xxvi. inlaid. Plate xviii Toilette-glasses. mahogany. small mahogany. 15. n . 16 Plate x Table. Plate xiii Smith. the carved. 11^ 78. walnut " tall- 37-39. 5. 72 Triple mirror. 28 . Plate xliii Straight square back-rail. 11. 61 Side-board. 44 Urn stands. 74 decoration. 69 . 64. viii Tudor rose. Ixi iii. 49 Trays. xlix. 15. Ixxv. Plates ii.mirror placed lengthwise. Ixxvi. 46. . 74. 57. serpentine-fronted. 8. 1 Tricks and frauds of dealers. 82. of Adams. 61. vii. 55. of Sheraton. 34 . Ixxvii. Plates i. inlaid. Plate xvi Sofas. Plate eighteenth-century. oak. 81 Shield-shaped toilette-glass. xciii Turned struts. Tulip wood. Tudor. Plates xlviii. 24 . 2 Upholstery. 78 Smoker's box. Plate XXX Toilette-glass. 58-61. 36. 78-80. 9. xiii Tall chests of drawers. xcii the. Strawberry Hill. Shield-shaped back. 24. of Hepplewhite. Plates vi. 1 OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE Seventeenth century. mahogany. seventeenth-century. iii. mahogany. 17. Ixxiii. the. specimens originally his property. Ixii 2. Plate xii. Ixx. of the Queen Anne period. Esq. 18. 42 Tapestry in the King's Room. 65 . 58 Tudor period. Iviii. Plates xxxvii. xix. 76 South Kensington School of Art needlework. xiv Stuart period. Six-legged. Ashby. 40 surroundings. legs. vii. 63. Plates xxxiv. 13. Albert." 71. carved. 62 . 82. with long . late Square 66 . 16 . Adam. Sterry. the. 27-29. 74. 83 . xxiii.

48 Wooden pegs. Ixxi Windsor chair. Ixix. now of Mr. Plate Ixxxiv Wine-coolers. late eigh- Wedgwood teenth century. XXX. Plate li plaque in a pier-table in the possession of James Orrock. xi. 81 . mahogany. Letts. C. specimens belonging to . Plate xv Wyllie. Ixxxiv vi Yorkshire dower-chest. liv. W.. cabinet presented to. Sir Christopher.INDEX Varnish. 50 Wooden hinges. 3. ix. Plate xxxix Washstands. 49 Washstand. oak. 36. Plate xlix Writing-table. 29 Veneering. Horace. 19. 7476 Plates xxvi. a piece supposed to have been made for. wheelback. Plate xxiii Victorian period. the. 70 Wheat-ear ornamentation. in the possession 23 xciii Walpole. Iviii. mahogany. a remarkable early. 8 . 82 " Wicker-chairs Chaucer. by Queen Anne. Plate Walnut furniture. 33 . Esq. . 43 .. LONDON AND BKCCLBS. 19. 34. 63 . 47. 40 Wardrobe. Plates vi. xxxix. club-footed. . 57 . mahogany. mahogany. vii. Plate THE END PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. 30. 15 Plate vi Wren. of Hepplewhite. " mentioned by William and Mary period. Mrs." LIMITED. Plate xxxiii Writing-slide. by Hepplewhite.

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