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SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Copyrights The Motorola products described in this document may include copyrighted Motorola computer programs stored in semiconductor memories or other media. Laws in the United States and other countries preserve for Motorola certain exclusive rights for copyright computer programs, including the exclusive right to copy or reproduce in any form the copyright computer program. Accordingly, any copyright Motorola computer programs contained in the Motorola products described in this document may not be copied or reproduced in any manner without the express written permission of Motorola. Furthermore, the purchase of Motorola products shall not be deemed to grant either directly or by implication, estoppel or otherwise, any license under the copyrights, patents or patent applications of Motorola, except for the rights that arise by operation of law in the sale of a product. Restrictions The software described in this document is the property of Motorola. It is furnished under a license agreement and may be used and/or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. Software and documentation are copyright materials. Making unauthorized copies is prohibited by law. No part of the software or documentation may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, without prior written permission of Motorola. Accuracy While reasonable efforts have been made to assure the accuracy of this document, Motorola assumes no liability resulting from any inaccuracies or omissions in this document, or from the use of the information obtained herein. Motorola reserves the right to make changes to any products described herein to improve reliability, function, or design, and reserves the right to revise this document and to make changes from time to time in content hereof with no obligation to notify any person of revisions or changes. Motorola does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein; neither does it convey license under its patent rights of others. Trademarks Motorola and the Motorola logo are registered trademarks of Motorola Inc. Intelligence Everywhere, M-Cell and Taskfinder are trademarks of Motorola Inc. All other brands and corporate names are trademarks of their respective owners.

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

Contents

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning


General information . . . . . . . . Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . ETSI standards. . . . . . . . . Feature references . . . . . . . Cross references . . . . . . . . Data encryption . . . . . . . . Text conventions . . . . . . . . Input . . . . . . . . . . . . Output . . . . . . . . . . . Special key sequences . . . Reporting safety issues . . . . . . . Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . Warnings and cautions . . . . . . . Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of Warning . . . . Example and format . . . . Failure to comply with warnings. Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of Caution . . . . Example and format . . . . General cautions . . . . . . . . . . Caution labels . . . . . . . . . Specific cautions . . . . . . . . Fibre optics . . . . . . . . Static discharge . . . . . . Devices sensitive to static . . . . . Special handling techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8

Chapter 1: BSS/BTS Site Planning


Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advanced Load Management of GSM . . . MS Established on PGSM TCH. . . . . . . MS established on EGSM TCH . . . . . . . BSS/BTS site planning . . . . . . . . . . . Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency Hopping . . . . . . . . . . Short Message Service, Cell Broadcast. Code Storage Facility Processor . . . . Location Services (LCS) . . . . . . . . Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) . . . . . . . GSM Half Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial Information Required . . . . . . . Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Blocking . . . . . . . . . . . Busy Hour Traffic & Call Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 3 1- 4 1- 4 1- 4 1- 6 1- 8 1-10 1-14 1-14 1-14 1-14 1-14 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-16 1-16 1-18 1-18 1-18 1-19

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

Contents

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning

Traffic Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grade of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to AMR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity and coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full rate only - High quality over full range of channel errors . . . . . . . . . Half rate only - Improved quality over current HR codec. . . . . . . . . . . . Full and Half rate operation - HR tied to cell congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . Migration to half rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interoperability with GSM half rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Half Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended range cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity and Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrier Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Site Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RF Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determine the Number of CCCH per BTS Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Channel Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiframes and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe - BCCH/CCCH . . . . . . . . . . The 102-frame Dedicated Control Channel Multiframe - SDCCH and SACCH . Multiframes and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 102-frame Control Channel Multiframe - Combined Structure. . . . . . . Parameters which effect the CCCH Channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of Paging Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number of repetitions an MS attempts to access the Network . . . . . . . . . Time MS must wait between repetitions on the RACH . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Capacity Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating CCCH Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AGCH Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDCCH Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating SDCCH Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call rate in calls per hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update rate in LUs per hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SMS rate in SMSs per hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assignment of SDCCH to Physical Timeslots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical SDCCH Planning Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interconnection rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Star connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Daisy chain connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Daisy chain planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple daisy chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Daisy chain with branch BTS site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aggregate Abis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm reporting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restrictions/limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1-20 1-20 1-20 1-20 1-22 1-24 1-24 1-24 1-24 1-24 1-24 1-25 1-25 1-25 1-26 1-28 1-30 1-32 1-32 1-32 1-32 1-32 1-34 1-34 1-36 1-36 1-38 1-40 1-40 1-42 1-42 1-42 1-42 1-43 1-43 1-44 1-44 1-46 1-48 1-48 1-48 1-48 1-49 1-49 1-52 1-52 1-53 1-53 1-53 1-54 1-54 1-55 1-56 1-56 1-57 1-57 1-58 1-59 1-62 1-62

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SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning

Contents

RTF path fault containment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 kbit/s RSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fully equipped RTF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sub-equipped RTF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 kbit/s XBL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic allocation of RXCDR to BSC circuits (DARBC) Auto-connect mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backwards compatibility mode . . . . . . . . . . . Enhanced Auto-Connect Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMR basic operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM half rate basic operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMR and GSM half rate interaction . . . . . . . . . . . New hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality and Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Benefits of AMR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMR Full Rate and AMR Half Rate speech quality . AMR Full Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMR half Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMR voice quality improvement and coverage . . . . . AMR Potential Coverage Gains. . . . . . . . . . . . . Benefits of GSM half rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Half Rate speech quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity increase due to half rate usage . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timeslot usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rate adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codec modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMR hr and GSM hr operation . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 2: Horizonmacro Theory


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizonmacro Indoor Introduction and Manual Definition Overview of Horizonmacro Indoor and external view Overview of Horizonmacro Outdoor . . . . . . . . . . Overview of Horizonmacro 12 Carrier Outdoor . . . . . Cabinet Structure of the Horizonmacro Indoor . . . . . Empty cabinet and SURF harness . . . . . . . . . . . SURF harness and cabinet attachment . . . . . . . Power Supply Modules (PSMs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of PSM and overview . . . . . . . . . . . . PSM location and redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . Horizonmacro digital modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . MCUF and NIU redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . Full size and half size modules . . . . . . . . . . . Overview locations and redundancy . . . . . . . . Digital module and CTU connections . . . . . . . . Main Control Unit with dual FMUX (MCUF) . . . . . . . MCUF overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capability to replace MCU of M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 . GPROC KSW and GLCK functions . . . . . . . . . The Network Interface Unit (NIU) . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of NIU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIU functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIU locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- 3 2- 4 2- 4 2- 6 2- 8 2-10 2-12 2-12 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-20 2-22 2-22 2-22 2-22 2-23 2-23 2-23 2-23

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Contents

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning

The Fibre Optic Multiplexer (FMUX) module and FMUX function Overview of FMUX module and internal MCUF FMUX . . . Alarm module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module replacement - effect on alarms . . . . . . . . Alarm collection from extension cabinets . . . . . . . . . . Horizonmacro RF Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RF overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RF modules described . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RF general information and loopback test function . . . Receive RF hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU Rx role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmit (Tx) RF hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU Tx role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rx/Tx single antenna duplexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RF main component explanation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SURF module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tx block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of CTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU Tx RF output specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . Location and requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU internal boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module. . SURF module overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional description of 1800 SURF . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional description of 900 SURF . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmit (Tx) blocks overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tx block overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmit block connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blanking plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose of blanking plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose of feedthrough plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Hybrid Combining Unit (HCU) plate . . . . . . . . . . . . HCU overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HCU connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of TDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TDF connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual band TDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of Dual band TDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual band TDF connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF) . . . . . . . . DCF connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DCF overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF) . . . . . . . . Overview of DDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DDF connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Cavity Combining Block (CCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCB overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCB control board and set switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . TCB and link redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCB configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCB functional description and diagram . . . . . . . . . .

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2-24 2-24 2-26 2-26 2-26 2-26 2-26 2-28 2-28 2-28 2-28 2-29 2-29 2-29 2-29 2-29 2-30 2-30 2-30 2-30 2-30 2-32 2-32 2-32 2-32 2-32 2-34 2-34 2-36 2-38 2-40 2-40 2-40 2-42 2-42 2-42 2-46 2-46 2-46 2-48 2-48 2-48 2-52 2-52 2-52 2-56 2-56 2-56 2-60 2-60 2-60 2-64 2-64 2-64 2-64 2-68 2-68

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Contents

Chapter 3: Horizon II macro Operational Theory


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview ofHorizon II macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizon II macro stacking capability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal View ofHorizon II macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Diagram ofHorizon II macro . . . . . . . . . . Horizon II macro Comparison with Horizonmacro . . . . . . . Comparison Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compatibility with Horizonmacro and MCell 6 . . . . . . Comparison ofHorizon II macro with Horizonmacro . . . . Empty cabinet and SURF2 harness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . SURF2 harness and components. . . . . . . . . . . . . Cabinet view with installed SURF2 harness components . . . RF equipment description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of RF equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RF modules described . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receive (Rx) RF hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU2 Rx role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmit (Tx) RF hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU2 Tx role. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rx/Tx single antenna duplexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compact transceiver unit (CTU2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the CTU2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU2 features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location and requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU2 internal boards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU2 Front Panel Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU2 Rx Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU2 interface function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTU2 frequency hopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of CTU2 frequency hopping . . . . . . . . . . Synthesizer frequency hopping (SFH) . . . . . . . . . . Baseband frequency hopping (BBH) . . . . . . . . . . . SURF2 module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SURF2 module overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM 900. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DCS 1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receiver Planning Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SURF2 functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SURF2 to CTU2 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interface block diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interface description - 2 carrier, 2-branch Rx diversity . Interface description - 1 carrier, 4-branch Rx diversity . SURF to CTU2 interface (Horizonmacro compatibility) . . Tx Blocks Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to transmit blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blanking plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blanking plate function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feedthrough plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feedthrough plate function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Duplexer (DUP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DUP function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DUP functional diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DUP connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hybrid combiner unit (HCU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- 3 3- 4 3- 4 3- 6 3- 8 3-10 3-12 3-12 3-12 3-14 3-16 3-16 3-18 3-20 3-20 3-20 3-20 3-20 3-21 3-21 3-21 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-23 3-26 3-28 3-28 3-29 3-29 3-29 3-29 3-30 3-30 3-31 3-31 3-31 3-31 3-34 3-34 3-36 3-36 3-36 3-36 3-38 3-40 3-40 3-42 3-42 3-44 3-44 3-46 3-46 3-48 3-48 3-50

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Contents

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning

HCU function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HCU functional diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HCU connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual hybrid combiner unit (DHU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DHU function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DHU functional diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DHU connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of digital modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to digital modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HIISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XMUX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site expansion board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communication between the HIISC and transceivers . . . . Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . HIISC overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link to redundant HIISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front panel interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compact flash card interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TTY MMI interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAL port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIU ethernet port and SYNC/NIU TTY port . . . . . . . PIX interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SDRAM, flash EPROM and code loading functions . . . . . SDRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flash EPROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Code loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CSFP code loading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HIISC internal architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line interface module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIU and framers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timeslot interchanger (TSI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIU control processor and RSL termination . . . . . . . Site control processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIU control processor to site control processor interface Daisy chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Span type selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E1 framing options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E1 N-bit facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T1 framing options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timing extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRAU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RSL configuration and control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LAPD links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 kbit/s RSLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RSL and span alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integral HIISC XMUX functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . XMUX module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the XMUX module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XMUX functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site expansion board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expansion board description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module replacement - effect on alarms . . . . . . . . Alarm collection from expansion cabinets . . . . . . . . . . Alarm module display presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3-50 3-52 3-52 3-54 3-54 3-56 3-56 3-58 3-58 3-60 3-60 3-60 3-60 3-60 3-60 3-62 3-62 3-64 3-64 3-64 3-64 3-64 3-64 3-64 3-66 3-66 3-66 3-66 3-66 3-66 3-68 3-68 3-68 3-68 3-68 3-68 3-69 3-69 3-69 3-69 3-69 3-69 3-69 3-70 3-70 3-70 3-70 3-70 3-71 3-72 3-72 3-74 3-76 3-76 3-78 3-78 3-80 3-80 3-80 3-80

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Contents

Chapter 4: HorizonMicro/HorizonCompact Operational Theory


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizonmicro manual definition and introduction . . . . . . Overview of Horizonmicro equipment . . . . . . . . . Overview of Horizoncompact equipment . . . . . . . . BTS enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of BTS enclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal front view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Booster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of booster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS power supply system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of BTS power supply system . . . . . . . . . Overview of BTS power supply module . . . . . . . . . Distribution board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of battery backup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of digital modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RDIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINO/RHINO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) module Line termination modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Digital Interface System (RDIS) . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of RDIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main Control Unit, micro (MCU-m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of MCU-m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Processor functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68LC060 processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4- 3 4- 4 4- 4 4- 4 4- 8 4- 8 4-13 4-16 4-16 4-18 4-18 4-18 4-18 4-18 4-18 4-20 4-20 4-20 4-20 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-21 4-22 4-22 4-22 4-22

Chapter 5: Horizonmicro2/Horizoncompact2 Operational Theory


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizonmicro2 power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizoncompact2 power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Software requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual frequency support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency hopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the BTS enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Booster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the booster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of RF modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of DTRX module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the Duplexer and Combiner/Isolator . . . . . . Internal Rx/Tx interconnections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizoncompact2 isolators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the isolators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internal Rx/Tx interconnections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS power supply system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of digital modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RDIS module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 3 5- 4 5- 4 5- 4 5- 4 5- 4 5- 4 5- 5 5- 5 5- 5 5- 8 5- 8 5-12 5-12 5-14 5-14 5-14 5-16 5-18 5-20 5-20 5-22 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-26 5-26 5-26

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Contents

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DINO/RHINO module. . . . . . . . . HDSL module . . . . . . . . . . . . Line termination modules . . . . . . . Main control unit, micro (MCU-m) . . . . . Overview of MCU-m . . . . . . . . . Processor functionality . . . . . . . . 68LC060 processor . . . . . . . . . QUICC32 processor . . . . . . . . . PCMCIA interface . . . . . . . . . . Crosspoint switch . . . . . . . . . . Sync block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MMI interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic board ID . . . . . . . . . . Electronic site ID and calibration data. Memory system . . . . . . . . . Overview of ORAC . . . . . . . . . . Overview of DINO/RHINO . . . . . . Overview of HDSL . . . . . . . . . . Functional description of HDSL . . . . Overview of line termination modules . Features of line termination modules . HDSL link options . . . . . . . . . . Expansion feature . . . . . . . . . . . . Expansion feature overview . . . . . Dual band support . . . . . . . . . . Field replaceable units . . . . . . . . Configuration data . . . . . . . . . . Single band BTS configurations . . . Single BTS site. . . . . . . . . . Two BTS site . . . . . . . . . . . Three BTS site . . . . . . . . . . Dual band BTS configurations . . . . Two BTS site . . . . . . . . . . . Three BTS site . . . . . . . . . . Antenna options . . . . . . . . . . . Software requirement. . . . . . . . .

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5-26 5-26 5-26 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-27 5-28 5-28 5-28 5-28 5-29 5-29 5-29 5-29 5-29 5-29 5-29 5-30 5-30 5-32 5-32 5-34 5-34 5-34 5-35 5-35 5-35 5-35 5-35 5-35 5-35 5-35 5-35

Chapter 6: BSC/RXCDR Equipment


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . BSSC cabinets . . . . . . . . . BSSC cabinet . . . . . . . . Cabinet dimensions . . . . . Cabinet types . . . . . . . . SW1000A . . . . . . . . SW1025A . . . . . . . . SW1037A . . . . . . . . Standard equipment . . . . . Cabinet general capacity limits BSU shelf capacity limits . . . RXU shelf capacity limits . . . RXU3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Backhaul . . . . . . . . . . . Summary. . . . . . . . . . . BSC system capacity . . . . . . System capacity summary . . Enhanced BSC Capacity . . . Scaleable BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 3 6- 4 6- 4 6- 5 6- 5 6- 5 6- 6 6- 6 6- 6 6- 6 6- 6 6- 6 6- 7 6- 8 6- 9 6- 9 6- 9 6-10 6-10 6-11 6-11

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Contents

BSC digital equipment . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital equipment list . . . . . . . . . . Line interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . Balanced-line interface board (BIB) . T43 board (T43) . . . . . . . . . . Generic processor (GPROC) . . . . . . Generic processor (GPROC2) . . . . . Generic processor 3 (GPROC3) . . . . Multiple serial interface (MSI) . . . . . . E1 link description . . . . . . . . . Multiple serial interface 2 (MSI-2) . . . T1 link description . . . . . . . . . Transcoder (XCDR) . . . . . . . . . . Generic DSP processor (GDP) . . . . . Kiloport switch (KSW) . . . . . . . . . Double Kiloport Switch 2 (DSW2) . . . . Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) . . . . Generic clock (GCLK) . . . . . . . . . Clock extender (CLKX) . . . . . . . . Local area network extender (LANX) . . Parallel interface extender (PIX) . . . . Battery backup board (BBBX) . . . . . Bus terminator card (BTC) . . . . . . . Digital shelf power supply . . . . . . . Digital shelf redundancy option . . . . . Non volatile memory (NVM) board . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Considerations . . . . . . . . NVM planning actions . . . . . . . . .

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6-12 6-12 6-12 6-12 6-12 6-12 6-13 6-13 6-14 6-14 6-14 6-14 6-14 6-15 6-16 6-17 6-17 6-19 6-19 6-21 6-21 6-21 6-22 6-22 6-22 6-22 6-23 6-23 6-23 6-23

Chapter 7: BSC planning steps and rules


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC planning overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixing of equipment types . . . . . . . . . . Outline of planning steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities BSC signalling traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . 2G-3G handovers using inter-radio access technology Introduction to 2G-3G handovers . . . . . . . . . 2G-3G handover description . . . . . . . . . . . Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact of 2G-3G handovers on GSM . . . . . . . Air interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abis interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical parameter values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assumptions used in capacity calculations . . . . Paging assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Half rate assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . Link capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 3 7- 4 7- 4 7- 6 7- 6 7- 6 7- 7 7- 8 7- 8 7-10 7-10 7-12 7-12 7-12 7-12 7-12 7-13 7-13 7-13 7-13 7-13 7-13 7-16 7-18 7-19 7-19 7-20

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SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning

Determining the RSLs required . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions . . . . BSC to BTS T1 interconnect planning actions . . . . Determining the number of LCFs for RSL Processing . Standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining the number of MTLs required . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculate the number of LCFs for MTL Processing . . LCFs for MSC to BSC links . . . . . . . . . . . . MSC to BSC signalling over a satellite link . . . . . . Determining the number of XBLs required . . . . . . . . Feature overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Traffic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-standard Traffic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generic processor (GPROC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPROC nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPROC2 functions and types . . . . . . . . . . . . GPROC3 planning assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . BSC types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link control function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPROC planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell broadcast link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OMF GPROC required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Code storage facility processor . . . . . . . . . . . . GPROC redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSP redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pooled GPROCs for LCF and OMF redundancy . BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timing Advance Positioning Mechanism . . . . . . . E-OTD Positioning Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) (cont) . . . . . . A-GPS Positioning Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gateway Mobile Location Centre (GMLC) . . . . Serving Mobile Location Centre (SMLC) . . . . . Location Measurement Unit (LMU) . . . . . . . . Transcoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GDP/XCDR/EGDP/GDP2 planning considerations . . T1 Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Without KSW switching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . With KSW switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enhanced GDP Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary GDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary GDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call Downgrade on CIC Capability Mismatch . . . . . Feature Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7-21 7-21 7-21 7-22 7-23 7-23 7-24 7-24 7-24 7-25 7-26 7-26 7-26 7-26 7-30 7-32 7-32 7-32 7-34 7-34 7-34 7-34 7-35 7-35 7-36 7-36 7-36 7-37 7-38 7-38 7-38 7-39 7-40 7-40 7-41 7-41 7-42 7-42 7-42 7-44 7-44 7-44 7-44 7-46 7-46 7-48 7-48 7-50 7-50 7-52 7-52 7-53 7-54 7-54 7-54 7-56 7-56 7-56 7-58 7-58

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Contents

Planning actions for transcoding at the BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using E1 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using T1 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSI/MSI-2 planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With E1 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With T1 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kiloport switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2) . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KSW/DSW2 planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSU shelves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSU shelf planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX) Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KSWX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generic clock (GCLK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GCLK planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clock extender (CLKX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLKX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LAN extender (LANX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LANX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel interface extender (PIX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PIX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line interfaces (BIB, T43) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BIB/T43 planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital shelf power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power supply planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery backup board (BBBX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BBBX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non volatile memory (NVM) board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NVM planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verify the number of BSU shelves and BSSC2 cabinets. . . . . . . . . . . . . Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7-59 7-59 7-60 7-61 7-61 7-61 7-62 7-62 7-62 7-63 7-63 7-63 7-65 7-66 7-66 7-66 7-67 7-69 7-69 7-69 7-70 7-71 7-72 7-72 7-72 7-72 7-73 7-73 7-73 7-73 7-74 7-74 7-74 7-74 7-75 7-75 7-75 7-75 7-76 7-76 7-76 7-76 7-77 7-77 7-77 7-77 7-78 7-78 7-78 7-78 7-79 7-79 7-79 7-79 7-80 7-80

Chapter 8: RXCDR planning steps and rules


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- 3

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Contents

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning

Chapter overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote transcoder planning overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outline of planning steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RXCDR to BSC connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RXCDR to BSC links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E1 interconnect planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T1 interconnect planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RXCDR to MSC links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E1 interconnect planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T1 interconnect planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generic processor (GPROC, GPROC2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPROC Nemenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPROC planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GDP/XCDR planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T1 conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Without KSW switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With KSW switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning actions for transcoding at the RXCDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using E1 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using T1 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSI planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With E1 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With T1 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kiloport Switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2) . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KSW planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RXU shelves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RXU shelf planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX) Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KSWX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generic clock (GCLK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GCLK planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clock extender (CLKX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLKX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LAN extender (LANX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LANX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8- 4 8- 4 8- 6 8- 6 8- 7 8- 8 8-10 8-10 8-10 8-11 8-11 8-14 8-14 8-15 8-15 8-15 8-15 8-16 8-16 8-16 8-16 8-16 8-17 8-18 8-18 8-18 8-19 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-20 8-20 8-21 8-21 8-21 8-22 8-22 8-23 8-24 8-25 8-25 8-25 8-26 8-29 8-29 8-29 8-30 8-31 8-32 8-32 8-32 8-32 8-33 8-33 8-33 8-33 8-34 8-34 8-34 8-34

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Contents

Parallel interface extender (PIX) . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . PIX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line interfaces (BIB, T43) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . BIB/T43 planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital shelf power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power supply planning actions . . . . . . . . . . Battery backup board (BBBX) . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . BBBX planning actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verify the number of RXU shelves and BSSC cabinets Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8-35 8-35 8-35 8-35 8-36 8-36 8-36 8-36 8-37 8-37 8-37 8-37 8-38 8-38 8-38 8-38 8-39 8-39

Chapter 9: Location Based Services (LCS) Planning Rules


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to LCS provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LCS description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LCS overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile originating location request (MO-LR) . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile terminating location request (MT-LR) . . . . . . . . . . . . Network induced location request (NI-LR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . The positioning mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timing advance (TA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time of arrival (TOA) positioning mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . Enhanced observed time difference (E-OTD) positioning mechanism Assisted global positioning system (A-GPS) positioning mechanism System architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LCS client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GMLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SMLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LMU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NSS-based LCS architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS-based LCS architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of BSC planning for LCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to GSR6 LCS provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outline of planning steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities . . . . . . . . . . . BSC LCS signalling traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical parameter values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assumptions used in capacity calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling message sequence and size assumptions . . . . . . . . Paging assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining the number of RSLs required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 3 9- 4 9- 4 9- 6 9- 6 9- 6 9- 6 9- 6 9- 7 9- 7 9- 7 9- 7 9- 8 9- 9 9-10 9-10 9-10 9-11 9-11 9-11 9-11 9-12 9-12 9-15 9-16 9-16 9-16 9-18 9-18 9-20 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-22 9-22 9-22 9-24 9-24 9-24

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Standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions . . . BSC to BTS T1 interconnect planning actions. . . . Determine the number of LCFs for RSL processing . Standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . Determining the number of MTLs required . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-standard traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculate the number of LCFs for MTL processing . LCFs for MSC to BSC links . . . . . . . . . . . Planning actions for transcoding at the BSC . . . . Determining the number of LMTLs required . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determining the number of LMTLs . . . . . . . . . Traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LMTL number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generic processor (GPROC2) for LCS . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPROC2 functions and types . . . . . . . . . . . Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link control function . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9-24 9-25 9-25 9-25 9-26 9-26 9-26 9-27 9-27 9-27 9-28 9-32 9-33 9-33 9-33 9-34 9-34 9-34 9-34 9-34 9-34 9-35 9-35 9-35 9-35 9-35

Chapter 10: Exercises


Chapter objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise to Determine CCCH Requirements . Exercise Work Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 2: . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise to determine SDCCH requirements. Exercise Work Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC Exercise Number 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC Exercise Number 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC Exercise Number 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 3 10- 4 10- 4 10- 5 10- 6 10- 6 10- 7 10- 8 10-10 10-12 10-14 10-16 10-17 10-17 10-17 10-17 10-17 10-17 10-17

Chapter 11: Erlang Tables Chapter 12: Answers


Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 1 Answers BTS Exercise Number 1 Answers . BTS Exercise Number 1 Answers . BTS Exercise Number 2 Answers. BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212121212123 3 4 5 6 7

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Contents

Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector A . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector B . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector C . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector A . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Sector B . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Sector C . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector A . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector B . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector C . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector A . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector B . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sector C . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizon Range of Equipment . . . BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC Exercise Number 1 Answers . . BSC Exercise Number 1 Answers . . . BSC Exercise Number 2 Answers . . Number of GPROCs . . . . . . . BSC Exercise Number 3 Answers . . Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC Exercise Number 3 Answers . . . Stage 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stage 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12- 7 12- 7 12- 7 12- 7 12- 8 12- 8 12- 8 12- 9 12- 9 12-10 12-10 12-11 12-11 12-13 12-13 12-13 12-14 12-14 12-14 12-14 12-15 12-15 12-15 12-16 12-16 12-16 12-17 12-17 12-17 12-18 12-18 12-18 12-18 12-20 12-20 12-21 12-22 12-23 12-23 12-24 12-24 12-24 12-24 12-25 12-25 12-25 12-25 12-26 12-26 12-26

Chapter 13: Glossary of technical terms


Glossary of technical terms . A Interface - AUTO . . . B Interface - Byte. . . . C - CW . . . . . . . . . D Interface - DYNET . . E - EXEC. . . . . . . . F Interface - Full Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13- 3 13- 3 13- 7 13-10 13-17 13-22 13-25

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G Interface - GWY . . . H Interface - Hyperframe I - IWU . . . . . . . . . k - KW . . . . . . . . . L1 - LV . . . . . . . . . M - MUX . . . . . . . . NACK - nW. . . . . . . O - Overlap. . . . . . . PA - PXPDN . . . . . . QA- Quiesent mode . . R - RXU . . . . . . . . S7- SYSGEN. . . . . . T -TxBPF. . . . . . . . U - UUS . . . . . . . . V - VTX host . . . . . . W - WWW . . . . . . . X - X Window. . . . . . ZC . . . . . . . . . . .

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About This Manual

Version 1 Rev 3

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning


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General information

General information
Important notice
Motorola disclaims all liability whatsoever, implied or express, for any risk of damage, loss or reduction in system performance arising directly or indirectly out of the failure of the customer, or any one acting on the customers behalf, to abide by the instructions, system parameters or recommendations made in Motorola Customer Product Documentation. If this manual was obtained when attending a Motorola training course, it will not be updated or amended by Motorola. It is intended for TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY. If it was supplied under normal operational circumstances, to support a major software release, then corrections will be supplied automatically by Motorola in the form of General Manual Revisions (GMRs).

Purpose
Motorola Technical Training manuals are intended to support the delivery of Technical Training only and are not intended to replace the use of Motorola Customer Product Documentation. WARNING Failure to comply with Motorolas operation, installation and maintenance instructions may, in exceptional circumstances, lead to serious injury or death.

These manuals are not intended to replace the system and equipment training offered by Motorola, although they can be used to supplement and enhance the knowledge gained through such training.

ETSI standards
The standards in the table below able are protected by copyright and are the property of the European Telecommunications Standards Institue (ETSI). ETSI specification number GSM 02.60 GSM 03.60 GSM 03.64 GSM 04.01 GSM 04.02 GSM 04.03 GSM 04.04 GSM 04.05 GSM 04.06 GSM 04.07 GSM 04.08 GSM 04.10 GSM 04.11 GSM 04.12 GSM 04.13 GSM 04.60 GSM 04.64 GSM 04.65 GSM 08.01 GSM 08.02 GSM 08.04 GSM 08.06 GSM 08.08 GSM 08.16 GSM 08.18 GSM 08.51 GSM 08.52 GSM 08.54 GSM 08.56 GSM 08.58 GSM 09.18 GSM 09.60

Figures from the above cited technical specifications standards are used, in this training manual, with the permission of ETSI. Further use, modification, or redistribution is strictly prohibited. ETSI standards are available from http://pda.etsi.org/pda/ and http://etsi.org/eds/

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General information

Version 1 Rev 3

Feature references
Most of the manuals in the set, of which this manual is part, are revised to accommodate features released at Motorola General System Releases (GSRn) or GPRS Support Node (GSNn) releases. In these manuals, new and amended features are tagged to help users to assess the impact on installed networks. The tags are the appropriate Motorola Roadmap DataBase (RDB) numbers or Research and Development Prioritization (RDP) numbers. The tags include index references which are listed in the manual Index. The Index includes the entry feature which is followed by a list of the RDB or RDP numbers for the released features, with page references and hot links in electronic copy. The tags have the format: {nnnn} or {nnnnn} Where: {nnnn} {nnnnn} The tags are positioned in text as follows: Table 1 New and amended feature information New sentence/s or new or amended text. Complete new blocks of text as follows: Full sections under a main heading Full paragraphs under subheadings Tag position in text Immediately before the affected text. Immediately after the headings as follows: Main heading Subheading is: the RDB number the RDP number

New or amended complete Figures and Tables Warning, Caution and Note boxes. General command syntax, operator input or displays (in special fonts).

After the Figure or Table number and before the title text. Immediately before the affected text in the box. On a separate line immediately above the affected item.

For a list of Roadmap numbers and the RDB or RDP numbers of the features included in this software release, refer to the manualSystem Information: GSM Overview (68P02901W01), or to the manual System Information: GPRS Overview (68P02903W01).

Cross references
Throughout this manual, references are made to external publications, chapter numbers and section names. The references to external publications are shown in italics, chapter and section name cross references are emphasised blue in text. This manual is divided into uniquely identified and numbered chapters that, in turn, are divided into sections. Sections are not numbered, but are individually named at the top of each page???, and are listed in the table of contents.

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General information

Data encryption
In order to avoid electronic eavesdropping, data passing between certain elements in the GSM and GPRS network is encrypted. In order to comply with the export and import requirements of particular countries, this encryption occurs at different levels as individually standardised, or may not be present at all in some parts of the network in which it is normally implemented. The manual set, of which this manual is a part, covers encryption as if fully implemented. Because the rules differ in individual countries, limitations on the encryption included in the particular software being delivered, are covered in the Release Notes that accompany the individual software release.

Text conventions
The following conventions are used in the Motorola cellular infrastructure manuals to represent keyboard input text, screen output text and special key sequences. Input Characters typed in at the keyboard are shown like this. Output

Messages, prompts, file listings, directories, utilities, and environmental variables that appear on the screen are shown like this.

Special key sequences Special key sequences are represented as follows: CTRL-c ALT-f CR or RETURN Press the Control and c keys at the same time. Press the Alt and f keys at the same time. Press the pipe symbol key. Press the Return key.

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Reporting safety issues

Version 1 Rev 3

Reporting safety issues


Whenever a safety issue arises, carry out the following procedure in all instances. Ensure that all site personnel are familiar with this procedure.

Procedure
Whenever a safety issue arises: Safety issue reporting 1 2 3 Make the equipment concerned safe, for example by removing power. Make no further attempt to adjust or rectify the equipment. Report the problem directly to the Customer Network Resolution Centre, Swindon +44 (0)1793 565444 or China +86 10 88417733 (telephone) and follow up with a written report by fax, Swindon +44 (0)1793 430987 or China +86 10 68423633 (fax). Collect evidence from the equipment under the guidance of the Customer Network Resolution Centre.

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Warnings and cautions

Warnings and cautions


The following describes how warnings and cautions are used in this manual and in all manuals of this Motorola manual set.

Warnings
A definition and example follow below: Definition of Warning A warning is used to alert the reader to possible hazards that could cause loss of life, physical injury, or ill health. This includes hazards introduced during maintenance, for example, the use of adhesives and solvents, as well as those inherent in the equipment. Example and format WARNING Do not look directly into fibre optic cables or data in/out connectors. Laser radiation can come from either the data in/out connectors or unterminated fibre optic cables connected to data in/out connectors.

Failure to comply with warnings


Observe all warnings during all phases of operation, installation and maintenance of the equipment described in the Motorola manuals. Failure to comply with these warnings, or with specific warnings elsewhere in the Motorola manuals, or on the equipment itself, violates safety standards of design, manufacture and intended use of the equipment. Motorola assumes no liability for the customers failure to comply with these requirements.

Cautions
A definition and example follow below: Definition of Caution A caution means that there is a possibility of damage to systems, software or individual items of equipment within a system. However, this presents no danger to personnel. Example and format CAUTION Do not use test equipment that is beyond its due calibration date; arrange for calibration to be carried out.

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General cautions

Version 1 Rev 3

General cautions
Observe the following cautions during operation, installation and maintenance of the equipment described in the Motorola manuals. Failure to comply with these cautions or with specific cautions elsewhere in the Motorola manuals may result in damage to the equipment. Motorola assumes no liability for the customers failure to comply with these requirements.

Caution labels
Personnel working with or operating Motorola equipment must comply with any caution labels fitted to the equipment. Caution labels must not be removed, painted over or obscured in any way.

Specific cautions
Cautions particularly applicable to the equipment are positioned within the text of this manual. These must be observed by all personnel at all times when working with the equipment, as must any other cautions given in text, on the illustrations and on the equipment. Fibre optics CAUTION Static discharge CAUTION Motorola equipment contains CMOS devices. These metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are susceptible to damage from electrostatic charge. See the section Devices sensitive to static in the preface of this manual for further information. Fibre optic cables must not be bent in a radius of less than 30 mm.

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Devices sensitive to static

Devices sensitive to static


Certain metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices embody in their design a thin layer of insulation that is susceptible to damage from electrostatic charge. Such a charge applied to the leads of the device could cause irreparable damage. These charges can be built up on nylon overalls, by friction, by pushing the hands into high insulation packing material or by use of unearthed soldering irons. MOS devices are normally despatched from the manufacturers with the leads shorted together, for example, by metal foil eyelets, wire strapping, or by inserting the leads into conductive plastic foam. Provided the leads are shorted it is safe to handle the device.

Special handling techniques


In the event of one of these devices having to be replaced, observe the following precautions when handling the replacement: Always wear an earth strap which must be connected to the electrostatic point (ESP) on the equipment. Leave the short circuit on the leads until the last moment. It may be necessary to replace the conductive foam by a piece of wire to enable the device to be fitted. Do not wear outer clothing made of nylon or similar man made material. A cotton overall is preferable. If possible work on an earthed metal surface or anti-static mat. Wipe insulated plastic work surfaces with an anti-static cloth before starting the operation. All metal tools should be used and when not in use they should be placed on an earthed surface. Take care when removing components connected to electrostatic sensitive devices. These components may be providing protection to the device. When mounted onto printed circuit boards (PCBs), MOS devices are normally less susceptible to electrostatic damage. However PCBs should be handled with care, preferably by their edges and not by their tracks and pins, they should be transferred directly from their packing to the equipment (or the other way around) and never left exposed on the workbench.

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BSS/BTS Site Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 1

BSS/BTS Site Planning

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BSS/BTS Site Planning

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Chapter Objectives

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Chapter Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Describe the processes and steps of Cell Planning Explain the factors affecting Site planning Explain the factors and processes of BSC planning Explain the factors and processes of RXCDR planning Calculate control requirements on a cell basis Explain the process for AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning

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Cell Planning

Cell Planning
Introduction
When planning a mobile telephone system, the aim is to create a communications system that fulfills the following requirements: Provides the desired capacity Offers good frequency efficiency Implemented at low cost High grade of service

These requirements, when analyzed, actually conflict with one another. Therefore the operating network is always a solution achieved through compromise. The cost of different network configurations can vary considerably. From an engineering point of view it would be worth while using the most frequency efficient solutions despite their high cost, but a mobile telephone network is so huge an investment that the financial factors are always going to limit the possibilities. The effect of limited funds is particularly obvious when the first stage of the network is being built. Consequently, economical planning is a condition for giving the best possible service from the start. The use of the GSM900, EGSM and DCS1800 frequency bands, create many propagation based problems. Because the channel characteristics are not fixed, they present design challenges and impairments that must be dealt with to protect mobile telephone users from experiencing excessively varying signal level and hence voice quality. It is important to be able to predict the RF path loss between the base station and the mobile within the coverage area in different types of environment. To do this it is necessary to have knowledge of the transmitter and receiver antenna heights, the nature of the environment and the terrain variations.

Planning Factors
When planning the network there are a number of major factors which must be considered to enable the overall system requirements to be met. Propagation: The radio path and environment. Traffic Capacity: Unit of measure and grade of service. Subscriber Environment: Handheld and subscriber distribution. Frequency Spectrum: Re-use patterns Carrier/Interference ratio. Sectorisation of sites. Site Planning: Costs. Future requirements.

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Cell Planning

Advanced Load Management of GSM


In a predominantly PGSM 900 and DCS 1800 network, there can be problems with utilization of EGSM frequencies arising from the Multi-band Handover feature. This uses the concept of band preference, (band_preference), where a single band is set as the preferred handover band. If a MS capable of operating in EGSM establishes a call on a PGSM cell with EGSM capabilities and a handover is required whilst on that cell, assuming that the preferred band is DCS1800, the handover would to a DCS1800 frequency even if there are available EGSM resources. The Advanced Load Management feature is a purchasable option using a new parameter, bss_egsm_alm_allowed which will enable a handover of a MS on an EGSM frequency to another available EGSM frequency regardless of the setting of the band_preference parameter. This manipulates the handover list for an EGSM MS using an EGSM resource to ensure that EGSM internal cells are given preference over non-EGSM neighbour cells. The assumptions made for this feature are: There are no coincident multi-band cells equipped External handovers will assume that a cell with PGSM BCCH is a PGSM only cell There are no EGSM BCCH frequencies There is no hopping through EGSM frequencies within a PGSM/EGSM cell

For an EGSM capable mobile established on an SDCCH, if band_preference_mode is set to 1,3 or 5, and EGSM resources are available in the current cell then the BSS will ignore the band_preference_mode setting. If an EGSM MS is established on an EGSM TCH in the outer zone of a dual-band cell, zone handover recognised messages will not be generated.

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

Advanced Load Management of GSM

Better utilisation of radio resources Ordering of Neighbour cells for handover selection: - Type of TCH resource MS established on - Is MS EGSM capable? Assumptions made: SYS04_ch1_p123

No coincident Multiband cells equipped External H/Os assume cell with PGSM BCCH is PGSM only cell No EGSM BCCH frequencies No hopping through EGSM frequencies within PGSM/EGSM cell

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Cell Planning

MS Established on PGSM TCH


When a MS is established on a PGSM frequency and a handover is initiated, with band_preference set to DCS1800, the MS will be handed over to a DCS1800 cell from the Neighbour Cell list in the BSC as in (1). Subsequent handover would then be to DCS1800 as in (2). If the next handover is to a PGSM/EGSM cell, providing there are EGSM resources available, then the MS will be allocated an EGSM TCH (3). If handovers are performed to a PGSM/EGSM cell, the MS will be given EGSM resources as priority over PGSM (4). If no EGSM resources are available, PGSM resources will be allocated, (if available), and the preference will return to DCS1800 (5).

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

MS Established on PGSM TCH

no EGSM TCHs 5 EGSM 5 PGSM/EGSM cell EGSM 2 1 PGSM/EGSM cell DCS1800 DCS1800 cell

4 DCS1800 PGSM DCS1800 cell PGSM cell

3 EGSM

PGSM/EGSM cell
SYS04_ch1_p125

(Band Preference set to DCS1800)

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Cell Planning

MS established on EGSM TCH


With a MS established on an EGSM TCH, on triggering of a handover, the handover candidate list will be manipulated so that PGSM/EGSM cells will have priority over DCS1800 cells even with band_preference set to DCS1800 (1). A MS handed over to a PGSM/EGSM cell with no EGSM resources available will be allocated a PGSM TCH. Subsequent handovers will then be given DCS1800 preference if band_preference is set to DCS1800 (3). If the handover to the PGSM/EGSM cell fails, the MS will be handed over to PGSM/EGSM, DCS1800 or PGSM only cells in that order.

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

MS established on EGSM TCH

PGSM/EGSM cell 2 PGSM

PGSM/EGSM cell EGSM

3 1

DCS1800 EGSM DCS1800 cell PGSM/EGSM cell


SYS04_ch1_p127

(Band Preference set to DCS1800)

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

MS established on EGSM TCH (contd)

PGSM/EGSM cell 2 PGSM handover failure

PGSM/EGSM cell EGSM

DCS1800 EGSM DCS1800 cell PGSM/EGSM cell

SYS04_ch1_p129

(Band Preference set to DCS1800)

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Cell Planning

BSS/BTS site planning


The following features should be taken into consideration before planning actual equipment. Diversity Diversity reception (spatial diversity) at the BTS is obtained by supplying two uncorrelated receive signals to the transceiver. Each transceiver unit includes two receivers, which independently process the two received signals and combine the results to produce an output. This results in improved receiver performance when multipath propagation is significant and in improved interference protection. Two Rx antennas are required for each sector. Equivalent overlapping antenna patterns, and sufficient physical separation between the two antennas are required to obtain the necessary de-correlation. Frequency Hopping Two methods of providing frequency hopping; synthesiser hopping and baseband hopping. Each method has different hardware requirements. Synthesiser Hopping Synthesizer hopping uses the frequency agility of the transceiver to change frequencies on a timeslot basis for both receive and transmit. The transceiver calculates the next frequency and re-programs its synthesizer to move to the new frequency. There are three important points to note when using this method of providing frequency hopping: Hybrid combining must be used; cavity combining is not allowed when using synthesizer hopping. The output power available with the use of the hybrid combiners must be consistent with coverage requirements. It is only necessary to provide as many transceivers as required by the traffic. Note that one transceiver in each sector must be on a fixed frequency to provide the BCCH carrier. Baseband hopping For baseband hopping each transceiver operates on preset frequencies in the transmit direction. Baseband signals for a particular call are switched to a different transceiver at each TDM frame in order to achieve frequency hopping. There are three important points to note when using this method of providing frequency hopping: The number of transceivers must be equal to the number of transmit (or receive) frequencies required. Use of either remote tuning combiners or hybrid combiners is acceptable.

Frequency redefinition procedures were incomplete in the Phase 1 GSM specifications; this is addressed in the Phase 2 GSM procedures, but at this time there are no Phase 2 MSs capable of implementing this. Consequently, calls could be dropped, if a single transceiver fails, due to the inability to inform the MSs. Short Message Service, Cell Broadcast The Short Message Service, Cell Broadcast (SMS CB) feature is a means of unilaterally transmitting data to Mobile Stations on a per cell basis. Code Storage Facility Processor Beginning with Software Release 1.3.0.0. the BSS supports a GPROC acting as the Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP). The CSFP allows pre-loading of a new software release while the BSS is operational. When M-Cell BTSs are connected to the BSC a CSFP is required at the BSC and a second CSFP should be equipped for redundancy as required.

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

Location Services (LCS) LCS provides a set of capabilities that determine location estimates of mobile stations and makes that information available to location applications. Applications requesting location estimates from LCS can be located in the MS, the network, or external to the PLMN. LCS is not classified as a supplementary service and can be subscribed to without subscribing to a basic telecommunication service. LCS is applicable to any target MS, whether or not the MS supports LCS, but with restrictions on choice of positioning method or notification of a location request to the MS user when LCS or individual positioning methods respectively are not supported by the MS. Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) The AMR feature provides enhanced speech quality by adapting the speech and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel, and can provide increased capacity by allocating half rate channels to some or all mobiles. AMR selects the optimum channel rate (full rate (fr) or half rate (hr)) and codec mode (speech and channel bit rates) to provide the best combination of speech quality and system capacity. The feature may be tuned by the network operator on a cell by cell basis in order to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity. GSM Half Rate GSM half rate offers enhanced capacity over the air interface, corresponding to the proportion of mobiles within a coverage area that supports half rate. An air timeslot is split into two sub-channels, each containing a half rate channel. Speech quality is considered inferior to other speech codecs but has a high penetration level (of GSM HR capable mobiles) due to its early introduction into the standards. Due to these large penetration levels it is considered a viable option for high density areas. AMR and GSM Half Rate will be discussed further in the BSS Planning section of this chapter.

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Cell Planning

BSS Planning
Initial Information Required The information required before planning can begin can be categorised into three main areas: 1. 2. Traffic Model and Capacity Calculations The information below is required to calculate the capacity required. Traffic Information (Erlangs/BTS) over desired service area. Average traffic per site. Call Duration. Number of handovers per call. Ratio of location updates to calls. Ratio of total pages sent to time in seconds. Ratio intra-BSC handovers to all handovers. Number of TCHs. Half Rate (AMR or GSM) usage. Ratio of SDCCHs to TCHs. Link Utilization. SMS Utilization. Category of Service The information below is required to calculate what category of service is required. Category of service area - urban, suburban or rural: Cell Configuration in each category, sector against omni. Frequency re-use scheme to meet traffic and C/I requirements. Number of RF carriers in cell/sector to support traffic. Grade of Service of the Trunks (BSC/MSC). Grade of Service of the Traffic Channels. Cell Grid plan, a function of: Desired grade of service or acceptable level of blockage. Typical cell radio link budget. Results of field tests.

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Cell Planning

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3.

Site Planning The information below is required to plan each site. Where the BSC/BTS will be located. Local restrictions affecting antenna heights, equipment shelters, for example. Number of sites required. Re-use plan (frequency planning) omni or sector: Spectrum availability. Number of RF carrier frequencies available. Antenna type(s) and gain specification. Diversity requirement. Redundancy level requirements. Supply voltage.

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Cell Planning

Traffic
Introduction One of the most important steps in cellular planning is system dimensioning. To dimension a system correctly and hence all the supporting infrastructure, some idea of the projected usage of the system must be obtained i.e. the number of people wishing to simultaneously use the system. This means traffic engineering. Consider a cell with N voice channels, the cell is therefore capable of carrying N individual simultaneous calls. The traffic flow can be defined as the average number of concurrent calls carried in the cell. The unit of traffic intensity is the Erlang, traffic defined in this way can be thought of as a measure of the work load carried by the voice cell. The maximum traffic the cell can carry is N Erlangs, this happens if there is a call on each voice channel all of the time. If during a time period T, a channel carries traffic, then the average is T/N, this ratio is measured in Erlangs.The total traffic carried by the cell is the sum of the traffic carried by each channel. The mean call holding time is the average time a channel is serving a call. Channel Blocking The standard model used to dimension a system is the Erlang B model, which models the number of traffic channels or trunks required or a given grade of service and given offered traffic. There will be times when a call request is made and all channels or trunks are in use, this call is then blocked. The probability of this happening is the grade of service of the cell. If blocking occurs then the carried traffic will be less than the offered traffic. If a call is blocked, the caller may try again within a short interval. Repeated call attempts of this type increase the offered traffic above the level if there had been an absence of blocking. Because of this effect the notion of offered traffic is somewhat confused, however, if the blocking probability is small, it is reasonable to ignore the effect of repeated call attempts and assume that blocked calls are abandoned. The number of calls handled during a 24 hour period varies considerably with time. The figure opposite shows the type of traffic load that might be expected on a typical call. There are usually two peaks during week days, although the pattern can change from day to day. Across the typical day the variation is such that a l hour period shows greater usage than any other. From the hour with the least traffic to the hour with the greatest traffic, the variation can exceed 100:1. To add to these fairly "regular" variations, there can also be unpredictable peaks caused by a wide variety of events e.g. the weather, natural disasters, conventions, sports events etc. Additional to this, the fact that system growth must also be taken into account. There are a set of common definitions to describe this busy hour traffic loading. Busy Hour: The busy hour refers to the traffic volume or number of call attempts, and is a continuous period lying wholly in the time interval concerned for which this quantity (ie traffic volume or call attempts) is the greatest. Peak Busy Hour: The busy hour each day it is not usually the same over a number of days. Time Constant Busy Hour: The 1 hour period starting at the same time each day for which the average traffic volume or call attempts count is greatest over the days under consideration. Busy Season Busy Hour: The engineering period where the grade of service criteria is applied for the busiest clock hour of the busiest weeks of the year. Average Busy Season Busy Hour: The average busy season busy hour is used for trunk groups and always has a grade of service criteria applied. For example, for the ABSBH load, a call requiring a circuit in a trunk group should not encounter "all trunks busy" (ATB) no more than 1% of the time. Peak loads are of more concern than average loads when engineering traffic routes and switching equipment.

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

Busy Hour Traffic & Call Statistics

120

100

Traffic Intensity

Busy Hour Peak Busy Hour Time Constant Busy Hour Busy Season Busy Hour Average Busy Season Busy Hour

80

60

40

20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Hour of day

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Traffic Flow If mobile traffic is defined as the aggregate number of mobile calls (C) in a cell with regard to the duration of the calls (T) as well as their number, then traffic flow (A) can be defined as: Traffic Flow (A) = C x T Where C is the calling rate per hour and T is the average holding time per call. Suppose an average hold time of 1.5 minutes is assumed and the calling rate in the Busy Hour is 120, then the traffic flow would be 120 x 1.5 = 180 call-minutes or 3 call hours. One Erlang of traffic intensity on one traffic channel means a continuous occupancy of that particular traffic channel. Considering a group of traffic channels, the traffic intensity in Erlangs is the number of call-seconds per second or the number of call hours per hour. As an example; if there were a group of 10 traffic channels which had a call intensity of 5 erlangs, then half of the circuits would be busy at the time of measurement. Grade of Service One measure of the quality of service is how many times a subscriber is unsuccessful in setting up a call (blocking). Blocking data states what grade of service is required and is given as a percentage of the time that the subscriber is unable to make a call. Typical blocking for the MS-BSC link is 2% with 1% being acceptable on the BSC-MSC link. There is a direct relationship between the grade of service required and the number of channels. The customers desired grade of service has a direct affect on the number of channels needed in the network.

Introduction to AMR
AMR offers two very strong benefits: Expands network capacity, via AMR Half Rate. Expands the area of high call quality coverage, via AMR Full Rate. The ability of the AMR codec to dynamically change the allocation of source and channel coding bits provide a high level of speech quality. The overall improvements are dependant upon channel quality (C/I). As channel quality deteriorates, a codec with a higher level of error protection (and a corresponding decrease in speech quality) is selected, leading to an increase in sensitivity of the transceivers, thus providing optimum performance. The half rate (hr) ability of AMR, which allows for two calls per timeslot, provides the largest increase in capacity, but at a cost of a decrease in voice quality. Initially the AMR capable MS penetration rate may be low, suggesting that in circumstances where capacity is paramount and voice quality secondary that GSM half rate be employed as an alternative. With AMR operating in full rate mode, or in a mix of full rate and half rate where handovers between the modes is permitted, a capacity gain can be realized as a result of being able to operate at a lower C/I threshold. This can result in potentially higher traffic loading. Note, however, that the benefits of AMR do not extend to the signalling channels, or to the use of non-AMR codecs and data services. Capacity gains of this type are very dependent upon other factors (e.g. propagation conditions) and any improvement gained by a replanning of existing systems should be considered with care. The 3GPP document, TR 46.076, Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) speech codec; Study Phase Report, is a summary of a report on AMR which contains additional information regarding the technical aspects and benefits.

Capacity and coverage


AMR Half Rate doubles the number of timeslots that can be supported over the air interface, thus allowing up to double the number of subscribers to be supported by a base station. This is achieved by halving the capacity necessary to support a single voice call using AMR Half Rate (8 kbit/s instead of 16 kbit/s), which means that it is possible to support 8 voice calls per E1 timeslot instead of 4 when 8 kbit/s backhaul is used.

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AMR Half Rate Capacity Increase

AMR Full Rate Coverage Area AMR Half Rate Coverage Area

Timeslot 1 AMR Full Rate 1 2 3 4 1

Timeslot 2 2 3
16 kbit/s

Timeslot 3 1 2 3 4

AMR Half Rate

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 81 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8 kbit/s

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Quality of Service
AMR Full Rate delivers improved voice quality in poorer radio environments, providing high quality in poorer signalling conditions: AMR Full Rate will offer higher quality voice communications in poor radio environments such as corporate and urban buildings where no dedicated in-building coverage has been provided. AMR Full Rate will improve voice quality across the entire network, by supporting high quality voice codecs in radio environments that cannot support Enhanced Full Rate (EFR). AMR Full Rate expands the area of high quality voice coverage within a cell by intelligently selecting the best from a selection of codecs in various radio environments. Notice that in comparison to the EFR curve, AMR Full Rate offers a significantly higher quality codec solution in marginal radio environments (C/I = 13 to 4 dB). This, therefore, enables operators to offer high voice quality in radio environments that will not support EFR. Note that this improvement is paramount in urban environments, which usually have a C/I of between 11 and 13 dB.

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Quality of service

In good radio environments: AMR Full Rate voice quality = good EFR voice qauility Mean Opinion Score (MOS) of Voice Quality
5.0

AMR Quality improvement: High voice quality in reduced radio quality

4.0

3.0 EFR 12.2 10.2 7.95 6.7 4.75

2.0

1.0

No Errors

C/I = 16dB

C/I = 13dB

C/I = 10dB

C/I = 7dB

C/I = 4dB

C/I = 1dB

Conditions

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Applications
With the flexibility of the AMR system, it is possible to customize the application of AMR to meet specific network and service needs. Some of the potential application scenarios are identified below (in no particular order) together with the advantages offered and the types of networks to which they may be suited. Full rate only - High quality over full range of channel errors Due to the robust error correction ability of AMR, this provides improved resilience to errors compared to GSM EFR so that when in call, the speech quality varies little with channel errors. It also provides significantly improved quality under marginal coverage conditions (e.g. at cell edge, coverage holes, etc.). Some capacity advantage may also be derived from the improved resilience under low C/I conditions. May support tighter frequency re-use. Potential service applications: suitable for operators who do not need to increase capacity through half rate operation, but wish to offer the best speech quality possible to all users. Half rate only - Improved quality over current HR codec To gain maximum capacity advantage, the AMR codec can be operated in half rate channel mode only. Potential service applications: suitable for operators who need the greatest capacity enhancement from half rate operation. Some loss of quality at high channel error rates and in background noise can be expected. Full and Half rate operation - HR tied to cell congestion In this case full rate is used until cell congestion triggers a switch to use of half rate channels. The operator may also specify a handover of half rate capable mobiles from a full rate channel to a half rate channel in order to help ease the congestion. This provides a tunable trade-off between call quality and capacity. Potential service applications: suitable for operators who want to combine speech quality and capacity improvements.

Migration to half rate


When migrating a system to one which includes (AMR) half rate, care should be taken to ensure that the call capacity rating of the various components of the system are not exceeded. Use of AMR HR improves the spectral efficiency over the air interface (and potentially the backhaul), but from a load perspective a half rate call has the same impact as a full rate call.

Interoperability with GSM half rate


AMR half rate and GSM half rate can coexist within a system, down to the RTF level. One sub-rate may be operating as AMR half rate, the other as GSM half rate.

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GSM Half Rate


Introduction GSM half rate offers enhanced capacity over the air interface, corresponding to the proportion of mobiles within a coverage area that supports half rate. An air timeslot is split into two sub-channels, each containing a half rate channel. Speech quality is considered inferior to other speech codecs but has a high penetration level (of GSM HR capable mobiles) due to its early introduction into the standards. Due to these large penetration levels it is considered a viable option for high density areas. GSM half rate may be introduced using current hardware components, or it may utilize new hardware which further enhances the benefits of this feature. The GDP and GDP2 boards are enhanced to support GSM HR, thus providing 30 and 60 channels of transcoding capability, respectively. The current RXU shelf has only 1 E1 connection per transcoder slot, hence the GDP2 will only support 30 channels when used in this configuration. The new RXU shelf (RXU3) and BSSC cabinet (BSSC3), are used to utilize the full capacity. NOTE GDP2 will not support GSM HR on the 7.x load line. This added capability will be part of GSR 8.

The backhaul between the BTS and BSC may be 8kbps or 16kbps. 8kbps requires that subrate (8K) switching is present at the BSC. The existing hardware only supports 16 kbit/s switching on the backhaul between the BSC and BTS. Therefore, when using existing switching hardware, each half rate equipped RTF must have an additional two 64 kbit/s timeslots equipped in order to fully utilize all 16 half rate channels. The existing hardware will also support only 16 kbit/s switching on the backhaul between the BSC and RXCDR (this interface is called the Ater interface), requiring 16 kbit/s per voice channel (as it does currently). The Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2) supports subrate switching capability down to 8 kbit/s (extended subrate switching mode), as well as double the number of ports (enhanced capacity mode) when used in the RXCDR. With 8 kbit/s switching between the BSC and BTS, a half rate voice stream can be carried in a 8 kbit/s subchannel, rather than the 16 kbit/s subchannel required with KSWs. This eliminates the need for the 2 additional 64 kbit/s timeslots required per half rate capable RTF. As with AMR half rate, a GSM half rate call can fit within an 8kbps timeslot (an Ater channel) on the terrestrial resource from the BSC to the RXCDR, rather than the 16kbps timeslot required for full rate calls. If a percentage of the active calls can be assumed to be half rate, then efficiency can be gained by reducing the number of terrestrial resources between the BSC and RXCDR. The DSW2 benefit of 8 kbit/s subrate switching allows this capability to be realized. In order to maximize Ater channel usage, dynamic assignment of BSC to RXCDR channels is employed. The BSC can assign an 8 or 16 kbit/s channel as required, based upon the backhaul in use across the BSCBTS interface. This allows the operator to equip fewer channels than previously possible, with the assumption that a number of calls will always be utilizing half rate backhaul. This dynamic allocation is an enhancement to the existing Auto Connect mode feature, referred to as Enhanced Auto Connect mode. Enhanced Auto Connect is applicable to both AMR and GSM half rate.. Extended range cells GSM half rate is only supported on the normal range timeslots. It is not supported on extended range timeslots (it is envisaged that the C/I ratio in the extended range portion of an extended range cell will not be good enough to support a half rate call).

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Capacity and Coverage As with AMR half rate, GSM half rate doubles the number of voice calls that can be supported over the air interface, thus allowing up to double the number of subscribers to be supported by a base station. This is achieved by halving the air interface capacity necessary to support a single voice call using GSM half rate. On the backhaul it is possible to support 8 voice calls per E1 timeslot instead of 4 when 8 kbit/s backhaul is used.

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Capacity and Coverage

AMR Full Rate, Enhanced Full Rate and Full Rate coverage area

GSM Half Rate coverage area

Timeslot 1 Full Rate GSM Half Rate 1 2 3 4 1

Timeslot 2 2 3 4 1 16 kbit/s

Timeslot 3 2 3 4

123456781234567812345678 8 kbit/s

2 X voice calls supported per timeslot in GSM Half Rate coverage area

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Quality of service The GSM half rate codec does not perform as well as the AMR half rate codec. The following figure shows the Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) for the various coding schemes versus C/I (the 4.75 <-> 7.95 values are for AMR half rate). This provides a relative comparison of voice quality vs. the other codecs.

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Quality of Service

5 4.5 EFR 4 3.5 FR HR 7.95 kbps 7.4 kbps 6.7 kbps 5.9 kbps 5.15 kbps 4.75 k 1.5 1 Error Free 19 16 13 C/I (dB) 10 7 4

MOS
SYS04_ch1_03d

3 2.5 2

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Carrier Equipment Required


To determine the amount of carrier equipment required for a particular cell, the amount of traffic channels to be supported must be known. This can be determined by multiplying the subscriber density by the number of erlangs being given to one subscriber. For example: Sub density = 3,000 subs Erlangs per sub = 0.025 Erl Estimated cell erlang requirement = 75 Erl 75 Erl can be converted to air interface TCH by use of the erlang B tables: 75 Erl @ 2% blocking = 87 Traffic Channels This method may be made faster and prove more accurate if a surveyed erlang figure is used, perhaps from experience of a previous or existing network. Each RF Channel Unit, CTU has the capability of supporting a theoretical maximum of 8 mobile stations. So, a simple division of the amount of required traffic channels by the number 8 will provide the number of RF units per cell. If the number of RF channel units, CCUs or DRCUs is obtained.nt the requirement for DRIMs and DRIXs has been removed. This simple division process is incorrect, as it does not take in account the requirement for control channels to support the traffic channels in this cell. Therefore, the required control channels must be calculated for the cell. These are then converted to a timeslot requirement and added to the traffic channels, this figure is then divided by 8 to obtain the RF Channel Unit requirement for the cell.

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Carrier Equipment Required (1 BTS SITE)

Subscriber Density
Cell 1
24 TCH

Cell 3
20 TCH

Cell 2
85 TCH

Subscriber Density

Subscriber Density

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BTS Site Planning


RF Requirements The first step is determine the number of CCCH and SDCCH required for each cell at the site. Once the number of CCCH and SDCCH has been determined we can then calculate the physical number of control channel timeslots required for each cell. We will now review the different types of control channels (CCCH, BCCH, DCCH) and how they may be configured on a per cell basis.

BCCH Group
The Broadcast Control Channels are downlink only (base station to mobile) and comprise of the following: BCCH carries info about the network, a mobiles present cell and the surrounding cells. It is transmitted continuously as its signal strength is measured by all mobiles on surrounding cells. The Synchronising Channel (SCH) carries information for frame synchronisation and Base Station Identity Code (BSIC). The Frequency Control Channel (FCCH) provides information for carrier synchronisation.

CCCH Group
The Common Control Channel Group is bi-directional ie, it works in both the uplink and downlink direction. It comprises of the following: Random Access Channel (RACH) is the up link used by mobiles to gain access to the system. Paging Channel (PCH) and Access Grant Channel (AGCH) operate in the downlink direction. The AGCH is used to assign resources to the M.S, such as a Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). The PCH is used by the system to call a mobile. The PCH and AGCH are never used at the same time.

DCCH Group
Dedicated Control Channels are assigned to a single mobile for call set-up and subscriber validation. DCCH comprises of the following: Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) which supports the transfer of Data to and from the mobile during call set-up and validation. Associated Control Channel. This consists of Slow ACCH which is used for radio link measurement and power control messages. Fast ACCH is used to pass event type messages eg, handover messages. Both FACCH and SACCH operate in uplink and downlink directions.

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Control Channels

CCH
Control Channel
NB NB/AB NB/DB

Acronyms!! NB = Normal Burst FB = Frequency Burst SB = Synchronisation Burst AB = Access Burst DB = Dummy Burst

DCCH

- downlink only

BCCH

SDCCH

ACCH

BCCH

Synch. Channels

SB
FACCH SACCH SCH
BSIC

FB
FCH

CCCH

AB
RACHuplink

NB
PCH/AGCH - downlink CBCH

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Determine the Number of CCCH per BTS Cell


The CCCH channels are collectively referred to as the PAGCH (Paging and Access Grant Channel) in the downlink, and the RACH (Random Access Channel) in the uplink. The PAGCH is subdivided into AGCH (Access Grant Channel) and PCH (Paging Channel). The available CCCH can be distributed between the AGCH and PCH, as follows: Zero or more CCCH (up to a maximum determined by the BCCH/CCCH config). The remaining CCCH are shared between the PCH and AGCH. When a non-combined BCCH is used, it is possible to add additional CCCH control channels (in addition to the mandatory BCCH on timeslot 0). These additional CCCH control channels are added, in order, on timeslots 2, 4 and 6 of the BCCH carrier. Thus creating cells with 18, 27 and 36 CCCH blocks. These configurations would only be required for very high capacity cells. Each CCCH block can carry one message. The message capacity of each CCCH block is 4.25 messages/second. The AGCH is used to send Immediate Assignment and Immediate Assignment Reject messages. Each AGCH Immediate Assignment message can convey channel assignments for up to 2 mobiles. Each AGCH Immediate Assignment Reject message can reject channel requests from up to 4 mobiles. The PCH is used to send Paging messages. Each PCH Paging message can contain pages for up to 4 mobiles. If no Paging messages are to be sent in a particular CCCH block, then an Immediate Assignment/Immediate Assignment Reject message can be sent instead. NOTE: The current Motorola BSS implementation applies the following priority (highest to lowest) for downlink CCCH messages: Paging message (if not reserved for AGCH). Immediate Assignment message. Immediate Assignment Reject message. Thus, for example, if for a particular PAGCH sub-channel there are Paging messages (ie, high paging load) waiting to be sent, no Immediate Assignment or Immediate Assignment Reject messages will be sent on that PAGCH sub-channel. Hence the option to reserve CCCH channels for AGCH. It can normally be assumed that sufficient capacity exists on the uplink CCCH (RACH) once the downlink CCCH (PAGCH) is correctly dimensioned. Control Channel Configurations Combined Timeslot 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 DCCH Separate Timeslots CCH and CCCH combined 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH DCCH only (own Timeslot) 8 DCCH (SDCCH/SACCH)

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Multiframes and Timing


The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe - BCCH/CCCH The BCCH/CCCH 51-frame structure illustrated on the opposite page will apply to timeslot 0 of each TDMA frame on the BCCH carrier (the RF carrier frequency to which BCCH is assigned on a per cell basis). In the diagram, each vertical step represents one repetition of the timeslot (= one TDMA frame), with the first repetition (numbered 0) at the bottom. Looking at the uplink (MS - BSS) direction, all timeslot 0s are allocated to RACH. This is fairly obvious because RACH is the only control channel in the BCCH/CCCH group which works in the uplink direction. In the downlink direction (BSS - MS), the arrangement is more complex Starting at frame 0 of the 51-frame structure, the first timeslot 0 is occupied by a frequency correction burst (F in the diagram), the second by a synchronisation burst (S) and then the following four repetitions of timeslot 0 by BCCH System Information data (B) in frames 2 - 5. The following four repetitions of timeslot 0 in frames 6 - 9 are allocated to CCCH traffic (C) - that is, to either PCH (mobile paging channel) or AGCH (access grant channel). Then follows, in timeslot 0 of frames 10 and 11, a repeat of the frequency and synchronising bursts (F and S), four further CCCH bursts (C) and so on ..... Note that the last timeslot 0 in the sequence (the fifty-first frame - frame 50) is idle where the BTS will transmit a dummy burst.

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BCCH/CCCH Multiframe

50

I C C

KEY R= B= F= S= C= I= RACH (Random) BCCH (Broadcast) FCCH (Frequency) SCH (Sync.) CCCH (Common) Idle

50

40

S F C C

40

30

S F C C

30

20

S F C C

20

10

S F C B

10

S F

Downlink

Uplink
0

R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

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The 102-frame Dedicated Control Channel Multiframe - SDCCH and SACCH The diagram shows the 51-frame structure used to accommodate 8 SDCCHs although, as it takes two repetitions of the multiframe to complete the entire sequence, it may be more logical to think of it as a 102-frame structure! This structure will be used on a physical channel selected by the system software - it is not placed in a timeslot or on an RF carrier specifically defined by GSM Recommendations. Note that the 8 SACCHs (shaded) are associated with the 8 SDCCHs. It is important to remember that each SDCCH has an SACCH just like a traffic channel.

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DCCH Multiframe

50

I I I A3 A2 A1 A0

I I I A7 A6 A5 A4 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

KEY D= SDCCH/8 (Dedicated) A = SACCH/C8 (Associated) I= Idle

50 A0 D7 40 D6 D5 D4 30 D3 D2 20 D1 D0 I I I 10 A7 A6 D3 D2 D1 D0 I I I A3 A2 A1 A4 D7 D6 D5 D4

40

30

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3

20

10

D2 D1 D0

Downlink

Uplink

A5

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Multiframes and Timing


The 102-frame Control Channel Multiframe - Combined Structure The structure illustrated can be used where traffic density is low - perhaps in a rural area in cells with few RF carriers and only light traffic. Again, as it takes two repetitions of the 51-frame multiframe to complete the sequence, this is really a 102-frame structure. In this case, all the control channel types (with the exception of the frame-stealer FACCH) can share the BCCH carrier timeslot 0. In this configuration more SDCCH can still be configured in the cell, albeit in other timeslots, however no more CCCH can be defined.

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Combined Multiframe

50

I A1 A0

I A3 A2 S F D3 D2 S F D1 D0 S F C C S F C B S F
KEY R = RACH (Random) B = BCCH (Broadcast) F = FCCH (Frequency) S = SCH (Sync.) C = CCCH (Common) D = SDCCH/4 (Dedicated) A = SACCH/C4 (Associated) I = Idle

50 D2 R R D1 D0 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R A3 A2 R R D2 R R D1 40 D0 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R A1 10 A0 R R D3 0

40

S F D3 D2

30

S F D1 D0

30

20

S F C C

20

10

S F C B

S F

Downlink

Uplink

D3

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Parameters which effect the CCCH Channels


A number of other parameters may be used to configure the CCCH channels. Some of these are: Number of Paging Groups Each Mobile Station is a member of only one paging group and only needs to listen to the PCH sub-channel corresponding to that group. Paging Group size is a trade-off between MS idle-mode, battery life and the speed of access (eg, a lot of Paging Groups means the MS needs to only listen very occasionally to the PCH, but as a consequence, it will take longer to page that MS, resulting in a slower call set-up as perceived by a PSTN calling Party). It is important to note, that with a large number of paging groups, the probability of congestion of paging messages within a particular group increases, hence the number of PCH channels may need to be increased. The database parameters that control the number of paging groups are: bs_pa_mfrms bss_ag_blks_res using these parameters and the number of CCCH blocks per timeslot will determine the paging group size. Number of repetitions an MS attempts to access the Network The database parameter that controls the number of attempts a mobile can make on the random Access Channel is: max_retrans Time MS must wait between repetitions on the RACH The database parameter that determines the time a mobile will wait between unsuccessful attempts for a RACH is: tx_integer Precise determination of the CCCH requirements may be difficult, however, a number of statistics can be collected by the BSS and these may be used to determine the CCCH loading and hence perform adjustments accordingly.

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BTS Capacity Calculation


The number of both Common Control Channels, Dedicated Control Channels as well as the quantity of required Generic Processors to support and provide the desired functionality of a BTS is dependant on a set of call parameters. The typical call parameters for BTS planning are: PARAMETER Call duration Ratio of SMSs per call Ratio of location updates to calls - non-location area border Ratio of location updates to calls - location area border Ratio of IMSI detaches to calls Location update factor - non-location area border (1) Location update factor - location area border (1) Number of handovers per call Paging rate in pages per second Time duration for location update Time duration for SMSs Time duration for call set-ups Guard time for SDCCHs Probability of blocking for TCHs Probability of blocking for SDCCHs ASSUMED VALUE T= 120 secs S= 0.1 I= 2 I=7 I= 0 L= 2 L= 7 H= 2.5 P= 3 TLU= 4 secs TSMs= 6 secs TC= 5 secs TG= 4 secs PB - TCH 2% PB - SDCCH 1%

(1) Location update factor L is a function of the ratio of location updates to calls (I), the ratio of IMSI detaches to calls (I) and whether the short message sequence (type 1) or long message sequence (type 2) is used for IMSI detach. For typical planning parameters I= 0 (IMSI detach is disabled). If IMSI attach is enabled the alternative formulas should be used. The type of IMSI detach used is a function of the MSC. If IMSI Detached is Disabled L = I If IMSI Detached Type 1 is Enabled L= I + .2 * I If IMSI Detached Type 2 is Enabled L= I + .5 * I

Calculating CCCH Blocks


To calculate the CCCH requirements we first need to determine the number of CCCH blocks required to support PAGING AND ACCESS GRANT. From these two values we can then calculate the number of CCCH blocks required for a particular cell.

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Paging Blocks The first task is to calculate the number of pages per second that will be transmitted by the cell. Remember that paging in GSM is carried out on a LAC basis and therefore the number of paging blocks calculated will be the same for every cell within the LAC. The number of paging blocks required can be calculated using the following formula:

The value of P (pages per second) must be calculated first. The following example will illustrate this: 40,000 subscribers in a location area (LAC) each subscriber is allocated 0.025 Erls total erlangs in the LAC = 1000 Erls each call will have a duration of 120 seconds

call rate = 30,000 calls/hour 20% are on average mobile terminating 20% of 30,000 = 6,000 On average 2 pages are sent for every call that is set up. pages per hour = 12,000 pages per second =

value of P = 3.33 The number of pages per second is divided by the paging capacity of a CCCH block. Two factors are included in this, firstly the number of pages in a paging message (TMSI = 4, IMSI = 2) and then the number of repetitions of the paging block per second (4.25). The final figure will give the number of paging blocks required. The result of this calculation will always tend to be rather low, GSM has a huge paging capacity which is rarely fully utilised. The number of pages/second the cell is capable of is dependent on the configuration of the CCCH channels. Combined Multiframe Non Combined Multiframe 51 pages/sec (TMSI) 25.5 pages/sec (IMSI) 153 pages/sec (TMSI) 76.5 pages/sec (IMSI) AGCH Blocks To calculate the number of AGCH channels required, three factors must be considered, the Call Rate, the Location Update Rate and the SMS Call Rate. The two latter factors can be determined by using a ratio of the Call Rate.

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

AGCH = CALL + LU + SMS + LCS 3600 CALL LU = E x 3600 T = L x E x 3600 T SMS LCS Where: = SMS x E x 3600 T = LCS x E x 3600 T E = total erlangs per cell T = average call duration L = ratio of LU's to calls T = average call duration LCS = ratio of LCS's to calls SMS = ratio of SMS messages to calls
The next step is to calculate the number of AGCH blocks required using the following formula:

The two factors being used for the division are based on the capacity of an AGCH block. Two immediate assignment messages can be sent in one CCCH block and also a CCCH block repeats at a rate of 4.25 times per second. Final Step The last step is to combine the NAGCH and NPCH together and divide by a CCCH utilisation figure usually set at 0.33 (33%). CCCH utilization is the average percentage of time the CCCH is busy (during the busy hour or the busy half-hour). However, it is a matter of the system engineers preference, therefore typically a value such as 0.33 (33%) is selected to allow for peaks as well as to minimize queueing delays. The final figure will give the number of CCCH blocks required. CCCH Blocks Required

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Cell Planning

SDCCH Requirements
There are a number of factors that will effect the SDCCH requirements in a GSM Cell. The first is the requirement of supporting call set up in a cell. As more mobile stations try to access the system in a cell, the cell will process more random access requests (RACH) on the Common Control Channel. Note, that if a Mobile Station is paged by the system on the Common Control Channel, the Mobile Station will respond with a RACH to try and access the system. As more Mobile Stations try to access the system in that cell, the demand for SDCCHs to support call set-up, subscriber and equipment authentication will increase. One factor which will greatly affect the number of TCHs in a cell is the use of AMR or GSM Half Rate. The figures in the tables following assume the worst case in that all half rate capable carriers are being used as half rate. The second factor is whether the cell being configured is on a system supporting the GSM defined Short Message Service (SMS) feature. For a mobile Station to receive the Short Message Service data the mobile station (if not on a traffic channel) must access the system using a random access request and move onto a SDCCH prior to receiving the data. Therefore, if Short Message Services are to be supported as a feature, it must be taken into account when determining and calculating your SDCCH requirement in a cell. The third factor is to do with the location of the cell. Each MSC in a GSM system will divide the GSM cells associated with that MSC into location areas. The size of these location areas are defined by the System operators. The MSCs VLR uses these location areas to keep track of Mobile Stations, as they move through the MSCs area of responsibility. As a Mobile Station moves between MSC location areas, the Mobile Station must perform a location update. This is done on a SDCCH. It should also be noted that a mobile may perform a location update after a preset delay has elapsed since the mobiles last location update. Thus, if a GSM cell is on the border of a MSC location area, there will be more instances of mobiles performing location updates in that cell, than a cell at the centre of a MSC location area.

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

Determining SDCCH Requirements

Main Road LAI Border


Location Area Code 3 Cell 5 Location Area Code 1

Town Area

Cell 6

Cell 4

TOWN AREA

Cell 7

Cell 2 Cell 1

Cell 8

Cell 3

Location Area Code 2

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Cell Planning

Calculating SDCCH Requirements


Determining the SDCCH requirements is an important part of the planning process. The SDCCH is where a large portion of call set-up messaging takes place. As the number of calls taking place in a BTS increases, greater demand is placed on the control channel for call set-up. To determine the required number of SDCCHs for a given number of TCHs per sector, the call, location update and SMS rates must be determined. Once theses rates are determined, the required number of SDCCHs for the given number of TCHs can be determined. The rates for SMS are for the SMSs taking place over an SDCCH. For mobiles involved in a call, the SMS may take place over the TCH, and may not require the use of SDCCH. Calculating the number of SDCCHs required is necessary for each cell at a BTS. For example, in a planning requirement for a multiple sector site, SDCCHs need to be calculated for each sector. The equation shown below is used to determine the average number of SDCCHs. The number of erlangs E is the number of erlangs supported by a given sector based on the number of TCHs in that sector. To determine the number of erlangs supported by a sector use Erlang B. Use Erlang B to determine the required number of SDCCHs necessary to support the desired grade of service. Ratio of location updates to calls Ratio of SMSs to calls Average call length in seconds Erlangs per Secto Call rate in calls per hour 1 SMS T E

Location Update rate in LUs per hour

SMS rate in SMSs per hour

Time duration for location updates Time duration for SMS(short message service set-up) Time duration for LCS set-up Time duration for call set-up Guard time for SDCCH Call arrival rate per hour Location Update rate per hour

TLU TSMS TLCS Tc Tg call LU

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

LCS rate per hour SMSs per hour To determine the erlangs offered for SDCCHs: Erlangs offered =

LCS SMS

Assignment of SDCCH to Physical Timeslots


After calculating the number of logical SDCCHs required we need to assign physical timeslots on the DRCU/TCU/SCU. With SDCCHs as we have seen we have the option of adding them in multiples of 0, 4, or 8. 1 TIMESLOT= BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 TIMESLOT= BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 TIMESLOT= 8 SDCCH Within the Motorola database we have the ability when certain database parameters are met (high SDCCH demand situations) to reconfigure traffic channels to support SDCCH (1 traffic channel= 8 SDCCH) and then when the load drops to another predetermined database level the channel is reconfigured back to traffic. On allocating your SDCCH channels you may wish to consider using this feature. This feature is compatible with AMR and GSM Half Rate features.

Typical SDCCH Planning Requirements


To determine SDCCH requirements for every cell using individual cell characteristics for call rate, ratio of SMS per call etc, would require an enormous amount of time and resources, therefore, a set of typical SDCCH planning requirements have been compiled, which allow quick and easy reference to typical control channel configurations for a given number of TCH (border cells and non-border cells) at a particular grade of service (2%). Table 17 Provides the control channel configurations for cells that are not on a location area border. Provides the control channel configurations for cells that are on a location area border. The number of TCHs in a cell will vary depending upon the number of carriers that are AMR half rate capable. The number of calls that use the half rate capable carriers may vary depending upon such factor as cell loading, mobile penetration, etc. In Table 3-13 and Table 3-14 a worst case scenario is assumed, where all half rate capable carriers are used as half rate. NOTE If cell broadcast is active in a cell, an SDCCH sub-slot (block D2) will be permanently allocated to this function.

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Cell Planning

SDCCH Planning for typical parameters (non-location area border)


Number of RTFs 1FR 1HR 2FR 1FR 1HR 2HR 3FR 2FR 1HR 1FR 2HR 3HR 4FR 3FR 1HR 5FR 6FR 5FR 1HR 3FR 3HR 6HR 7FR 8FR 9FR 10FR NOTE Number of TCHs 7 12 14 22 28 22 30 38 42 30 38 38 45 53 68 88 53 60 68 76 Number of Erlangs 2.94 6.61 8.20 14.90 20.15 14.90 21.93 29.17 32.84 21.90 29.17 29.20 35.60 43.10 57.20 76.40 43.10 49.60 57.23 64.90 Number of SDCCHs 4 8 8 8 12 8 12 12 16 12 12 12 16 16 20 24 16 20 20 20 Timeslot utilization Timeslot 0 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH Other Timeslots

CBCH reduces the number of SDCCH by one and may require another channel to be equipped.

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Cell Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

SDCCH Planning for typical parameters (location area border)


Number of RTFs 1FR 1HR 2FR 1FR 1HR 2HR 3FR 2FR 1HR 1FR 2HR 3HR 4FR 3FR 1HR 5FR 6FR 5FR 1HR 3FR 3HR 7FR 8FR 9FR 10FR NOTE Number of TCHs 6 12 14 21 26 21 29 36 40 29 36 36 44 51 66 51 58 66 73 Number of Erlangs 2.28 6.61 8.20 14.00 18.40 14.00 21.00 27.30 31.00 21.04 27.30 27.30 33.80 41.20 55.30 41.20 47.80 55.30 62.00 Number of SDCCHs 8 12 12 16 20 16 20 24 28 20 24 24 28 32 40 32 36 40 44 Timeslot utilization Timeslot 0 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH Other Timeslots 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH 2 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH 3 X 8 SDCCH 4 X 8 SDCCH 4 X 8 SDCCH 5 X 8 SDCCH 4 X 8 SDCCH 5 X 8 SDCCH 5 X 8 SDCCH 6 X 8 SDCCH

There is a limit of 44 (combined) or 48 (non-combined) SDCCH per cell. This may limit the number of supportable TCHs within a cell.

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BSS interfaces

BSS interfaces
Introduction
The following figure and table indicate the type of interface, rate(s) and transmission systems used to convey information around the various parts of the BSS system.

OMC-R

OML

X.25 (LAPB)

MSC

MS

Air interface (LAPDm)

BTS

Abis interface RSL (LAPD)

BSC

A interface MTL (C7), XBL (LAPD) OML (X.25)

RXCDR

CBL

X.25 (LAPB)

CBC

Interface Air

From/To MS - BTS

Signalling by ... RACH, SDCCH, SACCH, FACCH E1/T1 links RSL MTL (OML, CBL) XBL OML (X.25) CBL (X.25)

Rate

Using ... LAPDm

Abis (Mobis) A A-ter

BTS - BSC BSS - MSC RXCDR - BSC MSC - OMC-R MSC - CBC

16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s

LAPD C7 LAPD LAPB LAPB

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Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs

Version 1 Rev 3

Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs


Introduction
Network topology is specified in terms of the path(s) between the BSC and the BTS sites. A path is determined by which E1 or T1 circuits, and possible intervening BTS sites are used to provide the connection. Transcoding may be carried out at the BSC or RXCDR.

Interconnection rules
The following rules must be observed when interconnecting a BSC and BTSs: The BSC may share MSI boards between BTSs. When there are two or more E1 or T1 circuits, at least two MSIs are recommended for redundancy. A minimum of one MSI is required at each BTS. There is a maximum of eight, and minimum of one, signalling links per BTS site, each requiring one 64 kbit/s timeslot on an E1 or T1 circuit. The maximum number of active carrier units is determined by available E1 circuit capacity. Typically, a carrier unit requires two 64 kbit/s timeslots on an E1 circuit. A RTF may be configured as half rate capable, meaning it may support AMR half rate and/or GSM half rate. Once a RTF is configured as AMR half rate capable, and (if AMR half rate is enabled) the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set or (for either AMR half rate or GSM half rate) 8 kbit/s subrate switching is not available (for example, 16kbit/s is used for the backhaul), then the carrier unit assigned to that RTF will require four 64 kbit/s timeslots on the E1 circuit In a redundant connection, each carrier unit requires two 64 kbit/s timeslots on two different E1 circuits. Four 64 kbit/s timeslots are required if the half rate exception case applies. The AMR half rate exception case is defined as "A carrier which is assigned an RTF configured as (AMR or GSM) half rate capable, and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is not available (for example, 16kbit/s is used for the backhaul), or (for AMR) the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set". The Half Rate Active Codec Set is AMR specific and is configured on a per cell basis. At the BSC, one E1 or T1 circuit is required to connect to a daisy chain. If the connection is a closed loop daisy chain, two E1 or T1 circuits are required. To provide redundancy, the two E1 or T1 circuits should be terminated on different MSIs. In a closed loop daisy chain the primary RSLs for all BTS sites should be routed in the same direction with the secondary RSLs routed in the opposite direction. For In-Cell equipment, the primary RSL at each BTS site in the daisy chain should always be equipped on the multiple serial interface link (MMS) equipped in cage 15 slot 16 port A. The secondary RSL at each BTS site should be equipped on the MMS equipped in either cage 15 slot 16 port B or cage 15 slot 14 port A or cage 14 slot 16 port A. For MCell and Horizon equipment, the default RSL locations are cage 0 NIU0 MMS 0 timeslot 1, cage 0 NIU0 MMS 1 timeslot 2, cage 1 NIU0 MMS 0 timeslot 2

The following rules must be observed when interconnecting InCell and M-Cell equipment: Reconfigure the InCell BTS to have integral sector(s) in the cabinet. Install M-Cell cabinet(s) to serve the remaining sector(s). Daisy chain the M-Cell E1/T1 links to the BSC.

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Network topology

Network topology
Introduction
The user can specify what traffic is to use a specific path. Any direct route between any two adjacent sites in a network may consist of one or more E1 or T1 circuits. shows a possible network topology. Each BTS site in the network must obey the following maximum restrictions: Six serial interfaces supported at a HorizonIImacro BTS. Six serial interfaces supported at a Horizonmacro BTS. Two serial interfaces supported at a Horizonmicro2/Horizoncompact2 BTS. Six serial interfaces supported at an M-Cell6 BTS. Four serial interfaces supported at an M-Cell2 BTS. Two serial interfaces supported at an M-Cellcity / M-Cellcity+ BTS. Six serial interfaces supported at an M-Cell access BTS. Ten BTS(s) in a path, including the terminating BTS for E1 circuit connection or eight BTS(s) in a path, including the terminating BTS for T1 circuit connection.

One RSL signalling link per HorizonIImacro or Horizonmacro BTS site. Four RSL signalling links per M-Cell BTS site (maximum of two per path). An alternative path may be reserved for voice/data traffic in the case of path failure. This is known as a redundant path, and is used to provide voice/data redundancy, that is loop redundancy. The presence of multiple paths does not imply redundancy. Each signalling link has a single path. When redundant paths exist, redundant signal links are required, and the signalling is load shared over these links. In the case of a path failure, the traffic may be rerouted, but the signalling link(s) go out of service, and the load is carried on the redundant link(s).

BSC

BTS 10

BTS 1

BTS 5

BTS 2

BTS 6

BTS 11

BTS 3

BTS 7

BTS 9

BTS 4

BTS 8

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Network topology

Version 1 Rev 3

Star connection
A star connection is defined by installing E1 or T1 circuits between each BTS site and the BSC, as shown in the figure. A star connection may require more MSI cards at the BSC than daisy chaining for the same number of BTS sites. The star connection will allow for a greater number of carrier units per BTS site. An E1 circuit provides for 15 carriers plus one signalling link. A T1 circuit provides for 11 carriers plus one or two signalling links.

BTS 3 BTS 2 BTS 1 BTS 4

BSC

BTS 5

MSC BTS 7 BTS 9 BTS 8

NOTE

The number of carriers on an E1 circuit is reduced by 1 for each carrier to which the half rate exception case applies.

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Network topology

Daisy chain connection


Daisy chaining multiple BTS sites together can better utilize the 64 kbit/s timeslots of one E1 or T1 circuit from the BSC. Daisy chaining the sites together provides for the efficient utilization of the E1 or T1 circuit for interconnecting smaller sites back to the BSC. The daisy chain may be open ended or closed looped back to the BSC as shown in the figure below. The closed loop version provides for redundancy while the open ended does not. Note that longer daisy chains (five or more sites) may not meet the suggested round trip delay.

BTS 3 BTS 2
DAISY CHAIN CLOSED LOOP

BTS 4 BTS 10

BRANCH OF THE DAISY CHAIN

BTS 1

BTS 6 BTS 5

BSC

MSC

DAISY CHAIN CLOSED LOOP

BTS 11 BTS 7
SINGLE MEMBER DAISY CHAIN, A STAR

BTS 9

BTS 8

Daisy chain planning


The introduction of multiple E1 or T1 circuits and branches increases the complexity of the network topology. Since the network can have multiple E1 or T1 circuits, branches, multiple paths over the same E1 or T1 circuit, and closed loop interconnections, each E1 or T1 circuit should be individually planned.

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Network topology

Version 1 Rev 3

Simple daisy chain A daisy chain with no branches and a single E1 or T1 circuit between each of the BTSs is referred to as a simple daisy chain, a simple daisy chain is shown in the figure shown here. The maximum capacity supported in this connection is limited by the capacity of the connection between the BSC and the first BTS in the chain.

Tx

Rx

Tx

Rx

BSC
Rx Tx

BTS 1
Rx Tx Rx Tx

BTS 2
Tx Rx Tx

Rx

Used in closed loop connection only

BTS 3
Rx Tx

BTS 4

... ...... ...


Tx Rx Rx Tx

BTS X

The capacity of a closed loop single E1 or T1 circuit daisy chain is the same as that for an open ended daisy chain. The closed loop daisy chain has redundant signalling links for each BTS, although they transverse the chain in opposite directions back to the BSC. Maximum carrier capacity of the chain, with one signal link per BTS site is given by: for E1 links

for T1 links.

Where:

n b

is:

the number of carriers. the number of BTS sites in the chain.

The results should be rounded down to the nearest integer. NOTE Example A single E1 circuit daisy chain with three BTSs, with 3 carriers designated half rate and to which the half rate exception case applies, the maximum capacity of the chain is given by: The number of E1 carriers is reduced by 1 for each carrier to which the AMR half rate exception case applies.

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Network topology

A single T1 circuit daisy chain with three BTSs, the maximum capacity of the chain is is given by:

These carriers can be distributed between the three sites. If the loop is closed, the BSC has additional signalling links, although the same number of carriers are supported. Daisy chain with branch BTS site The addition of a branch BTS site (BTS Y), as shown in , affects the capacity of the links between the BSC and the site from which the branch originates as these are used for the path to the branched site.

Tx

Rx

Tx

Rx

BSC
Rx Tx

BTS 1
Rx Tx

BTS 2
Rx Tx Tx Rx

Tx

Rx

Tx

Rx

BTS 3
Rx Tx

BTS 4
Rx Tx

BTS X

Used in closed loop connection only

Rx

BTS Y
Tx

A branch may have multiple BTS sites on it. A branch may be closed, in which case there would be redundant signalling links on different E1 or T1 circuits. In a closed loop, which requires redundant signalling links for each BTS site, with an open branch, the E1 or T1 circuit to the branch needs to carry redundant signalling links.

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Network topology

Version 1 Rev 3

Aggregate Abis
This is an option designed to allow greater flexibility when network planning. It can also help reduce leasing costs of E1/T1 links by optimizing the link usage over the greatest distance between a BSC and BTS. This is achieved by the introduction of third party multiplexer equipment enabled by Motorola software. This equipment allows timeslots on one E1/T1 link to be multiplexed to more than one BTS. Therefore if the situation arises where several single carrier BTSs would each require their own dedicated E1/T1 link, greatly under utilizing each link capacity. Now providing the geographical locations of the sites and distances of the E1/T1 links work out advantageously, it is possible to send all the traffic channels for every site initially over one E1/T1 link to the third party multiplexer and then distribute them over much shorter distances to the required sites. Providing the distance between the BSC and the multiplexer site is sufficiently large this should result in significant leasing cost savings over the original configuration. Below are two diagrams illustrating the before and after scenarios.

BSC
5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED 5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED

BTS
TWO CARRIER ONE RSL

BTS
TWO CARRIER ONE RSL 5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED

BTS
TWO CARRIER ONE RSL

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Network topology

BSC

MORE EFFICIENT USE OF LONGEST E1/T1 LINK

20x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 11x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED

TWO CARRIER ONE RSL

BTS
TWO CARRIER ONE RSL

5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED

E1/T1 Multiplexer

10x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 21x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED

BTS

5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED

5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED

BTS
TWO CARRIER ONE RSL

BTS
TWO CARRIER ONE RSL

Another advantage of introducing the multiplexer is the improvement in the timeslot mapping onto the Abis interface. Currently they are allocated from timeslot 1 upwards for RSLs and timeslot 31 downwards for the RTF traffic channels. Most link providers lease timeslots in contiguous blocks (that is, no gaps between timeslots). Under the existing timeslot allocation scheme it often means leasing a whole E1/T1 link for a few timeslots. There is a new algorithm for allocating timeslots on the Abis interface. This is only used on the links connected directly to the new aggregate service, on the other links the existing algorithm for allocating timeslots is used. Under the new software the timeslots are allocated from timeslot 1 upwards, The RSLs allocated first and the RTF timeslots next with each site being equipped consecutively, thus allowing contiguous blocks of timeslots to be leased. It is important that the sites are equipped in the order that they will be presented, also that the RSLs are equipped first on a per site basis to coincide with the default timeslots for the software downloads to the BTSs. is an example of timeslot allocation in a network using an aggregate service, with links to the aggregate service and links by-passing it.

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Network topology

Version 1 Rev 3

NEW ALGORITHM 1 2 3 4 5 RSL1 RTF1 RTF1 RTF2 RTF2 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 RSL2 RTF3 RTF3 RTF4 RTF4 RSL3 RTF5 RTF5 RTF6 RTF6 16 17 18 19 20 RSL4 RTF7 RTF7 RTF8 RTF8

BSC
ALLOCATION UNAFFECTED

ORIGINAL ALGORITHM 1 31 30 29 28 RSL3 RTF5 RTF5 RTF6 RTF6

ALLOCATION AFFECTED NEW ALGORITHM 1 2 3 4 5 E1/T1 MULTIPLEXER ALLOCATION AFFECTED RSL3 RTF5 RTF5 RTF6 RTF6 6 7 8 9 10 RSL4 RTF7 RTF7 RTF8 RTF8

ALLOCATION AFFECTED

BTS 1
TWO CARRIER ONE RSL 1 2 3 4 5 RSL1 RTF1 RTF1 RTF2 RTF2

BTS 3
ORIGINAL ALGORITHM

NEW ALGORITHM 1 2 3 4 5 RSL2 RTF3 RTF3 RTF4 RTF4 ALLOCATION AFFECTED

NEW ALGORITHM

1 31 30 29 28

RSL4 RTF7 RTF7 RTF8 RTF8

ALLOCATION UNAFFECTED

BTS 2

BTS 4

Similar problems can be encountered when equipping redundant RSL devices onto paths containing aggregate services. Because of the new way of allocating timeslots when connecting to a aggregate service from timeslot 1 upwards there is no way of reserving the default download RSL timeslot. This gives rise to the situation where the default RSL timeslot has already been allocated to another device, RTF for example. To avoid this happening the primary and redundant RSLs can be equipped first (in an order that results in the correct allocation of default RSL timeslots), or reserve the default download RSL timeslot so that it may be allocated correctly when the primary or redundant RSL is equipped. If it is envisaged to expand the site in future to preserve blocks of contiguous timeslots on the links, it is possible to reserve the timeslots needed for the expansion so that they can be made free in the future.

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Network topology

Alarm reporting This feature has an impact on the alarm reporting for the E1/T1 links. If the link is connected to a third party switching network and is taken out of service, the BTS will report the local alarm, but the remote alarm will only go to the third party aggregate service supporting the E1/T1 link. There may also be a case where the internal links within the E1/T1 switching network fail, causing the RSL to go out of service with no link alarms generated by GSM network entities (BTS, BSC). In these cases it is the responsibility of the third party aggregate service provider to inform the users of the link outage. The only indication of failure is the RSL state change to out of service. The figure below shows a possible network configuration using several switching networks.

BSC

E1/T1 Multiplexer BTS BTS

E1/T1 Multiplexer

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

E1/T1 Multiplexer

E1/T1 Multiplexer

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

Restrictions/limitations The ability to nail path timeslots along a link containing an E1/T1 switching network is supported. The user is still able to reserve, nail and free timeslots. The maximum number of sites within a path is ten, for E1/T1 networks. Even though it is a pseudo site, the aggregate service is counted as a site in the path. Hence the number of BTSs that can be present in a path is reduce from ten to nine. GCLK synchronization functions, but any BTS sites connected downlink from a switching network will synchronize to it and not the uplink GSM network entity (BTS, BSC).

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RTF path fault containment


Each transceiver at a BTS requires a receive/transmit function enabled which tells it various operating parameters to use. These include the ARFCN, type of carrier, and primary/secondary path, among others. It is the path that is of concern here. A RTF may be assigned different paths. The path is the route which the two (or four for the AMR half rate exception case) 64 kbit/s timeslots assigned to the transceiver from the E1/T1 link, take to get to and from the BTS/BSC. Each RTF can be assigned a different path for its two (or four) timeslots, even RTFs that are in the same cell. One path is designated the primary the other the secondary. In the event of the primary path failing, the RTF would choose secondary path and the carrier would remain in call processing. At present, if all the paths to one RTF fail, the whole cell will be taken out of call processing, regardless if there are other radios/RTFs with serviceable paths in the same cell. This feature allows the cell to remain in call processing if the failure of all paths to one RTF occurs, as described in the previous paragraphs. Any call in progress on the failed path would be handed over to the remaining RTFs in the same cell, if there were available timeslots. If there were not enough available timeslots, the call would be released. Also the timeslots on the radio of the failed path would be barred from traffic until the path was re-established, but any SDCCHs on the carrier would remain active. If all paths to all RTFs in an active cell have failed and there is still an active RSL, then the cell will be barred from traffic. Advantages By using this feature, and removing any redundant paths that would normally be equipped to manage path failure, the customer could save on timeslot usage. The first figure shows the conventional redundant set-up, requiring in this case four extra timeslots to provide for redundant paths. The second figure shows the alternative configuration, where if one RTF path fails will still allow call processing to continue via the other path, though with reduced capacity. This configuration only requires four timeslots instead of eight, as required for the first figure. NOTE Double the number of timeslots required for RTFs to which the AMR half rate exception case applies.

The customer has to weigh up the cost saving advantages of the alternative configuration against the reduced capacity in the event of failure of a RTF path.

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BSC
RTF1 EQUIPPED ON PATH 1 (2 TIMESLOTS) RTF1 EQUIPPED ON PATH 2 (2 TIMESLOTS)

BTS 3

BTS 1

RTF2 EQUIPPED ON PATH 1 (2 TIMESLOTS)

RTF2 EQUIPPED ON PATH 2 (2 TIMESLOTS)

BTS 2

BSC
RTF2 EQUIPPED ON PATH 1 (2 TIMESLOTS) RTF1 EQUIPPED ON PATH 2 (2 TIMESLOTS)

BTS 3

BTS 1

BTS 2

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16 kbit/s RSL
The purpose of the 16 kbit/s RSL is to reduce the transmission costs between the BSC and BTS (Abis interface) for single carrier sites in particular. Prior to the introduction of the 16 kbit/s RSL (at GSR3), a single carrier BTS required three E1/T1 64 kbit/s timeslots; one for the 64 kbit/s RSL and two for the 16 kbit/s traffic channels. The two 64 kbit/s timeslots dedicated to the traffic channels can accommodate eight traffic channels normally. In the case of a single carrier site; it is not possible to use all eight traffic channels of the two 64 kbit/s timeslots the reason is that, in the case of a single carrier site, the carrier will be the BCCH carrier and the air interface timeslot zero of the BCCH carrier is reserved for BCCH information. This information is generated at the BTS not the BSC. The TSW at the BTS routes the traffic channels from the two specified timeslots on the Abis interface to the dedicated radio for transmission. Due to this the traffic channel on the Abis interface corresponding to the timeslot zero on the air interface is unused and available to bear signalling traffic. This results in one 16 kbit/s sub-channel unused on the Abis interface, a waste of resources. With the introduction of the 16 kbit/s RSL it is possible to place it on this unused sub-channel because the RSL is not transmitting on the air interface. The advantage is that it frees up one 64 kbit/s timeslot on the Abis interface reducing the requirement to serve a single carrier system to only two 64 kbit/s timeslots. This operates with M-Cell BTSs and Incell BTSs using KSW switching. In a similar manner, when the single carrier is AMR half rate capable and 16 kbit/s backhaul is used (8 kbit/s switching is unavailable or the 7.95 codec rate is included in the half rate active codec set for that cell), this feature reduces the number of required E1 64 kbit/s timeslots from five to four. (This is not shown in the table and figures.) The two figures, Fully equipped RTF and Sub-equipped RTF show the eight types of RTF which are possible using the above options. They are shown in the table below. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Options A fully equipped BCCH RTF with an associated 16 kbit/s RSL. A fully equipped BCCH RTF with 64 kbit/s RSL. A fully equipped non-BCCH RTF with an associated 16 kbit/s RSL. A fully equipped non-BCCH RTF with 64 kbit/s RSL. A sub-equipped BCCH RTF with an associated 16 kbit/s RSL. A sub-equipped BCCH RTF with 64 kbit/s RSL. A sub-equipped non-BCCH RTF with an associated 16 kbit/s RSL. A sub-equipped non-BCCH RTF with 64 kbit/s RSL.

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Fully equipped RTF

KEY
FULLY EQUIPPED RTF

16 kbit/s sub-channel unavailable for use. 16 kbit/s sub-channel used for 16 kbit/s RSL. 16 kbit/s sub-channel available for voice traffic.

BCCH

NON-BCCH

16 kbit/s BTS only ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL NO ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL 2

16 kbit/s BTS only ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL NO ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL 4

Configuration Timeslot X Timeslot Y

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Sub-equipped RTF

KEY
SUB-EQUIPPED RTF

16 kbit/s sub-channel used for 16 kbit/s RSL. 16 kbit/s sub-channel available for voice traffic.

BCCH

NON-BCCH

16 kbit/s BTS only ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL NO ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL

16 kbit/s BTS only ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL NO ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL

Configuration Timeslot X Timeslot Y

Planning constraints The following RSL planning constraints apply: A BTS shall support either 16 kbit/s RSLs or 64 kbit/s RSLs, not both. A BSC shall support both 16 kbit/s and 64 kbit/s RSLs. A BSU based BTS shall support up to eight 16 kbit/s RSLs. Up to six 16 kbit/s RSLs are supported by HorizonIImacro and Horizonmacro. Up to two 16 kbit/s RSLs shall be supported by Horizonmicro2/Horizoncompact2. The BTS and BSC shall support a mix of both fully equipped and sub-equipped RTFs. A ROM download will be carried out over a 64 kbit/s RSL, even at a site designated a 16 kbit/s RSL. A CSFP download shall utilize a 16 kbit/s RSL at a 16 kbit/s designated site. The 16 kbit/s RSL shall only be able to be configured on CCITT sub-channel three of a 64 kbit/s E1/T1 timeslot for BSU based sites. An associated 16 kbit/s RSL shall be supported on redundant RTF paths where one exists on the primary path.

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16 kbit/s XBL
The 16 kbit/s XBL has been introduced to provide a lower cost solution to the customer by reducing the interconnect costs between an RXCDR and BSC. This is achieved by reducing the XBL data rate from its current 64 kbit/s to 16 kbit/s. This frees three 16 kbit/s sub-channels on the E1/T1 64 kbit/s timeslot to enable them to be used as TCHs. The maximum number of XBLs able to be configured between a single BSC and RXCDR remains the same as before, at two, with a total number of XBLs to an RXCDR of 20. There is no restriction on which timeslot an XBL can be configured. It will be possible to select a rate of 16 kbit/s or 64 kbit/s on an XBL basis, so it would be possible to have two different rates at the same BSC to RXCDR, although this would not be considered a typical configuration. As a result of the introduction of the 16 kbit/s RSL there will be no reduction in processing capacity of the BSC or RXCDR.

Figure 1-1

16 kbit/s XBL utilization

BSC

XBL

XBL

BSC

XBL

XBL

BSC

XBL

XBL

RXCDR

BSC

XBL

XBL

BSC

XBL

XBL

Maximum of two XBLs between the BSC and XCDR of either 64 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s on the E1/T1 link. Maximum of ten XBLs per RXCDR.

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Dynamic allocation of RXCDR to BSC circuits (DARBC)


The dynamic allocation of RXCDR to BSC circuits feature introduces fault management for call traffic on the BSC to RXCDR interface (referred to as the Ater interface) by managing the individual 16 kbps channels (called Ater channels) on this interface. In addition, this feature provides for validation of the CIC and Ater channel provisioning between the BSC and RXCDR to ensure that calls are placed on the correct circuit between the BSC and the MSC. Without this feature in place, no fault management of the Ater channels would be possible, and all Ater and CIC information must be manually verified by the operator, resulting in a higher O&M cost for the Motorola BSS. From release GSR5 onwards, an operator would operate either in the auto-connect or backwards compatibility mode. These modes are managed on a per AXCDR basis. Auto-connect mode This is an operator selectable mode which refers to a BSC in which Ater channels are allocated and released dynamically as resources are provisioned, unprovisioned or during handling of fault condition. Auto-connect mode provides the fault tolerance together with the call processing efficiency of backwards compatibility mode. This is the recommended mode of operation for the BSC. Backwards compatibility mode NOTE Backwards compatibility mode cannot be used in conjunction with the AMR feature. Auto-connect or enhanced auto-connect mode must be specified.

This is an operator selectable mode which refers to a BSC and/or RXCDR in which Ater channels and CICs are statically switch connected. This mode does not provide any fault tolerance and CIC validations, and is intended only to provide an upgrade path. Once both BSC and RXCDR are upgraded, the use of auto-connect mode is recommended. NOTE When upgrading the network and the BSC is being upgraded before the RXCDR, backwards compatibility mode must be used for the corresponding AXCDR.

Prior to introduction of this feature, all Ater channels were statically assigned and use of XBL links was not mandatory. From release GSR5, should an operator decide to use the auto-connect, it becomes imperative to equip XBL links on the RXCDR and BSC. If no XBLs are equipped, and the AXCDR is operating in the auto-connect mode, all CICs would at the BSC associated with that AXCDR will be blocked and no call traffic will go to that AXCDR.

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Enhanced Auto-Connect Mode


EAC mode allows for per call allocation of RXCDR to BSC circuits (Ater channels). There are some issues that the operator should consider when planning and provisioning the BSC/RXCDR network.. EAC mode is introduced with the AMR feature and applies also to the {22064} GSM half rate feature and takes advantage of the use of half rate traffic channels where only 8 kbit/s backhaul to the RXCDR is required. EAC mode is operator enabled across a BSC RXCDR interface and only provides benefits when the RXCDR is equipped with any number of EGDPs or GDP/GDP2s, and the BSC and RXCDR are populated exclusively with DSW2s (no KSWs). When in EAC mode, a CIC no longer has a fixed position on the Ater interface. Rather, a CIC may be thought of as belonging to a pool of CICs where a separate pool is maintained for each RXCDR connected to the BSC. When a call is assigned to a CIC, the BSC will allocate an Ater channel that goes to the same RXCDR as the assigned CIC. One implication of such a pooling" is that the number of CICs equipped that go through the RXCDR may not be the same as the number of Ater channels from the BSC to the RXCDR. As in auto-connect mode, XBL links are required between the BSC and RXCDR. Equipping less than 16 kbit/s in Ater capacity per equipped CIC relies upon a percentage of the calls to be utilizing half rate backhaul. If that assumption proves not to be true, some capacity will be lost due to CICs being unuseable due to lack of Ater resources (if CIC Ater provisioning is equal (16 kbit/s Ater capacity per CIC), EAC mode is not required and the system will automatically revert to auto-connect mode even if EAC is enabled). EAC mode also requires XBL bandwidth. Use of EAC mode (specifically the provisioning of fewer Ater channels than CICs) is best considered when BSC RXCDR backhaul costs are a concern. If the operator chooses to equip a higher number of CICs than there are Ater channels to handle all CICs, the possibility exists that a call assignment may fail because no Ater channels are available. To prevent such assignments from failing, the BSC provides a facility that will automatically block at the MSC, all idle CICs that go through a particular RXCDR when the number of available Ater channels to RXCDR reaches a configurable threshold. The operator controls such thresholds via the cic_block_thresh and cic_unblock_thresh values. These thresholds are used to maintain Ater resources, to ensure that resources will be available when a fault occurs and also to balance the call load. For AMR, when the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set, 16 kbit/s backhaul is required. This is provisioned on a per cell basis and should be taken into consideration when provisioning Ater resources.

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AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning


AMR basic operation
Existing GSM speech codecs operate at a fixed coding rate. Channel protection is also fixed. AMR adapts the speech and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel. This gives better channel quality and better robustness to errors. Capacity can also be enhanced by allocating half rate channels to some or all mobiles. The system will allocate a half rate (hr) or full rate (fr) channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell in order to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity. The control system is not fixed but can be tuned to meet particular needs and as experience is gained. The three primary levels of adaptation of the control system are: Handovers between hr and fr channels according to traffic demands. Variable partitioning between speech and channel coding bit rates to adapt to channel conditions in order to obtain best speech quality. Optimization of channel and codec control algorithms to meet specific operator needs and network conditions. This allows the codec to be applied in many ways, of which three important examples are: fr only for maximum robustness to channel errors but no capacity advantage. hr only for maximum capacity advantage. Mixed hr/fr operation allowing a trade-off between quality and capacity.

GSM half rate basic operation


GSM half rate was introduced in phase 2 of the standards and operates at a fixed coding rate. Due to this early introduction into the standards the penetration rate of half rate capable mobiles is high. However the speech quality is poor when compared to the half rate mode of AMR (as well as all forms of full rate speech). GSM half rate is used as a means to increase capacity within a cell. As with AMR half rate, capacity is increased by either always preferring half rate (hr), or by allocating a half rate or full rate (fr) channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell. Handovers between hr and fr channels vary according to traffic demands. The best examples of applying the codec are: hr only for maximum capacity advantage. Mixed hr/fr operation allowing a tradeoff between quality and capacity.

AMR and GSM half rate interaction


AMR and GSM half rate may co-exist in a cell. A carrier could have a mix of GSM half rate and AMR (full rate and/or half rate) simultaneously. The parameters that govern half rate operation have been made generic to facilitate that style of operation.

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New hardware
New hardware has been developed to support the AMR and the GSM half rate features. This equipment, in conjunction with the supporting software and firmware, provides the capabilities necessary to fully exploit the advantages of AMR and/or GSM half rate. This equipment consists of the following: Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2). Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX). Generic DSP Processing board 2 (GDP2). Remote Transcoder Unit 3 (shelf) (RXU3). Base Station System Cabinet 3 (BSSC3). AMR and GSM half rate may be used without the benefit of any of the new hardware, although not as efficiently (this is discussed later in this chapter). NOTE Without new hardware, AMR requires the use of GDPs configured as EGDP(s). GDP2 will not support GSM HR on the 7.x load line. This added capability will be part of GSR 8.

There are many factors to be taken into account when configuring/operating a system in which AMR and/or GSM half rate is present. These include: AMR-capable handset penetration (see the first note below). GSM half ratecapable handset penetration (see the second note below). Transceiver capability. Carrier configuration. Use of reserved channels / cell congestion. NOTE NOTE It is assumed that an AMR-capable handset or mobile includes both fr and hr capability. It is expected that most handsets or mobiles are GSM half rate capable.

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Planning
The system operator must decide how the system should operate with regard to full and half rate, and what combination of new and old equipment is to be utilized. Other decisions, such as codec rates and backhaul, must also be made. One of the main decisions to be made is how to utilize the half rate capability of AMR and/or GSM half rate. This chapter includes information which describes the benefits of the AMR codecs and how AMR Full Rate and AMR Half Rate compare to the existing GSM codecs. The GSM Half Rate codec is compared to the other GSM codecs. Also discussed are the benefits in coverage of AMR Full Rate. The capacity increases made possible through the use of half rate are discussed, with examples showing the potential gains under a variety of configurations and (half rate) capable handset penetration. Information can be used to help determine how AMR full rate and AMR/GSM half rate should be utilized. As stated earlier, there are three primary methods of AMR usage, two of which apply to GSM half rate: 1. AMR full rate only (AMR only). This has the advantage of providing better voice quality under a broad range of channel conditions. This method is robust but provides no capacity advantage per carrier. It may be particularly suited to areas where adverse propagation conditions prevail, for example. Forced half rate. This is used when capacity is paramount. Voice quality is sacrificed in order to carry more calls per carrier. It may be a candidate for use in severely congested areas, or where voice quality is not a concern. A mix of full rate and half rate. Full rate is generally used until the cell becomes congested, at which time half rate is employed. This configuration will provide quality voice coverage until congestion is reached. This capacity on demand configuration is well suited for environments with varying traffic patterns, such as cities. The information contained in "Half rate utilization" on page 4-25 can be used to help configure the system to maximum effectiveness when half rate is used in such a manner.

2.

3.

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Quality and Capacity


Benefits of AMR The ability of the AMR codec to dynamically change the allocation of source and channel coding bits provides a high level of speech quality. The overall improvements are dependant upon channel quality (C/I). As channel quality deteriorates, a codec with a higher level of error protection (and a corresponding decrease in speech quality) is selected, leading to an increase in sensitivity of the transceivers, thus providing optimum performance. The half rate mode of AMR can be utilized to obtain a capacity gain on the air interface. This can be tied to congestion at the cell level to provide capacity gains on an as needed basis. With AMR operating in full rate mode, or in a mix of full rate and half rate where handovers between the modes is permitted, a capacity gain can be realized as a result of being able to operate at a lower C/I threshold. This can result in potentially higher traffic loading. Note however that the benefits of AMR do not extend to the signalling channels, or to the use of non-AMR codecs and data services. Capacity gains of this type are very dependent on other factors (e.g. propagation conditions) and are beyond the scope of this chapter. Under high channel error conditions, an AMR FR codec mode which has a low source coding rate and a high level of error protection will normally be selected. This will allow good speech quality to be maintained under conditions 6 dB worse than the corresponding level for EFR. This translates to an improvement in terminal or BTS sensitivity, but is subject to the limit of robustness of the signalling channels (presumed to be at least 2 dB, and possibly as high as 4 dB or 6 dB). This may be exploited for range extension, or improved coverage in buildings. Range extension is discussed further in AMR voice quality improvement and coverage later in this chapter. AMR Full Rate and AMR Half Rate speech quality Here, the relative performance of the AMR Full Rate and Half Rate speech codecs is shown for comparative purposes. Some conclusions can be drawn from the comparisons and are discussed. Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) are subjective and can be affected by test conditions. However, the relative performance of the codecs to each other is considered reliable. The conditions used in the tests are no background impairments, static channel conditions, and ideal frequency hopping.

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AMR Full Rate


The following figure shows AMR FR speech quality (best AMR codec) compared with EFR and performance requirements under a range of channel conditions.

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AMR Full Rate

5.0

MOS

4.0

3.0

2.0

Sel. Requirements AMR-FR EFR

1.0 Sel. Requirements AMR-FR EFR

Conditions No Errors 4.01 4.06 4.01 C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB 4.01 4.06 4.01 4.13 4.01 4.08 3.65 3.96 3.05 C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB 3.65 3.59 1.53 2.66 C/I= 1 dB

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AMR half Rate


The following figure shows performance curves for AMR HR speech quality compared to EFR as well as GSM FR and HR under the same range of channel conditions as the AMR FR comparison shown in Figure 1-27

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5.0

MOS

4.0

3.0 Sel. Requirements 2.0 AMR-HR EFR FR HR No Errors 3.99 4.11 4.21 3.50 3.35

1.0 Sel. Requirements AMR-HR EFR FR HR

Conditions C/I= 4 dB 1.50 2.00 1.58 1.50 1.92

C/I=19 dB C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB 3.99 4.04 3.99 3.96 3.72 4.21 3.50 3.14 3.38 3.74 3.14 3.24 2.74 3.10 3.34 2.74 2.80

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Conclusions
HR speech quality is better than GSM FR and HR, but not as good as EFR. If one considers a MOS score of 3.0 to be the minimally accepted "communications quality" level, then at lower C/I levels (7 dB and 4 dB) the AMR HR speech coder quality is poor. AMR hr, of course, provides the capacity benefit of allowing two calls to exist in the space of one timeslot. This behaviour suggests that one viable deployment strategy is to use fr mode until capacity limitations force calls to utilize hr mode, at which time some fr calls can also be moved to hr. A hr call may also be moved to a fr channel via an interference based handover, depending on the congestion state of the cell and system parameter settings. The Motorola system supports this configuration, as well as many others, including forcing all calls to use hr all the time, equipment permitting. Selection of a particular mode of operation is up to the operator. MOS scores are subjective and may vary depending upon customer expectations.

AMR voice quality improvement and coverage


GSM FR/EFR under C/I = 15 dB. In general, AMR FR will provide better overall voice quality than GSM FR/EFR under comparable radio conditions. This can translate to an increase in coverage area. A study has been done to quantify the potential coverage gains. The following assumptions were used in the study: System is interference-limited (the impact of thermal noise is negligible compared with the level of interference). System is 100% loaded: all the available physical resources are used (this is the worst case assumption - coverage gains increase with less loading). Path loss exponent assumed to be 3.76, and the shadowing lognormal standard deviation is 10 dB. Power control and any type of DTX not used. All terminals are AMR. The results of the study are shown in the following table. The coverage reliability is expected to increase by 5 to 8 percentage points depending on the frequency reuse patterns. The link budget improvement can potentially lead to an increase in cell areas around 27%. This type of increase in coverage applies to existing networks where site spacing can be modified or new networks where it has yet to be selected, and where the majority of terminals are AMR. Non-AMR terminal performance could be degraded under these conditions.

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AMR Potential Coverage Gains


Frequency re-use pattern (see note) 133 313 339 414 4312 717 7321 NOTE Coverage at 15dB 44% 57% 81% 70% 92% 88% 98% Coverage at 13dB 36% 49% 74% 62% 87% 82% 96% Gain in coverage (increase in cell radius) 8% 8% 7% 8% 5% 6% 2% Gain in coverage area 16.6% 16.6% 14.5% 16.6% 10.3% 12.4% 4%

First digit = # cell sites, second digit = # sectors/cell and third digit = # carriers/cell.

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Benefits of GSM half rate


GSM Half Rate offers enhanced capacity over the air interface, corresponding to the proportion of mobiles within a coverage area that supports Half Rate. GSM half rate has a high penetration level (of GSM HR capable mobiles) due to its early introduction into the standards. Due to these large penetration levels it is considered a viable option for high density areas. The GSM Half Rate codec uses the VSELP (Vector-Sum Excited Linear Prediction) algorithm. The VSELP algorithm is an analysis-by-synthesis coding technique and belongs to the class of speech coding algorithms known as CELP (Code Excited Linear Prediction). The benefits of GSM half rate are an increase in capacity at a cell without requiring additional transceiver boards or carriers. The use of half rate can be tied to congestion at the cell level to provide capacity gains on an as needed basis.

GSM Half Rate speech quality


The previous figure shows how GSM Half Rate compares with the EFR, FR, and AMR HR codecs. Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) are subjective and may vary depending upon customer expectations. They can also be affected by test conditions. However, the relative performance of the codecs to each other is considered reliable. The conditions used in the tests are no background impairments, static channel conditions, and ideal frequency hopping. In conclusion, the GSM Half Rate codec voice quality performance is inferior to the other codecs. This suggests a deployment strategy of using fr mode until capacity limitations force calls to utilize hr mode, at which time some fr calls can also be moved to hr. A hr call may also be moved to a fr channel via an interference based handover, depending on the congestion state of the cell and system parameter settings, as well as a quality based handover when no viable candidate neighbour cells exist. The Motorola system supports this configuration, as well as many others, including forcing all calls to use hr all the time, equipment permitting. Selection of a particular mode of operation is the decision of the operator.

Capacity increase due to half rate usage


On the air interface up to twice as many calls can be handled in a cell when half rate is used (as previously mentioned, this is a trade-off with quality). The actual increase in call carrying capacity is typically less than 100% due in part to the penetration level of half rate capable handsets. As the penetration level rises, the half rate carriers become more efficient. The following figures show the carried erlangs (at 2% blocking) for a variety of carrier configurations. For each configuration the capacity increase is shown as a function of the handset penetration level. The results shown were obtained via simulation and under the following assumptions: A hr-capable handset is given a hr timeslot if available; otherwise a fr timeslot on a fr carrier. Preference is to assign a fr-capable only handset to a fr carrier if available; otherwise it is assigned to a hr-capable carrier. Preference is at call establishment to assign a hr-capable handset an idle sub-channel on a timeslot that has the other sub-channel occupied with a call.

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AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

Capacity Increase Due to GSM Half Rate Usage

Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking) 25.000 20.000 15.000

a) 3 carriers 1hr capable

10.000 5.000 0.000 0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 AMR Capable MS Penetration

0.80

0.90

1.00

Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking)


40.000 35.000 30.000 25.000 20.000 15.000 10.000 5.000 0.000 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 AMR Capable MS Penetration

a) 3 carriers 3hr capable

Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking)


40.000 35.000 30.000 25.000

a) 5 carriers 1hr capable

20.000 15.000 10.000 5.000 0.000 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 AMR Capable MS Penetration

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AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning

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AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

Capacity Increase Due to GSM Half Rate Usage (contd)

Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking) 60.000 50.000 40.000


a) 5 carriers 3hr capable

30.000 20.000 10.000 0.000 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 AMR Capable MS Penetration 0.80 0.90 1.00

Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking) 80.000 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0.000 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 AMR Capable MS Penetration 0.80 0.90 1.00

a) 5 carriers All hr capable

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AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning

Conclusions
Figure 1-29 and Figure 1-30are useful in illustrating that, for some deployment strategies such as a maximum capacity configuration, more carrier equipment should be configured as hr-capable when hr-capable handset penetration rises. For example, in a 5 carrier cell with a 50% handset penetration rate, there is not much difference in erlang capacity between a 3 hr-capable carrier configuration and a 5 (all) hr-capable carrier configuration. As the handset penetration rises however, the 5 hr-capable carrier configuration is better able to utilize the extra capacity that hr offers. As noted earlier, GSM hr-capable handset penetration is expected to be very high. When migrating a system to one that includes half rate, take care to ensure that the call capacity rating of the various components of the system are not exceeded. Use of hr improves the spectral efficiency over the air interface (and potentially the backhaul), but from a load perspective, a half rate call has the same impact as a full rate call. Other strategies, such as utilizing hr only during periods of high demand, would require fewer hr-capable carriers.Figure 1-29 and Figure 1-30 demonstrate how even adding one hr-capable carrier can increase erlang capacity.

Timeslot usage
This section briefly describes timeslot configuration and the algorithm used to optimise usage. A GSM carrier consists of 8 timeslots, some or all of which may be used for voice traffic. In full rate, each voice call occupies one timeslot. In half rate, the timeslot is split into two sub-channels, each of which is capable of supporting one hr call. A fr call cannot be carried within two sub-channels split across two timeslots. At any instance, depending on configuration, a carrier may contain a combination of fr and hr calls. To optimise capacity, it is desirable to not have fragmented hr usage. That is, it is best to use both sub-channels of a single timeslot rather than one sub-channel on two timeslots. This frees up contiguous sub-channels for use in a fr call. The Motorola algorithm will attempt first to assign new calls to timeslots that have one sub-channel in use before using a timeslot with both sub-channels idle. This provides a large degree of concentration. As calls begin and end, some degree of fragmenting is unavoidable and the algorithm will attempt to fill in the holes as new calls arrive. This applies to all arriving calls (e.g. originations, handovers, etc.). It was also considered whether to further pack hr calls together via intra-cell handover whenever fragmenting reaches a level where a fr call might be blocked. Simulations have been carried out under a variety of configurations and conditions, and it was determined that the slight capacity gain was outweighed by the negative aspects of performing the otherwise unnecessary handover. Although the results varied according to penetration rate and configuration, in general, additional blocking of 1.5% or less resulted for the fr only handsets (as compared with the hr-capable handsets). Limiting the number of hr capable carriers in a cell can reduce this disparity.

Rate adaptation
Rate Adaptation (RA) is particular to AMR and refers to the control and selection of the codec mode based upon channel quality. Another name for it is Codec Mode Adaptation. The term Codec Mode" refers to one of the various choices of bit partitioning between the speech and error protection bits.

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AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning

Version 1 Rev 3

Codec modes
A total of 14 codec modes are defined for AMR; 8 for the fr channel mode, and 6 for the hr channel mode. Up to 4 codec modes may be utilized for any given voice call. This is called the Active Codec Set (ACS). The uplink and downlink directions may each use a different codec mode; hence there are 2 sets of associated thresholds and hysteresis, one for uplink and one for downlink. The ACS may be chosen from the supported codec modes. An analysis has been carried out to determine what common set of codec modes should be supported across all the CCU platforms (not all platforms could support all of the codec modes). The conditions were a 900 MHz, ideal frequency hopped system with a co-channel interferer and a typical urban multipath channel model. The speech is at a nominal input level and is not degraded by background noise. The result is the selection of 5 fr and 5 hr codec modes, as shown in Table 1-6. The shaded areas indicate the codec modes that are not supported. Speech codec bit rate (fr) 12.2kb/s 10.2kb/s 7.95kb/s 7.4kb/s 6.7kb/s 5.9kb/s 5.15kb/s 4.75kb/s NOTE Supported ? Y Y N Y Y N Y N Speech Codec bit rate (hr) N/A N/A 7.95kb/s 7.4kb/s 6.7kb/s 5.9kb/s 5.15kb/s 4.75kb/s Supported? N/A N/A Y Y Y Y Y N

These values were obtained from simulation and may not be suitable for all conditions.

The analysis provided the following defaults for the ACS: Full Rate: 12.2 kbit/s, 10.2 kbit/s, 7.4 kbit/s, and 5.15 kbit/s. Half Rate: 7.4 kbit/s, 5.9 kbit/s, and 5.15 kbit/s. If 16 kbit/s backhaul is used for the BTS-BSC interface (i.e. 4 x 64 kbit/s timeslots per hr carrier) then the 7.95 kbit/s codec mode should be added to the hr ACS. An initial codec mode is also required. The same analysis provided the following default values: FR initial codec mode: 10.2 kbit/s. HR initial codec mode: 6.7 kbit/s. The HR initial codec mode remains at 6.7 kbit/s even if the 7.95 codec mode is added to the HR ACS.

AMR hr and GSM hr operation


AMR hr and GSM hr are compatible with each other. When GSM half rate and AMR are enabled in the BSS and in a cell, half rate enabled carriers will be capable of supporting both AMR and GSM calls. The selection of AMR or GSM will be dependent upon the MSC preferences (indicated in the Channel Type element of the Assignment Request or Handover Request messages) and the capabilities of the chosen CIC.

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AMR and GSM Half Rate Planning

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Horizonmacro Theory

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 2

Horizonmacro Theory

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Horizonmacro Theory

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Chapter objectives

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Describe the generic functions of a Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Identify and state the purpose of the Horizonmacro. Describe the functions and simplified operation of the Horizonmacro. Identify and describe the simplified operation of the Horizonmacro RF modules.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizonmacro Indoor Introduction and Manual Definition

Horizonmacro Indoor Introduction and Manual Definition


Overview of Horizonmacro Indoor and external view
The Horizonmacro Indoor is a six carrier Base Transceiver Station (BTS) cabinet, operating in GSM standard frequencies (GSM850, GSM/EGSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900). Indoor cabinets operate from either an isolated positive earth (-48 V dc), negative earth (+27 V dc), or nominal 230 V ac single phase. Cooling is provided by circulation fans located in the bottom of the unit. This section is designed to give the reader a basic understanding of how components interconnect.

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Horizonmacro Indoor Introduction and Manual Definition

Version 1 Rev 3

External view of a standard cabinet with hood cover

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Version 1 Rev 3

Overview of Horizonmacro Outdoor

Overview of Horizonmacro Outdoor


The Horizonmacro outdoor is a six carrier Base Transceiver Station (BTS) cabinet, operating in GSM standard frequencies (GSM850, GSM/EGSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900). Outdoor cabinets operate from nominal 110 V single phase or nominal 230 V, single or three phase, ac supply. Cabinet temperature control is provided by a Thermal Management System (TMS) located in the bottom of the unit. This section is designed to give the reader a basic understanding of the equipment.

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Overview of Horizonmacro Outdoor

Version 1 Rev 3

External view of Horizonmacro outdoor cabinet

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Version 1 Rev 3

Overview of Horizonmacro 12 Carrier Outdoor

Overview of Horizonmacro 12 Carrier Outdoor


The Horizonmacro outdoor is a six carrier Base Transceiver Station (BTS) cabinet, operating in GSM standard frequencies (GSM850, GSM/EGSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900). The Horizonmacro 12 carrier outdoor is a one to twelve carrier Base Transceiver Station (BTS), operating at GSM standard frequencies (GSM850, GSM/EGSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900). The enclosure can contain either one (for six carrier) or two (for twelve carrier) Horizonmacro indoor BTS cabinets. The enclosure operates from a nominal 230 V, single phase or three phase ac supply. Temperature control within the enclosure is provided by two Heat Management Systems (HMS), one located on the inside of each enclosure door.

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Overview of Horizonmacro 12 Carrier Outdoor

Version 1 Rev 3

External view of the Horizonmacro 12 carrier outdoor enclosure

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Cabinet Structure of the Horizonmacro Indoor

Cabinet Structure of the Horizonmacro Indoor


The BTS cabinet consists of a main cage and a top panel. The main cage contains the following equipment as shown in : A micro Base Control Unit (BCU), located in the lower right portion of the cabinet. This contains master and optional redundant digital modules: Fibre Optic Multiplexer (FMUX). Main Control Unit with dual FMUX (MCUF). Network Interface Units (NIUs), four in total. An alarm board (no redundancy option). One or two (for redundancy) BCU Power Supply Modules (BPSMs). Up to three Power Supply Modules (PSMs) and one circuit breaker module (CBM) in the upper right portion of the cabinet. The PSMs are load sharing, with the third PSM providing optional redundancy. Up to six Compact Transceiver Units (CTUs), located in the left portion of the cabinet. Fan modules placed in the bottom of the cabinet, two 2-Fan modules and one 4-Fan module. The top panel contains the following equipment: RF modules, comprising transmit (Tx) blocks, and a receive (Rx) module, the Sectorized Universal Receiver Front-end (SURF). Tx blocks are detailed in Specifications in this chapter. Interface panel for customer power and communications connectors.

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Cabinet Structure of the Horizonmacro Indoor

Version 1 Rev 3

Filled cabinet view with maximum number of modules installed

RF MODULES
THREE Tx BLOCKS (DCFs SHOWN AS EXAMPLE) SIX TRANSCEIVERS (CTUs)

ONE SURF (Rx)

POWER SUPPLY AND CIRCUIT BREAKER


THREE PSMs CIRCUIT BREAKER MODULE (CBM) DC POWER IN AC POWER IN

INTERFACE PANEL CONNECTORS

T43/BIB

DIGITAL MODULES
ALARM BOARD TWO 2-FANS. MCUF FMUX/NIU/BPSM

TEMPERATURE CONTROL SYSTEM


ONE 4-FAN.

CABINET STRUCTURE

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Version 1 Rev 3

Empty cabinet and SURF harness

Empty cabinet and SURF harness


SURF harness and cabinet attachment
The SURF harness is fitted on the back wall of the cabinet, as shown in the diagram opposite. The chassis of the SURF harness supports the SURF module. The SURF harness provides: Three connectors to the SURF, for RF and power. One RF connector to each CTU, consisting of three inputs, one each for Rx1, Rx2 and RF loopback test. The RF connectors are free floating to ensure fitting of CTU modules. One connector to the backplane, for power from the PSMs.

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Empty cabinet and SURF harness

Version 1 Rev 3

Empty cabinet view with installed SURF harness

Surf Harness Earth cable for main cage

For clarity, the SURF harness cables are not shown

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Empty cabinet and SURF harness

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Empty cabinet and SURF harness

Version 1 Rev 3

Two stacked Horizonmacro indoor cabinets with front covers attached to the two stacking brackets

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Power Supply Modules (PSMs)

Power Supply Modules (PSMs)


Types of PSM and overview
There are two types of dc Power Supply Modules (PSMs): Nominal +27 V (negative earth input). Nominal -48 V (positive earth input). There is one type of ac PSM: Nominal 230 V. All PSMs have the same external appearance and are located in the same positions. Different types are identified only by front panel labels. The PSMs are fed from a backplane connector, and use pulse width modulation to generate output supply. A front panel switch disables the output, reducing the input current as shown in Table 2-1. Table 2-1 Input currents for Power Supply Module Output voltage full load +27 V +27 V +27 V Input current full load 32 A 18 A 3.75 A Input load when output switch off 1 A 0.5 A 0.1 A

Type of PSM +27 V nominal dc -48 V nominal dc 230 V nominal ac NOTE

There are several manufacturers of the PSMs. Each is fully compatible with the same type of PSM of a different manufacturer.

PSM location and redundancy


The PSMs are located above the digital cage and circuit breaker module. There are three slots, two for maximum cabinet configuration, one for redundancy. Supply capability is shown in Table 2-2. Note that only two CTUs are powered by the first PSM, because of power required by the rest of the cabinet. Table 2-2 Power Supply Module options Capability of supply Complete operation of cabinet for up to two CTUs. Complete operation of cabinet for up to six CTUs. Redundancy and power load sharing (further enhancing reliability by reducing temperature of operation).

Number of modules fitted 1 2 3

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Power Supply Modules (PSMs)

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Horizonmacro digital modules

Horizonmacro digital modules


MCUF and NIU redundancy
The BCU can: Support two MCUFs at a BTS site, one master, one slave (for redundancy). Enable Master MCUF failure to result in slave MCUF becoming master after reset. Enable OMC operator to initiate master/slave MCUF swap. Configure CTUs by the master MCUF.

All four NIUs operate from the master MCUF, but each pair of NIUs depend on a BPSM for power. All NIUs configure to the master MCUF clock. NOTE When fitting a replacement redundant MCUF, care must be taken to ensure firmware compatibility with the master MCUF. Firmware incompatibility may result in a loss of communication between the two MCUFs so that the redundant MCUF is not in a position to take control in the event of a failure of the master MCUF.

Full size and half size modules


Modules are full size and half size as shown in Table 2-3, Table 2-3 Full size and half size digital modules Full size modules Main Control Unit with dual FMUX (MCUF) Alarm module Half size modules Network interface unit (NIU) Fibre optic multiplexer (FMUX) BPSM (BCU Power Supply Module)

Overview locations and redundancy


Digital modules provide the micro base control unit (BCU) functionality for the BTS site. They are located in the bottom right side of the cage, and are electronically interconnected through the backplane. Fibre optic connections are at the front of the appropriate modules. Each digital module is assigned A or B, with one BPSM (BCU Power Supply Module) for A and one BPSM for B. The alarm module is not assigned to A or B, as it is supplied by both BPSMs for redundancy. The master MCUF is assigned to A, and the redundant MCUF to B, each with an associated FMUX. The four NIUs are used by the operational MCUF, but two NIUs are powered by BPSM A and two NIUs by BPSM B. All slots are annotated with the legend of the appropriate module and located as shown in the diagram opposite.

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Horizonmacro digital modules

Version 1 Rev 3

Digital module and BPSM locations

REDUNDANT (B)

MCUF B

FMUX

NIU B0

NIU B1

BPSM

ALARM MODULE

MASTER (A)

MCUF A

FMUX

NIU A0

NIU A1

BCU CAGE ASSEMBLY


BPSM

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Horizonmacro digital modules

Digital module and CTU connections


The MCUF is connected to the CTUs in the same cabinet through the backplane. Optional connection to CTUs in up to three additional cabinets (six CTUs per cabinet) is by fibre optic links. FMUXs, two internal to the MCUF and one half size module, convert the electronic data stream into a fibre optic signal. An FMUX module in each extension cabinet converts the fibre optic signal back to electronic data stream, for transmission to CTUs via the backplane. The NIU modules convert signals for terrestrial E1 or T1 lines.

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Horizonmacro digital modules

Version 1 Rev 3

Diagram of digital module and CTU connections

E1/T1

E1/T1

NIUA0

NIUA1

NIUB0

NIUB1 TO EXTENSION CABINET FOR SIX TRANSCEIVERS TO EXTENSION CABINET FOR SIX TRANSCEIVERS 2 2 2

TO EXTENSION CABINET FOR SIX TRANSCEIVERS

FMUX

MCUF

2 FMUX 2

FMUX

(CONNECTIONS VIA BACKPLANE)

TRANSCEIVER TRANSCEIVER TRANSCEIVER

2 2 2

TRANSCEIVER TRANSCEIVER TRANSCEIVER

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Main Control Unit with dual FMUX (MCUF)

Main Control Unit with dual FMUX (MCUF)


MCUF overview
The Main Control Unit with dual FMUX (MCUF) provides the site processing functions, apart from RF functions of the transceiver. The MCUF also provides switching for up to six network interfaces (via four NIUs) and up to 24 transceivers. The cabinet may contain up to two MCUF modules, one for redundancy. Each site and module has an electronic ID for remote identification. The MCUF provides the following functions: Maintenance and operational/control processing. Call processing (for example resource management and switching of baseband hopping data). Switching of traffic and control information. Timing reference and network/BTS master clock synchronization. The functionality of two FMUX. Support of up to six transceivers via backplane in first cabinet and up to an additional 18 transceivers via FMUX connections to other cabinets. Support of up to six E1 or T1 circuits, via NIU modules. Support of the CSFP function via the PCMCIA flash memory card.

Capability to replace MCU of M-Cell6 and M-Cell2


The MCUF combines the MCU function of M-Cell6 with two FMUX modules. If the MCUF is installed in an M-Cell6 or M-Cell2 the MCUF automatically reverts to the functionality of an MCU. The internal FMUX devices no longer operate. In M-Cell2 the reversion to MCU mode includes ability to directly connect to two transceivers by modified use of the front panel FMUX fibre optic connections. NOTE This capability to use MCUF in M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 is only possible with GSR4 software release or later.

GPROC KSW and GLCK functions


The MCUF/MCU module combines functions of older generation equipment: The Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP) and Base Transceiver Processor (BTP) functions formerly achieved by Generic Processor boards (GPROCs). The Kiloport Switch (KSW). The Generic Clock (GCLK).

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The Network Interface Unit (NIU)

Version 1 Rev 3

The Network Interface Unit (NIU)


Overview of NIU
The Network Interface Unit (NIU) module provides two E1 or two T1 termination links to the terrestrial network. The NIU E1/T1 outputs are connected to a T43 or BIB board, depending on the impedance matching requirement of the customer terrestrial circuits. There are two types of NIU board, one for E1, one for T1. The NIU layout is common to both E1 and T1, the only differences being in the associated crystal oscillators and line matching resistor values. An on-board NIU control processor provides network interface configuration and supervision, controlled by the MCUF.

NIU functionality
The NIU provides two E1/T1 interfaces into the network (link 0 and link 1) as well as LAPD encoding/decoding and clock recovery from a selected E1/T1 link. The second E1/T1 interface (link 1) is not used for NIUs placed in BCU positions at NIU A1 and NIU B1. An NIU control processor provides network interface configuration and supervision, controlled by the MCUF. The NIU control processor maintains two independent control links in the redundant configuration (one to each MCUF), each using timeslot 0 of MCUF link 0.

NIU locations
The cabinet may contain up to four NIU modules in the BCU. Two NIUs are located in the master (lower) part of the cage. Two NIUs are in the redundant (upper) part of the cage, though these upper NIUs are also used for non-redundant purposes. An NIU in slot A0 of the BCU supports two E1/T1 links. An NIU in slot A1 of the BCU supports one E1/T1 link. An NIU in slot B0 of the BCU supports two E1/T1 links. An NIU in slot B1 of the BCU supports one E1/T1 link.

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The Fibre Optic Multiplexer (FMUX) module and FMUX function

The Fibre Optic Multiplexer (FMUX) module and FMUX function


Overview of FMUX module and internal MCUF FMUX
The Fibre Optic Multiplexer (FMUX) module is required to multiplex six full duplex transceiver links onto a single fibre link, and demultiplex a single fibre link to six full duplex transceiver links. This enables six transceivers in a single extension cabinet (either Horizonmacro or M-Cell6) to be linked to the main cabinet MCUF. The equivalent function of two FMUX modules exists internally in the MCUF, enabling two extension cabinets to be connected. An FMUX module is required for a third extension cabinet. This enables a total of four cabinets to be joined together as one BTS site. A single cabinet has no need for an FMUX, because the MCUF connects with the cabinet CTUs through the backplane. The FMUX has two modes of operation: Working in conjunction with the MCUF to multiplex transceiver links to/from an extension cabinet. Operating in the extension cabinet to supply the transceivers in that cabinet. Two FMUX modules may be fitted in the BCU cage, one to the master MCUF, and one to the slave MCUF. An extension cabinet only requires one FMUX to connect to six transceivers within the cabinet, plus one redundant module. Each FMUX fibre optic link is full duplex 16.384 Mbit/s. The FMUX optical link is capable of driving up to 1 km.

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The Fibre Optic Multiplexer (FMUX) module and FMUX function

Version 1 Rev 3

FMUX module view

BACKPLANE CONNECTOR

FIBRE OPTIC INPUT FROM ANOTHER FMUX IN ANOTHER CABINET AT THE SITE

FIBRE OPTIC OUTPUT TO ANOTHER FMUX IN ANOTHER CABINET AT THE SITE

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Alarm module

Alarm module
Alarm module overview
The alarm module provides equipment with an external alarm system to report operational status. The alarm module: Collects all cabinet alarms (received from the backplane). Provides current sensing for 16 customer inputs, referred to as site alarms. These inputs are provided by the PIX connectors PIX0 and PIX1. Controls up to four relay driven outputs linked to customer equipment. (Changeover contacts 30 V 1 A maximum). These outputs are provided by the PIX0 connector. Transmits alarm information to all CTUs in the same cabinet. Provides power, signal conditioning and multiplexing for GPS signals (8 V to 36 V dc). The alarm module is located in the BCU adjacent to the MCUFs. The alarm module is designed to ensure correct location.

Alarm module functionality


The alarm module receives inputs from: Cabinet PSMs (identifying type, manufacturer and slot number). Environmental control devices. Customer defined alarms. The alarm board receives these inputs, encodes them, and then passes the code word to all CTUs in the cabinet via the backplane.

Alarm module replacement - effect on alarms


The alarm module can be replaced while the cabinet system is running (hot replacement). This will temporarily interrupt alarms, with the OMC receiving an additional alarm module out of service alarm, which automatically clears upon correct insertion of the replacement module.

Alarm collection from extension cabinets


Extension cabinet alarms are sent from the extension cabinet alarm module to the extension cabinet CTUs. The CTUs transmit the alarms to the main cabinet, by using the normal FMUX connection, for transmission to the MCUF.

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Alarm module

Version 1 Rev 3

Alarm module view

Backplane connector

5 LED pairs

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizonmacro RF Modules

Horizonmacro RF Modules
RF overview
The RF equipment provides a transmit and receive path between the mobile station and the cabinet transceiver. RF modules described The following equipment is described: Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU). Sectorized Universal Receiver Front-end (SURF) module (for receive path). Several types of transmit block (Tx block). Tx blocks are used for various configurations of transmit path, depending on number of antennas, CTUs and functionality, including potential shared receive path. Cavity Combining Block CCB, used to combine three CTU transmit paths in conditions where Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SFH) is not required. Two CCBs can combine up to six CTU transmit paths on to a single Tx antenna. RF general information and loopback test function The following additional information is presented in this chapter: General definition of transmit and receive functions in this RF equipment detail section. An RF overview and RF test function description in the next section. An explanation of frequency hopping in a section immediately after the CTU section. These descriptions are intended to assist the reader in understanding the information on the RF modules.

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Horizonmacro RF Modules

Version 1 Rev 3

Receive RF hardware
Receiver RF hardware consists of the SURF module and optional Tx block receive path, and the receive section of the CTU. The SURF module provides bandpass filtering and low-noise amplification for up to three sectors, with diversity receive antenna signals, together with switching to CTUs. CTU Rx role The CTU provides the following receive functions: Receiver tuning (on a timeslot basis) to any receive channel frequency. Demodulation and equalization of the receive channel signal. Measurement of the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) and signal quality. Recovery of received data from the demodulated radio channel. Channel decoding of the received data and processing of the recovered signal. Traffic data is passed on to the MCUF for routing to the MSC. Digital interface to the SURF module, which controls selection by the SURF switch of the receive signals from the appropriate antenna. Comparison and processing of an additional receive path from a second antenna input to support diversity.

Transmit (Tx) RF hardware


Transmit RF hardware consists of Tx blocks in appropriate combinations to meet requirements of antenna sharing for the transceivers. CTU Tx role The CTU provides the following transmit functions: Transmit tuning (on a timeslot basis) for generation of any transmit channel RF frequency. Encoding transmit data output. Digital modulation of transmit data onto the transmit radio channel signal. Final RF power amplification and output power level control of the transmit radio channel RF signal. When using a CCB, the output of control data to the CCB. Channel encoding of the data to be transmitted, interleaving signal and traffic channel data, as defined by ETSI.

Rx/Tx single antenna duplexing


Duplexers allow a single antenna to be used for both transmit and receive operations. Duplexers exist within several of the transmit blocks.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizonmacro RF Modules

RF main component explanation


The RF equipment consists of three main blocks: The CTU. The SURF module. The Tx block or alternatively CCBs. CTU The CTU can receive two inputs, Rx1 and Rx2, from the SURF. These inputs are converted into digital voice/data. The two Rx signals provide diversity of the Rx function from the MS (uplink). The CTU also generates a Tx data signal, translated from received digital voice/data, which is transmitted by cable to the Tx block for antenna transmission to the MS (downlink). The third (middle) port provides an RF loopback test signal capability, for automatic transmission of RF test signals to the SURF. SURF module The SURF module accepts up to three pairs of receive antenna inputs, and switches the inputs to the appropriate CTUs under the control of the MCUF. There are two inputs to each CTU for Rx diversity. The SURF also contains loopback test circuitry, connecting with a test signal from each CTU. Tx block There are up to three Tx blocks, each block serving two CTUs. Tx blocks filter the transmit signal for the required Tx band. Tx blocks also use filters to enable the Rx frequency signal to be passed to the SURF, if one antenna is used for both Tx and Rx signals. CCBs Cavity Combining Blocks (CCBs) are an alternative to Tx blocks. CCBs combine up to three CTU transmit paths. Two CCBs can combine up to six CTU transmit paths. CCBs have no duplexing capability and must be connected to an antenna via an external high power duplexer (HPD). CCBs cannot be used with SFH (see Frequency Hopping).

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizonmacro RF Modules

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU)

The Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU)


Overview of CTU
This section provides the technical description of the Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU). NOTE The CTU: Generates the RF frequencies required to perform the transmit and receive functions. Contains the digital circuits required for eight timeslots of channel equalization, encoding and decoding, and transceiver control logic. The CTU provides the air interface between a BSS and MSs, with the following features: Capability of diversity reception (input from two antennas) which improves the quality reception in the presence of multipath fading and interference. Frequency change on a timeslot basis for frequency hopping and equipment sharing. Transmit power control. CTU Tx RF output specification For Tx RF output, see Technical Description: GSM-205-323 Overview and specifications . Location and requirements The CTU shelf assembly is adjacent to the BCU cage assembly in the base of the cabinet. The cabinet can contain six CTUs. A minimum of one CTU must be fitted in each cabinet. The CTU can only be used in the Horizonmacro.

CTU internal boards


The CTU is a single Field Replaceable Unit (FRU), which contains: CTU transceiver (XCVR) board. Power Amplifier (PA) board. Power Supply Unit (PSU).

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The Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU)

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU) with main features identified

M4 module attachment screw

Backplane power and signal connector

Tx out connector Rx1 Loopback test port Rx2

Test interface

Handle TTY interface control processor M4 attachment screw

Radio status LED Manual reset (recessed button) Tx status LED

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module

The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module


SURF module overview
The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module is located in a vertical slot at the rear of the cabinet top panel. Three connectors on the underside of the module connect to the SURF harness which provides connectivity to up to six Compact Transceiver Units (CTUs). Antenna connections are located on the top of the unit. There are two types of SURF module: 1800 SURF 900 SURF (dual band) The 1800 SURF contains three amplifier sections for connection to three pairs of receive antenna inputs providing 1800 MHz reception. The 900 SURF contains three amplifier sections for connection to three pairs of antennas providing 900 MHz reception and, being dual band, a further amplifier section for connection to a pair of 1800 MHz receive antennas. Each amplifier section provides two receive outputs which may be directed to any of the six CTUs, via the switch section. There are three connections to each CTU; Rx1, Rx2 and loopback test. The two receive outputs from amplifier 0 are split and may be used as extensions to other cabinets if required. These act as extended antenna connections from antenna 0. The extension cables go to the receive antenna connection ports on the SURF of the extension cabinet (which is able to respond to each amplified signal as if it were a normal antenna input).

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The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the SURF module with features identified

RX1800 (2 per RX1800 2B 1B RX1800 0B RX1800 RX1800 2A 1A

Six N-type receive antenna connections DLNB equivalent) Extension ports to other cabinets

RX1800 0A

M6 module attachment screws 1800 SURF

Handle for module removal

Guide rail for insertion 3 connectors on underside to SURF harness

RX 90 00 B RX 180 00 A

B 00 B 180 02 RX 1B 0 9 0 RX 90 RX

Eight N-type receive antenna connections (2 per DLNB equivalent)


RX900 1A RX900 2A RX900 0A

Extension ports to other cabinets

Handle for module removal M6 module attachment screws

900 SURF 3 connectors on underside to SURF harness

Guide rail for insertion

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module

Functional description of 1800 SURF


The 1800 SURF amplifies the antenna Rx signal, and attenuates the out-of-band signal frequencies. The six amplifier outputs are then routed by the switch to the appropriate CTUs. Secondary amplifier outputs are used for connection to another cabinet, if required. The RF loopback test function is described in RF overview and RF test function in this chapter.

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The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module

Version 1 Rev 3

Functional diagram of the 1800 SURF module

Ant 2 BR2 SURF

Antenna connections Ant 1 BR1 BR2 BR1

Ant 0 BR2 BR1

To next cabinet antenna connections

RF loopback splitter Filter and amplifier 2 1800 Filter and amplifier 1 1800 Filter and amplifier 0 1800

D C p o w e r

Digital section and power supply Switch


Rx1 Rx2 Rx1Rx2 Rx1Rx2 Rx1Rx2 Rx1Rx2 Rx1Rx2

Loopback Control RF loopback combiner

Rx1/Rx2/loopback connections to six CTUs via SURF harness

SURF harness

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module

Functional description of 900 SURF


The 900 SURF provides front end filtering, amplification, and matrix control of the RF receive signal between the antenna and the CTU. The 900 SURF is capable of dual band working, with three antenna pair connections providing 900 MHz reception, and one antenna pair providing 1800 MHz reception. The Dual Band (DB) feature enables 900 CTUs to be mixed with 1800 CTUs in any combination, up to the maximum total of six CTUs per cabinet. The 900 SURF functional sections consist of loopback, filtering, amplification, splitting, digital processing and power selection. Each section is duplicated for the second diversity path except for the digital and dc power section which is shared by the two diversity paths. There are four antenna pair inputs (ANT 0, ANT 1, ANT 2 and ANT DB) for each of the two diversity branches (Branch 1 and Branch 2). There are six outputs to the CTU for each of the two diversity branches as well as one input from the CTU for the loopback (LPBK) signal. There is also an output for an expansion cabinet for ANT 0 on each branch. The software database must be configured at the OMC to accept 1800 CTUs and 900 CTUs in the appropriate cabinet locations. Digital codes are transmitted from the 900 CTUs and 1800 CTUs to the digital section. The digital codes are dissimilar in order that 900 or 1800 CTUs can be recognized and appropriate switching can be made to required antenna for transmission and reception. The digital and power supply section is also responsible for loopback switch control, manual overrides, alarms and dc voltages. The RF loopback test function is described in RF overview and RF test function in this chapter.

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The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module

Version 1 Rev 3

Functional diagram of the 900 SURF module

Ant DB

Ant 2

Antenna Connections Ant 1 Ant 0 BR 1 BR 2 BR 1 BR 2 BR 1

BR 2 BR 1 BR 2 SURF

To next cabinet antenna connections

RF loopback splitter

Filter and amplifier 3 1800

Filter and amplifier 2 900

Filter and amplifier 1 900

Filter and amplifier 0 900

Digital section and power supply


D C p o w e r

Switch
Rx1 Rx2 Rx1Rx2 Rx1Rx2 Rx1Rx2 Rx1Rx2 Rx1Rx2

Loopback Control
RF loopback combiner

Rx1/Rx2/loopback connections to six CTUs via SURF harness

SURF harness

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Version 1 Rev 3

Transmit (Tx) blocks overview

Transmit (Tx) blocks overview


Tx block overview
Transmit (Tx) blocks are located in three positions in the basket above the CTUs. There are four types of transmit (Tx) blocks, three of which are available as 900 or 1800 variants, and one as a dual band (900/1800) variant. CAUTION Unused Tx block locations must be covered with a blanking plate for correct air flow and EMI shielding.

900 (or 1800) TDF "The Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF)" on page 2-48= Twin duplexed filter. Dual band TDF = Dual band twin duplexed filter. 900 (or 1800) DCF"The Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF)" on page 2-56 = Duplexed combining bandpass filter. 900 (or 1800) DDF"The Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF)" on page 2-60 = Dual-stage duplexed combining filter. These Tx blocks are cooled by airflow underneath; the DDF has fins. the TDF, dual band TDF and DCF do not have fins. Three types of plate can be located in the basket, one as blanking plate and two to interface CTU Tx cables: Blanking plate"Blanking plate" on page 2-42. This ensures proper air flow and EMI shielding for an unused basket Tx Block location. Feedthrough plate. This converts two SMA connectors to two N-type connectors, used for connecting Tx cables to CCBs or DDFs. Hybrid Combining Unit (HCU). This combines two SMA connectors to one N-type, enabling two additional CTUs to be connected to a DDF. One type of Tx unit is installed in the stacking bracket, and is connected to three CTUs: Cavity Combining Block (CCB)"The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)" on page 2-64 Two CCBs are required for the six CTUs of a filled cabinet. The CCB has no duplexing capability and, if a single Rx/Tx antenna is used, connection must be via an external high power duplexer.

Transmit block connectors


The transmit block connectors are of the following types: SMA connectors for cables to transceivers. 7/16 connectors to antennas. N-type duplex receive connectors, also used by HCU, CCB inputs and feedthrough plate. The SMA connectors are underneath the unit (for ease of connection to the CTUs), and the other connectors on top. NOTE All unused SMA inputs to DCF, DDF and HCU modules must be fitted with 50 ohm load terminations.

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Transmit (Tx) blocks overview

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the top panel and basket which holds the Tx blocks

SLOT FOR SURF MODULE

LOCATION HOLE FOR INTERFACE PANEL

BASKET TO HOLD THREE Tx BLOCKS HOLE FOR ONE Tx BLOCK CTU CONNECTIONS

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Version 1 Rev 3

Blanking plate

Blanking plate
Purpose of blanking plate
The blanking plate is fitted in locations where a Tx block is not required. The blanking plate ensures correct air flow through the cabinet. The plate is attached to the base of the top panel basket using six M4 screws.

Purpose of feedthrough plate


The feedthrough plate converts the normal SMA connector from the CTU to an N-type connector. Each feedthrough plate has a pair of these converters, one for each of two CTUs. The top N-type connectors are used to connect with either a CCB, or at the (optional) third Tx port on the top of a DDF Tx block. The plate is attached to the base of the top panel basket using six M4 screws.

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Blanking plate

Version 1 Rev 3

View of blanking plate

M4 HOLES FOR ATTACHMENT

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Version 1 Rev 3

Blanking plate

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Blanking plate

Version 1 Rev 3

Top view of a feedthrough plate

M4 HOLES FOR ATTACHMENT

N-TYPE CONNECTORS FOR CCBs OR DDFs

SMA CONNECTORS BENEATH FROM CTUs

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Hybrid Combining Unit (HCU) plate

The Hybrid Combining Unit (HCU) plate


HCU overview
The Hybrid Combining Unit (HCU) combines two CTU Tx. There are six holes for attachment into the bottom of the Tx block basket.

HCU connectors
Each HCU connects to: The Tx outputs of two CTUs, using SMA connectors. A Tx input of a DDF, using an N-type connector. NOTE All unused SMA inputs to HCU modules must be fitted with 50 ohm load terminations.

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The Hybrid Combining Unit (HCU) plate

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the Hybrid Combining Unit (HCU) plate with connectors identified

M4 HOLES FOR ATTACHMENT

N-TYPE CONNECTOR TO DDF

SMA TRANSMIT CONNECTORS BENEATH HCU MODULE FROM CTUs

Functional diagram of the HCU


INPUT TO DDF N-TYPE CONNECTOR

HCU
3 dB TYPICAL LOSS ACROSS COMBINER LOAD

Tx

SMA CONNECTORS

Tx

FIRST CTU

SECOND CTU

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF)

The Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF)


Overview of TDF
The purpose of the Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF) Tx block is to enable each antenna to serve one CTU for both Tx and Rx. The TDF has two identical sections, each providing a single path from a CTU to a separate antenna. There is no combining in the TDF. The TDF is located in the basket above the CTUs, and attached to the top surface of the top panel using two M6 screws.

TDF connectors
Each TDF connects to: The Tx outputs of two CTUs, using SMA connectors. The two connectors are underneath the TDF. Two antennas, each for both Rx and Tx, using 7/16 connectors. These connectors are on top of the TDF. The SURF, using two N-type connectors. These connectors are on top of the TDF.

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The Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF)

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF) Tx block with connectors identified

HOLES FOR TOP PANEL BASKET ATTACHMENT

N-TYPE CONNECTORS TO SURF 7/16 CONNECTORS TO ANTENNAS

TWO SMA Tx CONNECTORS BENEATH TDF (FROM CTU)

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF)

This page intentionally left blank.

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The Twin Duplexed Filter (TDF)

Version 1 Rev 3

Functional diagram of the TDF


Tx TO ANTENNA Tx TO ANTENNA Rx FROM ANTENNA N-TYPE CONNECTOR

Rx TO SURF

Rx TO SURF

Rx FROM ANTENNA

7/16 CONNECTOR

7/16 N-TYPE CONNECTOR CONNECTOR

TDF

1 dB TYPICAL LOSS ACROSS TDF

Rx BANDPASS FILTER

Rx BANDPASS FILTER

Tx BANDPASS FILTER

Tx BANDPASS FILTER

Tx

SMA CONNECTORS

Tx SECOND CTU

FIRST CTU

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Version 1 Rev 3

Dual band TDF

Dual band TDF


Overview of Dual band TDF
The purpose of the dual band twin duplexed filter (dual band TDF) Tx block is to enable one 900 MHz antenna to serve one EGSM 900 CTU for both Tx and Rx, and an 1800 MHz antenna to serve one DCS 1800 CTU for both Tx and Rx. The dual band TDF is essentially a TDF with one section providing a path for 900 MHz signals and another section providing a path for 1800 MHz signals. There is no combining in the dual band TDF. The dual band TDF is located in the basket above the CTUs, and attached to the top surface of the top panel using two M6 screws.

Dual band TDF connectors


Each dual band TDF connects to: The Tx output of one 900 CTU and one 1800 CTU, using SMA connectors. The two connectors are underneath the dual band TDF. One 900 MHz antenna and one 1800 MHz antenna. Each antenna is used for both Rx and Tx, and each is connected to the dual band TDF using 7/16 connectors. These connectors are on top of the dual band TDF. A SURF module with dual band capability. Two N-type connectors, located on top of the dual band TDF, connect one receive path to the SURFs 900 MHz input and one receive path to the SURFs 1800 MHz input.

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Dual band TDF

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the dual band TDF Tx block with connectors identified

N-TYPE CONNECTOR TO 900 MHz SURF CONNECTION

N-TYPE CONNECTOR TO 1800 MHz SURF CONNECTION

7/16 CONNECTOR TO 900 MHz ANTENNA (ANT. EGSM 900)

7/16 CONNECTOR TO 1800 MHz ANTENNA (ANT. DCS 1800)

SMA Tx CONNECTOR BENEATH DUAL BAND TDF (FROM 900 CTU)

SMA Tx CONNECTOR BENEATH DUAL BAND TDF (FROM 1800 CTU)

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Version 1 Rev 3

Dual band TDF

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Dual band TDF

Version 1 Rev 3

Functional diagram of the dual band TDF

Tx TO 900 ANTENNA Rx FROM 900 ANTENNA

Rx TO 900 SURF

Tx TO 1800 ANTENNA Rx FROM 1800 ANTENNA

Rx TO 1800 SURF

7/16 CONNECTOR

N-TYPE CONNECTOR

7/16 N-TYPE CONNECTOR CONNECTOR

Dual band TDF


1 dB TYPICAL LOSS ACROSS DUAL BAND TDF Rx BANDPASS FILTER Rx BANDPASS FILTER

Tx BANDPASS FILTER

Tx BANDPASS FILTER

Tx

SMA CONNECTORS

Tx 1800 CTU

900 CTU

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF)

The Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF)


DCF connectors
Each DCF connects to: The Tx outputs of two CTUs, using SMA connectors. The two connectors are underneath the DCF. A single antenna for both Rx and Tx, using a 7/16 connector. This connector is on top of the DCF. The SURF, using an N-type connector. This connector is on top of the DCF. NOTE All unused SMA inputs to DCF modules must be fitted with 50 ohm load terminations.

DCF overview
The purpose of the Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF) Tx block is to enable each antenna to serve two CTUs for both Tx and Rx. The DCF combines two Tx inputs, dissipating half the power within an internal load. The signal then passes through a bandpass filter and out to the antenna. A receive bandpass filter passes only the Rx signal to the SURF module. The DCF is located in the basket above the CTUs, and attached to the top surface of the top panel using two M6 screws.

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The Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF)

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF) with connectors identified

HOLE FOR TOP PANEL BASKET ATTACHMENT N-TYPE CONNECTOR TO SURF 7/16 CONNECTOR TO ANTENNA

HOLE FOR TOP PANEL BASKET ATTACHMENT

TWO SMA Tx CONNECTORS BENEATH DCF (FROM CTU)

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF)

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The Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter (DCF)

Version 1 Rev 3

Functional diagram of the DCF

Tx TO ANTENNA Rx FROM ANTENNA

Rx TO SURF

7/16 CONNECTOR

N-TYPE CONNECTOR

DCF

Rx BANDPASS FILTER 4 dB TYPICAL LOSS ACROSS DCF Tx BANDPASS FILTER

LOAD

SMA Tx CONNECTORS SECOND CTU FIRST CTU Tx

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF)

The Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF)


Overview of DDF
The Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF) differs from the DCF in having a second stage of combining to allow a third CTU Tx input. This third CTU Tx input is connected to either: A feedthrough plate connector for a single additional CTU or An HCU plate connector for combining two additional CTUs. The DDF is located in the basket above the CTUs, and attached to the top surface of the top panel using two M6 screws.

DDF connectors
Each DDF connects to: The Tx outputs of three or four CTUs, using: Two SMA connectors underneath the DDF. An N-type connector on top of the DDF for connection to a feedthrough plate (for a third CTU) or HCU plate (for combined third/fourth CTUs). A single antenna for both Rx and Tx, using a 7/16 connector. This connector is on top of the DDF. The SURF, using an N-type connector. This connector is on top of the DDF. NOTE All unused SMA inputs to DDF modules must be fitted with 50 ohm load terminations.

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The Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF)

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF) Tx block wth connectors identified

N-TYPE CONNECTOR TO SURF N-TYPE CONNECTOR FROM CTU BY FEEDTHROU GH PLATE OR HCU

HOLE FOR TOP PANEL BASKET ATTACHMENT 7/16 CONNECTOR TO ANTENNA

HOLE FOR TOP PANEL BASKET ATTACHMENT COOLING FINS

TWO SMA Tx CONNECTORS BENEATH DDF (FROM CTU)

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Version 1 Rev 3

The Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF)

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The Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter (DDF)

Version 1 Rev 3

Functional diagram of the DDF


THIRD (OR COMBINED THIRD/FOURTH) CTU Tx TO ANTENNA Rx FROM ANTENNA Rx TO SURF

Tx

N-TYPE CONNECTOR

7/16 CONNECTOR

N-TYPE CONNECTOR

LOAD

Rx BANDPASS FILTER 7 dB TYPICAL LOSS ACROSS DDF Tx BANDPASS FILTER

LOAD

DDF
Tx SMA CONNECTORS FIRST CTU SECOND CTU Tx

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The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)

The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)


CCB overview
The Cavity Combining Block (CCB) has EGSM and DCS1800 variants. A CCB consists of three independently tuneable cavity resonators, one per CTU. The CCBs are fitted in the CCB basket in the stacking bracket. The basket can contain up to two CCBs, one for three CTUs. The two CCBs cannot be in different cabinets because of the short phasing lead connecting the two. Configurations where five or more carriers per sector are required could utilize CCBs. The recommended minimum channel spacing between cavities is 800 kHz. There are two types of CCB: Master CCB with Band Pass Filter (BPF) and control board. Extension CCB, identical to the master CCB but without the BPF and only having a control board if redundancy is required. Unlike the Tx blocks, the CCB has no duplexing capability. If a single Rx/Tx antenna is used then connection to the CCB must be via an external high power duplexer.

CCB control board and set switch


The CCB control board is also known as the Transmit Antenna Transceiver Interface (TATI) Control Board (TCB). The CCB control board controls the interface to the CTU. This allows different vendor CCBs to be installed without requiring amended CTU software. The address of the control board is set manually using an 8 bit DIL switch, set by Motorola. Data links are automatically set up.

TCB and link redundancy


The redundant TCB has the ability to maintain the separated CCB, if the inter-CCB link fails.

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The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)

Version 1 Rev 3

EGSM900 CCBs with control boards fitted


NOTE CCBs may vary slightly, depending on manufacturer and type.

EXTENSION CCB OUTPUT TO MASTER CCB SHORT CIRCUIT STUB EXTENSION CCB WITHOUT BPF

ANTENNA CONNECTOR ON BPF

BAND PASS FILTER (BPF)

3 Tx INPUTS CCB CONTROL BOARD (REDUNDANT) PHASING LEAD 3 Tx INPUTS CCB CONTROL BOARD (MASTER)

CCB OUTPUT TO BPF BPF INPUT FROM CCB MASTER CCB WITH BPF POWER LEAD TO BOTH CCB CONTROL BOARDS

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The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)

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The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)

Version 1 Rev 3

DCS1800 with control boards fitted

ANTENNA CONNECTOR

CCB CONTROL BOARDS

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The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)

CCB configuration
The master CCB has a second output to enable the extension CCB to be connected. The bandpass filter can then serve both CCBs in parallel. Any unused output is terminated with a short circuit stub. The two configurations are shown the diagram below.

TO ANTENNA SHORT CIRCUIT STUB MASTER CCB UP TO 3 RF INPUTS TO ANTENNA BANDPASS FILTER

SHORT CIRCUIT STUB

PHASE LEAD EXTENSION CCB MASTER CCB

BANDPASS FILTER

UP TO 6 RF INPUTS

CCB functional description and diagram


The CCB has three independently tuneable cavity resonators, as shown in the diagram opposite. The cavities are narrow band devices which pass transmit signals at the cavity tuned (resonant) frequency. The three cavity outputs are coupled together. The CCB cavities are tuned by software commands from the CCB control board. Control data is sent from the CTU, via the coaxial cable, to the CCB. This data is separated from the RF signal at the bias tee, and sent to the CCB control board. The CCB control board then sends control signals through the control bus to the motor control of the CCB cavity of the same transceiver. CCB tuning change One cavity retuned and verified Three cavities retuned and verified Time taken 8 seconds 19 seconds

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The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)

Version 1 Rev 3

Functional diagram of CCB

REDUNDANT CCB CONTROL BOARD (TCB) ON OTHER CCB INPUT FROM EXTENSION CCB (IF REQUIRED) OR SHORT CIRCUIT STUB

ANTENNA

TRANSMIT BANDPASS FILTER (FITTED TO MASTER CCB ONLY)

MOTOR CONTROL CAVITY

MOTOR CONTROL CAVITY

MOTOR CONTROL CAVITY

CCB CONTROL BOARD (TCB)

BIAS TEE INTERNAL PROCESSOR

BIAS TEE

BIAS TEE

DATA DATA DATA

POWER CONNECTOR

CONTROL BUS Tx1 Tx2 Tx3

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The Cavity Combining Block (CCB)

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Horizon II macro Operational Theory

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 3

Horizon II macro Operational Theory

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Horizon II macro Operational Theory

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Chapter objectives

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Identify and state the purpose of the Horizon IImacro. Describe the functions and simplified operation of the Horizon IImacro. Identify and describe the simplified operation of the Horizon IImacro RF modules.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Equipment Introduction

Equipment Introduction
Overview ofHorizon II macro
The Horizon IImacro is a 12 carrier base transceiver station (BTS) cabinet, with variants that operate in the GSM/EGSM900 and DCS1800 frequency bands. The BTS cabinets are designed for indoor use. They can operate from either -48/60 V dc (positive earth), +27 V dc (negative earth), or wide input, nominal 120/240 V, ac single phase supplies. Cabinet cooling is provided by circulation fans located in the bottom of the cabinet. In addition, each power supply contains an integral cooling fan. Figure 41 shows an external view of a standard Horizon IImacro cabinet.

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Equipment Introduction

Version 1 Rev 3

External view of a standardHorizon II macro cabinet

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro stacking capability

Horizon II macro stacking capability


An optional stacking bracket enables a Horizon IImacro to have a second cabinet mounted on top of the first, as shown in Figure 42.

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Horizon II macro stacking capability

Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro stacking

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Version 1 Rev 3

Internal View ofHorizon II macro

Internal View ofHorizon II macro


Figure 43 shows the location and identification of components in a fully equipped Horizon IImacrocabinet.

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Internal View ofHorizon II macro

Version 1 Rev 3

Internal view ofHorizon II macro cabinet

INTERFACE PANEL CONNECTORS CIRCUIT BREAKER CARD (CBC)

BIM/BIB OR CIM/T43 POWER SUPPLY CONNECTORS SIX Tx BLOCKS TWO SURF2s

TWO SITE EXPANSION BOARDS (OPTIONAL)

UP TO FOUR PSUs

3 x HEAT SENSORS LOCATED ON BACKPLANE

SIX CTU2s PLINTH

THREE 2-FAN UNITS

ALARM MODULE

TWO HIISCs (REPLACED BY XMUXs IN EXPANSION CABINET)

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Version 1 Rev 3

Internal View ofHorizon II macro

Functional Diagram ofHorizon II macro


Figure 44 shows the functional modules of a Horizon IImacro. For clarity, only one transceiver and one Tx block is shown.

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Internal View ofHorizon II macro

Version 1 Rev 3

Functional Diagram ofHorizon II macro

TO Rx INPUTS OF EXPANSION CABINET

ANTENNAS (Tx and Rx SEPARATE OR COMBINED)

EXP

0A Rx0

0B

1A

1B Rx1

2A Rx2

2B VSWR MONITORING CIRCUIT Tx FILTER

Rx FILTER SWITCH (CONTROLLED BY CTU2)

SURF2

UP TO 6 Tx BLOCKS

Rx A

Rx B Tx

UP TO SIX TRANSCEIVERS (CTU2s)

TO ALARM MODULE

RF MODULES
2 TO XMUX/FMUX OF DIGITAL EXPANSION CABINET MODULES 2 TO XMUX/FMUX OF EXPANSION CABINET 2 TO XMUX/FMUX OF EXPANSION CABINET

SITE EXPANSION BOARD SITE CONTROLLER UNIT (HIISC) NIU

XMUX

TO NETWORK

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro Comparison with Horizonmacro

Horizon II macro Comparison with Horizonmacro


Comparison Overview
The Horizon IImacro is a development of and a replacement for the Horizonmacroindoor BTS, and is directly compatible with it. For example, a mix of up to four Horizon IImacro and Horizonmacro indoor (or even M-Cell6) BTSs can be combined to form a single site, with either a Horizon IImacro, a Horizonmacro indoor, or a M-Cell 6 being in control of the other units. NOTE In cases where a Horizonmacro MCUF or M-Cell 6 MCU is the master site controller with a Horizon IImacro as an expansion cabinet, the MCUF/MCU MUST have a PCMCIA card (running CSFP) installed to accommodate the additional memory requirements of the Horizon IImacro

Compatibility with Horizonmacro and MCell 6


A 24-carrier BTS site (in an 8/8/8 configuration) can be achieved by combining a maximum of four units. The units can be any combination of Horizon IImacro, Horizonmacro and M-Cell6, any of which can be the controlling (master) BTS, subject to the requirements described in the note above. NOTE A MCUF (from Horizonmacro) can be fitted into an M-Cell 6and will then function as a MCU. An MCU cannot be fitted into a Horizonmacro. The HIISC fitted in the Horizon IImacro is not compatible with Horizonmacro.

Figure 45 shows an illustration of a mixed three cabinet site, with a Horizon IImacro BTS as the controller (master).

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Horizon II macro Comparison with Horizonmacro

Version 1 Rev 3

Compatibility with Horizonmacro and M Cell 6

Horizon II macro BTS HII SC (contains integrated XMUX) Site Expansion Board 6 CTU2s (12 Carriers) 2

Horizonmacro BTS Expansion Cabinet FMUX

6 CTUs (6 Carriers)

2 M-Cell6 BTS Expansion Cabinet FMUX

NOTE In this example, the CTU2s in the Horizon II macro BTS are double density, and are therefore capable of handling 2 carriers each (12 carriers total). The maximum site capacity is 24 carriers across all expansion cabinets in the site.

6 TCUs/TCU-Bs (6 Carriers)

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro Comparison with Horizonmacro

Comparison ofHorizon II macro with Horizonmacro


Table 41 compares the functionality of main components of the Horizon IImacro with equivalent components of the previous generation Horizonmacro indoor.

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Horizon II macro Comparison with Horizonmacro

Version 1 Rev 3

Comparison ofHorizon II macro with Horizonmacro


Function Input power conversion units (max. fitted) Power to transceivers and signal routeing Transceivers (max. fitted) Main processor module (max. fitted) Processor module connection to transceivers in another cabinet Slave cabinet multiplexer Rx components (max. fitted) Transceiver to Rx components Tx blocks (max. fitted internally) DC power supply for digital modules (max. fitted) Equipment protection/isolation Links to terrestrial network (max. fitted) Alarm handling E1/T1 links Horizon II macro component PSU (4) Backplane CTU2 (6) HIISC (2) Internal XMUX in HIISC (1) and separate site expansion boards (1 or 2) XMUX SURF2 (2) SURF2 harness DUP, HCU and DHU (6) Integrated in HIISC, supplied via backplane CBC Internal NIU in HIISC Alarm module * CIM/T43 or BIM/BIB Horizon macro equivalent PSM (3) BPSM and backplane CTU (6) MCUF (2) Internal FMUX in MCUF (2) or external FMUX (2) FMUX SURF (1) SURF harness DCF, TDF, DDF and HCU (3) BPSM (2) CBM NIU (4) Alarm module CIM/T43 or BIM/BIB

* Not compatible with the Horizonmacro alarm module.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Empty cabinet and SURF2 harness

Empty cabinet and SURF2 harness


SURF2 harness and components
The SURF2 harness is fitted on the back wall of the cabinet, as shown in the diagram opposite. The chassis of the SURF harness supports the SURF module. The SURF2 harness connects between the SURF2 chassis and the CTU2 connectors fitted on the back wall of the cabinet. The SURF2 chassis supports the SURF2 modules. The harness provides: Two connectors to each SURF2 for RF and power. One RF connector to each CTU2, consisting of four inputs, one each for RxA, RxB, RxC and RxD, as shown in . The RF connectors are free floating to ensure correct fitting of the CTU2 modules. One connector to the backplane is supplied, for power from the PSUs.

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Empty cabinet and SURF2 harness

Version 1 Rev 3

SURF2 Harness Components

SURF2 CHASSIS

SURF2 HARNESS

POWER CONNECTOR TO BACKPLANE

CTU2 CONNECTOR

CTU2 LOCATING PINS

RxD RxA RxC RxB

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Version 1 Rev 3

Cabinet view with installed SURF2 harness components

Cabinet view with installed SURF2 harness components


Figure 47 shows the SURF2 harness components installed in an empty cabinet.

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Cabinet view with installed SURF2 harness components

Version 1 Rev 3

Cabinet view with installed SURF2 harness components

SURF2 CHASSIS BACKPLANE

CTU2 CONNECTOR (FITTED THROUGH CUTOUT IN BACKPLANE)

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Version 1 Rev 3

RF equipment description

RF equipment description
Overview of RF equipment
RF modules described The RF modules used in the Horizon IImacro equipment are: Compact transceiver unit (version 2) (CTU2)."The Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU)" on page 2-32 The CTU2 supports both the EGSM900 and DCS1800 frequency bands. Sectorized universal receiver front-end module (version 2) (SURF2)"The Sectorized Universal Receiver Front end (SURF) module" on page 2-34. Two versions of the SURF2 are available for the Horizon IImacro: one operates in the 900 MHz frequency band and the other operates in the 1800 MHz frequency band. 900 MHz and 1800 MHz SURF2s cannot be installed in the same cabinet. Similarly, CTU2s operating at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz cannot be mixed in the same cabinet. Several types of transmit block (Tx block)."Transmit (Tx) blocks overview" on page 2-40 Tx blocks are used for various configurations of transmit path, depending on number of antennas, CTU2s and functionality, including potential shared receive path. NOTE

Receive (Rx) RF hardware


Receiver RF hardware consists of the SURF2 module and the receive section of the CTU2. The DUP is required for Rx filtering on the main (A) path and is optional for the Rx diversity (B) path. The SURF2 module provides bandpass filtering and low-noise amplification for up to three sectors, with two branch diversity receive antenna signals, together with switching to CTU2s. NOTE CTU2 Rx role The CTU2 provides the following receive functions: Receiver tuning (on a timeslot basis) to any receive channel frequency. Demodulation and equalization of the receive channel signal. Measurement of the received signal strength indication (RSSI) and signal quality. Recovery of received data from the demodulated radio channel. Channel decoding of the received data and processing of the recovered signal. Traffic data is passed on to the site controller module for routeing to the MSC. Digital interface to the SURF2 module, which controls selection by the SURF2 switch of the receive signals from the appropriate antenna. Comparison and processing of an additional receive path from a second diversity antenna input to compensate for multipath fading and interference. Four branch diversity is possible as a field upgrade with two SURF2s and an additional SURF2 harness installed in the cabinet.

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RF equipment description

Version 1 Rev 3

Transmit (Tx) RF hardware


Transmit RF hardware consists of Tx blocks in appropriate combinations to meet requirements of antenna sharing for the transceivers. CTU2 Tx role The CTU2 provides the following transmit functions: Transmit tuning (on a timeslot basis) for generation of any transmit channel RF frequency. Encoding transmit data output. Digital modulation of transmit data onto the transmit radio channel signal. Final RF power amplification and output power level control of the transmit radio channel RF signal. Channel encoding of the data to be transmitted, interleaving signal and traffic channel data, as defined by ETSI.

Rx/Tx single antenna duplexing


Duplexers allow a single antenna to be used for both transmit and receive operations. Normally duplexed RF signals pass through one antenna, with a second receive antenna to provide diversity. CAUTION If a single antenna (non-diversity) is required, the duplex antenna RF receive cable from the transmit block must be connected to the RxA path at the SURF2. Simply switching off diversity at the OMC-R without the correct SURF2 configuration will cause a loss of reception.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Compact transceiver unit (CTU2)

Compact transceiver unit (CTU2)


Overview of the CTU2
This section provides the technical description of the CTU2. NOTE Two versions of the CTU2 are available for the Horizon IImacro. One version operates in the EGSM900 frequency band and the other operates in the DCS1800 frequency band.

The CTU2: Generates the RF frequencies required to perform the transmit and receive functions. Contains the digital circuits required for 32 timeslots of channel equalization, encoding and decoding, and transceiver control logic. The CTU2 provides the air interface between a BSS and MSs, with the following features: Capability of diversity reception (input from up to four antennas) which improves the quality reception in the presence of multipath fading and interference. Frequency change on a timeslot basis for frequency hopping and equipment sharing. Transmit power control. CTU2 features The CTU2 has the following features: Single or double density mode in a Horizon IImacro cabinet. Single density mode provides single carrier GSM Tx capability. Double density mode provides 2 carrier GSM Tx capability (both carriers must be in the same sector). Single carrier EDGE Tx capability. Backwards compatible with Horizonmacro CTU (but BBH restrictions apply if used in double density mode). Transmit diversity. Two or four branch Rx diversity. (Four branch diversity requires 2 x SURF2 modules and a second SURF2 harness cable to be installed.) Hardware support for AMR (upgrade required for pre-GSR7 software). Location and requirements The CTU2 shelf is located below the basket for the Tx blocks, and takes up the majority of the space in the cabinet. The cabinet can contain up to six CTU2s. At least one CTU2 must be fitted in each cabinet. All CTU2s in the cabinet must operate at the same frequency (either 900 MHz or 1800 MHz).

CTU2 internal boards


The CTU2 is a single field replaceable unit (FRU), which contains: CTU2 transceiver (XCVR) board. Power amplifier (PA) board. Power supply unit.

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Compact transceiver unit (CTU2)

Version 1 Rev 3

Alarm reporting
The CTU2 status is displayed by LED indicators on the front panel, as shown in Figure 48, and detailed in Table 42. Major sub-systems, such as synthesizers and RF amplifiers, are monitored with alarm signals as necessary. Table 3-1 CTU2 front panel status indicators LED RADIO STATUS Status Unlit Flashing green Meaning CTU2 is off. Boot code being loaded. (Do not remove power or reset - see CAUTION below.) Normal operational mode. Test mode. Transceiver inhibited. Alarm condition. Flash reprogramming in progress. (Do not remove power or reset see CAUTION below.) Transmitter A is off. Transmitter A is keyed on. Transmitter B is off. Transmitter B is keyed on.

Green Flashing yellow Yellow Red Alternately flashing red and green

TRANSMIT (Tx) STATUS A TRANSMIT (Tx) STATUS B

Unlit Yellow Unlit Yellow

CAUTION

Removing power or resetting the cabinet while the boot code is downloading or flash reprogramming is taking place will cause memory corruption. If the boot code is corrupted, contact Motorola Customer Network Resolution Centre requesting the boot code restoration procedure and the appropriate boot code file.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Compact transceiver unit (CTU2)

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Compact transceiver unit (CTU2)

Version 1 Rev 3

View of a CTU2

M4 MODULE ATTACHMENT SCREW

Tx OUT CONNECTOR

BACKPLANE POWER AND SIGNAL CONNECTOR

TEST INTERFACE HANDLE TTY INTERFACE CONTROL PROCESSOR VCAT INTERFACE

Rx D Rx A Rx C Rx B

M4 MODULE ATTACHMENT SCREW

RADIO STATUS LED Tx STATUS A LED Tx STATUS B LED

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Version 1 Rev 3

Compact transceiver unit (CTU2)

CTU2 Front Panel Detail


The TTY RS-232 serial port has three serial links onto the 9-way connector: Radio subsystem (RSS). Equalizer and control processor (EQCP). Channel coder control processor (CCCP). A test interface port on the CTU2 front panel provides access to critical test points for factory calibration and maintenance. Figure 49 shows the front panel and Table 43 lists connector functions. Table 3-2 CTU2 front panel connectors Function Transmitter RF output Test access to processor Factory use Factory use Connection to Tx block Three RS-232s Test equipment Test equipment

Front panel legend TRANSMIT OUT TTY INTERFACE TEST INTERFACE VCAT INTERFACE

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Compact transceiver unit (CTU2)

Version 1 Rev 3

CTU Front Panel Detail

Tx OUT CONNECTOR

TEST INTERFACE

TTY INTERFACE . VCAT INTERFACE RADIO STATUS LED NOTE The CTU2 does not have a reset button. A reset is acheived using the appproriate CTU2 circuit breaker on the CBC. Tx STATUS A LED Tx STATUS B LED

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Version 1 Rev 3

Compact transceiver unit (CTU2)

CTU2 Rx Function
The receiver part of the CTU2 can accept two amplified and filtered receive antenna signals from each SURF2 module (four Rx signals in total). These two signals are applied to inputs (branch A and branch B) of the CTU2 transceiver board. The transceiver can be configured to provide double density receive capacity or 4 branch Rx diversity. In double density mode, the receiver provides demodulation of a main and diversity path for two RF channels. In 4 branch Rx diversity mode, the receiver provides four independent Rx paths for one RF channel. The input from the SURF2 module is filtered, amplified and down converted to ensure the signal level and frequency range are correct for the next stage.

CTU2 interface function


The CTU2 interface function provides the air interface timing and transceiver control circuitry required for Rx (uplink) and Tx (downlink) control functions. The CTU2 interface includes: Master GSM air interface timing function. Independent Rx gain control interface for each diversity receiver branch. Baseband Rx data interface for each diversity receiver branch. Receiver front end control. Tx data interface including GMSK modulator which provides baseband data to the transmitter. Tx and power amplifier power control interface. Rx and Tx frequency synthesizer control which supports RF frequency hopping. CTU2 and cabinet alarm data collection. Alarms sampling and multiplexing.

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CTU2 frequency hopping

Version 1 Rev 3

CTU2 frequency hopping


Overview of CTU2 frequency hopping
The CTU2 supports two types of frequency hopping, synthesizer frequency hopping (SFH) and baseband frequency hopping (BBH). This section provides an explanation of both types. In either type, the MS switches channels after every transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) burst pair. The difference between SFH and BBH is in the method by which channel switching is achieved at the BTS. NOTE BBH is not possible if the CTU2 is used in double density mode in aHorizonmacrocabinet which is controlled by a MCUF site controller (refer to System Information: BSS Equipment Planning (68P02900W21) for further details).

Synthesizer frequency hopping (SFH)


SFH can only be used with wideband combining. A minimum of two CTU2s are required per cell due to BCCH requirements. Timeslot 0 of CTU2 0 is used for the BCCH carrier and therefore CTU2 0 cannot use SFH. Only CTU2 1 and additional CTU2s can use SFH.

Baseband frequency hopping (BBH)


BBH can use either Tx blocks or CCB Tx combining equipment (not available for Horizon IImacro). The main reason for using BBH instead of SFH is to enable frequency hopping when using CCBs, because the mechanical tuning of CCBs is too slow for SFH. The number of CTU2s required to support BBH is equal to the number of frequencies used.

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Version 1 Rev 3

SURF2 module

SURF2 module
SURF2 module overview
The sectorized universal receiver front end (SURF2) module performs low noise amplification, RF bandpass filtering, and antenna to CTU2 routeing through a switch/splitter matrix. One SURF2 can route any of three Rx antenna inputs to any of six different CTU2s for both a main and diversity path. The SURF2 also provides an expansion path from the antenna 0 input for both main and diversity paths. The SURF2 is single band and two versions are available for use in the Horizon IImacro cabinet: 900 MHz, for EGSM900 systems. 1800 MHz, for DCS1800 systems. One or two SURF2 modules may be installed side by side in a slot at the rear of the cabinet top panel. Two connectors on the underside of each module connect to individual SURF2 harnesses which provide connectivity to up to six CTU2s. Antenna connections are located on the top of the unit. Figure 411 shows a view of the SURF2 module with features identified. NOTE Dual band operation in a single cabinet is not supported. That is, 900 and 1800 MHz SURF2s cannot be mixed in the same cabinet.

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SURF2 module

Version 1 Rev 3

Planning Considerations
GSM 900 The follwoing factors should be considered when planning the GSM 900 receive equipment: Horizon II macro BTSs require one 900 MHz SURF2 for each cabinet. Currently, the SURF2 is not dual band and only supports 900/1800 Mhz capability in separate cabinets. A second (optional) 900 MHz SURF2 can be installed to provide 4 branch diversity. Receive antennas can be extended across Horizon IImacro cabinets by using the 900 SURF2 expansion ports to feed a SURF2 in another cabinet. Horizon macro BTSs require one 900 MHz SURF for each cabinet. This has dual band (900/1800 Mhz) capability. Receive antennas can be extended across Horizon macro cabinets by using the 900 SURF expansion ports to feed a SURF in another cabinet. M-Cell 2 and M-Cell 6 BTSs require one DLNB for each sector. Receive antennas can be extended across M-Cell 6 cabinets by using the IADU expansion ports to feed an IADU in another cabinet. DCS 1800 The following factors should be considered when planning the DCS1800 receive equipment: Horizon II macro BTSs require one 1800 MHz SURF2 for each cabinet. Currently, the SURF2 is not dual band and only supports 900/1800 Mhz capability in separate cabinets. A second (optional) 1800 MHz SURF2 can be installed to provide 4 branch diversity. Receive antennas can be extended across Horizon IImacro cabinets by using the 1800 SURF2 expansion ports to feed a SURF2 in another cabinet. Horizon macro BTSs require one 1800 MHz SURF for each cabinet. Receive antennas can be extended across Horizon macro cabinets by using the 1800 SURF expansion ports to feed a SURF in another cabinet. Two types of 1800 SURF are available. One is 1800 MHz single band and the other is 1800/900 MHz dual band. M-Cell 2 and M-Cell 6 BTSs require one LNA for each sector. Receive antennas can be extended across M-Cell 6 cabinets by using the LNA expansion ports to feed a LNA in another cabinet. NOTE

Receiver Planning Actions


The following planning actions are required: Determine the number of cells. Determine the number of cells which have CTU2s/CTUs/TCUs in more than one cabinet. Determine the number of Rx antennas per cell supported in each cabinet. Determine the type and quantity of receive equipment required. NOTE When using CTU2s in double density mode, both carriers need to be in the same sector and can be individually reset. Dropping one carrier does not affect the second CTU2 carrier.

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Version 1 Rev 3

SURF2 module

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SURF2 module

Version 1 Rev 3

Surf2 Module View

RX 2B RX 1B RX 0B

EXPANSION PORTS TO OTHER CABINETS EXP B EXP A HANDLE FOR MODULE REMOVAL RX 2A

RX 0A RX 1A

2 CONNECTORS ON UNDERSIDE TO SURF2 HARNESS

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Version 1 Rev 3

SURF2 module

SURF2 functional description


The SURF2 module provides front end filtering, amplification, and matrix control of the RF receive signal between the antenna and the CTU2. It has three antenna pair connections providing frequency reception. The SURF2 functional sections (Figure 411) consist of filtering, amplification, splitting, digital processing and power selection. NOTE The SURF2 does not support loopback mode and antenna VSWR monitoring.

Each section is duplicated for the second diversity path except for the digital and dc power section which is shared by the two diversity paths. There are three antenna pair inputs (ANT 0, ANT 1 and ANT 2) for each of the two diversity branches (Branch A and Branch B). There are six outputs to the CTU2 for each of the two diversity branches. There is also an output for an expansion cabinet for ANT 0 on each branch. Digital codes are transmitted from the CTU2s to the digital section. The digital codes are dissimilar in order that CTU2s programmed for the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency bands can be recognized and appropriate switching can be made to the required antenna for transmission and reception. The digital and power supply section is also responsible for manual overrides, alarms and dc voltages. Alarms The alarm signal from the SURF2 is active low (0 V) and is multiplexed onto the branch 1 (and branch 3) RF connection. An alarm generated at an individual CTU2 is caused by an unexpected number of antenna select pulses being read. An alarm generated at all CTU2s connected to the SURF2 is caused by one of the amplifiers drawing too much or too little current.

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SURF2 module

Version 1 Rev 3

Surf2 Functional Diagram

SURF2 Filter and amplifier 2 Filter and amplifier 1 Filter and amplifier 0

SURF2 harness

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Version 1 Rev 3

SURF2 module

SURF2 to CTU2 interface


Interface block diagram Figure 412 shows the interconnections between the SURF2 and the CTU2, both for 2-branch Rx diversity (double density) and for 4-branch Rx diversity (single carrier). NOTE Interface description - 2 carrier, 2-branch Rx diversity The physical interface between the SURF2 and the CTU2 consists of two connections, one bi-directional and the other directional. The bi-directional connection is for the RF receive main branch (branch 1) and for digital communication between the SURF2 and the CTU2. The directional connection is for the RF receive diversity branch (branch 2) only. Interface description - 1 carrier, 4-branch Rx diversity The physical interface for one carrier / four branch diversity requires two SURF2 modules and one CTU2. It is similar to the interface for two carrier / two branch diversity, with the third and fourth diversity branches connected to the second SURF2 as shown in the following figure. 4-branch diversity requires an optional second SURF2 and harness cable to be installed in the cabinet.

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SURF2 module

Version 1 Rev 3

Surf2 to CTU2 Interfaces

Branch 3

Branch 4

2C

1C

0C EXP EXP 0D C D

1D

2D

SURF2 #2 (optional)
C D

CTU2
Rx D Rx A Rx C Rx B Branch 3 Branch 2

Branch 4

Branch 1

2B

1B

0B EXP EXP 0A B A

1A

2A

SURF2 #1
B Branch 1 (main) Branch 2 (diversity) A

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Version 1 Rev 3

SURF2 module

SURF to CTU2 interface (Horizonmacro compatibility)


As the CTU2 is backwards compatible with Horizonmacro, this section explains how the Horizonmacro SURF interfaces with the CTU2. Figure 413 shows the interconnections between the SURF and the CTU2 for 2 carrier / 2-branch diversity, with loopback (LPBK) and VSWR. NOTE Rx A on the CTU2 carries the SURF control and alarm signals. The 7-pin connectors A and C on the base of the SURF carry 6 x RF signals + 1 earth and connector B carries 6 x RF signals + 1 power.

The physical interface between the SURF and the CTU2 consists of three connections, one bi-directional and two directional. The bi-directional connection is for the RF receive main branch (branch 1) and for digital communication between the SURF and the CTU2. One directional connection is for the RF receive diversity branch (branch 2), and the other is for the loopback or VSWR mode selection and the LPBK / VSWR signal.

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SURF2 module

Version 1 Rev 3

SURF to CTU2 Interface (Horizonmacro Compatibility

Branch 2

Branch 1

2B

1B

0B

2A

1A

0A EXT EXT B A

SURF CTU2
Rx D Rx A Rx C Rx B Branch 1 (main) LPBK / VSWR Branch 2 (diversity) B C A

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Version 1 Rev 3

Tx Blocks Overview

Tx Blocks Overview
Introduction to transmit blocks
Transmit (Tx) blocks are located in up to six positions in the basket above the CTU2s. There are three types of internal Tx blocks: DUP = Duplexer. HCU = Hybrid combiner unit. DHU = Dual hybrid combiner unit. These Tx blocks are cooled by airflow underneath. Two types of plate can be located in the basket, one as a blanking plate and one to interface CTU2 Tx cables: Blanking plate. This ensures proper air flow and EMI shielding for an unused Tx block location in the basket. Feedthrough plate. This converts a single SMA connector to a single N-type connector, used for connecting a Tx cable from a CTU2 to an expansion cabinet. CAUTION Unused Tx block locations must be covered with a blanking plate for correct air flow and EMC shielding.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Tx Blocks Overview

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Version 1 Rev 3

Blanking plate

Blanking plate
Blanking plate function
The blanking plate is fitted in locations where a Tx block is not required. The blanking plate ensures the correct air flow through the cabinet. The plate is secured to the floor of the top panel basket using three M4 screws. Figure 414 shows a view of a blanking plate. NOTE It is important to ensure that all unused Tx block screw locations have a screw in place and these are tightened to the correct torque (see Torque values. in Chapter 1). This is to ensure maximum quality of EMC and general containment.

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Blanking plate

Version 1 Rev 3

Blanking Plate

M4 ATTACHMENT SCREWS

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Version 1 Rev 3

Feedthrough plate

Feedthrough plate
Feedthrough plate function
The feedthrough plate converts a normal SMA connector from the CTU2 to a N-type connector. The N-type connector is used to connect to a feedthrough plate in an expansion cabinet The plate is secured to the floor of the top panel basket using three M4 screws. Figure 415 shows a view of the top side of a feedthrough plate.

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Feedthrough plate

Version 1 Rev 3

Feedthrough Plate

N-TYPE CONNECTOR FOR EXPANSION CABINET CABLE

M4 ATTACHMENT SCREW

M4 ATTACHMENT SCREWS

SMA CONNECTOR FROM CTU2 OR ANOTHER Tx BLOCK

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Version 1 Rev 3

Duplexer (DUP)

Duplexer (DUP)
DUP function
The purpose of the DUP is to enable each antenna to serve one CTU2 for both Tx and Rx. This is achieved by the use of bandpass filters, contained within the duplexer. The DUP also contains a VSWR monitor that can detect and generate alarms for transmit antennas with a VSWR of 3:1 or worse. The DUP is located in the basket above the CTU2s, and is attached to the top panel using two M6 screws. Figure 416 shows the DUP Tx block with connectors identified.

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Duplexer (DUP)

Version 1 Rev 3

Duplexer (DUP)

LIFTING HANDLE

N-TYPE CONNECTOR TO SURF2

7/16 CONNECTOR TO ANTENNA M4 ATTACHMENT SCREW

ISOMETRIC VIEW

N-TYPE CONNECTOR TO SURF2

7/16 CONNECTOR TO ANTENNA

SIDE VIEW

SMA CONNECTOR FROM CTU2

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Version 1 Rev 3

Duplexer (DUP)

DUP functional diagram


Figure 417 shows a functional diagram of the DUP.

DUP connectors
Each DUP connects to: The Tx output from a CTU2, using an SMA connector. The connector is underneath the DUP. One antenna, for both Rx and Tx, using a 7/16 connector. This connector is on top of the DUP. The SURF, using one N-type connector. This connector is on top of the DUP.

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Duplexer (DUP)

Version 1 Rev 3

Duplexer Functional Diagram

Rx to SURF2

DUP VSWR Monitor

CTU2

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Version 1 Rev 3

Hybrid combiner unit (HCU)

Hybrid combiner unit (HCU)


HCU function
The HCU combines two CTU2 Tx outputs for input to the DUP. This enables up to four carriers (CTU2 operating in double density mode) to be combined onto one antenna The HCU is attached to the floor of the Tx block basket using three M4 screws. Figure 418 shows the HCU plate with connectors identified.

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Hybrid combiner unit (HCU)

Version 1 Rev 3

Hybrid Combiner Unit (HCU)

M4 ATTACHMENT SCREW

M4 ATTACHMENT SCREWS

SMA Tx CONNECTOR FROM CTU2

QMA CONNECTOR TO DUP

SMA Tx CONNECTOR FROM CTU2

SMA Tx CONNECTOR FROM CTU2 QMA CONNECTOR TO DUP

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Version 1 Rev 3

Hybrid combiner unit (HCU)

HCU functional diagram


Figure 419 shows a functional diagram of the HCU.

HCU connectors
Each HCU connects to: The Tx outputs of two CTU2s, using SMA connectors. The Tx input of a DUP, using a QMA snap-on/snap-off connector. NOTE All unused SMA inputs to HCU modules must be fitted with 50 ohm load terminations.

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Hybrid combiner unit (HCU)

Version 1 Rev 3

HCU Functional Diagram

Input to DUP QMA connector

1st CTU2

2nd CTU2

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Version 1 Rev 3

Dual hybrid combiner unit (DHU)

Dual hybrid combiner unit (DHU)


DHU function
The DHU is basically two HCUs, combined in a single unit. The DHU has three Tx inputs, thus enabling six carriers (CTU2 operating in double density mode) to be combined onto one antenna. Eight carriers can be combined onto a single antenna if one of the Tx inputs is fed through a HCU before being fed to the DHU. The DHU is located in the basket above the CTU2s, and attached to the floor of the Tx basket using three M4 screws. Figure 420 shows a view of the DHU with connectors identified.

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Dual hybrid combiner unit (DHU)

Version 1 Rev 3

Double Hybrid Combiner Unit (DHU)

M4 ATTACHMENT SCREWS

M4 ATTACHMENT SCREW

SMA Tx CONNECTOR FROM CTU2

SMA Tx CONNECTORS FROM CTU2s

QMA CONNECTOR TO DUP

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

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Version 1 Rev 3

Dual hybrid combiner unit (DHU)

DHU functional diagram


Figure 421 shows a functional diagram of the DHU.

DHU connectors
The DHU connects to: The Tx outputs of up to three CTU2s, using the SMA connectors underneath the DHU. The Tx input of a DUP, using a QMA snap-on/snap-off connector. NOTE All unused SMA inputs to the DHU must be fitted with 50 ohm load terminations.

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MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Dual hybrid combiner unit (DHU)

Version 1 Rev 3

Double Hybrid Combiner Unit (DHU)

Input to DUP QMA connector

DHU
3 dB typical loss across each combiner stage

CTU2

CTU2

CTU2

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

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Version 1 Rev 3

Overview of digital modules

Overview of digital modules


Introduction to digital modules
The digital modules contained in the Horizon IImacro cabinet are as follows: Site controller unit (HIISC). The HIISC provides the processing power, interfacing, and expansion capability for the BTS. The HIISC is the equivalent of (but not a replacement for) the MCUF in the Horizonmacro. One or two HIISCs can be installed in the cabinet, the second one (slave) provides redundancy in case of failure of the master. The master HIISC is mounted in the first slot (0) on the right side of the cabinet. If fitted, the slave is mounted in the slot (1) to the left of the master. Expansion multiplexer (XMUX) module (optional). The XMUX replaces the HIISC in expansion cabinets, where it connects to the HIISC in the master cabinet via the site expansion board. The XMUX is the equivalent of the FMUX in the Horizonmacro. A single XMUX is incorporated into the HIISC for communication with the site expansion board. XMUX redundancy in expansion cabinets is supported. Site expansion board (optional). The site expansion board provides the control interface and physical link connections between the master and expansion cabinets via fibre optic connectors. The board is only fitted if site expansion is required and must be fitted in both master and expansion cabinets. Site expansion board redundancy is supported. Alarm module. The alarm module provides all the monitoring and reporting facilities required for site and customer alarms. An alarm module is required in all cabinets, whether master or expansion. Figure 422 shows the position of the digital modules in the Horizon IImacro cabinet.

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Overview of digital modules

Version 1 Rev 3

Digital Module Location

REDUNDANT SITE EXPANSION BOARD (B)

MASTER SITE EXPANSION BOARD (A)

MASTER HII SC (XMUX IN EXPANSION CABINET)

REDUNDANT HII SC (REDUNDANT XMUX IN EXPANSION CABINET)

ALARM MODULE

NOTE

Site expansion boards are only required when expansion cabinets are used.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Overview of digital modules

Redundancy
Redundancy capability for each of the digital modules is described below. HIISC The master cabinet must contain at least one HIISC (master), installed as shown in Figure 422. A second HIISC (slave) may also be installed to provide redundancy. XMUX All expansion cabinets must contain at least one XMUX, installed in the same slot location as the master HIISC in the master cabinet. A second XMUX may also be installed to provide redundancy. XMUX redundancy is coupled to redundancy of the HIISC in the master cabinet; that is, the XMUX is only redundant if the HIISC is also redundant. Site expansion board A site expansion board is only required when expansion cabinets are used. In such cases a site expansion board must be fitted in slot A (see Figure 422) in each cabinet. expansion board redundancy is coupled to HIISC and XMUX redundancy. If the master cabinet has a redundant HIISC and the expansion cabinets have redundant XMUXs, each cabinet (including the master) must also have a redundant site expansion board installed in slot B. Alarm module An alarm module must be installed in each cabinet, master or slave. Alarm module redundancy is not supported.

Communication between the HIISC and transceivers


The HIISC is connected to the CTU2s in the same cabinet through the cabinet backplane. Where an additional slave cabinet is used, the data streams for up to six external transceivers are multiplexed onto a single line by the internal XMUX in the HIISC and then transmitted to the site expansion board. Fibre optic transceivers on the site expansion board convert the TTL signals for transmission to the site expansion boards in the slave cabinets via fibre optic cables. The receiving expansion board converts the data stream back to TTL signals before it is forwarded to the XMUX for demultiplexing. The individual data streams are then distributed to the appropriate transceivers. Figure 423 shows the communication path in block diagram form.

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Overview of digital modules

Version 1 Rev 3

Internal Communication

MASTER BTS

CTU2 CTU2 CTU2 CTU2 CTU2 CTU2 BACKPLANE

HIISC
INTERNAL XMUX

SITE EXPANSION BOARD Tx Rx

Fibre Optic Cables

SLAVE BTS
SITE EXPANSION BOARD XMUX

SLAVE BTS
SITE EXPANSION BOARD XMUX

SLAVE BTS

Rx Tx SITE EXPANSION BOARD XMUX

UP TO 6 TRANSCEIVERS

UP TO 6 TRANSCEIVERS

UP TO 6 TRANSCEIVERS

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)


HIISC overview
The HIISC provides all the site processing functions (except for the CTU2 RF functions). The functionality of the separate MCUF, NIU, FMUX, and BPSM modules in the Horizonmacro cabinet are all integrated within the HIISC. The Horizon IImacro cabinet may contain up to two HIISC modules (one master and one for redundancy). Each site and module has an electronic ID for remote identification. NOTE Although the HIISC provides the equivalent functionality of the MCUF in Horizonmacro, it is NOT backwards compatible and cannot be used in a Horizonmacro cabinet.

The main features of the HIISC are as follows: Processors for software and NIU functionality. Programmable timeslot interchanger (TSI) that supports the following: TDM links for single (legacy) and double density GSM and single density EDGE. Three expansion links (FMUX equivalent). These links can connect to additional Horizon IImacro cabinets (with double density GSM or single density EDGE transceivers) or legacy Horizonmacro cabinets (with single/double density GSM or single density EDGE transceivers). BBH routeing for GSM/GPRS (single or double density) or EDGE transceivers.

Six integrated E1/T1 span line interfaces. (An upgrade for the CIM/BIM will support eight E1/T1 spans on later equipment.) Programmable synchronization/timimg block for support of multiple air interfaces. A GPS interface is included to support Compact EDGE and other air interfaces that require inter-site synchronization. Figure 424 shows a HIISC module.

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Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro Site Controller (HIISC)

COMPACT FLASH CARD SLOT

BACKPLANE CONNECTORS

CARD EJECT BUTTON TTY MMI

CAL PORT NIU ETHERNET PORT STATUS LEDS (RED & GREEN)

RESET BUTTONS (CPU: RESETS CPU FULL: REMOVES SOFTWARE FROM MEMORY) SYNC/NIU TTY PORT

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SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

Link to redundant HIISC


The link to the redundant HIISC is similar to a transceiver link, but does not have the BBH capability, or the link delay measurement and compensation facility. The 6.12s, and 60ms signals, are inserted into timeslots 8 and 16. When the HIISC is in slave mode, timeslot and E1/T1 clock information is extracted from the HIISC link and passed to the sync block. The main processor HDLC link to the redundant HIISC can be routed in any unused timeslot(s) of this link. The ASIC can switch any timeslot on the redundancy link to any timeslot on any of the other links connected to it such as the transceiver links, network links, redundancy link or processor links.

Front panel interfaces


Compact flash card interface The compact flash card slot is located on the front panel of the HIISC, and is used for: Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP) memory. Rapid site initialization. The 32 Mbyte card can be write enabled, for upgrade of site information, or disabled to protect card use for other sites or secure the site code. TTY MMI interface A standard TTY interface is provided on the front panel, of 9.6 kbit/s (8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit (8 N 1)). A local maintenance terminal can be attached to this port to use the MMI (Man Machine Interface) of the HIISC. CAL port The CAL port on the front panel of the HIISC can be used to calibrate the sync block clock via MMI commands. The 8 kHz reference output is used in the GCLK calibration procedure. NIU ethernet port and SYNC/NIU TTY port These ports are for Motorola test purposes only.

PIX interfaces
The HIISC provides a serial interface for the PIX outputs. These are routed to the cabinet alarm board and enable relay contact control of external customer equipment.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

SDRAM, flash EPROM and code loading functions


SDRAM The 32 Mbyte SDRAM provides operational code and data storage for the main processors. Flash EPROM The 8 Mbyte flash EPROM has the following functions: Storing boot code and executive process code. It has a fast access time (< 75 ns), enabling direct execution. The boot code is factory set, and reprogrammed only in major software upgrades. Non-volatile data storage of diagnostic data and module ID information. Code loading The boot and executive code held in the flash EPROM initiates the HIISC on power up or reset. If a compact flash card is fitted, operational code may be obtained and copied to the SDRAM for execution. If no card or code is available, the operational code is obtained from the BSC. Before execution, the operational code held in SDRAM is checked with code held at the BSC. The BSC downloads any changed code objects to the SDRAM. After successful checking of the SDRAM operational code, the code is executed and the compact flash card is updated with any changed objects. CSFP code loading If a compact flash card is available, then a code storage facility processor (CSFP) function can be supported. A new software load can be downloaded in the background, without any reduction in service, and stored on the compact flash card. Once the complete load has been transferred to the compact flash card, a code swap can be initiated. The site is reset and the new software brought into service (<10 minutes). As a precaution, the old version is held on the compact flash card to support a roll back to the original version if required.

HIISC internal architecture


This section describes the internal connections and individual elements of the HIISC, relating to site control. Figure 425 shows the internal architecture of the HIISC.

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Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

Version 1 Rev 3

HSIIC Internal Architecture

NIU BLOCK Control via NIU port 0, TS 0 NIU port 0 & port 1 2

HII SC

NIU CONTROL PROCESSOR

LINE INTERFACE MODULE

LINE INTERFACE UNIT & FRAMERS

TSI

SITE CONTROL PROCESSOR

24

Control interface Internal 2048 kbit/s TDM interface with 32 timeslots External E1 or T1 interface Internal E1 or T1 interface Frequency reference CTU2s

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Version 1 Rev 3

Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

Line interface module The line interface module consists of passive analogue components and is responsible for physical termination and protection. It provides connections for six span lines. 75 ohm coax and 120 ohm twisted pair are provided for E1 termination. Each provides a 120 ohm interface to the NIU line interface unit (LIU). An alternative unit conforming to ANSI T.403 is available for T1 termination, if required. This is the only physical difference between an E1 and T1 capable site controller cabinet. LIU and framers Dual mode E1/T1 LIU and framers are used, thus permitting the soft selection of either E1 or T1 span line connections. To maintain compatibility with existing GSM BTS and BSC equipment, the line driver is set for 120 ohm termination for E1 mode and > 600 ft (approx. 183 m) for T1 mode. The LIU/framer bridges between the internal 32 timeslot 2048 kbit/s TDM highway and the external E1 2048 kbit/s and T1 1544 kbit/s TDM formats. (For T1 this is achieved using a timeslot-mapping schema.) Timeslot interchanger (TSI) The TSI is controlled by the site control processor (the NIU control processor is not be equipped with a TSI control interface). A 64 kbit/s timeslot switch is responsible (within the context of backhaul and RSL requirements) for switching the following: Timeslots containing TRAU between the CTU2s and NIU framer / LIU. Timeslots containing RSL traffic between the NIU framer / LIU and NIU control processor. Timeslots containing NIU control messages and RSL traffic stripped of LAPD between the NIU control processor and the site control processor. Inserting 16 kbit/s RSL links into a bit-pair of a designated timeslot. The use of the TSI in this fashion allows a RSL to be placed into any timeslot (other than timeslot 0 in E1 systems) on any of the 6 spans. The design provides complete flexibility in the number of timeslots on any span that can be used for RSL traffic. Indeed, all 6 could be placed on a single span. However, each RSL has the limitation that the uplink (BTS to BSC) and downlink (BSC to BTS) timeslot mappings are identical. NIU control processor and RSL termination The NIU control processor terminates the LAPD protocol layer for each RSL. It supports up to 8 separate and simultaneous LAPD connections. Each LAPD connection may be configured as either a 64 kbit/s link or as a 16 kbit/s link. The NIU control processor also configures and monitors the LIU / framer. To facilitate these functions the NIU control processor is provisioned with a control interface to the LIU / framer and a dual 32 timeslot 2048 kbit/s TDM interface to the TSI. The NIU control processor terminates up to 16 full duplex HDLC channels - up to 8 for LAPD transport to the BSC and up to 8 for RSL (including one for control) transport to the site control processor. Site control processor The site control processor is provisioned with a control interface for the TSI and two 2048 kbit/s TDM interfaces to the TSI. It is responsible for configuration of the TSI and control and monitoring of the NIU. NIU control processor to site control processor interface The interface between the NIU control processor and the site control processor consists of NIU control messages plus RSL messages stripped of the LAPD protocol. Each RSL connection to the BSC utilizes a 64 kbit/s timeslot between the NIU control processor and the site control processor.

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Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

Version 1 Rev 3

NOTE

NIU control messages, including those used to establish, reconfigure and disconnect RSL links, are always carried within timeslot 0 on the NIU TDM port 0. These messages are multiplexed with traffic comprising the first established RSL. The site control processor dynamically assigns additional RSL connections to any of the other remaining 31 timeslots of NIU TDM port 0 or 32 timeslots of NIU TDM port 1.

Daisy chains The HIISC supports backhaul daisy chain configurations. Traffic for upstream sites is routed via the TSI, allowing for multiplexing over shared spans with local site traffic. Span type selection The NIU defaults to the E1 interface type for all span lines, but supports a message interface with the site control processor that allows the span type to be changed to T1. E1 framing options The NIU can enable and disable timeslot 0 CRC-4 multi-framing (enaA 64 kbit/s connection is used, regardless of whether the connection to the BSC is operating at 64 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s.bled by default). Selection is supported by a message interface with the site control processor. In either case, timeslot 16 multi-framing is disabled (allowing timeslot 16 to used for TRAU or RSL traffic) and HDB3 line coding is used. E1 N-bit facility The NIU can enable and disable the use E1 N-bits for alarm indications. Selection is supported by a message interface with the site control processor. T1 framing options The NIU can select either T1 D4 framing with AMI line coding or T1 ESF framing with B8ZS line coding (default). Selection is supported by a message interface with the site control processor. Timing extraction A 2048/1544 kHz frequency reference and a 125 s timing reference is extracted by the framer / LIU from each span. This unit also performs jitter and wander attenuation. Each of the extracted references are fed into a switch that is under site control processor supervision. This is used to select the reference used for phase locking the SYNC function. TRAU Span lines transporting TRAU are switched to the appropriate CTU2 by the TSI.

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Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

RSL configuration and control


LAPD links Each LAPD link is configured with the following default parameters: T203 = 10 seconds. The maximum I frame size (N201 = 610 bytes). The site control processor is able to configure the following parameters for each LAPD connection via the control message interface to the NIU control processor: Rate (64 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s). Bit-pair for 16 kbit/s connections. SAP. TEI. The maximum number of outstanding I frames (k value). T200. The maximum number of retransmissions (N200). NOTE The span line timeslot and span line are not required as the site control processor sets these directly at the TSI.

Additionally, the site control processor specifies the following internal connection parameters: NIU port and timeslot for the connection between the NIU control processor and the site control processor. NIU port and timeslot for the connection between the NIU control processor and the TSI. 16 kbit/s RSLs Any or all of the 8 RSL links can be configured at either 16 kbit/s or 64 kbit/s. When configured at 16 kbit/s, a RSL occupies a bit-pair within a single timeslot. Four bit-pair positions are supported; bits 0 and 1, bits 2 and 3, bits 4 and 5, bits 6 and 7. For downlink flows, the TSI switches the entire timeslot containing the 16 kbit/s bit-pair onto a NIU port timeslot. The NIU control processor recovers the LAPD from the designated bit-pair. For uplink flows, the NIU control processor places the LAPD within the designated bit-pair and timeslot on its TSI connection. The TSI then inserts this bit-pair into a designated timeslot, while preserving the content of the other six bits within that timeslot. RSL and span alarms LAPD link management events for each LAPD connection and span alarm events for each span are reported to the site control processor by the NIU control processor. Flow control The interface between the NIU control processor and the site control processor supports flow control. This enables the NIU processor to throttle RSL traffic from the site control processor in the event of an overload condition. This condition may occur when 16 kbit/s RSL links are active or when multiple heavily loaded 64 kbit/s RSL links are active. To reduce the possibility of overloading, the processing delay within the NIU control processor is minimized and the RSL message buffer depth is maximized. A fully loaded NIU (up to 8 established RSL links) maintains a maximum processor delay of less than 25 ms per message. Delay is measured from receipt of the end of the incoming frame to the start of transmission of the outgoing frame. The NIU control processor has 2000 kbytes of message buffers.

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Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC)

Version 1 Rev 3

Integral HIISC XMUX functionality


The equivalent functionality of a separate XMUX module is integrated within the HIISC, thus enabling the HIISC in the master cabinet to communicate with the CTU2s in up to three expansion cabinets via fibre optic links between the site expansion boards.

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Version 1 Rev 3

XMUX module

XMUX module
Overview of the XMUX module
The expansion multiplexer (XMUX) module replaces the HIISC in expansion cabinets and provides the interface to the master cabinet. Two XMUX modules may be installed in an expansion cabinet, one for the master HIISC, and one for the slave. An expansion cabinet only requires one XMUX to connect to six CTU2s within the cabinet (plus one for redundancy if required). NOTE If Horizon IImacro expansion cabinets are added, the master cabinet and expansion cabinets must also contain optional site expansion boards.

The XMUX can support up to six transceiver links. It uses a 16.384 Mbit/s Manchester encoded serial data link, organized as 256 x 8-bit timeslots in a 125 microsecond frame. Manchester coding is used to detect errors, indicated at timeslot 0 for each transceiver, enabling error correction at the receiving XMUX. NOTE Although the XMUX provides the equivalent functionality of the FMUX in Horizonmacro, it is NOT backwards compatible and cannot be used in a Horizonmacro cabinet.

Figure 426 shows a XMUX module.

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XMUX module

Version 1 Rev 3

Expansion Multiplexer (XMUX)

BACKPLANE CONNECTOR

STATUS LEDS (SAME AS HII SC)

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Version 1 Rev 3

XMUX module

XMUX functional description


The HIISC transmits and receives a 2.048 Mbit/s data stream link to each operational CTU2. In the master cabinet this is achieved by the backplane, without the need for a XMUX. If the CTU2 is in an expansion cabinet, the integrated XMUX in the HIISC combines the data stream with up to five others and then sends the multiplexed signal to the site expansion board via the backplane. The site expansion board performs a TTL to fibre optic signal conversion, for onward transmission to the expansion cabinet via fibre optic cables. At the expansion cabinet, another site expansion board converts the fibre optic signal back to electronic form and sends this to the XMUX. The XMUX demultiplexes the signal and sends the data stream to the appropriate CTU2. The data stream return path from the CTU2 in the expansion cabinet is a reversal of the above. Figure 427 illustrates the above description.

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XMUX module

Version 1 Rev 3

XMUX Interconnection Block Diagram

CTU2 CTU2 CTU2 CTU2 XMUX CTU2 CTU2 TTL Signals SITE EXPANSION BOARD Tx MASTER BTS Rx Fibre Optic Links TTL Signals SITE EXPANSION BOARD Tx Rx

CTU2 CTU2 CTU2 XMUX CTU2 CTU2 CTU2

HII SC

EXPANSION BTS

NOTE

Site expansion is not restricted to using Horizon IImacro cabinets as slaves. Horizonmacro and/or M-Cell 6 (equipped with a FMUX) can also be used. Similarly, the master BTS can be a Horizonmacro or FMUX-equipped M-Cell 6, with a Horizon IImacro as one or more slaves.

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Version 1 Rev 3

Site expansion board

Site expansion board


Expansion board description
The site expansion board is an optional module that is only required for site expansion. One or two boards may be installed in the Horizon IImacro cabinet, depending on whether redundancy is required. The primary function of the expansion board is to convert TTL signals to fibre optic signals (and vice versa) to enable the master and slave cabinets to communicate with each other. The board contains the following I/O connectors (see Figure 428): 6 x fibre optic connectors (three Tx/Rx (OUT/IN) pairs), for connecting up to three expansion cabinets. Each fibre optic link is full duplex 16.384 Mbit/s and is capable of driving up to 1 km. Optional 1 x 15-pin D-sub connector for GPS. Redundancy is determined by the complement of HIISCs in the master cabinet. If the cabinet contains two HIISCs (1 + 1 redundant), two XMUXs must be installed in each Horizon IImacro slave cabinet and two site expansion boards are also required in the master and each slave cabinet.

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Site expansion board

Version 1 Rev 3

Site Expansion Board

SLOTS FOR FITTING STRAIN RELIEF CLIPS HANDLE FOR REMOVAL

FIBRE OPTIC CONNECTORS

GPS CONNECTOR (OPTIONAL) M6 ATTACHMENT SCREW

BACKPLANE INTERFACE CONNECTOR

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Version 1 Rev 3

Alarm module

Alarm module
Alarm module overview
The alarm module is located on the left side of the digital module shelf. It provides the cabinet equipment with an external alarm monitoring system to report operational status. The alarm module: Collects all cabinet alarms (received from the backplane). Provides current sensing for 16 customer inputs (referred to as site alarms). These inputs are provided by the PIX connectors PIX0 and PIX1. Controls up to four relay driven outputs linked to customer equipment (changeover contacts 30 V 1 A maximum). These outputs are provided by the PIX0 connector. Transmits alarm information to all CTU2s in the same cabinet. Processes antenna VSWR monitor alarm signals. NOTE The alarm module is not backwards compatible with the alarm module used in Horizonmacro.

Figure 429 shows an alarm module.

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Alarm module

Version 1 Rev 3

Alarm Module

BACKPLANE CONNECTORS

5 LED PAIRS

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Version 1 Rev 3

Alarm module

Alarm module functionality


The alarm module receives inputs from: The external alarm connector on the interface panel, (from the optional batery backup system (the BBS)). Cabinet PSUs (identifying manufacturer code and slot number). Environmental control devices. Customer defined alarms. Antenna VSWR monitoring circuit within Tx blocks. The alarm board receives these inputs, encodes them, and then passes the code word to all CTU2s in the cabinet via the backplane.

Alarm module replacement - effect on alarms


The alarm module can be replaced while the cabinet system is running (hot swap). This will temporarily interrupt alarms, with the OMC-R receiving an additional alarm module out of service alarm, which automatically clears upon correct insertion of the replacement module.

Alarm collection from expansion cabinets


Alarms detected by the alarm module in an expansion cabinet are forwarded to the transceivers. These then transmit the alarms to the HIISC in the master cabinet via the XMUX and site expansion board in the expansion cabinet and the site expansion board in the master cabinet.

Alarm module display presentation


All alarm LEDs are green (OK) when equipment is functioning correctly or red (alarm) when equipment is faulty. Table 44 shows the LED designations. Table 3-3 Alarm module LEDs Legend MAINS DOOR 1 RECTFRD DOOR 2LVD FAN 0 FAN 1 FAN 2 HMS 1 HMS 2 LED colour states Unlit/Red Unlit/Red Unlit/Red Unlit/Red Unlit/Red Green/Red Green/Red Green/Red Unlit/Red Unlit/Red Equipment monitored (Green = OK, Red = FAULT) Not used. Not used. Cabinet door open alarm. Not used. Low voltage disconnect (LVD) alarm (battery backup option). Fan Tray 0 fully operational (2-fan tray). Fan Tray 1 fully operational (2-fan tray). Fan Tray 2 fully operational (2-fan tray). Not used. Not used.

LED location 1 (top) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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HorizonMicro/HorizonCompact Operational Theory

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 4

HorizonMicro/HorizonCompact Operational Theory

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HorizonMicro/HorizonCompact Operational Theory

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Chapter objectives

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Identify and state the purpose of the Horizonmicro/compact. Describe the functions and simplified operation of the Horizonmicro/compact. Identify and describe the simplified operation of the Horizonmicro/compact Digital and RF modules.

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Horizonmicro manual definition and introduction

Horizonmicro manual definition and introduction


Overview of Horizonmicro equipment
The Horizonmicro is a two carrier microcellular base transceiver station (BTS) which operates in all frequency bands that adopt the GSM standard (GSM900 and DCS1800). It can be deployed in or out of doors, operated over a wide temperature range, and be wall or pole mounted.

Overview of Horizoncompact equipment


The Horizoncompact is a two carrier microcellular Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and booster unit which operates in frequency bands that adopt the GSM standard (EGSM900). The Horizoncompact looks identical to the Horizonmicro with covers fitted, but has three RF outputs. The Horizoncompact booster consists of two transmitter amplifiers, which when used with the Horizoncompact, boost a 1.2 Watt (+30.8 dBm) per carrier BTS output (available at the booster input) to 10 Watts (+40 dBm) per carrier. The Horizoncompact can be deployed in or out of doors, operated over a wide temperature range, and be wall or pole mounted. The Horizonmicro serves as a micro BTS, whilst the Horizoncompact with the booster serves to provide macro coverage.

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Horizonmicro manual definition and introduction

Version 1 Rev 3

General view of an Horizonmicro

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Horizonmicro manual definition and introduction

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Horizonmicro manual definition and introduction

Version 1 Rev 3

General view of an Horizoncompact in a typical configuration

RF cable to antenna 2 Horizoncompact booster

RF cable to antenna 1

RF cabling

Horizoncompact BTS

RS232 alarm link

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BTS enclosure

BTS enclosure
Overview of BTS enclosure
The Horizonmicro/Horizoncompact is designed to be wall or pole mounted. A mounting bracket is provided, and once this is in place, the complete Horizoncompact can easily be installed onto the bracket. The Horizoncompact is provided with a moulded solar cover which, when removed, allows access for maintenance purposes. All input and output cables (for example, ac power, HDSL and E1/T1 lines) enter the enclosure via the underside. The external RFcables may be routed from top or bottom of the enclosure. All cables have specified routes between the enclosure body and each connector. The Horizoncompact has no duplexer or isolator/combiner module in the chassis. A duplexer is found in the Horizoncompact booster for Tx2/Rx output and input. There are two isolators, one in each transmit path from the Dual Transceiver (DTRX) module. The outputs go directly to the Horizoncompact booster. The following diagrams show the location of modules:

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BTS enclosure

Version 1 Rev 3

The location of modules and components

AC-DC power supply module

RDIS module DTRX module (incorporating the duplexer and combiner/solator module) Antenna connector

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BTS enclosure

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BTS enclosure

Version 1 Rev 3

The location of modules and components

Front view

AC power socket AC-DC power supply module

RDIS module DTRX module (incorporating the isolator modules) RX cable connector (external 'N' type RF connector) TX1 cable connector TX2 cable connector slave master (external 'N' type RF connector) (external 'N' type RF connector)

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BTS enclosure

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BTS enclosure

Version 1 Rev 3

The location of components and connectors


Internal front view

AC-DC APSM

Distribution board

Battery

Dino/rhino

Clamp

HDSL modules (optional)

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BTS enclosure

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BTS enclosure

Version 1 Rev 3

Horizonmicro/Horizoncompact underside view (with battery removed)

Battery connector

MMI interface

Alarms connector from booster (Horizoncompact only)

Line termination module (rhino shown) (see chapter no tag)

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Booster

Booster
Overview of booster
The Horizoncompact booster is designed to be wall or pole mounted. A mounting bracket is provided, and once this is in place, the complete Horizoncompact booster can easily be installed onto the bracket. The Horizoncompact booster is provided with a moulded cover which, when removed, allows access for maintenance purposes. All cables enter via the underside of the unit.

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Booster

Version 1 Rev 3

View of the Horizoncompact booster with cover removed

AC power socket

ANT2 TX2 Alarms Plug RX ANT1 TX1

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Version 1 Rev 3

BTS power supply system

BTS power supply system


Overview of BTS power supply system
The power supply system comprises: An ac-dc power supply module (ac-dc PSM). A distribution board. Optional battery backup.

Overview of BTS power supply module


The Horizoncompact ac-dc Power Supply Module (PSM) provides all internal voltages from single phase ac mains in the nominal range 88 V to 264 V, 66 Hz to 45 Hz. The alarm signals relating to mains fail, low voltage disconnect imminent and power supply over temperature are generated within the ac-dc PSM and fed to the MCU-m section of RDIS.

Distribution board
Functional description The power supplies generated by the ac-dc PSM are distributed, via the distribution board, and used by the various modules listed below. The power supply levels are all controlled by the ac-dc PSM, and there are no adjustable parameters. An optional battery provides an auxiliary power source in the event of ac mains failure.

Overview of battery backup


The power system incorporates an optional battery backup power system in the event of an ac mains failure. The battery is able to supply sufficient power (for a minimum of five minutes) for the system to perform the necessary tasks prior to complete system power down.

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BTS power supply system

Version 1 Rev 3

Location of the BTS power supply system components

AC-DC PSM

Distribution board

Battery cable

Battery

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Digital modules

Digital modules
Overview of digital modules
The digital modules within Horizoncompact consist of the following: Radio Digital Interface System (RDIS) module. DINO/RHINO module. High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) module. Line termination modules.

RDIS The RDIS is the main digital control module containing the Main Control Unit, micro (MCU-m) and the Olympus Radio Architecture Controller (ORAC). There are two ORACs, each designed to support a single, dual-rate basic GSM RF carrier. DINO/RHINO The DINO/RHINO module provides the functionality required to interface with the network. The DINO has both E1 and T1 variants. The RHINO supports E1 only. High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) module The HDSL module enables E1 data rates to be transmitted as payloads shared over two twisted-pair cables. Line termination modules To facilitate the customer options that require connection to an Horizoncompact and to provide an EMC screen between the internal electronics and the environment, modules are provided to interface with either the 2.048 Mbits/s (E1) or 1.544 Mbit/s (T1) links and High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) 135 ohm links.

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Radio Digital Interface System (RDIS)

Version 1 Rev 3

Radio Digital Interface System (RDIS)


Overview of RDIS
The RDIS is the main digital control module in the Horizoncompact and can be split into two main functions: Main Control Unit, micro (MCU-m). Olympus Radio Architecture Controller (ORAC). The RDIS contains the functionality of one MCU-m and two ORACs. The main site control functions for an Horizoncompact site are accommodated in the RDIS. It provides a processing platform for the site control software; the main software functions being: Call Processing (CP). Cell Resource Manager (CRM). Radio Resource State Machine (RRSM). Switching. Support of DTRX - connection is made to two ORACs.

The maximum number of carriers is limited to two and the RDIS is designed to drive both carrier units directly. The MCU-m is customized to drive two ORACs.

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Main Control Unit, micro (MCU-m)

Main Control Unit, micro (MCU-m)


Overview of MCU-m
The Main Control Unit, micro (MCU-m) module provides the following functions: Control processing. Crosspoint switch. BTS master clock synchronization. Timing. RSS processing (for both ORACs).

The processing supports the BTS site processing and fault management, together with BTS call processing (RRSM and CRM). The crosspoint switch provides switching for the network interfaces and the two ORAC functional blocks.

Processor functionality
The MCU-m processing section provides a 68LC060 processor in companion mode with a QUICC32. The QUICC32 is used to provide system integration and peripheral functions, specifically, a 32 channel HDLC controller for the TCU BCF links. The main processing section of the MCU-m currently supports 16 Mbytes of RAM. The DRAM system implements an ECC system for high data integrity. The boot up code is stored in a 1 Mbyte flash EPROM, a further 0.5 Mbytes of flash EPROM is provided for non volatile data storage. A Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP) is supported via a PCMCIA interface. This allows flash memory cards of various sizes to be fitted.

68LC060 processor
The 68LC060 has a clock operating speed of 50 MHz with a bus speed of 25 MHz (the reduced bus speed is due to the use of the QUICC32 in companion mode). The on-board Memory Management Unit (MMU) provides write protection of memory areas, particularly program storage areas.

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Horizonmicro2/Horizoncompact2 Operational Theory

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 5

Horizonmicro2/Horizoncompact2 Operational Theory

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5-1

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Horizonmicro2/Horizoncompact2 Operational Theory

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Chapter objectives

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Identify and state the purpose of the Horizonmicro2/compact2. Describe the functions and simplified operation of the Horizonmicro2/compact2. Identify and describe the simplified operation of the Horizonmicro2/compact2 Digital and RF modules.

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5-3

Version 1 Rev 3

Introduction to the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs

Introduction to the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs


Overview
The Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 are two-carrier base transceiver stations (BTSs) that operate in the GSM900 or DCS1800 frequency bands. They can be deployed indoor or out of doors, operated over a wide temperature range, and can be wall or pole mounted. Both systems are covered in this service manual because of the similarities between them: They have the same external appearance and are based on similar hardware. They have an Expansion feature that allows two or three Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2 BTS units to be connected together to effectively form a two, four or six carrier site. When the expansion feature is used (see Chapter 7), the two or three Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2 BTS units in the expanded system are interconnected by fibre optic cables. One BTS in the configuration acts as the master and the other units as slaves. The master BTS in an expanded system is connected to the network by an E1 or HDSL link. Horizonmicro2 power The Horizonmicro2 GSM900 generates 1.2 W (+30.8 dBm) per carrier, while the DCS1800 generates 1.0 W (30.0 dBm) per carrier. NOTE Motorola does not recommend using the Horizonmicro2 in an omni 6 site configuration unless the cell radius is small (in-building coverage required, for example). This is due to the very low Tx output power generated if six carriers are combined. Motorola recommends one antenna per site for Horizonmicro2 and two antennas per site for Horizoncompact2.

Horizoncompact2 power The Horizoncompact2 incorporates a booster that enables it to provide macro coverage. The BTS contains two transmitter amplifiers, which provide the following power outputs: The GSM900 version boosts the BTS output of 1.2 W (+30.8 dBm) per carrier to 10 W (+40 dBm) per carrier. The DCS1800 version, boosts the BTS output of 2.0 W (33.0 dBm) per carrier to 10 W (+40 dBm) per carrier. The booster is connected to a single BTS and antenna. An omni macro site comprising three BTSs requires three boosters.

Software requirements
Software release GSR4 limits the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 to function only as single BTS systems without expansion capabilities. Software release GSR5 or later is required to support the expansion feature for the Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2. The GSR5 software is needed in both master and slave BTSs to enable the master/slave relationship. If GSR4 software is used on an expanded system, only the BTS with the E1/HDSL connection will be functional.

Battery backup
Battery backup allows a minimum of five minutes full operation for the BTS only; the booster has no battery backup. During battery backup operation the booster operates in bypass mode.

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Introduction to the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs

Version 1 Rev 3

Dual frequency support


There are two variants of the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs. One variant operates in the GSM900 frequency band and the other variant operates in the DCS1800 frequency band. The operating frequency is hardware specific and cannot be changed by software. Although a single BTS can only operate at the frequency it is designed for, an expanded system can have a mix of the two variants and can thus support both GSM900 and DCS1800 frequencies.

Frequency hopping
The Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 support synthesizer frequency hopping (SFH).

Links
Options exist for sites to be interconnected by E1 or HDSL (star and daisy chain) links. NOTE Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs shipped after 31st December 2001 are not fitted with an internal HDSL modem. A suitable external HDSL modem must be used if a HDSL link to the BSC is required for these BTSs. Contact the local Motorola office for assistance prior to purchasing a HDSL modem for this purpose.

Figure 61 shows a Horizonmicro2 BTS with expansion unit cover fitted and Figure 62 shows a Horizoncompact2 BTS and booster unit.

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Introduction to the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs

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Introduction to the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs

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Horizonmicro2External View

RF CABLE TO ANTENNA 1

RF CABLE TO ANTENNA 2

Horizon compact2 Booster

RF CABLING

RS232 ALARM LINK

Horizon compact2 BTS

Wall Mounted

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BTS enclosure

BTS enclosure
Overview of the BTS enclosure
The Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 are designed to be wall or pole mounted. A mounting bracket is provided and, once this is in place, the complete Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 can easily be installed onto the bracket. The Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 are provided with moulded covers which can be removed to allow access for maintenance purposes. All input and output cables (for example, ac power, HDSL and E1 lines) enter the enclosure via the underside. The external RF cables may be routed from either the top or bottom of the enclosure. All cables have specified routes between the enclosure body and each connector. The Horizonmicro2 has a built in duplexer and isolator/combiner module for Tx1/Rx output and input. The Horizoncompact2 does not contain a duplexer or isolator/combiner module in the chassis. The duplexer is located in the Horizoncompact2 booster for Tx/Rx output and input. There are two isolators; one in each transmit path from the dual transceiver (DTRX) module. The outputs go directly to the Horizoncompact2 booster. Figure 63 shows the locations of the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 modules and components. Figure 64 shows the location of BTS components and connectors.

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BTS enclosure

Version 1 Rev 3

Modules and Components

AC SUPPLY SOCKET AC-DC POWER SUPPLY MODULE DUMMY CONNECTORS RX/TX CONNECTOR (External N-type RF connector) RDIS MODULE

DTRX MODULE (incorporating isolator modules)

Horizon micro2 BTS


ig.081.rh

AC SUPPLY SOCKET AC-DC POWER SUPPLY MODULE TX1 CABLE CONNECTOR MASTER (External N-type RF connector) DTRX MODULE (incorporating isolator modules) TX2 CABLE CONNECTOR SLAVE (External N-type RF connector) RX CABLE CONNECTOR (External N-type RF connector) RDIS MODULE

Horizon compact2 BTS

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BTS enclosure

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BTS enclosure

Version 1 Rev 3

Component Location

AC-DC PSM

DISTRIBUTION BOARD

FIBRE OPTIC CONNECTORS

DINO/RHINO

HDSL MODULES

BATTERY

CUSTOMER INTERFACE CLAMP

Front view

BATTERY CONNECTOR

MMI

ALARMS CONNECTOR FROM BOOSTER

LINE TERMINATION MODULE (RHINO SHOWN)

Underside view with battery removed

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Booster

Booster
Overview of the booster
The Horizoncompact2 booster is designed to be wall or pole mounted. A mounting bracket is provided and, once this is in place, the complete Horizoncompact2 booster can easily be installed onto the bracket. The Horizoncompact2 booster is provided with a moulded cover which can be removed to allow access for maintenance purposes. The cables for ac power, HDSL and E1 links enter via the underside of the unit. RF cables may be routed from either the top or bottom. There is a difference in the design between the GSM900 booster and DCS1800 booster (see Figure 65 and Figure 66). Figure 65 shows the Horizoncompact2 GSM900 booster with cover removed. Figure 66 shows the Horizoncompact2 DCS1800 booster with cover removed.

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Booster

Version 1 Rev 3

GSM 900 Booster


AC POWER SOCKET

ANT1 TX1 ALARMS PLUG RX ANT2 TX2

DCS 1800 Booster


ALARMS PLUG

RX

TX2

ANT1 AC POWER SOCKET

ANT2 TX1

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Overview of RF modules

Overview of RF modules
Introduction
The RF modules consist of: Dual transceiver module (DTRX). Isolator modules. NOTE To avoid problems with dust contamination of the fibre optics it is very important that the dust covers are kept in place on the fibre optic plugs at all times the cables are not connected. Please strictly observe the warning label affixed on the DTRX module.

Figure 67 shows the location of the RF modules on the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2.

Overview of DTRX module


The DTRX module supports dual RF transceivers which operate in either the GSM900 or DCS1800 frequency bands. The DTRX module supports synthesizer frequency hopping (SFH) and dynamic power control (but not for the BCCH carrier). The DTRX module does not support base band hopping or receive spatial diversity.

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Overview of RF modules

Version 1 Rev 3

Location of Modules and Components

AC POWER SOCKET

AC-DC POWER SUPPLY MODULE

DTRX MODULE ISOLATOR/COMBINER MODULE AND DUPLEXER

RDIS MODULE

Horizon micro2
DUMMY CONNECTORS RX/TX1/TX2 CABLE CONNECTOR (External N-type RF connector) AC-DC POWER SUPPLY MODULE

AC POWER SOCKET

DTRX MODULE INCORPORATING ISOLATOR MODULE

RDIS MODULE

Horizon compact2

TX1 CABLE CONNECTOR MASTER (External N-type RF connector)

TX2 CABLE CONNECTOR SLAVE (External N-type RF connector)

RX CABLE CONNECTOR (External N-type RF connector)

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Overview of RF modules

Overview of the Duplexer and Combiner/Isolator


The Duplexer filters Tx and Rx signals between a single antenna and the DTRX. The Tx Combiner/Isolator module is used to combine the two transmit signal outputs into the duplexer and hence to one antenna. Figure 68 shows the location of the Duplexer, Combiner/solator module and DTRX board on the Horizonmicro2.. Figure 69 shows the duplexer and combiner/isolator modules.

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Overview of RF modules

Version 1 Rev 3

Horizonmicro2Duplexer and Combiner/Isolator Modules

COMBINER/ISOLATOR MODULE

RX/TX ANTENNA CONNECTOR DUMMY CONNECTORS DTRX BOARD DUPLEXER

COMBINER/ISOLATOR MODULE DUPLEXER

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Overview of RF modules

Internal Rx/Tx interconnections


Figure 610 shows the DTRX Rx/Tx interconnections in a dual carrier system.

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Overview of RF modules

Version 1 Rev 3

Internal TX/Rx Connections

Tx COMBINER/ ISOLATOR Tx MODULE Tx

CARRIER 0

Tx OUT

DTRX

Tx/Rx ANTENNA

COMBINED Tx

CARRIER 1

Tx OUT

Ae DUPLEXER

Tx

Rx

Rx

Rx IN

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Horizoncompact2 isolators

Horizoncompact2 isolators
Overview of the isolators
The isolators are high performance single stage directional Tx power modules, used in the Horizoncompact2. Due to its electromagnetic properties, it enables a low loss forward path through to the Horizoncompact2 booster Tx port and isolates in the reverse path. This module provides isolation of multiple frequencies in the GSM900 and DCS1800 BTS to reduce intermodulation distortion. The isolator reduces reverse intermodulation by absorbing the power of an interferer into its internal load. This module also prevents possible damage to the RF power amplifier resulting from load mismatches. Figure 611 shows the location of the isolators and DTRX board on the Horizoncompact2. Figure 612 shows the external view of the Horizoncompact2 isolator module.

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Horizoncompact2 isolators

Version 1 Rev 3

Horizoncompact2Duplexer and Combiner/Isolator Modules

NTYPE CONNECTOR

NTYPE CONNECTORS

ISOLATOR MODULES

DTRX BOARD

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Horizoncompact2 isolators

Internal Rx/Tx interconnections


Figure 613 shows the DTRX Rx/Tx interconnections in a dual carrier system.

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Horizoncompact2 isolators

Version 1 Rev 3

Internal Tx/Rx Connections (Dual Carrier System)

Tx1/Rx ANTENNA

ANT Tx2 ANTENNA

Tx

AMP

Tx1

Tx1 ISOLATOR MODULE

Tx1 OUT

DUPLEXER Rx

DTRX

ANT FILTER

Tx

AMP

Tx2

Tx2 ISOLATOR MODULE

Tx2 OUT

Rx IN BOOSTER BTS

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BTS power supply system

BTS power supply system


Overview
The Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 ac-dc power supply module (PSM) provides all internal voltages from single phase ac supply in the maximum input range 88 V to 264 V, 45 Hz to 66 Hz. Alarm signals relating to ac supply fail, low voltage disconnect imminent and power supply overtemperature are generated within the ac-dc PSM and fed to the MCU-m section of RDIS.

Components
The power supply system comprises: An ac-dc power supply module (AC-DC PSM). A distribution board. A backup battery. Figure 614 shows the location of the power supply system components.

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BTS power supply system

Version 1 Rev 3

Location of the BTS Power Supply System Components

DISTRIBUTION BOARD

AC-DC PSM

BATTERY

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Digital modules

Digital modules
Overview of digital modules
The digital modules within Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2 consist of the following: Radio digital interface system (RDIS) module. DINO/RHINO module. High speed digital subscriber line (HDSL) module. Line termination modules.

RDIS module
The RDIS is the digital control module containing the main control unit micro (MCU-m) and the olympus radio architecture controller (ORAC). The MCU-m is customized to drive two ORACs, each support a single GSM RF carrier. The RDIS provides the processing platform for the control software, the main software functions being: Call processing (CP). Cell resource manager (CRM). Radio resource state machine (RRSM). Switching. Support of DTRX - connection is made to two ORACs.

DINO/RHINO module
The DINO/RHINO module provides the functionality required to interface with the network. The DINO/RHINO supports E1 interfaces.

HDSL module
The HDSL module enables E1 data rates to be transmitted as payloads shared over two twisted-pair cables. NOTE Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs shipped after 31st December 2001 are not fitted with an internal HDSL modem. A suitable external HDSL modem must be used if a HDSL link to the BSC is required for these BTSs. Contact the local Motorola office for assistance prior to purchasing a HDSL modem for this purpose.

Line termination modules


The following modules are used to terminate the 2.048 Mbit/s (E1) links and HDSL 135 ohm links: DINO termination module - 120 ohm (DINO E1/HDSL module). RHINO termination module - 75 ohm (RHINO E1/HDSL module).

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Main control unit, micro (MCU-m)

Version 1 Rev 3

Main control unit, micro (MCU-m)


Overview of MCU-m
The main control unit, micro (MCU-m) module provides the following functions: Control processing. Crosspoint switch. BTS master clock synchronization. Timing. RSS processing (for both ORACs).

The processing supports the BTS site processing and fault management, together with BTS call processing (RRSM and CRM). The crosspoint switch provides switching for the network interfaces and the two ORAC functional blocks.

Processor functionality
The MCU-m processing section provides a 68LC060 processor in companion mode with a QUICC32. The QUICC32 is used to provide system integration and peripheral functions, specifically, a 32 channel HDLC controller for the DTRX-BCF links. The main processing section of the MCU-m currently supports 16 Mbytes of RAM. The DRAM system implements an ECC system for high data integrity. The boot up code is stored in a 2 Mbyte flash EPROM. A further 1 Mbyte of flash EPROM is provided for non volatile data storage. A code storage facility processor (CSFP) is supported via a PCMCIA interface. This allows flash memory cards of various sizes to be fitted.

68LC060 processor
The 68LC060 has a clock operating speed of 50 MHz with a bus speed of 25 MHz (the reduced bus speed is due to the use of the QUICC32 in companion mode). The on-board memory management unit (MMU) provides write protection of memory areas, particularly program storage areas.

QUICC32 processor
The QUICC32 processor is a pin compatible derivative of the 68360. There are minor hardware changes and microcode changes which permit the serial communications channel (SCCI) to operate as a 32 channel HDLC controller, utilizing the CPM RISC controller to perform the processing. The QUICC32 processor operates at 25 MHz. This also defines the external bus speed of the 68LC060 processor. The on-board system integration features of the QUICC32 provide peripheral control functions to support the 68LC060 processor.

PCMCIA interface
The loading and storage of software may be done via the PCMCIA interface. The PCMCIA socket is an industry standard 68-pin single socket, accessible from the underside of the enclosure when the MMI cover plate is removed. The PCMCIA interface is controlled using a Cirrus Logic PC card socket controller. The PCMCIA interface is provided to support rev 2.1 type I cards.

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Main control unit, micro (MCU-m)

Crosspoint switch
This application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) provides central switching capabilities for the MCU-m. It switches TDM links between two ORACs, two network interfaces and two links to the processing section, one link to the sync processor and also two links for the expansion fibre optics. The ASIC also provides link interface features associated with the ORAC links, these include synchronization features to allow for delay in the link to the ORAC, and the necessary framing and encoding to support the link. All of the serial links into the ASIC are E1, 125 s frame, 32 eight-bit timeslots per frame.

Sync block
The sync block is responsible for site synchronization functions. It generates all required local references from a high stability local clock source, taking 15 minutes to stabilize from warm-up. This clock source may also be locked to the incoming network clocks. The sync block provides the following reference pulses and reference clock: 16.384 MHz 125 s 60 ms 6.12 s

The sync function is controlled by the main processing section via a parallel port. The clock select block receives all of the possible sources of reference signal: Extracted clock from the DINO/RHINO. One of the sources is selected as a reference and up to two others can be monitored and prioritized as backup references should the primary reference fail. The sync block can also operate in free-running mode, using the ovenized voltage controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO). NOTE The OXCO requires calibration when the frame-slip alarm threshold is exceeded. This should only occur a few times in the life of the equipment, due to the slow ageing characteristic of the OCXO.

The PLL uses the selected reference signal as the loop reference clock. It includes an OCXO (accurate to 0.05 ppm), a phase comparator and a loop filter.

MMI interface
The main processing section is provided with a TTY interface to the QUICC32. This interface does not support hardware handshaking. The serial ports support a baud rate of 9.6 kbit/s (no parity, 1 stop bit, 8 bits per character).

Electronic board ID
Electronic board ID is supported by the slow flash memory (non-volatile data memory). This storage contains the following information: RDIS module serial number - 16 bytes. Kit number - 16 bytes. Description - 32 bytes.

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Main control unit, micro (MCU-m)

Version 1 Rev 3

Electronic site ID and calibration data


A programmable site ID feature is provided using a serial EPROM. Memory system The RDIS has on-board memory devices and associated circuitry which is used to enable initialization of the ORAC and DTRX, and store the site ID.

Overview of ORAC
Each ORAC is part of the RDIS and is designed to support a single, dual-rate basic GSM RF carrier.

Overview of DINO/RHINO
The DINO/RHINO module provides the interface to the network. This function is separated from the MCU-m section of RDIS due to the variety of interfaces that can be provided. The DINO board provides a 120 ohm twisted pair E1 or 135 ohm twisted pair HDSL interface. The RHINO board provides a 75 ohm coax E1 or 135 ohm twisted pair HDSL interface. A local microcontroller is provided for network interface configuration and supervision. This is controlled by the MCU-m and communicates with the DINO/RHINO microcontroller via a HDLC link. The DINO/RHINO module is fitted between the RDIS and DTRX modules.

Overview of HDSL
NOTE Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs shipped after 31st December 2001 are not fitted with an internal HDSL modem. A suitable external HDSL modem must be used if a HDSL link to the BSC is required for these BTSs. Contact the local Motorola office for assistance prior to purchasing a HDSL modem for this purpose.

The HDSL module enables E1 data rates to be transmitted as payloads shared over two twisted-pair cables. These cables are generally unshielded standard telephone cables.

Functional description of HDSL


The HDSL data operates bidirectionally over each twisted-pair at approximately half the overall E1 data rate. The module processor performs such tasks as error monitoring and start-up configuration. The processor also communicates with the DINO/RHINO processor via an asynchronous control port.

Overview of line termination modules


The following modules are used to terminate the 2.048 Mbit/s (E1) links and high speed digital subscriber line (HDSL) 135 ohm links: DINO termination module - 120 ohm (DINO E1/HDSL module). RHINO termination module - 75 ohm (RHINO E1/HDSL module). Figure 615 shows the DINO/RHINO connectors and location of the line termination module.

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Main control unit, micro (MCU-m)

Features of line termination modules


The line termination modules provide: Impedance matching between the E1 and HDSL circuit lines and the DINO/RHINO module. An interface for up to two inputs and two outputs (120 ohm balanced DINO or 75 ohm unbalanced RHINO E1 lines), or two HDSL 135 ohm looped pairs.

HDSL link options


In HDSL equipped variants, the links are automatically configured as either E1 or HDSL via a combination of database settings and auto-detection mechanisms. A feature of GSR4 software and later releases enables the setting of the master/slave defaults to be changed by database settings for scenarios where the defaults are not appropriate, such as a closed loop daisy chain. In this instance, an external modem from the BSC must be a slave. The slave modem on the last Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2 must be turned into a master in order to communicate with the BSC. (See the configuration example later in this section.) NOTE Software releases prior to GSR4 cannot access the above feature.

Links can be either E1 or HDSL, and can be mixed as appropriate within the network. Conversion to/from E1 and HDSL can be performed either at a Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2 or by use of external HDSL modems.

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Main control unit, micro (MCU-m)

Version 1 Rev 3

DINO/RHINO Connections

J3 (MMI)

ALARMS CONNECTOR FROM BOOSTER (ACTIVE ON HORIZONCOMPACT2 ONLY)

LINE TERMINATION MODULE (RHINO SHOWN)

DINO (E1/HDSL)
J11 J13 J12

RHINO (E1/HDSL)
J14 J15 J16 J17 J13 J12

DINO LABEL
ALARM PORT PIN TX 1 & 6 A RX 2 & 7

J11
PORT PIN TX 3 & 8 B RX 4 & 9 INTERNAL SLAVE

J13

INTERNAL MASTER

HDSL OPTION

J12

RHINO LABEL
ALARM

J14

TX A

J15

RX A

J16

TX B

J17

RX B

INTERNAL SLAVE

J13

INTERNAL MASTER

HDSL OPTION

J12

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Version 1 Rev 3

Expansion feature

Expansion feature
Expansion feature overview
The Expansion feature allows two or three BTSs to be connected together to effectively form a four or six carrier site. When the expansion feature is used, the two or three Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2 BTS units in the expanded system are interconnected by fibre optic cables. One BTS in the configuration acts as a master and the attached units act as slaves. In an expanded system only the master BTS is connected to the network, by an E1/HDSL interface; the slaves are not. Each slave unit requires one fibre optic cable to be connected to the master, serving for downlink and uplink data. The slave BTS also receives synchronization signals on the downlink. Figure 616 show a fully expanded Horizonmicro2 system.

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Expansion feature

Version 1 Rev 3

Expansion Feature

MASTER BTS

FIBRE OPTIC LINKS

SLAVE BTS

SLAVE BTS

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Expansion feature

Dual band support


There are two variants of Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2, one for operating at GSM900 frequencies and one for operating at DCS1800 frequencies. The frequency is hardware specific and cannot be changed by software. However, although a single BTS operates only at the frequency it is designed for, an expanded system using GSR5 (or later) software can have a mix of the two frequency variants. An expanded site can therefore support both GSM900 and DCS1800 frequencies.

Field replaceable units


The Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs are single field replaceable units (FRUs), and as such, no options exist to upgrade the units in the field. The configuration options of the product are: E1/HDSL network connection. The number of HDSL modems is 0/1/2. Integrated antenna for Horizonmicro2.

Configuration data
Hardware configuration information must be determined at the OMC-R in order to facilitate the dispatching of field technicians with the proper source equipment. The additional configuration information required is: Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2 BTS cabinet type. The following Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTS site configuration is also required to describe the hardware configuration. This data can be obtained from the BSS/MIB database or is detectable from the hardware. GSM900 or DCS1800. HDSL to E1 NIU. CSFP (PCMCIA card for alternative load storage). Integrated antenna equipped.

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Expansion feature

Version 1 Rev 3

Single band BTS configurations


Carriers in a single BTS are always configured in the same cell and the same frequency type. The Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 supports the following site configurations using single band cells: NOTE Single BTS site Omni site - up to 2 carriers in a single cell. Two BTS site Omni site - up to 4 carriers in a single cell. Two sector site, 2 carriers per sector. Three BTS site Omni site - up to 6 carriers in a single cell. Two sector site, 2/4 carriers per sector. Three sector site, 2 carriers per sector. NOTE Motorola does not recommend using the Horizonmicro2 in an omni 6 site configuration unless the cell radius is small (in-building coverage required, for example). This is due to the very low Tx output power generated if six carriers are combined. Motorola recommends one antenna per site for Horizonmicro2 and two antennas per site for Horizoncompact2. The combination of Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 cannot be used at the same frequency.

Dual band BTS configurations


When dual band cells are configured, the following cell configurations are supported: Two BTS site One BTS with up to two GSM900 carriers and one BTS with up to two DCS1800 carriers. Three BTS site One BTS with up to two GSM 900 carriers and two BTSs with up to a total of four DCS1800 carriers. Two BTSs with up to a total of four GSM900 carriers and one BTS with up to two DCS1800 carriers.

Antenna options
The Horizonmicro2 has an optional internal antenna and can also use an external antenna. The Horizoncompact2 is connected to a booster which in turn is connected to two external antennas.

Software requirement
Software release GSR5 or later is required for the Horizonmicro2 or Horizoncompact2 expansion feature to be available. GSR5 software is needed in both master and slave BTSs of an expanded system to enable the master/slave relationships to be established. Software release GSR4 allows the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 to function only as single BTS systems without expansion capabilities. If GSR4 software is used on an expanded system, only the BTS with the E1/HDSL connection will function.

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Expansion feature

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BSC/RXCDR Equipment

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Chapter 6

BSC/RXCDR Equipment

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Chapter objectives

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Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Describe the types and configurations of BSSC Cabinet State the BSC System capacity List the BSC digital equipment Describe the function of the BSC digital equipment

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Overview

Overview
Introduction
This section describes the component parts that make up the BSC and RXCDR. This chapter contains: A description of the BSSC cabinets. BSU shelf capacity limits. RXU shelf capacity limits. Scaleable BSC.

BSC system capacity. A description of the BSC digital equipment.

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BSSC cabinets

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BSSC cabinets
BSSC cabinet
A standalone BSSC cabinet, shown in , contains only digital hardware. There is no RF equipment. The cabinets nominal operating voltage is + 27 V dc or -48/-60 V dc. The cabinet has a front access with all external interconnections made to the top of the cabinet.

Cabinet dimensions
The dimensions of the BSSC cabinet are 712 mm wide x 415 mm deep x 2100 mm high.

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Cabinet types
Three different types of cabinet exist; not all are in current production. SW1000A The SW1000A cabinet (BSSC) contains BSU1 and RXU1 card cages with nut and stud power connections. Only digital power supply modules (DPSM) can be fitted in the cage power supply unit shelf. SW1025A The SW1025A cabinet (BSSC2) contains BSU2 and RXU2 card cages with nut and stud power connections. Enhanced power supply modules (EPSM) for +27 V dc working and integrated power supply modules (IPSM) for -48 V dc/-60 V dc working can be fitted in the cage power supply unit shelf. SW1037A The SW1037A cabinet (BSSC2) contains BSU2 and RXU2 card cages with push fit power connections. Enhanced power supply modules (EPSM) for +27 V dc working and integrated power supply modules (IPSM) for -48 V/-60 V dc working can be fitted in the cage power supply unit shelf.

Standard equipment
A BSSC cabinet includes the following standard equipment: One BSSC cabinet hardware kit. One distribution alarm board.

Cabinet general capacity limits


The maximum capacities of the BSSC cabinet are provided in Table 71.

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Table 6-1

BSSC capacities Unit BSU shelves RXU shelves BSU shelf RXU shelf

Quantity 2 or 2 or 1 1

BSU shelf capacity limits


The digital equipment capacities for a BSSC BSU shelf are provided in the tables that follow. Table 6-2 lists the power supply units used in a BSU shelf with the maximum number that can be fitted. Table 6-2 BSSC BSU shelf PSU capacity Unit Digital power supply module (DPSM) (BSSC) Integrated/Enhanced power supply module (I/EPSM) (BSSC2)

Quantity 3 or 3

Table 6-3 lists the digital modules used in a BSU shelf with the maximum number, of each type, that can be fitted. Table 6-3 BSSC BSU shelf digital module capacity Unit Generic processor (GPROC) or (GPROC2) Multiple serial interface (MSI/MSI-2) Transcoder (XCDR) or Generic DSP processor (GDP) Generic clock (GCLK) Kiloport switch (KSW), uses MSI slots Local area network extender (LANX) Parallel interface extender (PIX) Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) Clock extender (CLKX), uses KSWX slots Bus terminator card (BTC) Battery backup board (BBBX) All MSI/MSI-2 and GDP/XCDR modules must fit into slots six through 17.

Quantity 8 12 6 2 2 2 2 18 6 2 1 NOTE

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BSSC cabinets

RXU shelf capacity limits


The digital equipment capacities for a BSSC RXU shelf are provided in the tables that follow. Table 6-4 lists the power supply units used in a RXU shelf with the maximum number, of each type, that can be fitted. Table 6-4 BSSC RXU shelf PSU capacity Unit Digital power supply module (DPSM) (BSSC) Integrated/Enhanced power supply module (I/EPSM) (BSSC2)

Quantity 3 or 3

Table 6-5 lists the digital modules used in a RXU shelf with the maximum number that can be fitted. Table 6-5 BSSC RXU shelf digital module capacity Unit Generic processor (GPROC) or (GPROC2) Multiple serial interface (MSI/MSI-2) (See note below) Transcoder (XCDR) or Generic DSP processor (GDP), uses MSI slots (See note below) Generic clock (GCLK) Kiloport switch (KSW) Local area network extender (LANX) Parallel interface extender (PIX) Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) Clock extender (CLKX), uses KSWX slots Bus terminator card (BTC) Battery backup board (BBBX) There are 19 slots for external interconnection, 14 of these can accommodate GDP/XCDRs and five can support either an MSI or GDP/XCDR. The maximum number of XCDRs that can be accommodated is 16.

Quantity 2 5 16 2 2 2 2 18 6 2 1 NOTE

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RXU3
The existing RXU cage provides 19 MSI slots (see Note), of which 5 are considered MSI-capable, meaning they have connectivity for two E1 span lines. The other 14 slots can terminate only one E1 span line, as they were designed to hold GDPs (or the older XCDRs). The RXU3 cage provides for termination of two E1 span lines per card slot. A combination of MSIs and XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s can share these 19 slots without connectivity restriction (timeslot restrictions still apply). This enables the GDP2s to be used to capacity. Within the RXCDR, enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used in non-MSI slots. Within the current BSC, the BSU shelf contains 12 MSI slots, of which up to 6 slots may be used for the transcoder function. All slots support the connectivity for two E1 terminations per card slot, allowing GDP2s to be used to capacity. NOTE These are called MSI" slots, but they may contain either a MSI or a transcoder board.

Backhaul
When a fr call is connected, the BTS--BSC--RXCDR backhaul path is as shown on the left in Figure 6-2. 16 kbit/s backhaul is required on all the legs. When an AMR hr call is connected which includes the 7.95 kbit/s rate in the Active Codec Set, then a similar backhaul path is needed, as shown on the right in the figure below.

For a connected AMR hr call not requiring the 7.95 codec rate or a GSM hr call, if ESS mode isenabled in the BSC, but not in the RXCDR, then the backhaul path shown on the left in Figure 6-3 results. For the same call, if ESS mode is enabled in both the BSC and the RXCDR then the path shown on the right in Figure 6-3 results. (The idle tone insertion is used internally to fill out the 16 kbit/s timeslot.)

Summary
AMR transcoding can be supported using existing GDPs working in a tandem configuration, the EGDP, or with the GDP2. The former provides a capacity of one half (15 channels of FR/EFR/AMR per card slot) of what is currently supported for the GDP (30 channels FR/EFR/HR per card slot), the latter double the capacity (60 channels of FR/EFR/HR/AMR per card slot). GSM HR transcoding can be supported with the GDP (30 channels) or the GDP2 (60 channels). GDP2s will work in the existing RXU shelf, but only at half capacity because there is connectivity of only one E1 per card slot (for most slots). The RXU3 shelf provides 2 x E1 connectivity for all card slots (enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used in nonMSI slots). The existing BSU shelf provides two E1 connectors per card slot, for local transcoding configurations. The current BSSC2 cabinet provides for 48 E1 terminations. In order to use the RXU3 shelves to capacity the BSSC3 cabinet has been developed. This can terminate 76 E1 span lines. The DSW2 can be utilized to reduce backhaul costs between both the BTS and BSC and the BSC and RXCDR, when hr is used. Additionally, within the RXCDR, use of DSW2s/DSWXs can support a greater number of timeslots, which translates to more combinations of card types, particularly MSIs. The proper combination(s) of equipment needs to be tailored per network.

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BSC system capacity

BSC system capacity


System capacity summary
The following table provides a summary of BSC maximum capacities: Capacity Item BTS sites BTSs (cells) Active RF carriers DRIs RSLs MMSs Paths DHPs Trunks (see note below) C7 links T1 or E1 links Maximum busy hour call attempts
1

GSR4 100 250 384 634 250 128 250 232 1920 16 102 57,600

GSR4.1 100 250 384 634 250 128 250 232 1920 16 102 57,600

GSR5 100 250 384 634 250 128 250 232 2400 16 102 72,000

GSR5.1 100 250 384 634 250 128 250 232 2400 16 102 72,000

GSR6 100 250 3841 634 250 128 250 232 24001 16 102 72,000

GSR7 100 250 3841,2 634 250 128 250 232 24001,2 16 102 90,000

Can be increased to 512 carriers and 3200 trunks if the optional enhanced BSC capacity feature is enabled. GSR7, when enhanced BSC capacity and AMR (and/or GSM half rate) are both enabled, it is mandatory to deploy GPROC3s in active and/or standby BSP slots in the BSC in any potential BSP slots on a site, i.e. slot 20 and 24 in shelf 0, slot 20 in shelf 1. Otherwise, it is optional to replace BSP GPROC2s with GPROC3s in the BSC. NOTE The capacities represent the BSS capacities for GSM circuit-switched traffic. If the GPRS traffic is carried on the BSS, the GSM circuit-switched traffic handling capacity reduces in direct proportion to the timeslots configured for GPRS traffic. The maximum Busy Hour Call Attempts (BHCA) is computed for the standard call model. The actual value depends on the average call duration on a network. When planning a BSC, any limit given in the above table should not be exceeded for the GSR version used. The first element to reach its limit sets the capacity of the BSC. For example, when dimensioning a BSC with a specific non-standard call model, there is possibility that the LCF or C7 limit will be reached before the Erlang limit is reached.
2In

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BSC system capacity

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Enhanced BSC Capacity


The Enhanced BSC Capacity feature is a purchasable option for Motorola equipment. It increases the carrier capacity of the BSC from 384 to 600, and the terrestrial circuit (CIC) capacity from 2400 to 3200. Specific hardware upgrades are required by the BSS to support implementation if this optional new feature is to be used: GPROCs at the RXCDR must be replaced with GPROC2s. BTP processors at InCell BTSs must be replaced with GPROC2s. To enable the GPROC2 to handle the extra processing, certain memory saving steps have been taken: Horizon Office (Libra) objects are blocked Co-located BSC support has been removed (to be re-introduced at GSR7) BTS code objects are compressed at the BSC and a new feature in the BTS enables decompression of the downloaded objects at the BTS. The feature requires an increase in the number of entries in the BSC-RXCDR connectivity table from 21 to 27.

Scaleable BSC
With the launch of the Scaleable BSC in GSR4, Motorola is moving to a position where the diverse requirements of network operators in terms of BSC size are addressed by a single platform that can be efficiently configured in small, medium or large models. For existing customers the move to a Scaleable BSC is enabled through the migration of the processing boards within the BSC to use the GPROC2 throughout. BSSs targeted at small, medium or large networks are efficiently addressed by the Scaleable BSC where minimal incremental hardware is required to be added as the networks grow. Being able to expand capacity within a BSC is appealing from an operational viewpoint because there is less time and effort involved than compared with having to move sites from one BSC to another, or even from one OMC to another. Put into context, the BSC capacity prior to GSR3 supports in the order of 40 sites of three sectors and one carrier per sector; or alternatively, 20 sites of three sectors and two carriers per sector. At GSR3, the capacity increased to allow the operator to move to support in the order of 40 sites of three sectors and two carriers per sector. At GSR4, the capacity increased to allow the operator to move to support in the order of 64 sites of three sectors and two carriers per sector. The Scaleable BSC also offers a substantial advantage for microcellular deployment where a single BSC is able to support up to 100 microcellular BTSs, each equipped with two carriers per site. The Scaleable BSC capacity is enabled because of the increased processing performance and memory of the GPROC2. The maximum capacity is increased as shown in . This increased capacity is achieved through the deployment of GPROC2s for each function at the BSC, including base station processor (BSP) and link control function (LCF).

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BSC digital equipment

BSC digital equipment


Introduction
This section describes the digital components used in the BSC.

Digital equipment list


The digital modules used in a BSC are: Line interfaces (BIB or T43). Generic processor (GPROC, GPROC2). Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2). Transcoder (XCDR). Generic DSP processor (GDP). Kiloport switch (KSW/DSW2). Kiloport switch extender (KSWX/DSWX). Generic clock (GCLK). Clock extender (CLKX). Local area network extender (LANX). Parallel interface extender (PIX). Battery backup board (BBBX). Bus terminator card (BTC). Digital shelf power supply.

Line interfaces
The line interfaces, balanced-line interface board (BIB) and T43 board (T43), provide impedance matching for E1 and T1 links. The BSSC cabinet can accommodate up to 48 bidirectional links, 24 links per shelf, using eight line interface boards (six links connected to each board). The line interface boards are installed on the top of the cabinet and connect to the BSU shelf by cable. Balanced-line interface board (BIB) To match a balanced 120 ohm (E1 2.048 Mbit/s) or balanced 110 ohm (T1 1.544 Mbit/s) 3 V (peak pulse) line use a BIB. Each input and output is isolated from the backplane by up to 1500 V. T43 board (T43) To match a single ended 75 ohm 2.37 V (peak pulse) line use a T43. Each input and output is isolated from the backplane by up to 1500 V.

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BSC digital equipment

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Generic processor (GPROC)


The GPROC is used throughout the Motorola BSS as a generic control processor board. GPROCs allow flexible assignment of software tasks by supporting distributed processing. Software tasks or functions can be moved from GPROC to GPROC in response to changing system conditions. The functions that may be assigned to GPROCs in the BSC are support of the: MSC signalling links (ITU-TSS C7) (MTL). Layer 3 call processing function (L3). BSC to BTS signalling links (LAPD) (RSL). BSC to RXCDR signalling link (XBL). OMC-R interface (X25) (OML). BSC control functions (for example, fault management and switch control).

The GPROC processor is a 68030 microprocessor. The board provides a memory management unit to support task and data isolation methods in software. The GPROC contains 16 megabytes of RAM that may be optionally backed up by a battery located external to the cabinet using the BBBX board. One megabyte of flash EPROM, and 32 kilobytes of non-volatile RAM are also provided on the GPROC. The board has interfaces for redundant 16 Mbit/s IEEE 802.5 (token ring) LANs. Up to sixteen 64 kbit/s serial interfaces, which directly support the LAPB/D and ITU-TSS C7 layer 1 and 2 protocols, are accessible by way of the TDM switch highway. A serial interface for asynchronous (300 bit/s -19.2 kbit/s) or synchronous communications is provided on the front panel this allows connection to a maintenance TTY or personal computer. An interface to a processor bus extension (the MCAP bus) is also provided.

Generic processor (GPROC2)


The GPROC2 is a module level replacement of the first generation GPROC, and can be used to replace the GPROC in the BSC, RXCDR or BTS. However, at GSR4, GPROC2s are required for all BSC processors. NOTE Deployment of GPROC2 in RXCDR and BTS will remain optional. RXCDRs shipped during and after 1998 will contain GPROC2s.

GPROC2 is a second generation processor module. Its main purpose remains the same as that of a GPROC. GPROC2, however, has been significantly redesigned to provide a substantial increase in both processor performance and available memory. The GPROC2 processor is a 68040 microprocessor that combined with 32 Mbytes of memory offers a performance gain of that of a GPROC and a doubling of memory space. The memory on GPROC2 uses error detection and correction circuitry to guard against failure of memory cells. GSR5.1 introduced a fast reset feature for the GPROC. This enables the GPROC to be reset faster by negating the need for RAM to ROM transition on a reset. The GPROC will still be taken off of the LAN and then come back up on the LAN in Ram and go through the RAM initialization. Some events however will still require a RAM-ROM transition, the instances that require this are varied and constantly under review. There will be an indication at the terminal whether the fatal event initiated a RAM-ROM or RAM-RAM reset.

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BSC digital equipment

Generic processor 3 (GPROC3)


GPROC 3 is the next generationof processor board. It provides both increased processing power and system memory. The release of GPROC3 is intended to provide system support for the remainder of the product lifespan. The GPROC3 gives twice the performance of its predecessor the GPROC2. This is acheived by use of the new 68060 processor which runs at 66MHz (double the clock speed of the 68040 used on the GPROC2). Memory capacity has also increased from a maximum of 64Mb (with SIMM upgrade) of the GPROC2 to 128Mb SDRAM provided on-board the GPROC3. There is also support for 16Mb of on-board Flash Memory. GPROC3 is fully backward compatible with both GPROC and GPROC2 and can co-exist with both types. CSFP can be either GPROC2 or GPROC3.

Multiple serial interface (MSI)


Each MSI can interface two external E1 links to the internal TDM highways of the BSC. E1 link description One E1 link consists of thirty two 64 kbit/s circuits (timeslots), one of which is used for synchronization. The remaining 31 circuits are available for voice and signalling traffic. For clarity, the term TCH is used to describe traffic between the BSC and BTS and the term trunk is used to describe traffic between the MSC and BSC.

Multiple serial interface 2 (MSI-2)


Each MSI-2 can interface two external links (two E1, two T1 links or one T1 and one E1) to the internal TDM highways of the BTS. The system can only be configured to operate E1 or t1 links, but not simultaneously. T1 link description One T1 link consists of twenty four 64 kbit/s circuits (timeslots) and a synchronization bit. All of the twenty four 64 kbit/s timeslots are available for signalling and traffic or trunks. For clarity, the term TCH is used to describe traffic between the BSC and BTS and the term trunk is used to describe traffic between the MSC and BSC.

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Transcoder (XCDR)
The XCDR provides the following functions: The interface between one external E1 link from the MSC and the internal TDM highway. Bidirectional conversion between 13 kbit/s GSM speech and 64 kbit/s A-law PCM. Subrate multiplexing of four 16 kbit/s timeslots (13 kbit/s of GSM speech mapped onto 16 kbit/s timeslots) mapped onto one 64 kbit/s port. For data calls, the XCDR provides the rate adaptation function (RA2) from 16 kbit/s to 64 kbit/s. Signalling channels are routed straight through the transcoder. Each signalling channel always requires one 64 kbit/s circuit. Transcoding at the MSC allows up to 4:1 improvement in E1/T1 link utilization between the BSC and MSC.

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Generic DSP processor (GDP)


The Generic DSP Processor (GDP) module can be used as an enhanced XCDR, with additional features, including Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) speech and uplink/downlink audio volume control. The GDP DSP firmware is downloadable whereas the XCDR DSP firmware is mask programmed. NOTE The GDP module can only be used with systems running GSR3 or later releases, as this contains the necessary software support to allow operation. In addition, for GSR3, GPROC2 must be fitted to the BSC as the master processor (and redundant master is equipped). For a BSC which will operate the EFR speech option, all transcoder boards it connects to must be GDP, not XCDR. The GDP has two configured types, one for E1 serial line use (GDP E1) and one for T1 serial line use (GDP T1). Each GDP type has a different framer/transceiver with accompanying crystal oscillator, and two associated resistors. This means that a GDP used for E1 serial line use cannot be used for T1, and a GDP used for T1 serial line use cannot be used for E1.

The GDP module: Provides the transcoding interface to the MSC. The GDP module is located at the RXCDR, or at a BSC where transcoding is integrated within the BSC. Interfaces an E1/T1 serial line to the internal cabinet TDM highway. Transcodes thirty E1(twenty-four T1) 64 kbit/s channels: Channel zero of each E1 line is reserved for synchronization. One of the channels may be reserved for link control signalling. The 30 remaining E1 channels are transcoded.

Each GDP supports thirty compressed voice and data channels, using 15 DSPs. These channels, and the synchronization and link control signalling channels, can be placed in any of the 1016 channels on the TDM highway under control of the GPROC/GPROC2. The GDP module contains a digital signal processor (DSP) unit that performs: GSM-defined speech encoding. GSM-defined speech decoding. Submultiplexing functions. The speech transcoder bidirectionally interfaces the 64 kbit/s E1/T1 line in the land network to the 13 kbit/s vocoder format used on the air interface. Signalling channels are passed straight through the transcoder.

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BSC digital equipment

Version 1 Rev 3

Kiloport switch (KSW)


The KSW has 1024 bidirectional switch ports to provide digital switching on the internal TDM highway. In addition to the standard rate switching of 64 kbit/s ports, the KSW can subrate switch 16 or 32 kbit/s ports. The KSW board is located in the BSU/RXU shelf. A single KSW can be extended to five additional shelves, see , although extension does not increase switching capacity. The KSW may also be expanded by interconnecting up to four KSW boards with KSWXs. Maximum expansion provides a total switching capacity of four thousand and ninety six 64 kbit/s ports. When KSWs are interconnected, each of the KSWs has access to any of the input ports of any other interconnected switch, but only outputs to its own one thousand and twenty four 64 kbit/s ports.

CLKX

KSW 1 Switch cabinet R - Remote KSWX R L - Local KSWX L E - Expansion KSWE CLKX 2 3 4 5

Extension cabinets 2 - 5

R KSW

6 Switch cabinet

10

Extension cabinets 7 - 10

Double Kiloport Switch 2 (DSW2)


The DSW provides two improvements over existing capability. First, it allows for 8 kbit/s subrate switching in both the BSC and RXCDR (called extended subrate switching (ESS) mode). Second, when used in the RXCDR, it allows for double the timeslot capacity (with 1 extension shelf, 1024 timeslots per shelf) (called enhanced capacity (EC) mode). ESS mode is used to decrease backhaul costs between the BTS and BSC and/or the BSC and RXCDR when AMR half rate is in use. As long as the 7.95 codec mode is not used, the backhauled TRAU will fit in an 8 kbit/s subchannel. On the BTS - BSC interface, this can result

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BSC digital equipment

in a 50% saving in backhaul costs per 8 kbit/s AMR-capable carrier. Without 8 kbit/s switching, each half rate call will require a full 16 kbit/s backhaul bearer, or four 64 kbit/s timeslots per carrier. With 8 kbit/s switching, the same backhaul as is required for full rate (two 64 kbit/s timeslots) is used. A similar saving can be achieved on the BSC - RXCDR interface. When ESS mode is enabled in the BSC, 8 kbit/s backhaul can be used between the BTS and BSC. For every connected RXCDR with ESS enabled, 8 kbit/s backhaul can be used between the BSC and that RXCDR. Use of ESS mode requires all DSWs to be used (within the BSC or RXCDR). KSWXs and DSWXs may be used (exclusively or mixed), with the restriction that a KSWX may not be connected to a DSWX or vice-versa. EC mode is available in the RXCDR and can be used to increase the number of timeslots available. Each card (i.e. MSIs, GDPs, EGDPs, and GDP2s) requires a specific number of timeslots. By increasing the number of timeslots available across two shelves, more combinations of equipment are possible. This capability is likely to be used in conjunction with the RXU3 shelf, which provides for additional T1 connectivity. EC mode requires the use of all DSWs and DSWXs. DSWs and DSWXs are backwards compatible with KSWs and KSWXs, and are interchangeable (in non-ESS and non-EC modes) with, again, the restriction that a KSWX may not be connected to a DSWX or vice-versa.

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BSC digital equipment

Version 1 Rev 3

Kiloport switch extender (KSWX)


The KSWX extends the TDM highway of a BSU/RXU to other BSU/RXUs. The KSWX operates in three different modes: Remote (KSWXR). Local (KSWXL). Expansion (KSWXE). The mode in which the KSWX operates is determined by the shelf slot in which it is inserted. The modes of operation and the number of extension board slots allocated per KSW in the BSU/RXU shelf are listed in Table 6-6. Table 6-6 KSWX modes Description In the remote slot of a shelf, the KSWXR transmits and receives information between a KSWXL operating in the local mode of an extension shelf and the KSW in the shelf it is located. In the Local slot of a shelf, the KSWXL receives and distributes clock signalling from the CLKX, in all shelves including the shelf containing the GCLK. The KSWXL drives the TDM bus if there is no KSW. In the Expansion slot of a parent shelf, the KSWXE sources and receives information from another KSWXE, operating in the expansion slot of the expansion shelf, allowing information flow between KSWs. With redundancy, the slots are doubled in each case. Slots 5

Mode KSWXR

KSWXL

KSWXE

NOTE

Generic clock (GCLK)


The GCLK generates all timing reference signals required at a BSC/RXCDR site. The master TDM clock is normally synthesized from the onboard reference oscillator, operating at 16.384 MHz. This oscillator may be phase locked to the recovered clock from a selected E1/T1 link, a redundant GCLK, or may free run.

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BSC digital equipment

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Clock extender (CLKX)


A CLKX provides expansion of GCLK timing to more than one BSU/RXU, as shown in Figure 6-1. Up to three CLKX boards, each with six outputs, can be used to route the timing signals from one GCLK to a total of 18 shelves (the LAN can be expanded to a maximum of 14 shelves). The redundant CLKX slots share the the redundant KSWX slots

Figure 6-1

CLKX system configuration

GCLK

Encoded clock Shelf number 1 16 MHz 6.12 s 125 s 60 ms

CLKX

KSWX L

16 MHz 6.12 s 125 s 60 ms

Shelf number 2 KSWXL

Backplane

Backplane

16 MHz 6.12 s 125 s 60 ms Shelf number 3

KSWXL

KSWXL

16 MHz 6.12 s 125 s 60 ms

Shelf number 4

Backplane

Backplane

L = KSWX in the local mode

Fibre optic cable

Local area network extender (LANX)


The LANX provides the capability of extending one of the two GPROC LANs to other shelves over fibre optic links. It also monitors the GPROCs in the shelf where it is located and notifies the monitoring processors of any failures.

Parallel interface extender (PIX)


The PIX is an interface for external alarms. The PIX provides for eight different sensors, each having two lines, it detects the change of state of up to eight dry relay contacts, either normally open or normally closed. In addition, four relays are available to control functions defined by the user. The relays are controlled by GPROC commands. For redundancy duplicated signals should be connected to different PIX boards.

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BSC digital equipment

Battery backup board (BBBX)


The BBBX provides a backup supply of +5 V dc at 8 A from an external battery to maintain power to the GPROC DRAM and the optical circuitry on the LANX in the event of a mains power failure. The 27 V dc backup supply to the BBBX is routed through the battery backup connector on the cabinet interconnect panel. The BBBX is a half size board.

Bus terminator card (BTC)


The BTC provides termination of the TDM highway for the digital shelves. Two BTC boards are supplied in each shelf option.

Digital shelf power supply


A BSSC cabinet can be supplied to operate from either a +27 V dc or -48/-60 V dc power source. The following power supply units are available: Two DPSMs are required for each shelf in a BSSC. The output of the DPSM is +5 V dc, +12 V dc, and -12 V dc. Two IPSMs are required for each shelf in a BSSC2 (-48/-60 V dc). The output of the IPSM is +27 V dc, +5 V dc, +12 V dc, and -12 V dc. Two EPSMs are required for each shelf in a BSSC2 (+27 V dc). The output of the EPSM is +5 V dc, +12 V dc, and -12 V dc.

Digital shelf redundancy option


Each digital shelf comes equipped with the required BTC boards and a LANX. For redundancy an additional LANX and power supply are required; these can be ordered individually or together in one redundancy kit.

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Non volatile memory (NVM) board

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Non volatile memory (NVM) board


Introduction
The optional non volatile memory board provides the BSC with an improved recovery facility following a total power loss. With the NVM board installed, data is retrieved from the NVM board rather than from the OMC-R during recovery from a total power loss.

Planning Considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the NVM complement: Only one NVM board can be installed at the BSC. The NVM board uses slot 26 in the BSU cage 0 (master) of the BSC, which is an unused slot. The appropriate software required to support the NVM board must be loaded at the OMC-R and downloaded to the BSC.

NVM planning actions


The NVM board is optional.

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Non volatile memory (NVM) board

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BSC planning steps and rules

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 7

BSC planning steps and rules

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BSC planning steps and rules

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Chapter objectives

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Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Define the steps for the planning of the BSC. Explain the impact on BSC planning of the 2G-3G handover feature. Determine the signalling link requirments for a BSC. Determine the digital card requirments for a BSC. Give a brief description of the BSC digital cards and their functions.

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Chapter overview

Chapter overview
Introduction
This chapter provides the planning steps and rules or the BSC. The planning steps and rules for the BTS are in Chapter 4 of this manual. This chapter contains: BSC planning overview. Capacity calculations. Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities. Determine the number of RSLs required. Determine the number of MTLs required. BSC GPROC functions and types. Traffic models. Planning rules for BSC to BTS links (E1/T1). Planning rules for BSC to BTS links (RSL). Planning rules for BSC to MSC links (MTL). Planning rules for the digital modules. Planning rules for the digital shelf power supply.

BSC planning.

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Chapter overview

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BSC planning overview

BSC planning overview


Introduction
To plan the equipage of a BSC certain information must be known. The major items include: The number of BTS sites to be controlled. The number of RF carriers (RTF) at each BTS site. The number of TCHs at each site. The total number of AMR half rate or GSM half rate capable TCHs at each site. The total number of TCHs under the BSC. The number of cells controlled from each BTS site should not exceed the maximum per BSC given in the BSC system capacity section of Chapter 12. The physical interconnection of the BTS sites to the BSC. The location of the XCDR function. The path for the OML links to the OMC. The use of E1 or T1 links. The use of balanced or unbalanced E1. The traffic load to be handled (also take future growth into concideration). The number of MSC to BSC trunks.

Mixing of equipment types When mixing BSU and RXU shelves at a BSC the planning rules for each type of shelf must be taken into account. This will require using the information contained in this chapter (for the BSC) and Chapter 7 (for the RXCDR), as the RXU shelf is primarily used in the RXCDR. This applies to both the legacy RXU shelf and the new RXU3 shelf. This is also true for the cabinets. The additional connectivity provided by the new BSSC3 may be required in the BSC when the RXU3 shelf or shelves are used.

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BSC planning overview

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Outline of planning steps


Planning a BSC involves the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Plan the number of E1 or T1 links between the BSC and BTS site(s), refer to the section Determine the required BSS signalling link capacities in this chapter. Plan the number of RSL links between the BSC and BTS site(s), refer to the section Determine the RSLs required in this chapter. Plan the number of MTL links between the BSC and MSC, refer to the section Determine the number of MTLs required in this chapter. Plan the number of GPROCs required, refer to the section Generic processor (GPROC2) in this chapter. Plan the number of XCDR/GDPs required, refer to the section Transcoding in this chapter. Plan the number of MSI/MSI-2s required, refer to the section Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2) in this chapter. Plan the number of KSWs and timeslots required, refer to the section Kiloport switch (KSW) in this chapter. Plan the number of BSU shelves, refer to the section BSU shelves in this chapter. Plan the number of KSWXs required, refer to the section Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) in this chapter. Plan the number of GCLKs required, refer to the section Generic clock (GCLK) in this chapter. Plan the number of CLKXs required, refer to the section Clock extender (CLKX) in this chapter. Plan the number of LANXs required, refer to the section LAN extender (LANX) in this chapter. Plan the number of PIXs required, refer to the section Parallel interface extender (PIX) in this chapter. Plan the number of BIB or T43s required, refer to the section Line interfaces (BIB, T43) in this chapter. Plan the power requirements, refer to the section Digital shelf power supply in this chapter. Plan the number of BBBXs required, refer to the section Battery backup board (BBBX) in this chapter. Verify the planning process, refer to the section Verify the number of BSU shelves and BSSC cabinets in this chapter.

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Capacity calculations

Capacity calculations
Introduction
The throughput capacities of the BSC processing elements (for example, GPROC, GPROC2, GPROC3) and the throughput capacities of its data links, determines the number of supported traffic channels (TCHs). These capacities are limited by the ability of the processors, and links to handle the signalling information associated with these TCHs. This section provides information on how to calculate processor requirements, signalling link capacities and BSC processing capacities. This section describes: Traffic models. The required BSS signalling link capacities. BSC GPROC functions and types. The number of GPROCs required.

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Capacity calculations

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Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities

Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities


BSC signalling traffic model
For a GSM system the throughput of network entities, including sub-components, depends upon the assumed traffic model used in the network design or operation. Traffic models are fundemental to a number of planning actions. The capacity of the BSC as a whole, or the capacity of a particular GPROC, depends on its ability to process information transported through signalling links connecting it to the other network elements. These elements include MSC, BTSs, and the OMC-R. Depending on its device type and BSC configuration, a GPROC may be controlling signalling links to one or more other network elements. A capacity figure can be stated for each GPROC device type in terms of a static capacity such as the number of physical signalling links supported, and a dynamic capacity such as processing throughput. In general telephony environments, processing and link throughput capacities can be stated in terms of the offered call load. To apply this for the GSM BSC, all signalling information to be processed by the BSC, is related to the offered call load (the amount of traffic offered/generated by subsribers). When calls are blocked due to all trunks or all TCHs busy, most of the signalling associated with call setup and clearing still takes place, even though few or no trunk resources are utilized. Therefore, the offered call load (which includes the blocked calls) should be used in planning the signalling resources (for example; MTLs and RSLs). In the case where the BSC has more than enough trunks to handle the offered traffic, adequate signalling resources should be planned to handle the potential carried traffic. The trunk count can be used as an approximate Erlang value for the potential carried load. As a result, the signalling links and processing requirements should be able to handle the greater of the following: The offered load. The potential carried load. To determine the link and processing requirements of the BSC, the number of trunks or the offered call load in Erlangs (whichever is greater) should be used. BSC capacity planning requires a model that associates the signalling generated from all the pertinent GSM procedures: call setup and clearing, handover, location updating and paging, to the offered call load. To establish the relationship between all the procedures, the traffic model expresses processing requirements for these procedures as ratios to the number of call attempts processed. The rate at which call attempts are processed is a function of the offered call load and the average call hold time. Figure 7-1 graphically depicts various factors that should be taken into account when planning a BSS. NOTE 4 x 64 kbit/s circuits/RTF for a (AMR or {22064} GSM) HR RTF and 8 kbit/s switching is not provisioned, or (for AMR only) the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set.

As well as the factors described in Figure 7-1, when LCS is enabled in the BSS, the following factors need to be taken into account when planning a BSS: MTL link provisioning to support LCS signalling between the MSC and BSC for either NSS-based LCS architecture or BSS-based LCS architecture, but not both. LMTL link provisioning for BSS-based LCS architecture only. RSL link provisioning with LCS supported.

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Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities

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Figure 7-1

BSS planning diagram

MSC Transcoder
With submultiplexing transcoding at MSC 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit/C7 signalling link 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit/X.25 signalling link* 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit/XBL 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit/4 trunks Without submultiplexing transcoding at BSC 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit/C7 signalling link 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit/X.25 signalling link* 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit/trunk

A interface (terrestrial links) - C7 signalling links - X.25 control link* - required trunks

The BSC to MSC 64 kbit/s circuits are determined from the # of trunks required to carry the summation of air interface traffic (in erlangs, typically using 1% blocking) from all BTSs - plus The # of C7 signalling links - plus - (if applicable*) The # of X.25 links (usually one per BSC) - plus The # of XBL links BSC Motorola BSC/BTS interface non-blocking 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit/LAPD signalling link 2 x 64 kbit/s circuits/DRCU/SCU

The # of TCHs required (using typically 2% blocking) to carry subscriber traffic. The TCHs plus the required signalling TSs divided by eight determines the carriers required (on a BTS/sector basis) BTS Air interface - TCHs and signalling TSs - Typically 2% blocking Air interface (traffic in erlangs)

Transcoding must be located at the BSC, or between the BSC and MSC TCH TS * = Traffic channel = Timeslot X.25 may be passed to RXCDR or MSC site

Using traffic, to determine E1/T1 link interconnect hardware for the 'A' and 'BSC to BTS' interface

NOTE

4 x 64kbit/s circuits/RTF for an AMR half-rate RTF and 8kbit/s switching is not provisioned, or the 7.95kbit/s HR codec mode is included in the codec set.

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2G-3G handovers using inter-radio access technology

2G-3G handovers using inter-radio access technology


Introduction to 2G-3G handovers
An optional feature of GSR6 is support for handovers between different Radio Access Technology (RAT) networks in the circuit switched domain. The RAT can be either GSM (2G) or the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) (3G). UMTS is beyond the scope of this manual and only its handover interaction with GSM is described here. For further information on UMTS, refer to System Information: UMTS Equipment Planning, 68P02905W22.

2G-3G handover description


The 2G-3G handover feature supports handovers between different RAT networks. The RAT can be either 2G (GSM) or 3G (UMTS). Current evolving 3G UMTS networks will soon allow operators to provide UMTS coverage along with GSM/GPRS coverage in their networks. This feature enables a multi-RAT MS (a mobile station that can function in multiple Radio Access Networks (RANs)) to handover between a GSM RAN and a 3G RAN (UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN)). To accomplish this, support is needed from the MS, core network elements (MSC) and GSM/UMTS network elements. The GSM BSS support for this feature includes: 2G (GSM) to 3G (UMTS-FDD) cell reselection in idle mode. 3G (UMTS-FDD) to 2G (GSM) handover in active mode and cell reselection in idle mode. Restrictions There is currently an upper limit of 16 FDD UTRAN neighbours in the GSM/GPRS system. Implementation BSS changes allow 2G (GSM) to 3G (UMTS) cell reselection in GSM idle mode, and 3G to 2G handovers in circuit-switched dedicated mode. The BSS Inter-RAT handover GSM function is an option that must be unrestricted by Motorola. It also requires unrestricting on site by the user with the inter_rat_enabled parameter. A future feature (not yet implemented) will contain BSS changes to allow 2G-3G handovers in circuit-switched dedicated mode. With the arrival of UMTS systems, there are likely to be small UMTS coverage areas within larger GSM coverage areas. In such environments the call would drop when a UMTS subscriber goes out of a UMTS coverage area and into a GSM coverage area. Congestion in the smaller UMTS areas could become a problem when the traffic in the UMTS coverage area is high. A GSM subscriber may wish to access a service with specific QoS characteristic (for example, very high bit rate data service) that may not be supported in the GSM system. To avoid these problems the operator may wish to configure their network such that handover and cell reselection between UMTS and GSM is possible. The GSM BSS inter-RAT handover function provides a solution to these problems by allowing a multi-RAT MS to perform cell reselection while in idle mode, and to hand over while in dedicated mode from a UMTS FDD mode cell to a GSM cell.

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2G-3G handovers using inter-radio access technology

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Impact of 2G-3G handovers on GSM


Aspects of the GSM BSS system that are affected by this function are: Air interface Abis interface A-interface BSS database System architecture

Air interface The BSS inter-RAT handover function introduces the system information message: SYSTEM INFORMATION 2quater. The existing SI2ter, SI3, SI13 and the HANDOVER COMMAND messages will be updated to allow a multi-RAT MS to perform measurements on UMTS Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) neighbour cells for the purpose of cell reselection. The CLASSMARK UPDATE message is updated to support the MS revision level (2) multi-RAT MS. CCDSP firmware has been updated to store multiple instances of the SI2ter and SI2quater messages. Abis interface The Abis Interface supports changes to the A-interface required for messages passed from the BSC to the BTS. A-interface The HANDOVER REQUEST message sent from the MSC is updated with a new serving area identifier within the cell identifier (serving). This indicates that the handover originates from a UMTS network. This interface also provides support for the Information Interface Equipment (IE) at the handing over BSS to that at the receiving BSS. This container can contain a number of User Equipment (UE) specific IEs relating to the capabilities of the multi-RAT MS. BSS database The BSS database is updated to allow the provisioning of UTRAN cells to be specified as neighbours of existing GSM cells. The database also supports the configuration of new parameters associated with the messaging to the multi-RAT MS. System architecture shows the system architecture for the GSM BSS inter-RAT handover feature.

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2G-3G handovers using inter-radio access technology

GSM-UMTS Architecture

EInterface

GSM Core Network (MSC/GSN)


Gb Interface

Gn Interface

UMTS Core Network (3G MSC/SGSN)

AInterface

lu CsInterface GSM/GPRS UTRAN RNS

lu PsInterface

BSS

PCU BSC
Abis

RNS lur

RNC
lub

RNC
lub

BTS

BTS

Node B

Node B

Um

Uu

Multi - rat MS
Existing 2G core network (CN) nodes must be able to interact with the 3G CN nodes through MAP procedures defined on the E-interface between a 2G CN node and 3G CN node. The GSM BSS inter-RAT handover feature does not support: Cell reselection to UTRAN TDD neighbour cells or CDMA2000 neighbour cells. Dedicated call handover procedures from GSM to UMTS. Extended measurement reporting. Enhanced measurement reporting. The sending of a UMTS frequency list as part of the RR-CHANNEL RELEASE message. Blind search. The sending of SI2quater on extended BCCH. The BSS restricts the maximum number of UTRAN neighbours per GSM cell to 16. Statistics are not be supported by the BSS for this feature. The OMC-R interface only supports UTRAN neighbour cells which have a unique RNC-id and cell id combination within the BSS database.

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2G-3G handovers using inter-radio access technology

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Typical parameter values

Typical parameter values


The parameters required to calculate BSC processing and signalling link capacities are listed in Table 7-1 with their typical values. Two methods for determining capacity are given. The first method is based on the typical call parameters given in Table 7-1 and simplifies planning to lookup tables, or simple formulae indicated in standard traffic model planning steps. When the call parameters being planned for differ significantly from the standard traffic model given in Table 7-1 in this case more complex formulae must be used as indicated in non-standard traffic model planning steps. Table 7-1 Typical call parameters Busy hour peak signalling traffic model Call duration Ratio of SMSs per call Number of handovers per call Ratio of location updates to calls: non-location area border Ratio of location updates to calls: location area border Ratio of IMSI detaches to calls Location update factor: non-location area border Location update factor: location area border Paging rate in pages per second Ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers Percent link utilization (MSC to BSS) for GPROC2/GPROC3 Ratio of LCSs per call Mobile terminated LCS ratio Mobile originated LCS ratio Percent link utilization (BSC to BTS) Percent link utilization (BSC to RXCDR) Blocking for TCHs Blocking for MSC-BSS Trunks Number of cells per BTS XBL (Enhanced Auto-connect) Parameters Number of XBL messages per new call Number of XBL messages per hr <-> fr handover Length of an average XBL message in Bytes Number of hr <-> fr handovers per call NOTE These include 2G to 3G handovers. MNEWCALL = 1 MHANDOVER = 1 LXBL = 450 Hfr-fr = 1 Parameter reference T = 120 secs S = 0.1 H = 2.5 l=2 l=7 I=0 L=2 L=7 P=3 i = 0.6 U
(MSC - BSS)

= 0.20

LCS = 0.2 LRMT = 0.95 LRMO = 0.05 U U


(BSC - BTS)

= 0.25 = 0.4

(BSC - RXCDR)

PB-TCHs = 2% PB-Trunks = 1% CBTS = 3

The location update factor (L) is a function of the ratio of location updates to calls (l), the ratio of IMSI detaches to calls (I) and whether the short message sequence (type 1) or long message sequence (type 2) is used for IMSI detach; typically I = 0 (that is IMSI detach is disabled) as in the first formula given below. When IMSI detach is enabled, the second or third of the formulas given below should be used. The type of IMSI detach used is a function of the MSC.

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Typical parameter values

Version 1 Rev 3

If IMSI detach is disabled:

If IMSI detach type 1 is enabled:

If IMSI detach type 2 is enabled:

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Typical parameter values

Table 7-2

Other parameters used in determining GPROC and link requirements Parameter reference N B PPC = P * (T/N)

Busy hour peak signalling traffic model Number of MSC - BSC trunks Number of BTSs per BSS Pages per call

Assumptions used in capacity calculations


To calculate link and processing capacity values, certain signalling message sequence patterns and message sizes have been assumed for the various procedures included in the signalling traffic model. New capacity values may have to be calculated if the actual message patterns and message sizes differ significantly from those assumed. The assumptions used for the capacity calculations in this manual are summarized below. The number of uplink and downlink messages with the respective average message sizes (not including link protocol overhead) for each procedure are provided in Table 7-3. Table 7-3 Procedure capacities (MSC - BSC) MSC to BSC link 12 downlink messages with average size of 30 bytes 11 uplink messages with average size of 26 bytes 5 downlink messages with average size of 33 bytes 7 uplink messages with average size of 24 bytes 7 downlink messages with average size of 22 bytes 7 uplink messages with average size of 27 bytes 7 downlink messages with average size of 30 bytes 7 uplink messages with average size of 42 bytes 1 downlink messages with average size of 30 bytes 1 uplink messages with average size of 42 bytes 3 downlink messages with average size of 30 bytes 3 uplink messages with average size of 26 bytes 1 downlink message with average size of 30 bytes The actual number and size of messages required by SMS depend on the implementation of the SMS service centre. The numbers given are estimates for a typical implementation. These numbers may vary.

Procedure Call setup and clearing Handover, incoming and outgoing Location update SMS-P to P (see note below) IMSI detach (type 1) IMSI detach (type 2) Paging NOTE

Table 7-4

Procedure capacities (BSC - BTS) BSC to BTS link 10 downlink messages with average size of 21 bytes 11 uplink messages with average size of 23 bytes 8 downlink messages with average size of 23 bytes 6 uplink messages with average size of 30 bytes 5 downlink messages with average size of 23 bytes 4 uplink messages with average size of 22 bytes

Procedure Call setup and clearing Handover, incoming and outgoing Location update

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Typical parameter values

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Table 7-4

Procedure capacities (BSC - BTS) (Continued) 7 downlink messages with average size of 42 bytes 7 uplink messages with average size of 42 bytes 1 downlink message. Message size depends on the number of cells to be paged on a site. For a 3 cell site, messge size for CS paging = 24 bytes. From GSR6 onwards, the BSS software uses a small message header (compact header) for delivering messages between the BSC/PCU and the BTS. The new message header contains the minimum information necessary to deliver the messages between processes. The size of the new message header is 8 bytes, as compared to 28 bytes in pre-GR6 releases. This reduces the signalling link utilization between the BSC-BTS and BSC-PCU.

SMS-P to P(see note below) Paging

NOTE

Table 7-5

Procedure capacties (BSC-RXCDR) Procedure BSC to RXCDR link 1 downlink message with average size of 41 bytes 1 uplink message with average size of 41 bytes

XBL for new call

An additional assumption, which is made in determining the values listed in Table 7-3, is that the procedures not included in the traffic model are considered to have negligible effect. NOTE Supplementary Service (SS) messaging has not been taken into account. This could contribute a significant signalling overhead in some networks.

Paging assumptions In calculating the average DL message size for paging, it is assumed that paging is by LAC (or LAI) only. Paging by LAC only is the recommended method. Paging by LAC and cell ID is not necessary and has two major disadvantages: The paging method is controlled by the MSC and is signalled to the BSC through the setting of the cell Identification Discriminator in the BSSMAP paging message. The BSC can determine from its Configuration Management database which cells need to be paged from the location area code only. Therefore, the MSC does not need to send a list of each cell IDs. Paging by LAC and cell ID will increase the length of the BSSMAP paging considerably and will also significantly increase the C7 signalling load between the MSC and BSC. Paging by LAC only reduces the possibility of paging channel overload on the air interface caused by any database mismatches between the BSC and MSC. If the BSC receives a cell ID in the paging message that does not exist in its own CM database, it defaults to paging all cells in the BSS for safety reasons. This can cause overload of the paging channel on the radio interface. Half rate assumptions A (AMR or {22064} GSM) half rate enabled carrier is capable of carrying two half rate calls in each timeslot, for a total of 16 (half rate) TCHs. The actual number in use at a given instance will depend upon such factors as operator (both BSS and MSC) preference, mobile (that is, AMR capable) penetration, RF conditions, handoff parameter and threshold setting, cell congestion levels, etc. If it is known to a large degree of certainty what the mix of half rate and full rate calls will be, that number can be used when considering equipment planning. Otherwise it is recommended that a worst case approach be taken. For example, when determining the RSL signalling link capacity required, and half rate usage is expected to be no more than 50%, and there are 2 (both half rate enabled) carriers, a mix of 9 fr and 10 hr (plus 2 timeslots for signalling) TCHs can be used (for a total of 19). A worst case estimate will assume 16 TCHs per half rate enabled carrier, for a total of 28 TCHs. If only one carrier were half rate enabled, worst case results in (16 hr, 6 fr) 22 TCHs.

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Typical parameter values

When 8 kbit/s subrate switching is not available or an RTF is configured as AMR half rate capable and the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set, then the carrier unit assigned to that RTF will require four 64 kbit/s timeslots on the E1 circuit (regardless of how they are utilized).

Link capacities
The level of link utilization is largely a matter of choice of the system designer. A design that has more links running at a lower message rate can have the advantage of offering better fault tolerance, since the failure of any one link affects less signalling traffic. Reconfiguration around the fault could be less disruptive. Such a design could offer reduced queueing delays for signalling messages. A design that utilizes fewer links at a higher message rate, reduces the number of 64 kbit/s circuits required for signalling, and potentially reduces the number of resources (processors, data ports) required in the MSC. It is recommended that the C7 links be designed to operate at no more than 20% link utilization when the MTL is running on a GPROC1; and no more than 40% utilization when the MTL is running on a GPROC2 or GPROC3. However, before use of the 40% utilization for GPROC2 or GPROC3, it is imperative that the operator verifies that the MSC vendor can also support 40% utilization at the MSC end; if not, only 20% link utilization should be used for GPROC2 and GPROC3. If higher link utilizations are used, the controlling GPROCs (LCF--MTLs) may become overloaded. NOTE Overloading GPROCs can cause the BSC to become unstable. Links must be monitored closely to ensure that link utilization does not exceed the maximum. If link utilization is regularly approaching the maximum, additional capacity should be added to reduce the possibility of overloading the GPROCs.

C7, the protocol used for the MSC to BSC links, allows for the signalling traffic from the failed link to be redistributed among the remaining functioning links. A C7 link set officially has at least two and at most 16 links. The failure of links, for any reason, cause the signalling to be shared across the remaining members of the link set. Therefore, the design must plan for reserve link and processing capacity to support a certain number of failed signalling links.

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Determining the RSLs required

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Determining the RSLs required


Introduction
Each BTS site which is connected directly to the BSC, including the first site in a daisy chain, must be considered individually. Once individual RSL requirements are calculated the total number of LCFs can be determined for the BSC.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the provision of RSL (LAPD signalling) links from the BSC to BTS sites: With the Motorola BSC/BTS interface there is a need for an RSL link to every BTS site. One link can support multiple collocated cells. As the system grows, additional signalling links may be required. Refer to the section Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities in this chapter to determine the number of RSL links required. If closed loop daisy chains are used, each site requires an RSL in both directions. The provision of additional RSL links for redundancy. The number of 16kbit/s RSL links is limited, depending on the platform. See 16kbit/s RSL in chapter 2 for further details. 64kbit/s RSLs must be used when allowable numbers are exceeded. Table lists the limitations for 16kbit/s RSLs supported on each BTS platform. BTS Platform HorizonIImacro and Horizonmacro Horizonmicr2/Horizoncompact2 M-Cell6 M-Cell2 M-Cellmicro and M-CellCity NOTE No. of 16kbit/s RSLs Supported 6 2 6 4 2

Horizon II macro BTSs support 4 x RSLs per E1, whereas Horizonmacro and M-Cell BTSs only support 2 x RSLs per E1. This should be taken into consideration when determining the number of E1s required to support the calculated RSLs per site.

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Determining the RSLs required

Standard traffic model


The number of BSC to BTS signalling links (RSL) must be determined for each BTS. This number depends on the number of TCHs at the BTS. Table 87 gives the number of RSLs required for a BTS to support the given number of TCHs. These numbers are based on the typical call parameters given in the standard traffic model column of Table 7-1. If the call parameters differ significantly from the standard traffic model, use the formulae for the non-standard traffic model. Table 7-6 Number of BSC to BTS signalling links Number of 64 kbit/s RSLs 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 Number of 16 kbit/s RSLs 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8

n = number of TCHs at the BTS n <= 30 31 to 60 61 to 90 91 to 120 121 to 150 151 to 180 181 to 210 211 to 240 NOTE

A BTS shall support either 64 kbit/s RSLs or 16 kbit/s RSLs, but not both. 64kbit/s RSLs must be used if the allowable number of 16kbit/s RSLs has been exceeded.

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Non-standard traffic model


If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 7-1, use the following formula to determine the required number of 64 kbit/s RSLs (rounded up to the next nearest integer).

If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 7-1, use the following formula to determine the required number of 16 kbit/s RSLs (rounded up to the next nearest integer).

Where:

NBSC to BTS n S H L U T P CBTS

is:

the number of MSC to BSC signalling links. the number of TCH under the BSC. the ratio of SMSs to calls. the number of handovers per call. the location update factor. the percent link utilization (for example 0.20). the average call duration. the paging rate in pages per second. the number of cells per BTS.

BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions


Determine the number of E1 links required to connect to a BTS. Redundant links may be added, if required.

Where:

N nTCH L16 L64

is:

the minimum number of E1 links required (rounded up to an integer). the number of traffic channels at the BTS. the number of 16 kbit/s RSLs (LAPD links). the number of 64 kbit/s RSLs (LAPD links).

NOTE

This formula includes both L16 and L64 to provide necessary number of RSLs. As above, either L16 or L64 RSL can be used, but not both, to a single BTS.

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Determining the RSLs required

BSC to BTS T1 interconnect planning actions


Determine the number of T1 links required to connect to a BTS. Redundant links may be added, if required.

Where:

N nTCH L16 L64

is:

the minimum number of T1 links required (rounded up to an integer). the number of traffic channels at the BTS. the number of 16 kbit/s RSLs (LAPD links). the number of 64 kbit/s RSLs (LAPD links).

NOTE

This formula includes both L16 and L64 to provide necessary number of RSLs. As above, either L16 or L64 RSL can be used, but not both, to a single BTS.

Determining the number of LCFs for RSL Processing


Determine the number of GPROCs required to support the layer 3 call processing. NOTE Both GPROC2 and GPROC3 or a combination of the two can perform layer 3 call processing for GSM and GPRS (GPROC3 is a direct board level replacement for GPROC2). See Generic processor (GPROC) later in this chapter.

There are two methods for calculating this number. The first is used when the call parameters are similar to those listed in Table 6-2 (standard traffic model). The second method is used when the call parameters differ significantly from those listed in Table 6-2 (standard traffic model). Standard traffic model Use the formula:

Where:

GL3 n B C

is:

the number of LCF GPROC2s required to support the layer 3 call processing. the number of TCH at the BSC (see AMR Half-rate assumptions earlier in this chapter). the number of BTS sites. the number of cells per BSS.

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Non-standard traffic model If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 7-1, the alternative formula given below should be used to determine the recommended number of LCFs.

Where:

GL3 n S H i L T P B CBTS

is:

the number of LCF GPROC2s required to support the layer 3 call processing. the number of TCH at the BSC (see AMR Half-rate assumptions earlier in this chapter). the ratio of SMSs to calls. the number of handovers per call. the ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers. the location update factor. the average call duration. the paging rate in pages per second. the number of BTS sites. the number of cells per BTS.

NOTE

Having calculated the LCF GPROCs for RSLs, ensure that the traffic is evenly distributed across the LCFs. This may be difficult in cases where large sites are being used, and in such cases additional LCFs may be required. Alternatively, use the above formula for traffic channels on each LCF. If the calculated value exceeds 1, the sites should be redistributed on the other available LCFs, or additional LCFs should be equipped.

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Determining the number of MTLs required

Determining the number of MTLs required


Introduction
MTLs carry signalling traffic between the MSC and BSC. The number of required MTLs depends upon the BSS configuration size and traffic model. MTLs are carried on E1 or T1 links between the MSC and BSC, which are also used for traffic.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the links from the BSC to MSC: Determine traffic requirements for the BSC. Traffic may be determined using either of the following methods: Multiply the number of subscribers expected to use the BSC by the average traffic per subscriber. or Total the traffic potential of each BTS under the BSC; determined by the number of TCHs available, the number of TCHs required or the subscriber potential.

Determine the number of trunks to support the traffic requirements of the BSC using Erlang B tables at the required blocking rate. Determine the MTL loadshare granularity to be used for the BSC. MTL loadshare granularity determines the number of logical links that will be mapped onto the physical links. Setting the mtl_loadshare_granularity database element to 1 results in a more even distribution of traffic across the MTL links. This feature gradually increases the number of MTLs required with the increased traffic load on the BSC. For example, with an increase in the number of MSC-BSC trunks from 1560 to 1600, with 20% link utilization, the number of MTLs required for a BSC goes up from 8 to 16, if using a granularity of 0. When using a granularity of 1, only 10 MTLs will be required. This results from the enhanced load sharing of MTLs. and illustrate the difference between setting the load share granularity to 0 and 1, respectively. Table 7-7 and Table 7-8 illustrate the difference between setting the loadshare granularity to 0 and 1. NOTE These calculations are for the MTLs required in the uplink direction. For the downlink direction, planning rules for the signalling link calculation provided by the MSC vendor should be used. If the number of signalling links are higher in the downlink direction, then that number should be used. If the MSC vendor does not provide the planning rules for the MTLs required in a downlink direction, then use a load share granularity of 0 to be conservative in MTL provisioning.Load sharing of MTLs in the downlink direction depends on the mechanism used by the MSC to load share the signalling links from the MSC to BSC.

Standard traffic model


The number of MSC to BSC signalling links (MTL) required depends on the desired link utilization, the type and capacity of the GPROCs controlling the MTLs and the MTL loadshare granularity. The BSS software distributes call signalling traffic across 16 or 64 logical links, which are then evenly spread across the active MTLs. NOTE From GSR4 to GSR6, GPROC2 is the only GPROC type that the BSC supports. From GSR7 onwards, both GPROC2 and GPROC3 are supported.

CCITT C7 uses a 4 bit number, the Signalling Link Selection (SLS), generated by the upper layer to load share message traffic among the in-service links of a link set. When the number of in-service links is not a power of 2, some links may experience a higher load than others. From GSR5 release onwards, the BSS supports distribution of signalling in the uplink direction, over 64 logical links. The BSS evenly distributes the 64 logical links over the active MTLs.

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The number of MTLs is a function of the number of MSC to BSC trunks or the offered call load. Table 7-7 and Table 7-8 give the recommended minimum number of MSC to BSC signalling links based on the typical call parameters, detailed in Table 7-1. The value for N is the greater of the following: The offered call load (in Erlangs) from all the BTSs controlled by the BSC. The potential carried load (approximately equal to the number of MSC to BSC trunks). The offered call load for a BSS is the sum of the offered call load from all of the cells of the BSS. The offered call load at a cell is a function of the number TCHs and blocking. As blocking increases the offered call load increase. For example, for a cell with 15 TCHs and 2% blocking, the offered call load is 9.01 Erlangs. NOTE Before setting the load share granularity to 1, it is recommended that confirmation is gained from the Motorola local contact, or local office, that the switch is compatible with the load share granularity set to 1.

Table 7-7 and Table 7-8 show how to estimate the number of MTLs to be used for the BSC, with 20% and 40% link utilization, respectively. Table 7-7 Number of MSC and BSC signalling links (20% utilization) No of MTLs with 16 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 4 6 6 8 8 8 16 16 16 16 Set to 2 3 4 5 7 7 9 9 9 16 16 16 16 No of MTLs with 64 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 10 11 13 16 Set to 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 11 12 16 16

N = the greater of number of MSC-BSC Trunks or the offered load from the BTSs N <= 180 180 < N <=380 380 < N <= 520 520 < N <= 780 780 < N <= 960 960 < N <= 1040 1040 < N <= 1120 1120 < N <= 1240 1240 < N <= 1560 1560 < N <= 1780 1780 < N <= 2080 2080 < N <= 2480 2480 < N <= 3200

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Table 7-8

Number of MSC and BSC signalling links (40% utilization) No of MTLs with 16 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 16 Set to 2 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 9 9 16 No of MTLs with 64 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 10 Set to 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 11

N = the greater of number of MSC-BSC Trunks or the offered load from the BTSs N <= 380 380 < N <= 780 780 < N <= 1040 1040 < N <= 1120 1120 < N <= 1560 1560 < N <= 1920 1920 < N <= 2080 2080 < N <= 2260 2260 < N <= 2480 2480 < N <= 3120 3120 < N <= 3200 NOTE

The capacities shown in Table 6-12 and Table 6-13 are based on the standard traffic model shown in Table 6-2. It is recommended that the C7 links be designed to operate at no more than 20% link utilization when the MTL is running on a GPROC1, and no more than 40% utilization when the MTL is running on a GPROC2 or GPROC3. However, before using MTLs with 40% utilization, it is imperative that the operator verifies if the MSC vendor can also support 40% utilization at the MSC end. If not, then only 20% link utilization should be used for GPROC2 and GPROC3.

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Determining the number of MTLs required

Non-standard traffic model


If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 7-1, the following procedure is used to determine the required number of MSC to BSC signalling links: 1. Use the formula detailed below to determine the maximum number of Erlangs supported by a C7 signalling link (nlink).

2. Use the formula detailed below to determine the maximum number of Erlangs supported by a GPROC (LCF-MTL) supporting a C7 signalling link (nlLCF-MTL).

3. The maximum amount of traffic a MTL (a physical link) can handle (nlmin) is the smaller of the two numbers from Steps Step 1 and 2.

4. Signalling over the A-interface is uniformly distributed over a number of logical links. The number of logical links is defined on the BSC by database parameter mtl_loadshare_granularity = 0 or 1, which corresponds to 16 or 64 logical links, respectively, over which the MTL signalling is load shared. Hence, the total amount of traffic that a logical link would hold, is calculated as:

5. (nlog-per-mtl):

Next we need to determine the number of logical links each MTL (physical link) can handle

6.

Finally, the number of required MTLs is:

NOTE

MTLs should not exceed 16 per BSC. The formula in step 2 has been calculated using 70% mean utilization of GPROC2 (see Calculate the number of LCFs for MTL processing later in this section). Field experience suggests it is good practice to maintain the mean utilization of GPROCs at or below 70%. Taking LCS into consideration, C7 is also used for LCS signalling between the BSC and MSC and LCS signalling between BSC and SMLC if BSS based LCS architecture is supported. Refer to Chapter 9, Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities.

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Determining the number of MTLs required

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Where:

U T S H i L PPC B mtls round up round down MIN Ng

is:

the percent link utilization (for example 0.20). call hold time. the ratio of SMSs per call. the number of handovers per call. the ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers. the location update factor. the number of pages per call. the number of BTSs supported by the BSC. the number of MTLs required round up to the next integer. round down to the next integer. the minimum of two values. the number of logical links (16 or 64).

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Determining the number of MTLs required

Calculate the number of LCFs for MTL Processing


The purpose of the MTL LCF GPROC is to support the functions of MSC link protocol. For the LCF GPROC, it is recommended that a LCF supports either 2 MTLs or 1 to 30 BTSs, with up to 31 RSLs and layer 3 call processing. NOTE Both GPROC2 and GPROC3 or a combination of the two can perform MTL processing (GPROC3 is a direct board level replacement for GPROC2). See Generic processor (GPROC) later in this chapter. It is not recommended that a LCF supports both a MTL and BSC to BTS signalling links.

NOTE

LCFs for MSC to BSC links Since one LCF GPROC can support two MTLs, the number of required LCFs is:

However, if the traffic model does not conform to the standard model:

otherwise:

Where:

NLCF ROUND UP mtls nllink nlLCF-MTL

is:

the number of LCF GPROC2s required. rounding up to the next integer. calculated in the previous section. calculated in the previous section. calculated in the previous section.

MSC to BSC signalling over a satellite link


The BSC supports Preventive Cyclic Retransmission (PCR) to interface to the MSC over a satellite link. PCR retransmits unacknowledged messages when there are no new messages to be sent. This puts an additional processing load on the GPROC (LCF--MTLs) controlling the C7 signalling links. It is recommended that when PCR is used, that the number of MTLs (and thus the number of LCF--MTLs) be doubled from the number normally required.

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Determining the number of XBLs required

Determining the number of XBLs required


Feature overview
XBLs carry the signaling traffic between the BSC and AXCDR. The number of XBL links required depends upon the number of CICs and/or the number of Ater interface channels.

Planning Considerations
The following factors need to be considered when planning the number of XBL links from the BSC to the RXCDR: Determine the traffic requirements of the BSC and/or the number of trunks (CICs) used between the BSC and AXCDR. Determine the mode (backward compatibility or auto-connect) in which the BSC and RXCDR operate. See Chapter 2 for a description of the modes. A maximum of 20 XBLs (64 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s) can be configured for a BSC/RXCDR. A BSC can connect to a maximum of 10 RXCDRs and vice versa.

Provisioning
The number of XBL links depends on the number of trunks on the BSC-AXCDR interface and whether or not the auto-connect mode is enabled at the RXCDR/BSC. Table 7-9 details the minimum number of XBLs required to support the given number of trunks between the BSC and AXCDR, with auto-connect mode. Table 7-9 Number of BSC to RXCDR signalling links No redundancy Number of 64kb/s XBLs N < 1200 1200 < N < 2400 2400 < N < 3200 1 2 3 Number of 16kb/s XBLs 4 8 11 With redundancy Number of 64kb/s XBLs 2 4 6 Number of 16kb/s XBLs 8 16 22*

N = number of MSC to BSC trunks

*This exceeds the 20 XBL limit and is thus invalid It is recommended that the XBL link utilization does not exceed 40%. Above this level, queueing delays could become substantial. Although both auto-connect mode and enhanced auto-connect mode apply a load, it is the enhanced auto-connect mode load that can vary depending on system configuration. When operating in this mode, the XBL link utilization should be monitored to determine if additional capacity is required. The number of XBL links as shown above is a minimum number that are required, regardless of measured utilization. This is due to peak usage requirements during start up and reconfigurations due to faults and maintenance. XBL link utilisation is a network statistic, calculated on a per XBL basis.

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Standard Traffic Model


The minimum number of XBL links required as given in Table 7-9 were verified using a standard set of call parameters. These are given in Table . Parameter Link utilization Call duration Average XBL message size XBL messages per new call * XBL messages per full rate <--> half rate handover Full rate <--> half rate handovers per call * Mobile origination, mobile termination, hand-in from MSC. Value 40% 120s 450 bytes 1 1 1

Non-standard Traffic Model


If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 6-15, use the following formula to determine the required number of 64 kbit/s XBLs (rounded up to the next integer):

Use the following formula to determine the required number of 16 kbit/s XBLs (rounded up to the next integer):

Where: XBL N T Mnewcall Mhandover Hfr--hr LXBL U(BSC--RXCDR)

is: the number of BSC to RXCDR signalling links. the number of MSC--BSC trunks. the average call duration in seconds. the number of XBL messages per new call. the number of XBL messages per hr <--> fr handover. the number hr <--> fr handovers per call. the average length of a XBL message in bytes. sthe percentage link utilization (0.40, for example).

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Generic processor (GPROC)

Generic processor (GPROC)


GPROC nomenclature
For the purposes of this manual only and to avoid confusion between different versions of the generic processor (GPROC), the following nomenclature is used: GPROC1 specifically refers to the original GPROC. GPROC2 specifically refers to the GPROC2. GPROC3 specifically refers to the GPROC3. GPROC is used in this manual as a non-specific term referring to both GPROC2 and GPROC3 (GPROC1 cannot be used in systems running GSR4 or higher).

Introduction
The GPROC2 is a direct replacement for the GPROC1. It is used throughout the Motorola BSS as a generic control processor board. This section describes the BSC GPROC types and their functions. The BSC configuration type and GPROC device type are essential factors for BSC planning. From GSR4 to GSR6 (Horizon II), GPROC2s must be installed in all the slots at the BSC. The GPROC3 is a high performance direct replacement for GPROC2s and GPROC1s, provided GSR7 (or higher) is installed. This software release allows for any combination of GPROC types to be installed. GPROC3s cannot be used wth software versions earlier than GSR7.

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Generic processor (GPROC)

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GPROC2 functions and types


GPROCs are assigned functions and are then known by their function names. The GPROC is the basic building block of a distributed architecture. The GPROC provides the processing platform for the BSC. By using multiple GPROCs, software tasks can be distributed across GPROCs to provide greater capacity. The set of tasks that a GPROC is assigned, depends upon the configuration and capacity requirements of the BSC. Although every GPROC of the same type (1, 2, or 3) is similar from a hardware standpoint, when a group of tasks are assigned to a GPROC, it is considered to be a unique GPROC device type or function in the BSC configuration management scheme. There are a limited number of defined task groupings in the BSC, which result in the naming of four unique GPROC device types for the BSC. The processing requirement of a particular BSC determines the selection and quantity of each GPROC device type. The possible general task groupings or functions for assignment to GPROCs are: BSC common control functions. OMC communications - OML (X.25) including statistic gathering. MSC link protocol (C7). BSS Layer 3 call processing (BSSAP) and BTS link protocol, RSL (LAPD). Cell broadcast centre link (CBL). Base Site Control Processor (BSP). Link Control Function (LCF). Operations and Maintenance Function (OMF). Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP).

The defined GPROC devices and functions for the BSC are as follows (also see Table 812):

At a combined BSC BTS site, the BTF and DHP are additional GPROC function and type in the network element. Table 812 defines the GPROC types/functions for different software releases from GSR4 onwards. Software Release GSR4 to GSR6 (Horizon II) GSR7 onwards (see Note) BSP GPROC2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 MTL-LCF GPROC2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 RSL-LCF GPROC2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 OMF GPROC2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 CSFP GPROC2 GPROC2 or GPROC3

NOTE

When the enhanced BSC capacity feature and AMR (and/or GSM half rate) are used together in GSR7, it is mandatory for a GPROC3 to be installed in the BSP slot at the BSC. Otherwise, replacing a GPROC2 with a GPROC3 in the BSP slot is at the discretion of the user.

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Generic processor (GPROC)

GPROC3 planning assumptions


The following assumptions are made regarding planning GPROC3 usage: GPROC3 processing performance is improved, when compared with GPROC2. The GPROC3 is only mandatory at the BSP if full capacity support with the enhanced BSC fetaure is required and AMR (and/or GSM Half Rate) is enabled. The GPROC3 can be used for other board functions besides BSP in the BSC only as a board level replacement and replacement is not mandatory for these functions. The GPROC3 does not provide any capacity and performance improvements in terms of number of links or sites supported. The only difference is that an operator will see lower processor utilizations. The GPROC3 can be used as board level replacement for GPROC2 and GPROC1 at a BTS. It is not mandatory for any function. The GPROC3 can be used as board level replacement for GPROC2 and GPROC1 at the RXCDR. It is not mandatory for any function.

BSC types
The BSC is configured as one of two types; the type is determined by the GPROCs present. BSC type 1 Master GPROC. Running the base site control processor (BSP) and carring out operations and maintenance functionalities. Link control processor (LCF). Running the radio signalling link (RSL) and layer 3 processing or MTL (C7 signalling link) communications links. BSC type 2 Master GPROC. Running the BSP. LCF. OMF. Running the O&M, including statistics collection, and OML link (X.25 control links to the OMC-R).

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the GPROC complement: BSP limitation. When the enhanced BSC capacity feature and AMR (and/or GSM Half Rate) are used together, it is mandatory to deploy GPROC3s in any potential BSP slot in the site, both active and standby (i.e., slot 20 and 24 in cage 0 and slot 20 in cage 1). Under other circumstances, replacing a GPROC2 with a GPROC3 in the BSP slot is at the discretion of the user. Each BSC requires: One master GPROC (BSP). One OMF (if it is a type 2 BSC). A number of LCFs for MTLs, see Link control processor below. LCFs to support the RSL and control of the BTSs.

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Generic processor (GPROC)

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Optional GPROCs Include: One redundant master GPROC (BSP). At least one redundant pool GPROC (covers LCFs). An optional dedicated CSFP.

A maximum of eight GPROCs can be supported in a BSU shelf. The master GPROC slot (20) in the first shelf should always be populated to enable communication with the OMC-R. For redundancy each BSC should be equipped with a redundant BSP controller and an additional GPROC to provide redundancy for the signalling LCFs. Where multiple shelves exist, each shelf should have a minimum of two GPROCs to provide redundancy within that shelf. Link control function The following factors should be considered when planning the number of LCFs: MTLs are handled by dedicated LCFs. GPROCs can handle up to two MTLs. For RSL handling the maximum number of carriers that can be supported by an LCF depends on the number of BTSs controlled by that LCF. The sum of 2 x (the number of BTSs) and the number of carriers cannot exceed 120 for a GPROC LCF. NOTE There is a limit of 24 carriers in a single Horizon IImacro, Horizonmacro or M-Cell6 site.

A GPROC LCF can handle up to 500 messages per second. NOTE Combining MTL and RSL processing on a single GPROC is not recommended.

The planning rules for LCFs using GPROCs are: A single GPROC will support two MTLs each working at 20% link utilization. However, if the link utilisation is higher, the actual number of MTLs supported per LCF depends on the Erlangs supported per LCF and MTL for that particular call model. A single GPROC will support up to 31 BTS sites and 31 RSLs, limited to the following calculation:

Where carriers = the total number of radios for the BTS site(s).

Where nLCF = the number of TCHs on the sites under a LCF and n = the total number of sites on the LCF. If any LCF does not satisfy the above criteria, either rebalancing of sites on the available LCF GPROCs at the BSC is required or additional LCF GPROCs may need to be equipped at the BSC to handle the traffic load. The link utilization of a RSL should not exceed 25%. Up to 25 LCFs can be supported.

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Generic processor (GPROC)

A maximum of 31 BTS sites can be controlled by a single LCF. All RSLs (LAPD links) for the BTSs will terminate on the same GPROC, so if return loops are used the maximum number of BTS sites will be 15 (if GPROC_slots = 31). If GPROC_slots is set to 16 then at most 15 RSLs may exist which would support up to seven BTS sites. NOTE The number of serial links per GPROC must be determined for each site. The current values are 16 or 32 with 16 being the default value. One link is reserved for each board (for GPROC test purposes) so the number of available serial links is either 15 or 31. However, when the links are running at high load, the GPROC may experience some performance problems when terminating 31 links. Hence, the use of more than 15 links per board is not recommended.

GPROC planning actions


Determine the number of GPROCs required.

Where:

NGPROC2 B L C R

is:

the total number of GPROCs required. the number of BSP GPROCs (2B for redundancy). the number of LCF GPROCs. the number of CSFP GPROCs. the number of pool GPROCs (for redundancy).

NOTE

If dedicated GPROCs are required for either the CSFP or OMF functions then they should be provisioned separately.

Cell broadcast link


The cell broadcast link (CBL) connects the BSC to the cell broadcast centre. For typical applications (less than ten messages per second), this link can exist on the same LCF as that used to control BTSs. The CBL should not be controlled by a LCF-MTL (a GPROC controlling an MTL).

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Generic processor (GPROC)

Version 1 Rev 3

OMF GPROC required


The BSC type 2 configuration offloads many of the O&M functions and control of the interface to the OMC-R from the BSP. One of the major functions off loaded from the BSP is the central statistics process. When determining the total number of statistics, consider the number of instances of that statistic.

Where:

NST ECS C Tcs n SX25LAPD L X B

is:

the total number of statistics. the number of enabled cell statistics the number of cells. the number of traffic enabled channel statistics. the number of traffic channels. the number of X.25/LAPD statistics. the number of RSLs. the number of OMLs. the number of XBLs

NOTE

The formula assumes that the same cell and channel statistics are enabled across all cells.

Code storage facility processor


The BSS supports a GPROC acting as the code storage facility processor (CSFP). The CSFP allows pre-loading of a new software release while the BSS is operational. If a dedicated GPROC is to exist for the CSFP, an additional GPROC will be required. When M-Cell BTSs are connected to the BSC, a dedicated CSFP is required at the BSC and a second dedicated CSFP should be equipped for redundancy. The BSS supports a method whereby a dedicated CSFP GPROC is not required. This method is implemented using the configure_csfp command and works as follows: The system can borrow certain devices and temporarily convert them into a CSFP, and when the CSFP functionality is no longer needed the device can be converted back into its previous device. The devices the system can borrow are a redundant BSP/BTP or a pooled GPROC. This functionality allows an operator who already has either a redundant BSP/BTP or a pooled GPROC in service to execute a command from the OMC-R to borrow the device and convert it into a CSFP. The operator can then download the new software load or database and execute a CSFP swap. Once the swap has been completed and verified as successful, the operator can return the CSFP back to the previous redundant or pooled device type via a separate command from the OMC-R. See Technical Description: BSS Command Reference (68P02901W23) for more details on the configure_csfp command.

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Generic processor (GPROC)

GPROC redundancy
BSP redundancy The failure of the BSP GPROC will cause a system outage. If the BSC is equipped with a redundant BSP GPROC, the system will restart under the control of the redundant BSP GPROCs. If the BSC is not equipped with a redundant BSP and the BSP GPROC were to fail, the BSC would be inoperable. Pooled GPROCs for LCF and OMF redundancy The BSS supports pooled GPROCs for LCF and OMF redundancy. By equipping additional GPROCs for spares, if an LCF or the OMF GPROC were to fail, the system software will automatically activate a spare GPROC2 from the GPROC pool to replace the failed GPROC.

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Generic processor (GPROC)

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BSS Support of Location Services (LCS)

BSS Support of Location Services (LCS)


Overview
There is a requirement to comply with the Federal Communications Committee (FCC) to support Location Services (LCS) functionality in GSM systems. The process is specified in two phases: Phase one - Transmission of the originating number of an emergency call and the location of the serving site to the Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). Phase two - Transmission of a callers estimated position in terms of latitude and longitude within specified accuracy limits. Applications requiring location estimates from LCS can be present in the MS, the network, or external to the PLMN. There are several positioning mechanisms available to LCS for position determination of a MS. The process consists of two main stages: measurement of signals and computation of position estimate based on measured signals. The standard Special Mobile Group (SMG) mechanisms are: Network-based uplink Time of Arrival (TOA); Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD); Assisted GPS (A-GPS). It is possible to use conventional GSM Timing Advance (TA) measurements in conjunction with cell ID to provide a low-quality, coarse location estimate. Motorola support all but TOA methods of position estimation

Timing Advance Positioning Mechanism


The TA positioning mechanism uses existing GSM TA measurements. Frequency of TA information transfer is specified by the parameter timing_advance_period. The TA is known for the serving BTS, and when returned to the LCS client requesting the location information, is used with the cell ID to give an approximate location of the MS.

E-OTD Positioning Mechanism


In a synchronized network, the MS measures the relative time taken for signals to reach it from several BTSs. For non-synchronised networks, the signals are all received by a fixed measuring point, Location Measurement Unit (LMU), the location of which is known. The MS position can then be determined by calculation using the various time delays from the MS to he BTSs. No additional hardware is required in the MS. Normal and dummy bursts can be utilised for E-OTD measurements and synchronization. If transmission frames from BTSs are not synchronized, Real-Time Differences (RTDs) between them need to be established.

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BSS Support of Location Services (LCS)

Version 1 Rev 3

E-OTD Positioning Mechanism

t1

t2

BTS 1 BTS 2 t3

BTS 3

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BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) (cont)

BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) (cont)


For accurate positional calculation, E-OTD measurements and, for non-synchronized BTSs, RTDs are needed from at least three geographically distinct BTSs. If the calculation occurs in the MS, this is known as MS-based positioning. If in the network then it is MS-assisted positioning.

A-GPS Positioning Mechanism


With the A-GPS method of position indication, existing GPS satellites are utilised to provide location information of a MS. The procedures are based on the Time of Arrival (TOA) principle. Using the Standard Positioning Service (SPS), the accuracy is to within a 100 meters radius circle 95% of the time. Higher accuracy is possible using further enhancements of the default GPS system methods, down to within a 5 metre radius circle using Differential GPS (DGPS).This utilises a reference receiver at a known location to give corrective information to a mobile receiver over a communications link. The A-GPS system does rely on a clear view of the sky by the receiver serving the GSM network.

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BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) (cont)

Version 1 Rev 3

A-GPS Positioning Mechanism

Geo stationary satellites

Monitor & Control Station

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BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) (cont)

Network Architecture
New network elements are required to support LCS in a GSM system as shown in figure 7-3. Gateway Mobile Location Centre (GMLC) This is the first node that a LCS client will access in a GSM PLMN. The GMLC may request routing information from the HLR via the Lh interface. After registration, the GMLC sends positioning requests to, and receives final location estimates from the MSC/VLR via the Lg interface. The GMLC is responsible for: Managing the external interface to LCS Authorising LCS clients requesting LCS information Collecting LCS charging/billing data for both clients and subscribers Transforming location estimates into local geographic data used by the client

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BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) (cont)

Version 1 Rev 3

LCS Architecture

CBC SMLC

Lp SMLC HLR HLR Lb Ls Lh Lg Gateway MLC Le External LCS Client SMLC

LMU (Type A)

CBC Lb
CBC BSC

Um MS

BTS (LMU Type B)

Abis

BSC

MSC/VLR Lg

Abis

LMU LMU (Type B) (Type B)

Other Gateway Gateway MLC PLMN MLC

Figure 7-3 BSS planning diagram

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BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) (cont)

Serving Mobile Location Centre (SMLC) The SMLC manages the overall co-ordination and scheduling of resources required to perform location calculation. It is also responsible for calculating the final accuracy of location estimate. There are 2 types of SMLC: NSS based - supporting positioning of a target MS via signalling on the Ls interface to the visited MSC. BSS based - A BSS based SMLC supports position indication via signalling on the Lb link to the BSC serving the MS concerned. Both types of SMLC are able to access information and resources owned by another SMLC via the Lp interface. In general terms, a BSC only knows about the existence of a BSS based SMLC, if a SMLC is NSS based, all transactions will appear to be to and from the MSC only. The SMLC controls a number of LMUs to obtain radio interface measurements for MS subscriber location within the area it covers. NSS based SMLC to LMU signalling is transferred to the LMUs MSC via the Ls interface, and either the Um interface for a type A LMU or the Abis interface for a type B LMU. The signalling between a BSS based SMLC and LMU is transferred via the BSC controlling the LMU on the Lb interface and either the Um for a type A LMU or the Abis for a type B LMU. The GMLC and SMLC functions may be combined in the same physical node, combined in existing physical nodes, or reside in different nodes. If a BSC has a related CBC entity, the SMLC may interface to the CBC for broadcast facilities. In this case, the SMLC will behave as a user Cell Broadcast Entity to the CBC. Location Measurement Unit (LMU) The LMU make radio measurements in support of one or more positioning methods with these measurements being in one of two possible categories: Location measurements specific to one MS used to compute the location of it Assistance measurements specific to a group of MSs in a geographic area There are two types of LMU: Type A- Accessed exclusively over the GSM Air Interface. It has a serving BTS and BSC giving signalling access to a controlling SMLC. With a NSS based SMLC, there will also be a serving MSC/VLR and a subscription profile held in the HLR. Has a unique IMSI and has functionality enough to support SDCCH over the Air Interface to enable communication with the SMLC. Type B - Accessed over the Abis Interface from a BSC. May be either a stand-alone entity with a unique pseudo-cell identity or connected to/integrated with a BTS. Signalling is routed through the controlling BSC for a BSS based SMLC or through the controlling BSC and MSC for a NSS based SMLC.

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BSS Support of Location Services (LCS) (cont)

Version 1 Rev 3

LCS Architecture

CBC SMLC

Lp SMLC HLR HLR Lb Ls Lh Lg Gateway MLC Le External LCS Client SMLC

LMU (Type A)

CBC Lb
CBC BSC

Um MS

BTS (LMU Type B)

Abis

BSC

MSC/VLR Lg

Abis

LMU LMU (Type B) (Type B)

Other Gateway Gateway MLC PLMN MLC

Figure 7-3 BSS planning diagram

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Transcoding

Transcoding
Introduction
Transcoding reduces the number of cellular subscriber voice/data trunks required by a factor of four. When AMR (or GSM) half rate is in use (and the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is not included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is available) the reduction factor for the half rate calls becomes eight. Note that in most configurations half rate is likely used only for part of the time, thus yielding a reduction factor of less than eight. If transcoding takes place at the switch using a RXCDR, the number of links between the RXCDR and the BSC is reduced to approximately one quarter (less when half rate is employed under the conditions described above) of the number of links between the RXCDR and the MSC. The GDP2 can process 60 channels of FR, EFR, AMR, GSM HR and Phase 2 data services and is capable of terminating two E1 links from the MSC. It can also function as a replacement for the GDP. The capacity of one BSU shelf is 12 MSI slots, six of which may contain a transcoder (XCDR), generic digital processor (GDP), enhanced digital processor (EGDP), or generic digital processor 2 (GDP2); this limitation is due to power constraints. A RXU shelf can support up to 16 GDP/XCDR/EGDP/GDP2s and typically provides a better solution of the transcoding function for larger commercial systems. The GDP2 may be used to 60 channel capacity in the BSU shelf, and when used in the new RXU3 shelf and BSSC3 cabinet (within the RXCDR, enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used in non-MSI slots). The existing RXU shelf has only one E1 per transcoder slot, therefore the GDP2 can not be used to its full capacity in the existing RXU shelf (the GDP2 supports only 30 channels when used in the RXU shelf). Refer to the section Remote transcoder planning overview in Chapter 9. An EGDP is a new development of the GDP board, used to support AMR. Due to the additional transcoding requirements of AMR, each of the 15 DSPs on the GDP board is only capable of supporting the transcoding function for a single channel of GSM speech (AMR, FR, and EFR) and Phase 2 data services. To fully offer 30 channels of enhanced transcoding using the same E1 span line to the MSC, enhanced GDPs are equipped as pairs, each providing half of the transcoding resources. Note that this results in an overall reduction in capacity - equivalent to 30 channels per GDP pair. Use of an EGDP is practical only when used in conjunction with AMR. The EGDP does not support GSM Half Rate. Due to the ability of the GDP2 to function as a GDP, it may replace one or both of the GDPs in the EGDP configuration. This is not an optimal use of the GDP2 and is most likely to occur in emergency situations (e.g. board replacement). As a result, it is not considered in the planning procedures. The MSC recommends a particular codec type or types to be used on a call-by-call basis. It sends the BSC a preference-ordered list, based on such factors as MS capabilities and operator configuration. When the MSC is capable of choosing the MSC--RXCDR trunk (CIC) based upon the preferred codec type, a mix of both AMR capable (EGDP/GDP2) and non-AMR capable (XCDR/GDP) equipment may be used. If this capability (called "circuit pooling") is not present, GDP2s or EGDPs should be used exclusively to prevent downgrading or blocking of calls. When AMR is employed and both XCDR/GDPs and EGDP/GDP2s are present (and circuit pooling is present at the MSC), there must be sufficient GDP2 and EGDP equipment available to handle the expected AMR traffic. The proportion of AMR capable transcoding circuits vs. non-AMR capable transcoding circuits should be no less than the proportion of AMR capable MSs vs. non-AMR capable MSs. A safety factor of no less than 20% is recommended (20% allows for some variation in the actual number and allows for a period of growth in AMR capable MS penetration before having to add more AMR transcoding ability). Note that each AMR half rate call requires one (AMR) transcoder circuit. Lack of an available AMR circuit could cause a call to be downgraded to another codec type or possibly blocked. When GSM half rate is employed and a mix of XCDRs and GDP/GDP2s are present, a similar situation exists. However, due to the early introduction into the standards of GSM half rate, most mobile are expected to be GSM half rate capable. Since a CIC is not tied to any particular voice channel, circuit pooling is rendered ineffective, as there is no way to predict which mobiles may require GSM half rate. It becomes necessary to update all transcoding to support GSM HR in order to guarantee GSM half rate can be used when needed. Without this upgrade, calls on non-GSM HR capable CICs will remain on a full rate channel.

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Transcoding

Version 1 Rev 3

When GSM half rate and AMR are both in use and a combination of AMR transcoding equipment (EGDP, GDP2) and GSM half rate transcoding equipment (GDP, GDP2) exist, circuit pooling is most effective when choosing AMR CICs (EGDP, GDP2) for AMR capable mobiles, and the remaining CICs for non-AMR capable mobiles. Ideally, for AMR capable mobiles the MSC would first choose a CIC attached to a EGDP, followed by one attached to a GDP2. For a non-AMR capable mobile the MSC would first choose a CIC attached to a GDP, followed by one attached to a GDP2. The selection of the proper CIC (circuit pool) is dependent upon the capability of the connected MSC.

GDP/XCDR/EGDP/GDP2 planning considerations


The following factors should be considered when planning the GDP/XCDR/EGDP/GDP2 complement: GDP2 will not support GSM HR on the 7.x load line. This added capability will be part of GSR 8. A XCDR can process 30 voice channels (E1), will support GSM Full Rate speech (GSM FR), uplink/downlink volume control and is capable of terminating one E1 link from the MSC. A GDP can process 30 voice channels (E1) or 24 voice channels (T1), will support GSM FR, enhanced Full Rate speech (EFR), GSM half rate speech (GSM HR), uplink/downlink volume control and is capable of terminating one E1 or T1 link from the MSC. An EGDP consists of two paired GDP cards, a "primary" and a "secondary". Each EGDP can process 30 channels of FR, EFR, AMR, and Phase 2 data services, and terminates one E1 link from the MSC. GSM HR is not supported on an EGDP. The primary GDP of an EGDP terminates the E1 interface to the MSC. The secondary GDP of an EGDP may terminate an E1 interface to the BTS. The GDP2 can process 60 channels of FR, EFR, AMR, GSM HR and Phase 2 data services and is capable of terminating two E1 links from the MSC. It can also function as a replacement for the GDP. XCDRs, GDPs, EGDPs, and GDP2s can co-exist in a cage. The proportion of AMR-capable circuits (GDP2/EGDP) to non AMR-capable circuits (XCDR/GDP) should be sufficient to handle the expected AMR traffic. The master MSI slot(s) should always be populated to enable communication with the OMC-R. The master MSI slot may contain an XCDR/GDP/EGDP (see Note) /GDP2, if the OML goes through the MSC. The A-interface must terminate on the XCDR/GDP/EGDP (see Note) /GDP2. A GDP can terminate T1 or E1 links, whereas an XCDR can only terminate E1 links (refer to T1 conversion below). EGDP/GDP2s do not support T1. NOTE Either the primary or secondary EGDP.

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Transcoding

T1 Conversion
T1 to E1 conversion is needed for XCDR, but not for GDP. EGDP and GDP2 do not support T1 connectivity. When required, MSI-2s can be used to provide T1 to E1 conversion. This can be done in one of two ways. In either case, the conversion may be part of an existing network element or a standalone network element which would appear as an RXCDR. Without KSW switching A single MSI-2 can be programmed to be E1 on one port and T1 on the other. This is the simplest method, but uses at most 23 of the transcoding circuits on the XCDR. This method has no impact on the TDM bus ports, but does require MSI slots. This method requires the number of GDP/XCDRs and additional MSI-2s to be equal to the number of T1 links. With KSW switching For better utilization of the GDP/XCDRs, a mapping of five T1 circuits onto four E1 circuits may be done. This uses the ability of the KSW to switch between groups using nailed connections. Although more efficient in XCDR utilization, this method may cause additional KSWs to be used. Each MSI-2 requires an MSI slot. The number of MSI-2s needed for T1 to E1 conversion is:

Where: m T E

is: the number of MSI-2s required for T1 to E1 conversion. the number of T1 circuits required. the number of E1 circuits required.

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Transcoding

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Enhanced GDP Provisioning

Enhanced GDP Provisioning


The Enhanced GDP feature is a standard feature providing enhanced Transcoding resources for future application use including Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) Speech Encoding and ETSI Tandem-Free M-M Operation (TFO) to avoid double transcoding. The feature performs the following functions: Supports provisioning for GDPs capable of enhanced Transcoding particularly AMR and ETSI TFO. Termination of E1/T1 links on A-interface or Abis interface Support of provisioning for GDPs to provide additional enhanced Transcoding resources only without the use of the E1/T1 interface capability. Prior to EGDP, Transcoding was performed by 15 DSPs on a GDP with each processing 2 calls (total 30 TCHs). Processing needs for AMR and TFO requires that only 1 call is handled by each DSP as opposed to 2, this means that to transcoder the 30 channels handled before by 1 GDP will require 2 GDPs operating as a pair when using enhanced Transcoding. A GDP can be either a Primary or Secondary GDP.

Primary GDP
A Primary GDP can provide E1/T1 interface to the MSC. It can support basic transcoding as a stand-alone board or be paired with a Secondary GDP to provide enhanced transcoding. Secondary GDP A Secondary GDP provides enhanced transcoding for 50% of circuits interfaced from the MSC by a Primary GDP. The Secondary GDP can also be used to provide E1/T1 interface to a BSC or BTS in place of an MSI board. The first of the following 2 diagrams shows a GDP pair used for enhanced transcoding of 30 TCHs at either a RXCDR or BSC using an MSI for Ater/Abis link interface. The second diagram shows the GDP pair utilising both E1/T1 interfaces to replace an MSI. If a secondary GDP fails, the CIC for which it provides a service will become Out-Of- Service.

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Enhanced GDP Provisioning

Version 1 Rev 3

MSC
E1

Secondary GDP 15 DSPs

Primary GDP
15 DSPs

RXCDR or BSC

TDM Highway

MSI
E1

64Kbit/s 16Kbit/s
SYS04_GSR7_ch8p8-51

BSC Or BTS

MSC
E1

Primary GDP
15 DSPs

RXCDR or BSC

TDM Highway

15 DSPs Secondary GDP


E1

64Kbit/s 16Kbit/s
SYS04_GSR7_ch8_p8-51b

BSC Or BTS

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Enhanced GDP Provisioning

Call Downgrade on CIC Capability Mismatch


The purpose of this feature is to provide: Multi-platform Support - Co-existance of XCDR and GDP boards Enhanced Call Management - Allocation of relevant CIC for correct speech version; Recognition and support of AMR requests to enable downgrading/rejection; Easier introduction of further speech versions/transcoding platforms (ie AMR) Enhanced CIC Management - Detection of CIC speech version capability by the BSS With the introduction of EFR, GDPs can be used in place of XCDR boards and can support both Full-Rate and Enhanced Full-Rate speech. A requirement is the pooling of transcoder resources within the BSS with FR CICs terminating on a XCDR board and EFR CICs terminating on a GDP board. Some switch manufacturers offer partial support of CIC pooling manually. If the switch used does not support this, it is possible that a CIC carrying EFR traffic could terminate on a XCDR board resulting in no speech. Call Downgrade on CIC Capability Mismatch addresses this issue by detecting the BSS transcoding ability and ensuring that all call setup and handover requests are validated allowing the BSS to allocate the correct speech version supported by the MS and infrastructure. Feature Operation CIC capability information is configured for all CICs equipped at the BSC. For local transcoding, the BSC configures the capabilities on equipping a CIC or group of CICs. For remote transcoding, the RXCDR maintains the CIC capability information as they are configured and passes this iinformation (via the XBL) to the BSC as part of the CIC validation process. If there are no appropriate resources available after the CIC validation process, a call setup/handover request will be rejected. In a handover situation, if the call is EFR and there is no suitable XCDR type available but FR transcoding is, then the call will be modified (downgraded) to FR speech and the appropriate resource allocated.

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Enhanced GDP Provisioning

Version 1 Rev 3

Planning actions for transcoding at the BSC


Planning transcoding at the BSC must always be performed as it determines the number of E1 or T1 links for the A interface. This text should be read in conjunction with the BSS planning diagram Figure 7-1. Using E1 links The minimum number of E1 links required for the A-interface is the greater of two calculations that follow (fractional values should be rounded up to the next integer value).

Where:

N C X T

is:

the minimum number of E1 links required. the number of MTL links (C7 signalling links) to the MSC. the number of OML links (X.25 control links to the OMC-R) through the MSC. the number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC.

Each XCDR/GDP/EGDP can terminate one E1 link. Each GDP2 can terminate two E1 links (when used in a BSU or RXU3 shelf (enhanced capacity mode must be enabled within the RXCDR to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used in non-MSI slots)). The equipment can be mixed within the following calculation:

Where:

N XGE G2

is:

the minimum number of E1 links required. tthe number of XCDR/GDP/EGDPs. the number of GDP2s.

Verify that the number of AMR circuits is sufficient to handle the expected AMR traffic. If necessary, adjust the number of EGDP/GDP2s. The following formula may be used to determine the percentage of AMR capable circuits:

NOTE

Count primary and secondary EGDPs as one EGDP in the above equation.

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Enhanced GDP Provisioning

Using T1 links The minimum number of T1 links required for the A-Interface is the greater of two calculations that follow (fractional values should be rounded up to the next integer value).

Where:

N C X T

is:

the minimum number of T1 links required. the number of MTL links (C7 signalling links) to the MSC. the number of OML links (X.25 control links to the OMC-R) through the MSC. the number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC.

Each GDP card can erminate one T1 link (see T1 conversion above for XCDR)

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Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2)

Version 1 Rev 3

Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2)


Introduction
A multiple serial interface provides the interface for the links between a BSSC cabinet and other network entities in the BSS, BSC to BTS and BSC to RXCDR. An MSI can interface only E1 links, an MSI-2 can interface both E1 and T1 links, but not simultaneously.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the transcoder complement: Each MSI can interface two E1 links. Each MSI-2 can interface two T1 links. NOTE Although the MSI-2 is configurable to support either E1 or T1 on each of its two ports, it is not recommended for E1 systems.

Each E1 link provides 31 usable 64 kbit/s channels. Each T1 link provides 24 usable 64 kbit/s channels, T1 links use MSI-2. Redundancy for the MSI/MSI-2 depends on the provisioning of redundant E1/T1 links connected to the site. The master MSI slot(s) should always be populated to enable communication with OMC-R. If the OML links go directly to the MSC, the master slot should be filled with a XCDR/GDP/EGDP (primary or secondary)/GDP2, otherwise the slot should be filled with an MSI/MSI-2 which terminates the E1/T1 link carrying the OML link to the OMC-R. These E1/T1 links do not need to go directly to the OMC-R, they may go to another network element for concentration.

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Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2)

MSI/MSI-2 planning actions


The following formulae assume local transcoding. Refer to Chapter RXCDR planning steps and rules for MSI planning formulae for remote transcoding. With E1 links Determine the number of MSIs required.

Where:

M B

is:

the number of MSIs required. the number of BSC to BTS links.

With T1 links Determine the number of MSI-2s required.

Where:

M B m

is:

the number of MSI/MSI-2s required. the number of BSC to BTS links. the number of MSI/MSI-2s used for T1 to E1 conversion.

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Kiloport switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2)

Version 1 Rev 3

Kiloport switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2)


Introduction
The kiloport switch (KSW) card provides digital switching for the TDM highway of the BSC. The double kiloport switch (DSW2) is an enhanced version of the KSW which supports extended subrate switching capability down to 8 kbit/s. Use of 8 kbit/s subrate switching can reduce backhaul costs when used in conjunction with the AMR or GSM half rate feature.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the KSW/DSW2 complement: A minimum of one KSW/DSW2 is required for each BSC site. The KSW/DSW2 capacity of 1024 x 64 kbit/s or 4096 x 16 kbit/s ports can be expanded by adding up to three additional KSWs/DSW2s, giving a total switching capacity of 4096 x 64 kbit/s or 16384 x 16 kbit/s ports. When operating in extended subrate switching mode, the DSW2 can switch an additional 16384 x 8 kbit/s ports. Eight (64 kbit/s) timeslots per KSW/DSW2 are reserved by the system for test purposes and are not available for use. A mix of KSWs and DSW2s requires that the DSW2s are operated in the 16 kbit/s switching mode only. Note that enhanced capacity mode is only available at the RXCDR (not the BSC). Using 12 MSIs per KSW/DSW2 may reduce the number of shelves required at a cost of additional KSWs/DSW2s. For example, a BSC with 28 MSIs could be housed in three shelves with three KSW/DSW2 modules, or four shelves with two KSW/DSW2 modules. All configurations are dependent upon timeslot usage, as described below. For redundancy, duplicate all KSWs/DSW2s. In mixed configurations (KSWs and DSW2s), KSWs can be redundant to DSW2s and vice-versa. Verify that each KSW/DSW2 uses no more than 1016 ports. The devices in a BSC that require TDM timeslots are: GPROC1 = 16 Timeslots. GPROC2 or GPROC3 = 32 (or 16) timeslots. GDP or XCDR (or GDP2 acting as a GDP replacement) = 16 timeslots. EGDP = 80 timeslots. GDP2 = 24 timeslots. MSI/MSI-2 = 64 timeslots.

There is one additional consideration with regard to timeslot usage which is relates to the timeslot allocation policy employed. Timeslots are grouped in 32 blocks of 32 timeslots each. Generally, groups of 16 (the first 16 or last 16) can be allocated within a block. However, the GDP2 is a special case as it requires 24 timeslots, a group of 16 and another 8 out of an additional block. The remaining 8 timeslots (within the block of 16) can only be used by another GDP2. Hence, if there is an odd number of GDP2s then 8 timeslots will be unusable. As each device requires at a minimum 16 timeslots, this does not have any significant effect on timeslot planning. The number of TDM timeslots is given by:

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Kiloport switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2)

Where:

N G n RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M

is:

the number of timeslots required. the number of GPROCs. 16 or 32 (depending on the value of the gproc_slots database parameter). the number of GDP/XCDRs. the number of EGDPs. the number of GDP2s. the number of MSI/MSI-2s (do not count MSI-2s which are doing on board E1 to T1 conversion, when determining TDM bandwidth).

NOTE

Any BSC site which contains a DRIM has 352 timeslots allocated to DRIMs irrespective of the number of DRIMs equipped.

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Kiloport switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2)

Version 1 Rev 3

KSW/DSW2 planning actions


Calculate the minimum number of KSW/DSW2s required per BSC:

Where:

N G n RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M

is:

the number of KSWs required. the number of GPROC2s. 16 or 32 (depending on the value of the GPROC_slot database parameter). the number of GDP/XCDRs. the number of EGDPs. the number of GDP2s. the number of MSI/MSI-2s (do not count MSI-2s which are doing on-board T1 conversion)

Each KSW/DSW2 has to serve the boards in its shelf plus the boards of any extension shelf connected to its shelf by its TDM highway of 1016 available timeslots. In case of multiple expansion shelves, the TDM highways of each shelf do not merge into a common unique TDM highway across all shelves. That is, a KSW/DSW2 in one cage cannot serve boards in other expansion shelves. For example, in the case of a BSC consisting of two shelves each having 32 unused timeslots per KSW/DSW2 free, an additional MSI board CANNOT be added even if a MSI slot is free at each shelf, (but one GPROC per shelf can be added if one GPROC slot per shelf is free).

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BSU shelves

BSU shelves
Introduction
The number of BSU shelves is normally a function of the number of GPROCs, MSI/MSI-2s and XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s required.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the number of BSU shelves: Each BSU shelf supports up to eight GPROCs, if the number of these exceed the number of slots available an additional BSU shelf is required. Each expansion shelf is allocated to a single KSW/DSW2 and extension shelves are differentiated by the presence of the KSW/DSW2. Extension shelves are those which do not contain a primary KSW/DSW2. Shelves containing a KSW/DSW2 are called expansion shelves. An extension shelf extends the TDM highway. It is constrained to the same number (aggregate) timeslots as the shelf containing the KSW/DSW2. An expansion shelf adds another TDM highway. It increases the number of timeslots to that of the additional KSW/DSW2. The following capacities depend on timeslot usage. See Kiloport switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2) for information on how to determine timeslot usage. A BSU shelf can support up to 12 MSI/MSI-2 boards. A BSU shelf can support up to six XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s boards. (reducing appropriately, the number of MSI/MSI-2 boards). NOTE For EDGPs, both the primary and secondary must be counted.

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BSU shelves

Version 1 Rev 3

BSU shelf planning actions


Determine the number of BSU shelves required. The number of BSU shelves required is the highest value result of the three following calculations (fractional values should be rounded up to the next integer value):

Where:

Bs G M R

is:

the minimum number of BSU shelves required. the number of GPROCs. the number of MSI/MSI-2s. the number of XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s see note below).

NOTE

For EGDPs, both the primary and the secondary must be counted.

The number of timeslots equipped to each shelf must be verified. This verification procedure is similar to the one included in the KSW/DSW2 planning considerations section of this chapter (the KSW/DSW2 timeslot validation will prevent a shelf from exceeding the timeslot limit) and is repeated here for completeness.

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BSU shelves

Where:

G n RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M

is:

the number of GPROC2s. 16 or 32 (depending on the value of the GPROC_slot database parameter). the number of GDP/XCDRs in the shelf. the number of EGDPs in the shelf. the number of GDP2s in the shelf. the number of MSI/MSI-2s in the shelf (do not count MSI-2s which are doing on-board T1 conversion)

If the result of the above equation exceeds 1016, the configuration of MSIs, GPROCs and GDPs may be adjusted, or an additional cage or cages may be required. NOTE The number of shelves may be larger if an attempt to reduce the number of KSWs/DSW2s is made. The maximum number of shelves (cages) at a site = 8. The maximum number of cabinets at a site = 8. Horizon and M-Cell sites do not require a cage to be equipped, only a cabinet.

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Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX)

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Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX)
Introduction
The kiloport switch extender (KSWX) extends the TDM highway of a BSU to other BSUs and supplies clock signals to all shelves in multi-shelf configurations. The KSWX is required whenever a network element grows beyond a single shelf. The DSWX performs the same function as the KSWX when used in the BSU.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the KSWX/DSWX complement: KSWXs/DSWXs are not required in a single shelf configuration (that is, when expansion or extension is not required). For redundancy, duplicate all KSWX/DSWX boards (requires redundant KSW/DSW2). In mixed configurations (KSWXs and DSWXs), KSWXs can be redundant to DSWXs and vice-versa. KSWXs/DSWXs are used in three modes: KSWX/DSWXE (Expansion) are required to interconnect the KSWs/DSW2s for sites with multiple KSWs/DSW2s. KSWX/DSWXR (Remote) are required in shelves with KSWs/DSW2s to drive the TDM highway in shelves that do not have KSWs/DSW2s. KSWX/DSWXL (Local) are used in shelves that have KSWs/DSW2s to drive the clock bus in that shelf and in shelves that do not have KSWs/DSW2s to drive both the local TDM highway and the clock bus in that shelf.

Five of the redundant KSWX/DSWX slots are also CLKX slots. The maximum number of KSWX/DSWX slots per shelf is 18, nine per KSW/DSW2. KSWXs and DSWXs may both be used, however they should always be used with like pairs, i.e. DSWXs with DSWXs and KSWXs with KSWXs.

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Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX)

KSWX planning actions


The number of KSWXs/DSWXs required is the sum of the KSWX/DSWXE, KSWX/DSWXL and KSWX/DSWXR:

Where:

NKX NKXE NKXR NKXL K SE

is:

the number of KSWX/DSWXs required. the number of KSWX/DSWXE. the number of KSWX/DSWXR. the number of KSWX/DSWXL. the number of non-redundant KSW/DSW2s. the number of extension/expansion shelves.

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Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX)

Version 1 Rev 3

For example: Table 7-10 KSWX/DSWX (non-redundant) KSW (non redundant) 1 0 1 2 3 4 0 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10 12 3 9 11 13 15 17 4 16 18 20 22 24

Extension shelves

Table 7-11

KSWX/DSWX (redundant) KSW (redundant) 1 2 8 12 16 20 24 3 18 22 26 30 34 4 32 36 40 44 48

Extension shelves 0 1 2 3 4 0 6 10 14 18

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Generic clock (GCLK)

Generic clock (GCLK)


Introduction
The generic clock (GCLK) generates all the timing reference signals required by a BSU.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the GCLK complement: One GCLK is required at each BSC. The maximum number of GCLK slots per shelf is two. For redundancy add a second GCLK at each site in the same cabinet as the first GCLK.

GCLK planning actions


Determine the number of GCLKs required. GCLKs = 1 + 1 redundant

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Clock extender (CLKX)

Version 1 Rev 3

Clock extender (CLKX)


Introduction
A clock extender (CLKX) board provides expansion of GCLK timing to more than one BSU.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the CLKX complement: One CLKX is required in the first BSU shelf, which contains the GCLK, when expansion beyond the shelf occurs. Each CLKX can supply the GCLK signals to six shelves. There are three CLKX slots for each GCLK, allowing each GCLK to support up to 18 shelves (LAN extension only allows fourteen shelves in a single network element). The maximum number of CLKX slots per shelf is six. NOTE The CLKX uses six of the redundant KSWX slots. With a CLKX, a KSWX/DSWXL is required to distribute the clocks in the master and each of the expansion/extension cages. For redundancy, duplicate each CLKX (requires a redundant GCLK).

CLKX planning actions


Determine the number of CLKXs required.

Where:

NCLKX ROUND UP E RF

is:

the number of CLKX required. rounding up to the next integer. the number of expansion/expension shelves. Redundancy factor (1 if redundancy required (recommended). 0 for no redundancy).

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LAN extender (LANX)

LAN extender (LANX)


Introduction
The local area network extender (LANX) provides a LAN interconnection for communications between all GPROCs at a site.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the LANX complement: One LANX is supplied in each shelf. For full redundancy add one LANX for each shelf. The LANX can support a maximum network size of 14 shelves.

LANX planning actions


Determine the number of LANXs required.

Where:

NLANX NBSU RF

is:

the number of LANX required. the number of BSU shelves. Redundancy factor (1 if redundancy required (recommended). 0 for no redundancy).

BSU 14

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Parallel interface extender (PIX)

Version 1 Rev 3

Parallel interface extender (PIX)


Introduction
The parallel interface extender (PIX) provides eight inputs and four outputs for site alarms.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the PIX complement: The maximum number of PIX board slots per shelf is two. The maximum number of PIX board slots per site is eight.

PIX planning actions


Choose the number of PIXs required. PIX 2 * number of BSUs. or PIX 8.

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Line interfaces (BIB, T43)

Line interfaces (BIB, T43)


Introduction
The line interfaces, balanced-line interface board (BIB) and T43 board (T43), provide impedance matching for E1 and T1 links.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the line interface complement: To match a balanced 120 ohm (E1 2.048 Mbit/s) or balanced 110 ohm (T1 1.544 Mbit/s) 3 V (peak pulse) line use a BIB. To match a single ended unbalanced 75 ohm (E1 2.048 Mbit/s) 2.37 V (peak pulse) line use a T43 Board (T43). Each BIB/T43 can interface six E1/T1 links to specific slots on one shelf. Up to four BIBs or T43s per shelf can be mounted on a BSSC2 cabinet A maximum of 24 E1/T1 links can be connected to a BSU shelf. A BSSC2 cabinet with two BSU shelves can interface 48 E1/T1 links. NOTE A BSSC3 cabinet can have up to seven BIBs or T43s per shelf mounted, but in the BSU configuration this additional connectivity is not needed.

BIB/T43 planning actions


The following planning actions are required: Determine the number and type of link (E1 or T1) to be driven. Determine the number of BIBs or T43s required.

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Digital shelf power supply

Version 1 Rev 3

Digital shelf power supply


Introduction
A BSSC2 or BSSC3 cabinet can be supplied to operate from either a +27 V dc or --48 V/ --60 V dc power source. NOTE For the purposes of this manual, BSSC is a generic term that means both BSSC2 and/or BSSC3.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the PSU complement: Two DPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC. Two IPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC2 (-48/-60 V dc). Two IPSM2s are required for each shelf in the BSSC3 (--48 V/--60 V dc). Two EPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC2 (+27 V dc). For redundancy, add one DPSM, IPSM or EPSM for each shelf.

Power supply planning actions


Determine the number of PSUs required.

Where:

RF

is:

Redundancy factor (1 if redundancy required (recommended). 0 for no redundancy).

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Battery backup board (BBBX)

Battery backup board (BBBX)


Introduction
The battery backup board (BBBX) provides a backup supply of +5V dc at 8A from an external battery to maintain power to the GPROC DRAM and the optical circuitry on the LANX in the event of a mains power failure.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the BBBX complement: One BBBX is required per shelf; if the battery backup option is to be used.

BBBX planning actions


Determine the number of BBBXs required. BBBX = number of BSUs for battery backup (recommended). BBBX = 0 if no battery backup required.

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Non volatile memory (NVM) board

Version 1 Rev 3

Non volatile memory (NVM) board


Introduction
The optional non volatile memory board provides the BSC with an improved recovery facility following a total power loss. With the NVM board installed, data is retrieved from the NVM board rather than from the OMC-R during recovery from a total power loss.

Planning Considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the NVM complement: Only one NVM board can be installed at the BSC. The NVM board uses slot 26 in the BSU cage 0 (master) of the BSC, which is an unused slot. The appropriate software required to support the NVM board must be loaded at the OMC-R and downloaded to the BSC.

NVM planning actions


The NVM board is optional.

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Verify the number of BSU shelves and BSSC2 cabinets

Verify the number of BSU shelves and BSSC2 cabinets


Verification
After planning is complete, verify that: The number of shelves is greater than one eighth the number of GPROC modules. Each non-redundant KSW/DSW2 has its own shelf. Each extension shelf supports extension of a single KSW/DSW2. The number of KSWX/DSWXs, LANXs, CLKXs, and GPROCs is correct. The number of MSI/MSI-2 and XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s

12 * number of shelves. The number of XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s 6 * number of shelves. NOTE For the above two calculations, the EGDP consists of a primary and a secondary, counting as two boards.

The number of BTS sites 100 The number of BTS cells 250 RSLs. 250 Carriers. 384 LCFs. 25 Erlangs. 3000 If necessary, add extra BSU shelves. Each BSSC2 cabinet supports two BSU shelves.

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RXCDR planning steps and rules

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 8

RXCDR planning steps and rules

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RXCDR planning steps and rules

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Chapter objectives

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Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Define the steps for the planning of the RXCDR. Explain the impact on RXCDR planning of the 2G-3G handover feature. Determine the signalling link requirments for a RXCDR. Determine the digital card requirments for a RXCDR. Give a brief description of the RXCDR digital cards and their functions.

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Chapter overview

Chapter overview
Introduction
This chapter provides the planning steps and rules for the RXCDR. This chapter contains: RXCDR planning overview. RXCDR planning. Planning rules for RXCDR to BSC links. Planning rules for RXCDR to MSC links. Planning rules for the digital modules. Planning rules for the digital shelf power supply.

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Chapter overview

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Remote transcoder planning overview

Remote transcoder planning overview


Introduction
To plan the equipage of an RXCDR, certain information must be known. The major items include: The BSC traffic requirements. The number of trunks (including redundancy) from the MSC. Each RXCDR may support multiple BSCs. The sum of the MSI/MSI-2s and the XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP (see note)/GDP2s for each BSC define the number of slots required at the RXCDR. NOTE Each EGDP comprises two GDP cards.

The use of E1 or T1 links. The use of balanced or unbalanced E1.

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Remote transcoder planning overview

Version 1 Rev 3

Outline of planning steps


Planning a RXCDR involves the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Plan the number of links between the XCDR and BSC site(s), refer to the section RXCDR to BSC links in this chapter. Plan the number of E1 or T1 links between the RXCDR and MSC site(s), refer to the section RXCDR to MSC links in this chapter. Plan the number of GPROCs required, refer to the section Generic processor (GPROC) Plan the number of XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s required, refer to the section Transcoding in this chapter. Plan the number of MSI/MSI-2s required, refer to the section Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2) in this chapter. Plan the number of KSWs and timeslots required, refer to the section Kiloport switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2) in this chapter. Plan the number of RXU shelves, refer to the section RXU shelves in this chapter. Plan the number of KSWX/DSWXs required, refer to the section Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX) in this chapter. Plan the number of GCLKs required, refer to the section Generic clock (GCLK) in this chapter. Plan the number of CLKXs required, refer to the section Clock extender (CLKX) in this chapter. Plan the number of LANXs required, refer to the section LAN extender (LANX) in this chapter. Plan the number of PIXs required, refer to the section Parallel interface extender (PIX) in this chapter. Plan the number of BIB or T43s required, refer to the section Line interfaces (BIB, T43) in this chapter. Plan the power requirements, refer to the section Digital shelf power supply in this chapter. Plan the number of BBBXs required, refer to the section Battery backup board (BBBX) in this chapter. Verify the planning process, refer to the section Verify the number of RXU shelves and BSSC cabinets in this chapter.

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Introduction

Introduction
Transcoders (XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s) provide the interface for the E1 (or converted T1) links between the MSC and the BSC. The XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s performs the transcoding/rate adaptation function which compresses the information on the trunks by a factor of four (16 kbit/s). When AMR or GSM HR half rate is in use (and the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is not included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is enabled), the reduction factor becomes eight (8 kbit/s). Note that in most configurations, half rate is likely used only a part of the time, thus yielding a reduction factor of less than eight. The number of links between the RXCDR and the BSC is reduced to approximately one quarter (less when half rate is employed under the conditions described above) of the number of links between the RXCDR and the MSC. The GDP2 can process 60 channels of FR, EFR, AMR, GSM HR and Phase 2 data services and is capable of terminating two E1 links from the MSC. It can also function as a replacement for the GDP. Within the RXCDR, enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used in non-MSI slots. An EGDP is a new configuration of the GDP board used to support AMR. Due to the additional transcoding requirements of AMR, each of the 15 DSPs on the GDP board is only capable of supporting transcoding function for a single channel of GSM speech (AMR, FR, and EFR) and Phase 2 data services. To fully offer 30 channels of enhanced transcoding using the same E1 span line to the MSC, EGDPs are equipped as pairs, each providing half of the transcoding resources. Note that this results in an overall reduction in transcoding cage capacity - equivalent to 30 channels per GDP pair. Use of an EGDP is practical only when used in conjunction with AMR. The EGDP does not support GSM HR. Due to the ability of the GDP2 to function as a GDP, it may replace one or both of the GDPs in the EGDP configuration. This is not an optimal use of the GDP2 and is most likely to occur in emergency situations (e.g. board replacement). As a result, it is not considered in the planning procedures. The MSC recommends a particular codec type or types to be used on a call by call basis. It sends the BSC a preference-ordered list, based on such factors as MS capabilities and operator configuration. When the MSC is capable of choosing the MSC--RXCDR trunk (CIC) based upon the preferred codec type, a mix of both AMR-capable (EGDP/GDP2) and non AMR-capable (XCDR/GDP) equipment may be used. If this capability (called "circuit pooling") is not present, GDP2s or EGDPs should be used exclusively to prevent downgrading or blocking of calls. When AMR is employed and both XCDR/GDPs and EGDP/GDP2s are present (and circuit pooling is present at the MSC), there must be sufficient GDP2 and EGDP equipment available to handle the expected AMR traffic. The proportion of AMR-capable transcoding circuits vs. non AMR-capable transcoding circuits should be no less than the proportion of AMR-capable MSs vs. non AMR-capable MSs. A safety factor of no less than 20% is recommended (20% allows for some variation in the actual number and allows for a period of growth in AMR-capable MS penetration before having to add more AMR transcoding ability). Note that each AMR half rate call requires one (AMR) transcoder circuit. Lack of an available AMR circuit could cause a call to be downgraded to another codec type or possibly blocked. When GSM half rate is employed and a mix of XCDRs and GDP/GDP2s are present, a similar situation exists. However, due to the early introduction into the standards of GSM half rate, most mobile are expected to be GSM half rate capable. Since a CIC is not tied to any particular voice channel, circuit pooling is rendered ineffective, as there is no way to predict which mobiles may require GSM half rate. It becomes necessary to update all transcoding to support GSM HR in order to guarantee GSM half rate can be used when needed. Without this upgrade, calls on non-GSM HR capable CICs will remain on a full rate channel. When GSM half rate and AMR are both in use and a combination of AMR transcoding equipment (EGDP, GDP2) and GSM half rate transcoding equipment (GDP, GDP2) exist, circuit pooling is most effective when choosing AMR CICs (EGDP, GDP2) for AMR capable mobiles, and the remaining CICs for non-AMR capable mobiles. Ideally, for AMR capable mobiles the MSC would first choose a CIC attached to a EGDP, followed by one attached to a GDP2. For a non-AMR capable mobile the MSC would first choose a CIC attached to a GDP, followed by one attached to a GDP2. The selection of the proper CIC (circuit pool) is dependent upon the capability of the connected MSC.

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Introduction

Version 1 Rev 3

Transcoding
Figure 8-1 below shows sub-multiplexing and speech transcoding at the RXCDR. Each Trunk requires a quarter (1/4th) of a 64 kbit/s circuit between the RXCDR and BSC. (1/8th in certain AMR Half-rate as described in the following pages) Each control link (RSL, OML,XBL,C7) requires one 64 kbit/s circuit. (RSL and XBL have the option of using 16 kbit/s circuits)

Figure 8-1

Sub-multiplexing and speech transcoding at the RXCDR

RXCDR M S C X K M C S S D W I / R M S I 2

BSC M S I / M S I 2 K S W M S I / M S I 2

M-CELL BTS N I U M C U T C U

One RF carrier

64 kbit/s A-law trunks

4 trunks per 64 kbit/s circuit

64 kbit/s 4 TCHs

The XCDR transcodes 64 kbit/s A-law PCM to/from 13 kbit/s mapped onto 16 kbit/s, and submultiplexes 4 trunks to/from 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit

The KSW subrate 8 x 22.8 kbit/s switches 16 kbit/s timeslots timeslots The TCU encodes/decodes 13 kbit/s to/from 22.8 kbit/s for 8 timeslots, and submultiplexes 4 (13 kbit/s mapped on 16 kbit/s) timeslots onto 1 x 64 kbit/s circuit, or the other way around

NOTE

In Figure 8-1, the CTU2 is shown operating in single density mode (one carrier), although it can also operate in double density mode (two carriers).

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RXCDR to BSC connectivity

RXCDR to BSC connectivity


Introduction
It is possible to have multiple RXCDRs connected to a single BSC, and vice-versa. This is especially useful for two primary reasons: 1. 2. In certain configurations the RXCDR call (CIC) capacity may be greater than that of a BSC. A failure of a RXCDR, or communication line will not result in a complete failure of the BSC to handle calls.

Capacity
Each BSC may connect to up to ten RXCDRs, and vice-versa. The level of connectivity may be constrained by the number of XBLs that can be supported; there is a limit of 20 at each BSC and RXCDR (see Determining the number of XBLs required in Chapter 8). The level of connectivity is determined by the operator, Excess RXCDR capacity should not be wasted, nor should larger BSCs be connected only to one RXCDR. One guideline is to have each BSC connect to four RXCDRs. System size, capacity, and cost are major influences on the chosen configuration. With the introduction of advanced transcoding capabilities (i.e. AMR), care should be taken when distributing the functions across multiple RXCDRs. For optimum redundancy, each RXCDR should have an appropriate mix of transcoder capability. For example, in a four BSC, four RXCDR configuration where all are interconnected and there are a limited number of transcoder cards capable of AMR (e.g. GDP2s), optimally the cards would be distributed equally amongst the RXCDRs.

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RXCDR to BSC links

Version 1 Rev 3

RXCDR to BSC links


Introduction
The number of E1 or T1 links between the RXCDR and the BSCs is the number required to support the A interface from the RXCDR to the BSC. The number of links between the RXCDR and the BSC is reduced to approximately one quarter of the number of links between the RXCDR and the MSC when 16 kbit/s backhaul is used. When AMR half rate is in use (and the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is not included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is enabled), the reduction factor becomes eight (8 kbit/s). Note that in most configurations half rate is likely used only a part of the time, thus yielding a reduction factor of less than eight. 8 kbit/s backhaul may be used when AMR half rate is in use, the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is not included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set, and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is in use. If a percentage of the active calls can be assumed to be half rate, then efficiencies can be gained by reducing the number of terrestrial resources between the BSC and RXCDR. This is possible only if the BSC can dynamically allocate a timeslot to a CIC. This dynamic allocation is performed across a trunked interface between the BSC and a remote transcoder (RXCDR). This interface is called the Ater interface. The dynamic allocation is referred to as "Enhanced Auto Connect mode". Whenever the number of CICs exceeds the number of 16 kbit/s trunks between the RXCDR and BSC, there exists a possibility that a call assignment may fail because of a resource shortage. Care should be taken to ensure the accuracy of half rate usage estimations. The number will depend on a combination of factors, including AMR-capable mobile penetration, whether forced half rate usage is enabled and/or tied in with congestion, and MSC preferences. It is recommended that a safety factor of at least 20% is factored into any half rate usage estimate (20% allows for some variation in the actual number).

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RXCDR to BSC links

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RXCDR to BSC links

Version 1 Rev 3

This text should be read in conjunction with the BSS planning diagram, Figure 8-2.

Figure 8-2

BSS planning diagram

MSC TRANSCODER
WITH SUBMULTIPLEXING TRANSCODING AT MSC 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/C7 SIGNALLING LINK 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/X.25 SIGNALLING LINK* 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/ XBL 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/4 TRUNKS 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/8 TRUNKS (AMR HALF RATE WITH 8kbit/s MULTIPLEXING ENABLED) WITHOUT SUBMULTIPLEXING TRANSCODING AT MSC 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/C7 SIGNALLING LINK 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/X.25 SIGNALLING LINK* 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/TRUNK

A INTERFACE (TERRESTRIAL LINKS) C7 SIGNALLING LINKS X.25 CONTROL LINK* REQUIRED TRUNKS

THE BSC TO MSC 64 kbit/s CIRCUITS ARE DETERMINED FROM THE # OF TRUNKS REQUIRED TO CARRY THE SUMMATION OF AIR INTERFACE TRAFFIC (IN ERLANGS, TYPICALLY USING 1% BLOCKING) FROM ALL BTSs PLUS THE # OF C7 SIGNALLING LINKS PLUS (IF APPLICABLE*) THE # OF X.25 LINKS (USUALLY ONE PER BSC) PLUS THE # OF XBL LINKS BSC
MOTOROLA BSC/BTS INTERFACE NON-BLOCKING 1 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUIT/LAPD SIGNALLING LINK 2 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUITS/DRCU/SCU 4 x 64 kbit/s CIRCUITS/RTF (SEE NOTE)

THE # OF TCHs REQUIRED (USING TYPICALLY 2% BLOCKING) TO CARRY SUBSCRIBER TRAFFIC THE TCHs PLUS THE REQUIRED SIGNALLING TSs DIVIDED BY EIGHT (OR 16 WITH AMR HALFDATE) DETERMINES THE CARRIERS REQUIRED (ON A BTS/SECTOR BASIS) BTS
AIR INTERFACE TCHs AND SIGNALLING TSs TYPICALLY 2% BLOCKING

TRANSCODING MUST BE LOCATED AT THE BSC, OR BETWEEN THE BSC AND MSC TCH TS * = TRAFFIC CHANNEL = TIMESLOT X.25 MAY BE PASSED TO RXCDR OR MSC SITE

AIR INTERFACE (TRAFFIC IN ERLANGS)

USING TRAFFIC, TO DETERMINE E1/T1 LINK INTERCONNECT HARDWARE FOR THE `A' AND `BSC TO BTS' INTERFACE.

NOTE

4 X 64 kbit/s circuits/RTF for an AMR HR RTF and 8 kbit/s switching is not provisioned, or the 7.95 kbit/s HR codec mode is included in the HR active codec set.

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RXCDR to BSC links

E1 interconnect planning actions


Determine the number of E1 links required.

Where:

NBSC-RXCDR C X B64 T PHR B16

is:

the minimum number of E1 links required. the number of C7 signalling links to the MSC. the number of OML links (X.25 control links to the OMC) through the RXCDR. the number of 64 kbit/s XBL links. the number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC. the percentage in decimal (e.g. 0.35) of expected half-rate usage. the number of 16 kbit/s XBL links.

NOTE

Each E1 link carries up to 120 (240 at half rate) trunks with a signalling link or 124 (248 at half rate) trunks without a signalling link. Note that the half rate numbers are only possible with all calls using half rate. Redundant E1 links carrying extra trunks may be added.

T1 interconnect planning actions


Determine the number of T1 links required.

Where:

N C X B64 T B16

is:

the minimum number of T1 links required. the number of C7 signalling links to the MSC. the number of OML links (X.25 control links to the OMC) through the RXCDR. the number of 64 kbit/s XBL links. the number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC. the number of 16 kbit/s XBL links.

NOTE

Each T1 link carries up to 92 trunks with a signalling link or 96 trunks without a signalling link. Redundant T1 links carrying extra trunks may be added.

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RXCDR to MSC links

Version 1 Rev 3

RXCDR to MSC links


Introduction
The number of E1 or T1 links between the RXCDR and the MSC is the number required to support the A interface from the RXCDR to the MSC.

E1 interconnect planning actions


Determine the number of E1 links required. The minimum number of E1 links required for the A-interface is the greater of two calculations that follow (fractional values should be rounded up to the next integer value).

Where:

N C X T

is:

the minimum number of E1 links required. the number of MTL links (C7 signalling links) to the MSC. the number of OML links (X.25 control links to the OMC) through the MSC. the number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC.

T1 interconnect planning actions


Determine the number of T1 links required.

Where:

N C X T

is:

the minimum number of T1 links required. the number of MTL links (C7 signalling links) to the MSC. the number of OML links (X.25 control links to the OMC) through the MSC. the number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC.

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Generic processor (GPROC, GPROC2)

Generic processor (GPROC, GPROC2)


GPROC Nemenclature
For the purposes of this manual only and to avoid confusion between different versions of the generic processor (GPROC), the following nomenclature is used: GPROC1 specifically refers to the original GPROC. GPROC2 specifically refers to the GPROC2. GPROC3 specifically refers to the GPROC3. GPROC is used in this manual as a non-specific term referring to both GPROC2 and GPROC3.

Introduction
Generic processors (GPROC, GPROC2) are used throughout the Motorola BSS as a generic control processor.

Planning considerations
The following factors, for GPROCs at the RXCDR, should be considered when planning the GPROC complement: Each shelf requires at least one GPROC board, plus one for redundancy. A maximum of two GPROCs per shelf are supported. NOTE GPROC1s may be used in a transcoder prior to GSR6 if the maximum number of BSCs connected to it does not exceed 5. GPROC2s must be used for higher connectivity (up to 10 BSCs). For GSR6 and GSR6 (Horizon II), GPROC2s are mandatory in the master and standby BSP slots in cage 0. From GSR7 onwards, GPROC3s can replace GPROC2s in the BSP slots. A GPROC3 can provide redundancy for a GPROC2 and vice-versa.

GPROC planning actions


An RXCDR should have: One BSP GPROC per shelf. One BSP GPROC for redundancy. One optional CSFP GPROC. The factors described in the planning considerations section should be taken into account in this planning.

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GDP/XCDR planning considerations

Version 1 Rev 3

GDP/XCDR planning considerations


The following factors should be considered when planning the XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2 complement: A XCDR/GDP can process 30 voice channels (XCDR/GDP-E1) or 24 voice channels (GDP-T1), will support Enhanced Full Rate speech, uplink/downlink volume control and is capable of terminating one E1 or T1 link from the MSC. An EGDP consists of two paired GDP cards, a "primary" and a "secondary". Each EGDP can process 30 channels of FR, EFR, AMR, and Phase 2 data services, and terminates one E1 link from the MSC. The primary GDP of an EGDP terminates the E1 interface to the MSC. The GDP2 can process 60 channels of FR, EFR, AMR, and Phase 2 data services and is capable of terminating two E1 links from the MSC. It can also function as a replacement for the GDP. The GDP2 can be used to terminate 2 E1s (i.e. 60 voice channels) only in the RXU3 shelf and BSSC3 cabinet (enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used in non-MSI slots). The current RXU shelf has only one E1(T1) per transcoder slot, and the current BSSC2 cabinet does not have space for additional line interface boards. The GDP2 supports only 30 channels when used in the RXU shelf and/or BSSC2 cabinet. XCDRs, GDPs, EGDPs, and GDP2s can co-exist in a cage. The proportion of AMR-capable circuits (GDP2/EGDP) to non AMR-capable circuits (XCDR/GDP) should be sufficient to handle the expected AMR traffic. The master MSI slot(s) should always be populated to enable communication with the OMC-R. The master MSI slot may contain a XCDR/GDP/EGDP (see Note) /GDP2, if the OML goes through the MSC. The A-interface must terminate on the XCDR/GDP/EGDP (see Note) /GDP2. A GDP can terminate T1 or E1 links; whereas an XCDR can only terminate E1 links (refer to T1 conversions below). EGDPs and GDP2s do not support T1s. Slot 24 (XCDR 0) in the RXU cage 0 (master) will be lost if an optional NVM board is required. NOTE Either the primary or the secondary EGDP.

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T1 conversion

T1 conversion
T1 to E1 conversion is needed for XCDR, but not for GDP. The EGDP and GDP2 do not support T1 connectivity. When required MSI-2s can be used to provide T1 to E1 conversion. This can be done in one of two ways. In either case the conversion may be part of an existing network element or a standalone network element which would appear as a RXCDR.

Without KSW switching


A single MSI-2 can be programmed to be E1 on one port and T1 on the other. This is the simplest method but uses at most 23 of the transcoding circuits on the XCDR. This method has no impact on the TDM bus ports, but does require MSI slots. This method requires the number of GDP/XCDRs and additional MSI-2s to be equal to the number of T1 links.

With KSW switching


For better utilization of the GDP/XCDRs a mapping of five T1 circuits onto four E1 circuits may be done. This uses the ability of the KSW to switch between groups using nailed connections. Although more efficient in XCDR utilization, this method may cause additional KSWs to be used. Each MSI-2 requires an MSI slot. The number of MSI-2s needed for T1 to E1 conversion is:

Where:

m T E

is:

the number of MSI-2s required for T1 to E1 conversion. the number of T1 circuits required. the number of E1 circuits required.

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T1 conversion

Version 1 Rev 3

Planning actions for transcoding at the RXCDR


The number of transcoders at the RXCDR is proportional to the number of E1 or T1 links between the RXCDR and the MSC. Using E1 links Each XCDR/GDP/EGDP can terminate one E1 link. Each GDP2 can terminate two E1 links (when used in a RXU3 shelf with enhanced capacity mode enabled (when GDP2s are used in non-MSI slots)). The equipment can be mixed within the following formula:

Where:

NRXCDR-MSC XGE G2

is:

the minimum number of E1 links required (as N is calculated in RXCDR to MSC links earlier in this chapter). the number of XCDRs, EDGPs and GDPs. the number of GDP2s.

Verify that the number of AMR circuits is sufficient to handle the expected AMR traffic. If necessary adjust the number of EGDP/GDP2s. The following formula may be used to determine the percentage of AMR-capable circuits:

NOTE Using T1 links

In the above equation, count the primary and secondary EGDPs as one EGDP.

Each GDP card can terminate one T1 link. See T1 conversion (described previously) for XCDR.

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Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2)

Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2)


Introduction
A multiple serial interface provides the interface for the links between a RXCDR site and other network entities, RXCDR to OMC-R and RXCDR to BSC. An MSI can interface only E1 links, an MSI-2 can interface both E1 and T1 links.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the transcoder complement: Each MSI can interface two E1 links. Each MSI-2 can interface two E1/T1 links. NOTE Although the MSI-2 is configurable to support either E1 or T1 on each of its two ports, it is not recommended for E1 systems.

Each E1 link provides 31 usable 64 kbit/s channels. Each T1 link provides 24 usable 64 kbit/s channels, T1 links use MSI-2. Redundancy for the MSI/MSI-2 depends on the provisioning of redundant E1/T1 links connected to the site. When one remote transcoder site is supporting multiple BSCs, each BSC requires its own E1 interface(s) as follows: The number of MSI/MSI-2s should be equal to half the number of RXCDR to BSC E1 or T1 links. Redundancy requires additional links and MSI/MSI-2s. If the OMLs (X.25 links) do not go through the MSC, a dedicated E1 or T1 link (half an MSI/MSI-2) is required for the X.25 links to the OMC. At least one MSI/MSI-2 is required for every eight GDP/XCDR modules. Additional MSI/MSI-2s will be used if the links are not fully occupied. If the XCDR is using all 30 ports in a T1 network, use one MSI-2 for approximately every ten GDPs. Additional E1 or T1 links may be required to concentrate X.25 links from other network entities. Each BSC may use one to four 64 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s channels for XBL fault management communications. Reference should be made to Technical Description: BSS/RXCDR (GSM-100-323A) or Service Manual: BSC/RXCDR (GSM-100-030) for more details.

The master MSI slot(s) should always be populated to enable communication with OMC-R. If the OML links go directly to the MSC, the master slot should be filled with an XCDR/GDP/EGDP, otherwise the slot should be filled with an MSI/MSI-2 which terminates the E1/T1 link caring the OML link to the OMC-R. These E1/T1 links do not need to go directly to the OMC-R, they may go to another network element for concentration.

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Multiple serial interface (MSI, MSI-2)

Version 1 Rev 3

MSI planning actions


With E1 links Determine the number of MSI or MSI-2s required.

Where:

NMSI NBSC

is:

the number of MSIs required. the number of E1 links required. (as N calculated in RXCDR to BSC links in this chapter)

With T1 links If MSI-2s are used, T1 to E1 conversion is not needed. Therefore the number of MSI-2s required is:

Where:

NMSI NBSC

is:

the number of MSIs required. the number of E1 links required. (as N calculated in RXCDR to BSC links in this chapter)

If MSIs are used, conversion becomes necessary. Therefore the number of MSIs required is:

Where:

NMSI NBSC m

is:

the number of MSIs required. the number of E1 links required. (as N calculated in RXCDR to BSC links in this chapter) the number of MSI-2s used for T1 to E1 conversion.

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Kiloport Switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2)

Kiloport Switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2)


Introduction
The KSW/DSW2 provides digital switching for the TDM highway of the RXU. The double kiloport switch (DSW2) is an enhanced version of the KSW which supports double the number of ports (enhanced capacity mode), as well as extended subrate switching capability down to 8 kbit/s (extended subrate switching mode). Use of 8 kbit/s subrate switching can reduce backhaul costs when used in conjunction with the AMR or GSM half rate feature.

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Kiloport Switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2)

Version 1 Rev 3

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the KSW/DSW2 complement: A minimum of one KSWDSW2 is required for each RXU site. The KSW, or DSW2 not in enhanced capacity mode, has a capacity of 1024 x 64 kbit/s ports or 4096 x 16 kbit/s ports, which can be expanded by adding up to three additional KSW/DSW2s, giving a total switching capacity of 4096 x 64 kbit/s ports or 16384 x 16 kbit/s ports. When operating in enhanced capacity mode, the DSW2 has a capacity of 2048 x 64 kbit/s ports or 8196 x 16 kbit/s ports, which can be expanded by adding up to three additional DSW2s, giving a total switching capacity of 8192 x 64 kbit/s ports or 32768 x 16 kbit/s ports. When operating in extended subrate switching mode (but not enhanced capacity mode), the DSW2 can further switch 8192 x 8 kbit/s ports which can be expanded by adding up to three additional DSW2s, giving a total switching capacity of 32768 x 8 kbits/s ports. When operating in extended subrate switching mode and enhanced capacity mode, the DSW2 can further switch 16384 x 8 kbit/s ports which can be expanded by adding up to three additional DSW2s, giving a total switching capacity of 65536 x 8 kbits/s ports. Eight (64 kbit/s) timeslots per KSW/DSW2 are reserved by the system for test purposes and are not available for use. A mix of KSWs and DSW2s requires that the DSW2s are not operated in the enhanced capacity mode. For redundancy, duplicate all KSWs/DSW2s. In mixed configurations (KSWs and DSW2s), KSWs can be redundant to DSW2s and vice-versa. Verify that each KSW or DSW2 not in enhanced capacity mode uses no more than 1016 ports, or that each DSW2 in enhanced capacity mode uses no more than 2040 ports. The devices in a RXCDR that require TDM timeslots are: GPROC = 16 Timeslots. GPROC2 = 32 (or 16) Timeslots. GDP or XCDR (or GDP2 acting as a GDP replacement) = 16 timeslots. EGDP = 80 timeslots. GDP2 = 24 timeslots. MSI/MSI-2 = 64 Timeslots.

The number of TDM timeslots is given by:

Where:

N G n RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M

is:

the number of timeslots required. the number of GPROCs. 16 or 32 (depending on the value of the gproc_slots database parameter). the number of GDP/XCDRs. the number of EGDPs. the number of GDP2s. the number of MSI/MSI-2s (do not count MSI-2s which are doing on board E1 to T1 conversion, when determining TDM bandwidth).

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Kiloport Switch (KSW) and Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2)

KSW planning actions


Determine the number of KSWs or DSW2s required. Use this formula when enhanced capacity mode is not enabled:

Use this formula when enhanced capacity mode is enabled:

Where:

N G n RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M

is:

the number of timeslots required. the number of GPROCs. 16 or 32 (depending on the value of the gproc_slots database parameter). the number of GDP/XCDRs. the number of EGDPs. the number of GDP2s. the number of MSI/MSI-2s (do not count MSI-2s which are doing on board E1 to T1 conversion, when determining TDM bandwidth).

Each KSW/DSW2 has to serve the boards in its shelf plus the boards of any extension shelf connected to its shelf by its TDM highway of 1016 available timeslots (or 2040 when operating in enhanced capacity mode). In case of multiple expansion shelves, the TDM highways of each shelf do not merge into a common unique TDM highway across all shelves. That is, a KSW/DSW2 in one cage cannot serve boards in other expansion shelves. For example, in the case of a RXCDR consisting of two shelves each having 32 unused timeslots per KSW/DSW2 free, an additional MSI board CANNOT be added even if a MSI slot is free at each shelf, (but one GPROC per shelf can be added if one GPROC slot per shelf is free).

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RXU shelves

Version 1 Rev 3

RXU shelves
Introduction
The number of RXU shelves is normally a function of the number of MSI/MSI2s and XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s required.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the number of RXU shelves: Each expansion shelf is allocated to a single KSW/DSW2 and shelves are differentiated by the presence of the KSW/DSW2. Extension shelves are those which do not contain a primary KSW/DSW2. Shelves containing a KSW/DSW2 are called expansion shelves. An extension shelf extends the TDM highway. It is constrained to the same number of (aggregate) timeslots as the shelf containing the KSW/DSW2. An expansion shelf adds an additional TDM highway. It increases the number of timeslots to that of the additional KSW/DSW2. The number of devices that can be served by a KSW/DSW2 is governed by the TDM timeslot allocation required for each device. This is discussed previously in the KSW/DSW2 planning considerations. The number and type of shelves can then be determined from the devices required. For example: Two shelves, each equipped with three MSI/MSI-2s and 16 GDP/XCDRs, can be served by a single KSW. If each shelf has five MSI/MSI-2s with 14 GDP/XCDRs, the KSW can serve only one shelf, and two KSWs will be required. The existing RXU shelf has connectivity for up to five MSI/MSI-2s (2 x E1 connections). The remaining 14 slots have one E1 connection. All slots may be used for XCDR/GDP/EGDP (primary or secondary)/GDP2s. The RXU3 shelf has connectivity for two E1s per slot. All slots may be used for XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s and MSI/MSI-2s. The GDP2 can be used to terminate 2 x E1s, (i.e. 60 voice channels) only in the RXU3 shelf and BSSC3 cabinet (enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used in non-MSI slots). The current RXU shelf has only one E1 (T1) per transcoder slot, and the current BSSC2 cabinet does not have space for additional line interface boards. The GDP2 supports only 30 channels when used in the RXU shelf and/or BSSC2 cabinet. An NVM board cannot be installed if all the XCDR slots in the RXU cage 0 (master) are required.

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RXU shelves

RXU shelf planning actions


Determine the number of RXU shelves required using the appropriate formula (fractional values should be rounded up to the next integer). For the current generation RXU shelf:

For the new generation RXU3 shelf:

Where:

Rx Rx3 M R NNVM

is:

the minimum number of RXU shelves required. the minimum number of RXU3 shelves required. the number of MSI/MSI-2s. the number of XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s (see note). the number of optional NVM boards (0 or 1).

NOTE

For EGDPs, both the primary and the secondary must be counted.

The number of timeslots equipped to each shelf must be verified. Use the appropriate equation given below to do this. When enhanced capacity mode is not enabled: This verification procedure is similar to the one included in the KSW/DSW2 planning considerations section of chapter 8 (the KSW/DSW2 timeslot validation will prevent a shelf from exceeding the timeslot limit) and is repeated here for completeness.

Where:

G n RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M

is:

the number of GPROC2s. 16 or 32 (depending on the value of the GPROC_slot database parameter). the number of GDP/XCDRs in the shelf. the number of EGDPs in the shelf. the number of GDP2s in the shelf. the number of MSI/MSI-2s in the shelf (do not count MSI-2s which are doing on-board T1 conversion)

When enhanced capacity mode is enabled (non-extension shelf):

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RXU shelves

Version 1 Rev 3

When enhanced capacity mode is enabled (extension shelf):

If the result of using the appropriate equation above exceeds the value quoted, the configuration of MSIs, GPROCs and GDPs may be adjusted, or an additional cage or cages may be required.

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RXU shelves

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Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX)

Version 1 Rev 3

Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX)
Introduction
The kiloport switch extender (KSWX) extends the TDM highway of a RXU to other RXUs and supplies clock signals to all shelves in multi-shelf configurations. The KSWX is required whenever a network element grows beyond a single shelf. The DSWX performs the same function as the KSWX. It is necessary when enhanced capacity mode (2048 timeslot capability) is used.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the KSWX/DSWX complement: KSWXs/DSWXs are not required in a single shelf configuration (that is, when expansion or extension is not required). For redundancy, duplicate all KSWX/DSWX boards (requires redundant KSW/DSW2). In mixed configurations (KSWXs and DSWXs), KSWXs can be redundant to DSWXs and vice-versa. KSWXs/DSWXs are used in three modes: KSWX/DSWXE (Expansion) are required to interconnect the KSWs/DSW2s for sites with multiple KSWs/DSW2s. KSWX/DSWXR (Remote) are required in shelves with KSWs/DSW2s to drive the TDM highway in shelves that do not have KSWs/DSW2s. KSWX/DSWXL (Local) are used in shelves that have KSWs/DSW2s to drive the clock bus in that shelf and in shelves that do not have KSWs/DSW2s to drive both the local TDM highway and the clock bus in that shelf.

Five of the redundant KSWX/DSWX slots are also CLKX slots. The maximum number of KSWX/DSWX slots per shelf is 18, nine per KSW/DSW2. KSWXs and DSWXs may both be used. However, KSWXs and DSWXs should always be used with like pairs, i.e. DSWXs with DSWXs and KSWXs with KSWXs (see next point for an additional restriction). Operation in enhanced capacity mode requires the use of all DSWXs (and DSW2s). NOTE Variable length fibre optic cables may be used when only DSWX pairs are used at a transcoder site. This is because the DSWX has an elastic buffer that compensates for the variable signal delay. The advantage of variable length cables is in the cost savings of shorter cables between some of the RXU/RXU3 shelves.

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Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX)

KSWX planning actions


The number of KSWXs/DSWXs required is the sum of the KSWX/DSWXE, KSWX/DSWXL, and KSWX/DSWXR.

Where:

NKX NKXE NKXR NKXL K SE

is:

the number of KSWX/DSWX required. the number of KSWX/DSWXE. the number of KSWX/DSWXR. the number of KSWX/DSWXL. the number of non-redundant KSW/DSWXs. the number of extension/expansion shelves.

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Kiloport Switch Extender (KSWX) and Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX)

Version 1 Rev 3

For example: Table 8-1 KSWX/DSWX (non-redundant) KSW (non redundant) 1 0 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10 12 3 9 11 13 15 17 4 16 18 20 22 24

Extension shelves

Table 8-2

KSWX/DSWX (redundant) KSW (redundant) 1 2 8 12 16 20 24 3 18 22 26 30 34 4 32 36 40 44 48

Extension shelves 0 1 2 3 4 2 6 10 14 18

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Generic clock (GCLK)

Generic clock (GCLK)


Introduction
The generic clock (GCLK) generates all the timing reference signals required by a RXU.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the GCLK complement: One GCLK is required at each RXCDR. A second GCLK is optionally requested for redundancy. Both GCLKs must reside in the same shelf of the RXCDR.

GCLK planning actions


Determine the number of GCLKs required. GCLKs = 1 + 1 redundant.

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Clock extender (CLKX)

Version 1 Rev 3

Clock extender (CLKX)


Introduction
A clock extender (CLKX) board provides expansion of GCLK timing to more than one RXU.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the CLKX complement: One CLKX is required in the first RXU shelf, which contains the GCLK, when expansion beyond the shelf occurs. Each CLKX can supply the GCLK signals to six shelves. There are three CLKX slots for each GCLK, allowing each GCLK to support up to 18 shelves (LAN extension only allows fourteen shelves in a single network element). The maximum number of CLKX slots per shelf is six. NOTE The CLKX uses six of the redundant KSWX slots. With a CLKX, a KSWX/DSWXL is required to distribute the clocks in the master and each of the expansion/extension cages. For redundancy, duplicate each CLKX (requires a redundant GCLK).

CLKX planning actions


Determine the number of CLKXs required.

Where:

NCLKX ROUND UP E RF

is:

the number of CLKX required. rounding up to the next integer. the number of shelves. Redundancy factor (1 if redundancy required (recommended). 0 for no redundancy).

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LAN extender (LANX)

LAN extender (LANX)


Introduction
The local area network extender (LANX) provides a LAN interconnection for communications between all GPROCs at a site.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the LANX complement: One LANX is supplied in each shelf. For full redundancy add one LANX for each shelf. The LANX can support a maximum network size of 14 shelves.

LANX planning actions


Determine the number of LANXs required.

Where:

NLANX NRXU RF

is:

the number of LANX required. the number of RXU shelves. Redundancy factor (1 if redundancy required (recommended). 0 for no redundancy).

RXU 14

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Parallel interface extender (PIX)

Version 1 Rev 3

Parallel interface extender (PIX)


Introduction
The parallel interface extender (PIX) provides eight inputs and four outputs for site alarms.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the PIX complement: The maximum number of PIX board slots per shelf is two. The maximum number of PIX board slots per site is eight.

PIX planning actions


Determine the number of PIXs required. PIX 2 * number of RXUs. or PIX 8.

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Line interfaces (BIB, T43)

Line interfaces (BIB, T43)


Introduction
The line interfaces, balanced-line interface board (BIB) and T43 board (T43), provide impedance matching for E1 and T1 links.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the line interface complement: To match a balanced 120 ohm (E1 2.048 Mbit/s) or balanced 110 ohm (T1 1.544 Mbit/s) 3 V (peak pulse) line use a BIB. To match a single ended 75 ohm 2.37 V (peak pulse) line use a T43 Board (T43). Each BIB/T43 can interface six E1/T1 links to specific slots on one shelf. All E1/T1 links must be terminated, including the links which are fully contained in the cabinet, for example, between RXU and BSU or links used for T1 to E1 conversion. Up to four BIBs or T43s per shelf can be mounted on a BSSC2 cabinet. A maximum of 24 E1/T1 links can be connected to a RXU shelf. A BSSC2 cabinet with two RXU shelves can interface 48 E1/T1 links. A maximum of 38 E1/T1 links can be connected to a RXU3 shelf. A BSSC3 cabinet with two RXU3 shelves can interface 76 E1/T1 links. NOTE NOTE When fully equipping two RXU3 shelves with 38 E1s each, there will be four unused E1/T1 links on two of the BIB/T43s. GDP2s must be used to fully utilize two E1s per slot.

Up to seven BIBs or T43s per shelf can be mounted on a BSSC3 cabinet.

BIB/T43 planning actions


The following planning actions are required: Determine the number and type of link (E1 or T1) to be driven. Calculate the number of E1/T1s to be terminated for each shelf. Determine the number of BIBs or T43s required.

Sum up across all shelves for the total.

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Digital shelf power supply

Version 1 Rev 3

Digital shelf power supply


Introduction
A BSSC cabinet can be supplied to operate from either a +27 V dc or -48/-60 V dc power source.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the PSM complement: Two DPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC/RXCDR. Two IPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC2/RXCDR (-48/-60 V dc). Two EPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC2/RXCDR (+27 V dc). For redundancy, add one DPSM, IPSM or EPSM for each shelf.

Power supply planning actions


Determine the number of PSMs required.

Where:

RF

is:

Redundancy factor (1 if redundancy required (recommended). 0 for no redundancy).

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Battery backup board (BBBX)

Battery backup board (BBBX)


Introduction
The battery backup board (BBBX) provides a backup supply of +5 V dc at 8 A from an external battery to maintain power to the GPROC DRAM and the optical circuitry on the LANX in the event of a mains power failure.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the BBBX complement: One BBBX is required per shelf.

BBBX planning actions


Determine the number of BBBXs required. BBBX = number of BSUs for battery backup (recommended). BBBX = 0 if no battery backup required.

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Verify the number of RXU shelves and BSSC cabinets

Version 1 Rev 3

Verify the number of RXU shelves and BSSC cabinets


Verification
After planning is complete, verify that: Each non-redundant KSW/DSW2 has its own shelf. Each extension shelf supports extension of a single KSW/DSW2. The number of KSWXs/DSWXs, LANXs, CLKXs, and GPROCs is correct. If necessary, add extra RXU shelves. Each BSSC cabinet supports two RXU shelves.

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Verify the number of RXU shelves and BSSC cabinets

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Location Based Services (LCS) Planning Rules

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Chapter 9

Location Based Services (LCS) Planning Rules

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Location Based Services (LCS) Planning Rules

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Chapter objectives

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student should be able to: Describe the principle of the Location Services feature. Explain the different methods of location estimation. Describe the planning steps for a system supporting LCS. Determine the signalling link requirements for a system supporting LCS. Determine the digital card requirement for a system supporting LCS.

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Chapter overview

Chapter overview
Introduction to LCS provisioning
This chapter provides the planning steps and rules for the BSC when supporting LCS. Only those equipments affected by LCS are covered in this chapter, for those not affected refere to chapter 5. This chapter contains: LCS overview. Capacity calculations. Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities with LCS. Determine the number of RSLs required with LCS. Determine the number of MTLs required with LCS. Determine the number of location service MTLs (LMTLs) required between BSC and SMLC. BSC GPROC functions and types with LCS. Traffic models with LCS. Planning rules for BSC to BTS links (E1/T1). Planning rules for BSC to BTS links (RSL). Planning rules for BSC to MSC links (MTL). Planning rules for BSC to SMLC links (LMTL).

BSC planning.

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Chapter overview

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LCS description

LCS description
LCS overview
Location services (LCS) provides a set of capabilities that determine location estimates of mobile stations and makes that information available to location applications. Applications requesting location estimates from LCS can be located in the MS, the network, or external to the PLMN. LCS is not classified as a supplementary service and can be subscribed to without subscribing to a basic telecommunication service. LCS is applicable to any target MS, whether or not the MS supports LCS, but with restrictions on choice of positioning method or notification of a location request to the MS user when LCS or individual positioning methods respectively are not supported by the MS. LCS utilizes one or more positioning mechanisms in order to determine the location of a mobile station. Positioning a MS involves two main steps: Signal measurements Location estimate computation based on the measured signals. Location service requests can be divided into three categories: Mobile originating location request (MO-LR) Any location request from a client MS to the LCS server made over the GSM air interface. While an MO-LR could be used to request the location of another MS, its primary purpose is to obtain an estimate of the client MSs own location, either for the client MS itself or for another LCS client designated by the MS. Mobile terminating location request (MT-LR) Any location request from a LCS client where the client is treated as being external to the PLMN to which the location request is made. Network induced location request (NI-LR) Any location request for a target MS from a client that can be considered to lie inside any of the PLMN entities currently serving the target MS. In this case, the LCS client is also within the LCS server. Examples of a NI-LR include a location request needed for supplementary services, for emergency call origination and by O&M in a visited PLMN.

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LCS description

Version 1 Rev 3

The positioning mechanism


The following positioning mechanisms have been standardized: Network based uplink time of arrival. Enhanced observed time difference. Assisted GPS. In addition, timing advance can be used in conjunction with cell ID as a method that provides a rough, low quality location estimate. Timing advance (TA) The TA is based on the existing TA parameter. The TA value is known for the serving BTS. To obtain TA values in case the MS is in idle mode a special call, not noticed by the GSM subscriber (no ringing tone), is set up. The cell ID of the serving cell and the TA is returned as the result of the TA. The TA is used to assist all positioning mechanisms and as a fall-back procedure. No additional Location Measurement Unit (LMU) is required. Time of arrival (TOA) positioning mechanism The uplink TOA positioning method is based on measuring the TOA of a known signal sent from the mobile and received at three or more measurement units. The known signal is the access bursts generated by having the mobile perform an asynchronous handover. The method requires additional measurement unit (LMU) hardware in the network at the geographical vicinity of the mobile to be positioned to accurately measure the TOA of the bursts. Since the geographical coordinates of the measurement units are known, the mobile position can be calculated via hyperbolic triangulation. This method will work with existing mobiles without any modification Enhanced observed time difference (E-OTD) positioning mechanism The E-OTD method is based on measurements in the MS of the E-OTD of arrival of bursts of nearby pairs of BTSs. For E-OTD measurement synchronization, normal and dummy bursts are used. When the transmission frames of BTSs are not synchronized, the network needs to measure the relative or absolute time differences (RTDs or ATDs) between them. To obtain accurate triangulation, E-OTD measurements and, for non-synchronized BTSs, RTD or ATD measurements are needed for at least three distinct pairs of geographically dispersed BTSs. Based on the measured E-OTD values the location of MS can be calculated either in the network or in the MS itself, if all the needed information is available in the MS.

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LCS description

Assisted global positioning system (A-GPS) positioning mechanism The basic idea of A-GPS is to establish a GPS reference network (or a wide area differential GPS network) whose receivers have clear views of the sky and can operate continuously. This reference network is also connected with the GSM network. At the request of a MS-based or network-based application, the assistance data from the reference network is transmitted to the MS to increase performance of the GPS sensor. For classification, when the position is calculated at the network, it is called a mobile assisted solution. When the position is calculated at the handset, it is called a mobile based solution. If implemented properly, the A-GPS method should be able to: 1. 2. 3. Reduce the sensor start up time. Increase the sensor sensitivity. Consume less handset power than conventional GPS does. Additional assisted data, such as differential GPS corrections, approximate handset location or cell base station location and others, can be transmitted to improve the location accuracy and decrease acquisition time.

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LCS description

Version 1 Rev 3

System architecture
Figure 9-1 shows the LCS architecture. Figure 9-1 Generic LCS logical architecture

LMU Type A
Um

CBC

SMLC

Lp

SMLC

Lb Ls

HLR
Lh

MS

BTS (LMU Type B)

Abis

BSC

MSC/VLR

Lg

Gateway MLC
Lc

Le

External LCS Client

Abis

Lg

LMU Type A

Gateway MLC Other PLMN

gsmSCF

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LCS description

BSS The BSS is involved in the handling of various positioning procedures. The BSS needs to be modified to support: New LCS messages on the A-interface or Lb interface. New LCS messages on the Abis interface and Um interface. LCS client The LCS client is outside the scope of this standard. GMLC The gateway mobile location centre (GMLC) contains functionality required to support LCS. In one PLMN there may be more than one GMLC. The GMLC is the first node an external LCS client accesses in a GSM PLMN (that is, the Le reference point is supported by the GMLC). The GMLC may request routeing information from the HLR via the Lh interface. After performing registration authorization, it sends positioning requests to and receives final location estimates from the VMSC through the Lg interface.

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LCS description

Version 1 Rev 3

SMLC The serving mobile location centre (SMLC) contains functionality required to support LCS. In one PLMN there may be more than one SMLC. The SMLC manages the overall co-ordination and scheduling of resources required to perform positioning of a mobile. It also calculates the final location estimate and accuracy. Two types of SMLC are possible: NSS based SMLC - supports the Ls interface, see Figure 9-1. BSS based SMLC - supports the Lb interface see Figure 9-2. An NSS based SMLC supports positioning of a target MS via signalling on the Ls interface to the visited MSC. A BSS-based SMLC supports positioning via signalling on the Lb interface to the BSC serving the target MS. Both types of SMLC may support the Lp interface to enable access to information and resources owned by another SMLC. The SMLC controls a number of LMUs for the purpose of obtaining radio interface measurements to locate or help locate MS subscribers in the area that it serves. The SMLC is administered with the capabilities and types of measurement produced by each of its LMUs. Signalling between a NSS-based SMLC and LMU is transferred via the MSC serving the LMU using the Ls interface and either the Um interface for a Type A LMU or the Abis interface for a Type B LMU. Signalling between a BSS based SMLC and LMU is transferred via the BSC that serves or controls the LMU using the Lb interface and either the Um interface for a Type A LMU or the Abis interface for a Type B LMU. For LCS, when a cell broadcast centre (CBC) is associated with a BSC, the SMLC may interface to a CBC in order to broadcast assistance data using existing cell broadcast capabilities. The SMLC behaves as a user, cell broadcast entity, to the CBC. MS The MS may be involved in the various positioning procedures. LMU A LMU makes radio measurements to support one or more positioning methods. These measurements fall into one of two categories: Location measurements specific to one MS used to compute the location of this MS. Assistance measurements specific to all MSs in a certain geographic area. All location and assistance measurements obtained by an LMU are supplied to a particular SMLC associated with the LMU. Instructions concerning the timing, the nature and any periodicity of these measurements are either provided by the SMLC or are pre-administered in the LMU. Two types of LMU are defined: Type A LMU: accessed over the normal GSM air interface. Type B LMU: accessed over the Abis interface. MSC The MSC contains functionality responsible for MS subscription authorization and managing call-related and non call-related positioning requests of GSM LCS. The MSC is accessible to the GMLC through the Lg interface and the SMLC via the Ls interface.

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LCS description

HLR The HLR contains LCS subscription data and routing information. The HLR is accessible from the GMLC through the Lh interface. For roaming MSs, the HLR may be in a different PLMN that the current SMLC. The system architecture is differentiated by which network entity the SMLC is connected to. When SMLC is connected to a MSC, the system architecture is referred as an NSS-based LCS architecture; otherwise, a BSS based LCS architecture when SMLC is connected to a BSC. NSS-based LCS architecture In this architecture (see Figure 9-2), the SMLC is connected to a MSC instead of a BSC. The MSC acts as relay point for LCS signalling between the SMLC and BSC.

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LCS description

Version 1 Rev 3

Figure 9-2

NSS-based architecture

OMCL GPS Serving MLC


Ls

HLR
Lh

LMU

BTS

BSC

MSC
Lg

Gateway MLC

Le

External LCS Clients

Location capable mobile

External LCS Clients

Le

Gateway MLC Other PLMN LMU: Location measurement unit MLC: Mobile location centre

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LCS description

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LCS description

Version 1 Rev 3

BSS-based LCS architecture In this architecture (see Figure 9-3), the SMLC is connected to a BSC instead of a MSC. The LCS signalling between the SMLC and BSC goes directly between these two entities. Figure 9-3 BSS-based architecture

OMCL GPS Serving MLC


Lb

HLR
Lh

LMU

BTS

BSC

MSC
Lg

Gateway MLC

Le

External LCS Clients

Location capable mobile

External LCS Clients

Le

Gateway MLC Other PLMN LMU: Location measurement unit MLC: Mobile location centre

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Overview of BSC planning for LCS

Overview of BSC planning for LCS


Introduction to GSR6 LCS provisioning
In GSR6, the Motorola BSS provides the interfaces, protocols and messages to support the GSM standards-based LCS architecture and Cell-ID and timing advance (TA) positioning technology. In GSR6, the BSS supports the network sub-system (NSS) based serving mobile location centre (SMLC) architecture or the BSS-based SMLC architecture. The BSS supports new LCS signalling for all supported positioning technologies: New LCS signalling messages on the A-interface or Lb interface. New LCS signalling messages on the Mobis interface and Um interface. The provisioning rules and steps for BSS equipment only support Cell-ID and the TA positioning method for LCS will be provided for NSS-based and BSS-based LCS architecture respectively in the following sections. To plan the equipage of a BSC supporting LCS, certain information must be known. In addition to those factors covered in BSC planning overview, Introduction in Chapter 6, the following factors also must be known: The LCS traffic load to be handled (also take future growth into consideration).

Outline of planning steps


In addition to the planning steps given in Chapter 5, planning a BSC that supports LCS also involves the following steps, which result from Chapter 6: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Determine the LCS architecture a BSS will support. That is, the BSS will support either a NSS-based LCS architecture or a BSS-based LCS architecture, but not both. Plan the number of E1 or T1 links between the BSC and BTS site(s). Refer to the section Determine the required BSS signalling link capacities in this chapter. Plan the number of RSL links between the BSC and BTS site(s) based on the LCS architecture supported. Refer to the section Determine the RSLs required in this chapter. Plan the number of MTL links between the BSC and the MSC based on the LCS architecture supported. Refer to the section Determine the number of MTLs required in this chapter. Plan the number of LMTL links required between the BSC and the SMLC for BSS based LCS architecture. Refer to Determine the number of LMTLs required in this chapter. If the BSS only supports NSS-based LCS architecture, this step should be skipped. Plan the number of GPROC2s required with support of LCS. Refer to the section Generic processor (GPROC2) in this chapter. Verify the planning process with support of LCS. Refer to the section Verify the number of BSU shelves and BSSC cabinets in Chapter 6.

6. 7.

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Overview of BSC planning for LCS

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Capacity calculations

Capacity calculations
Introduction
In addition to the capacity calculations in Chapter 6, the additional traffic load resulting from LCS needs to be taken into consideration in the capacity calculations. This section provides information on how to calculate processor requirements, signalling link capacities and BSC processing capacities for LCS. When equipping the BSS, equipage results in this chapter need to be combined with the results given in Chapter 6. This section describes: The required BSS signalling link capacities. Traffic models for LCS. BSC GPROC functions and types. The number of GPROCs required.

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Capacity calculations

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Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities

Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities


BSC LCS signalling traffic model
Besides the factors described in Determining the required BSS signaling link capacity in Chapter 6 and Figure 7-1, LCS needs to be taken into account when planning a BSS. MTL link provisioning to support LCS signaling between the MSC and BSC for either NSS-based LCS architecture or BSS-based LCS architecture, but not both. LMTL links provisioning if for BSS-based LCS architecture only. RSL links provisioning with LCS supported.

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Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities

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Typical parameter values


The parameters required to calculate BSC processing and signalling link capacities are listed in Table 9-1 and Table 9-2 with their typical values. Table 9-1 Typical call parameters Busy hour peak signalling traffic model Call duration Ratio of SMSs per call Number of handovers per call (see Note) Ratio of location updates to calls Ratio of IMSI detaches to calls Location update factor GSM circuit-switched paging rate in pages per second Ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers (see Note) Ratio of LCSs per call Mobile terminated LCS ratio Mobile originated LCS ratio Percent link utilization (MSC to BSS) for GPROC2 Percent link utilization (BSC to BTS) Percent link utilization (BSC to RXCDR) Blocking for TCHs NOTE These include 2G-3G handovers. U U Parameter reference T = 120 seconds S = 0.1 H = 2.5 l = 2 I = 0 L = 2 P = 3 i = 0.6 LCS = 0.2 LRMT = 0.95 LRMO = 0.05
(MSC - BSS) (BSC - BTS)

= 0.20 = 0.25

UBSC-RXCDR = 0.4 PB-TCHs = 2%

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Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities

Table 9-2

Other parameters used in determining GPROC and link requirements Parameter reference N B C PPC = P * (T/N)

Busy hour peak signalling traffic model Number of MSC - BSC trunks Number of BTSs per BSS Number of cells per BSS Pages per call

Assumptions used in capacity calculations


Signalling message sequence and size assumptions Refer to Chapter 6 for the signalling message sequence and size assumptions. The number of uplink and downlink messages with the respective average message sizes for each procedure are provided in Table 9-3. Table 9-3 LCS procedure capacities MSC to BSC link including protocol header LCS request and response (NSS-based architecture) LCS request and response (BSS-based architecture) LCS request and response 7 downlink messages with average size of 29 bytes 6 uplink messages with average size of 28 bytes 7 downlink messages with average size of 35 bytes 6 uplink messages with average size of 29 bytes SMLC to BSC link including protocol header 5 downlink messages with average size of 29 bytes 4 uplink messages with average size of 38 bytes BSC to BTS link LCS request and response (NSS-based architecture) LCS request and response (BSS-based architecture) 6 downlink messages with average size of 19 bytes 5 uplink messages with average size of 19 bytes 6 downlink messages with average size of 19 bytes 5 uplink messages with average size of 19 bytes

An additional assumption, which is made in determining the values listed above in Table 9-3, is that the procedures not included in the traffic model are considered to have negligible effect. Paging assumptions Refer to Chapter 6, Paging assumptions.

Link capacities
Refer to Chapter 6, Link capacities. Take care that LCS signalling between MSC and BSC, and BSC and SMLC are all provided for by C7 links. The total number of MTLs, and/or LMTLs should not exceed 16.

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Determining the required BSS signalling link capacities

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Determining the number of RSLs required

Determining the number of RSLs required


Introduction
In this section, the RSL number with LCS supported is calculated for the GSM circuit switched part.

Planning considerations
Refers to Chapter 7, RSL planning considerations.

Standard traffic model


The number of BSC to BTS signalling links (RSL) must be determined for each BTS. This number depends on the number of TCHs at the BTS. Table 9-4 gives the number of RSLs required (rounded up integer value) for a BTS to support the given number of TCHs, based on the typical call parameters given in the standard traffic model column of Table 9-1. If the call parameters differ significantly from the standard traffic model, use the formulae for the non-standard traffic model. For NSS-based or BSS-based LCS architecture, there is no difference when calculating RSL provisioning from the Abis point of view. Table 9-4 Number of BSC to BTS signalling links Number of 64 Kbit/sRSLs 1 1 1 1 2 2 Number of 16 Kbit/sRSLs 1 2 3 4 5 5

n = number of TCHs at the BTS n <= 30 31 < n <= 60 61 < n <= 90 91 < n <= 120 121 < n <= 150 151 < n <= 180

NOTE

A BTS shall support either 64 Kbit/s RSLs or 16 Kbit/s RSLs, but not both.

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Determining the number of RSLs required

Version 1 Rev 3

Non-standard traffic model


Use the following formula to determine the required number of 64 kbit/s RSLs for CS signalling with LCS supported.

If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 9-1, use the following formula to determine the required number of 16 kbit/s RSLs for CS signalling with LCS supported, (Rounded up to the next integer).

16 kbit/s RSLs for GPRS signalling refers to Chapter 5, Determining the RSL number required. Where: RSLGSM N Lcs S H L U T PGSM NOTE is: the number of BSC to BTS signalling links for GSM. the number of TCHs at the BTS site. the ratio of LCSs to calls the ratio of SMSs to calls. the number of handovers per call. the location update factor. the percent link utilization (for example 0.20). the average call duration. the GSM paging rate in pages per second. A BTS can support either 64 kbit/s RSLs or 16 kbit/s RSLs, but not both.

BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions


Refer to Chapter 7, BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions.

BSC to BTS T1 interconnect planning actions


Refer to Chapter 7, BSC to BTS T1 interconnect planning actions.

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Determining the number of RSLs required

Determine the number of LCFs for RSL processing


Determine the number of GPROC2s required to support the layer 3 call processing. There are two methods for calculating this number. The first is to be used when the call parameters are similar to those listed in the table for standard traffic model. The second method is to be used when call parameters differ significantly from those listed in that table. Standard traffic model

Where:

GL3 n B Lcs C

is:

the number of LCF GPROC2s required to support the layer 3 call processing. the number of TCHs at the BSC. the number of BTS sites. the ratio of LCSs to calls (0.2). the number of cells.

NOTE

As an approximation, the LCS procedure will not exceed 45% of processor resources compared with CS calls and may be updated by statistics results from performance simulations.

Non-standard traffic model If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 9-1, the alternative formula given below should be used to determine the recommended number of LCFs.

Where:

GL3 N Lcs S H i L T PGSM B C

is:

the number of LCF GPROC2s required for layer 3 call processing. the number of TCHs under the BSC. the ratio of LCSs to calls (0.2). the ratio of SMSs to calls. the number of handovers per call. the ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers. the location update factor. the average call duration. the paging rate in pages per second. the number of BTS sites. the number of cells.

NOTE

The above formula has been calculated using 70% mean utilization of GPROC2.

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Determining the number of MTLs required

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Determining the number of MTLs required


Introduction
MTLs carry signalling traffic between the MSC and the BSC for circuit-switched call and LCS signalling. The number of required MTLs depends upon the BSS configuration size and traffic model. MTLs are carried on E1 or T1 links between the MSC and BSC, which are also used for traffic.

Planning considerations
In addition to those considerations described in Determining the number of MTLs required in Chapter 7, the following factors should be considered when planning the LCS signalling links from the BSC to MSC: Determine the LCS architecture supported by the BSC. The BSC may support either NSS-based LCS architecture or BSS-based LCS architecture, but not both. Determine the LCS traffic requirements for the BSC. The traffic may be determined using the following method: Multiply the number of subscribers expected to use the BSC by the average LCS traffic per subscriber.

Total number of MTLs and/or LMTL (if BSS-based LCS architecture is supported). This should not exceed 16, which is the total number of C7 links. NOTE These calculations are for the MTLs required from the BSS perspective, using the BSS planning rules. If the MSC vendor supplies their own planning rules for a given configuration, the more conservative MTL provisioning figures should be used. If the MSC vendor does not provide the planning rules for the MTLs required in a downlink direction, then use a load share granularity of 0 to be conservative in MTL provisioning. Load sharing of MTLs in the downlink direction depends on the mechanism used by the MSC to load share the signalling links from the MSC to BSC.

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Determining the number of MTLs required

Standard traffic model


The required number of MSC to BSC signalling links (MTLs) depends on the desired link utilization, the type and capacity of the GPROCs controlling the MTLs and the MTL loadshare granularity. The BSS software distributes call signalling traffic across 16 or 64 logical links, which are then evenly spread across the active MTLs. CCITT C7 uses a 4-bit number, the signalling link selection (SLS), generated by the upper layer to load share message traffic among the in-service links of a link set. When the number of in-service links is not a power of 2, some links may experience a higher load than others. From GSR5 release onwards, the BSS supports distribution of signalling in the uplink direction, over 64 logical links. The BSS evenly distributes the 64 logical links over the active MTLs. The number of MTLs is a function of the number of MSC to BSC trunks or the offered call load and signalling for the call load. Table 9-5 to Table 9-8 give the recommended minimum number of MSC to BSC signalling links based on the typical call parameters, detailed in Table 9-1. The value for N is the greater of the following: The offered call load (in Erlangs) from all the BTSs controlled by the BSC. The potential carried load (approximately equal to the number of MSC to BSC trunks). The offered call load for a BSS is the sum of the offered call load from all of the cells of the BSS. The offered call load at a cell is a function of the number of TCHs and blocking. As blocking increases the offered call load increase. For example, for a cell with 15 TCHs and 2% blocking, the offered call load is 9.01 Erlangs. NOTE Before setting the load share granularity to 1, it is recommended that confirmation is gained from the Motorola local contact, or local office, that the switch is compatible with the load share granularity set to 1.

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Determining the number of MTLs required

Version 1 Rev 3

Table 9-5 to Table 9-8 show how to estimate the number of MTLs to be used for the BSC, with 20% and 40% link utilization, respectively. Table 9-5 Number of MSC and BSC signalling links(NSS-based LCS at 20% utilization) No. of MTLs with 16 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 16 16 16 16 Recommended 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 9 9 16 16 16 16 No. of MTLs with 64 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 10 11 13 16 Recommended 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 11 12 14 16

N = the greater of number of MSC-BSC trunks or the offered load from the BTSs N <= 160 160 < N <= 360 360 < N <= 480 480 < N <= 560 560 < N <= 760 760 < N <= 920 920 < N <= 1000 1000 < N <= 1080 1080 < N <= 1200 1200 < N <= 1520 1520 < N <= 1720 1720 < N <= 2000 2000 < N <= 2400 2400 <N <= 3000

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Determining the number of MTLs required

Table 9-6

Number of MSC and BSC signalling links(BSS-based LCS at 20% utilization) No. of MTLs with 16 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 16 16 16 16 Recommended 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 9 9 16 16 16 16 No. of MTLs with 64 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 10 11 13 16 Recommended 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 11 12 14 16

N = the greater of number of MSC-BSC trunks or the offered load from the BTSs N <= 160 160 < N <= 360 360 < N <= 480 480 < N <= 520 520 < N <= 760 760 < N <= 920 920 < N <= 1000 1000 < N <= 1080 1080 < N <= 1200 1200 < N <= 1520 1520 < N <= 1720 1720 < N <= 2000 2000 < N <= 2400 2400 <N <= 3000

Table 9-7

Number of MSC and BSC signalling links(NSS-based LCS at 40% utilization) No. of MTLs with 16 logical links No. of MTLs with 64 logical links

N = the greater of number of MSC-BSC trunks or the offered load from the BTSs

Minimum required N <= 360 360 <N <= 760 760 < N <= 1000 1000 < N <= 1080 1080 < N <= 1520 1520 < N <= 1840 1840 < N <= 2000 2000 < N <= 2200 2200 < N <= 2400 2400 < N <= 3040 3040 < N <= 3200 1 2 3 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 16

Recommended 2 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 9 9 16

Minimum required 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 10

Recommended 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 11

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Determining the number of MTLs required

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Table 9-8

Number of MSC and BSC signalling links(BSS-based LCS at 40% utilization) No. of MTLs with 16 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 16 Recommended 2 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 9 9 16 No. of MTLs with 64 logical links Minimum required 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 10 Recommended 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 11

N = the greater of number of MSC-BSC trunks or the offered load from the BTSs N <= 360 360 <N <= 760 760 < N <= 1000 1000 < N <= 1080 1080 < N <= 1480 1480 < N <= 1840 1840 < N <= 2000 2000 < N <= 2200 2200 < N <= 2400 2400 < N <= 3000 3000 < N <= 3200

NOTE

The capacities shown in Table 9-5 to Table 9-8 are based on the standard traffic model shown in Table 9-1. It is recommended that the C7 links be designed to operate at no more than 20% link utilization when the MTL is running on a GPROC, and no more than 40% utilization when the MTL is running on a GPROC2. However, before use of the 40% utilization of GPROC2, it is imperative that the operator verifies that the MSC vendor can also support 40% utilization at the MSC end, if not, then only 20% link utilization should be used for GPROC2.

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Determining the number of MTLs required

Non-standard traffic model


If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 9-1, the following procedure is used to determine the required number of MSC to BSC signalling links: 1. Use the formula detailed below to determine the maximum number of Erlangs supported by a C7 signalling link (nlink).

2. Use the formula detailed below to determine the maximum number of Erlangs supported by a GPROC2 (LCF-MTL) supporting a C7 signalling link (nlLCF-MTL).

3. The maximum amount of traffic a MTL (a physical link) can handle (nlmin) is the smaller of the two numbers from Steps 1 and 2. 4. Signalling over the A-interface is uniformly distributed over a number of logical links. The number of logical links is defined on the BSC by database parameter mtl_loadshare_granularity = 0 or 1, which corresponds to 16 or 64 logical links, respectively, over which the MTL signalling is load shared. Hence, the total amount of traffic that a logical link would hold, is calculated as:

5. (nlog-per-mtl):

Where Ng= 16 or 64. Next we need to determine the number of logical links each MTL (physical link) can handle

6.

Finally, the number of required MTLs (mtls) is:

NOTE

mtls should not exceed 16 per BSC. The formula in step Step 2 has been calculated using 70% mean utilization of GPROC2. Field experience suggests it is good practice to maintain the mean utilization of GPROCs at or below 70%. All GPROCs should function normally up to 100% utilization. Beyond this, inter-process communication will start to slow down due to queueing of internal BSS messages, thus impacting on system performance.

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Determining the number of MTLs required

Version 1 Rev 3

Calculate the number of LCFs for MTL processing


The purpose of the LCF GPROC2 is to support the functions of MSC link protocol, layer 3 call processing, and the BTS link protocol. It is recommended that an LCF supports either 2 MTLs or 1 to 30 BTSs, with up to 31 RSLs and layer 3 call processing. NOTE It is not recommended that an LCF supports both an MTL and BSC to BTS signalling links.

LCFs for MSC to BSC links Since one LCF GPROC2 can support two MTLs, the number of required LCF is:

However, if the traffic model does not conform to the standard model, below formula will be used:

otherwise:

Where:

NLCF ROUND UP mtls nlink nlLCF-MTL

is:

the number of LCF GPROC2s required. rounding up to the next integer. calculated in the previous section. calculated in the previous section. calculated in the previous section.

Planning actions for transcoding at the BSC


Refer to Chapter 6.

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Determining the number of LMTLs required

Determining the number of LMTLs required


Introduction
LMTLs carry the LCS signaling traffic between the BSC and the SMLC. This is only applicable for BSS-based LCS architecture. The number of required LMTLs depends upon the BSS configuration size and traffic model. LMTLs are carried on E1 or T1 links between the SMLC and BSC.

Planning considerations
The following factors need to be considered when planning the number of LMTL links from the BSC to the SMLC: Determine the LCS traffic requirements of the BSC. A BSC can only connect to one SMLC.

Determining the number of LMTLs


Traffic model The number of required LMTLs depends upon the BSS configuration size and traffic model. See Table 9-1 and Table 9-3. LMTL number Use the following formula to determine the required number of 64 kbit/s LMTLs (rounded up to the next integer):

Where:

LMTL LCS_BSC_Rate UBSC_SMLC ROUND UP

is:

the number of BSC to SMLC signalling links. requests number per BSC per second. the percentage of the link utilization. rounding up to the next integer.

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Generic processor (GPROC2) for LCS

Version 1 Rev 3

Generic processor (GPROC2) for LCS


Introduction
Refer to Chapter 6.

GPROC2 functions and types


Besides the possible general task groupings or functions for assignment to GPROC2s in Chapter 5, the GPROC2 can also support: MSC link protocol (C7) with LCS supported. SMLC link protocol for LCS (LMTL). The defined GPROC2 devices and functions for the BSC are specified in Chapter 6.

Planning considerations
Besides those factors considered and specified in Chapter 6, when planning the GPROC2 complement each BSC also requires: The number of LCFs to support LMTLs for BSS-based LCS architecture. Link control function Combined with what specified in Chapter 6, the following factors should be considered when planning the number of LCFs: LMTLs are handled by dedicated LCFs for BSS-based LCS architecture. One dedicated LCS LCF GPROC2 is needed to support the SMLC link protocol for LCS. The planning rules for LCFs exclusively using GPROC2 are: A single GPROC2 will support up to 31 BTS sites and 31 RSLs, limited to the following calculation:

Where carriers = the total number of radios for the BTS site(s).

Where nLCF = the number of TCHs on the sites under a LCF and n = the total number of sites on the LCF. If any LCF does not satisfy the above criteria, either rebalancing of sites on the available LCF-GPROC2s at the BSC is required or additional LCF-GPROC2s may need to be equipped at the BSC to handle the traffic load. NOTE It is not recommended that an LCF supports both an LMTL and BSC to BTS signalling links.

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Generic processor (GPROC2) for LCS

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Exercises

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 10

Exercises

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Exercises

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Chapter objectives

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Chapter objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will have: Completed BTS and BSC planning exercises

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BTS Exercise Number 1

BTS Exercise Number 1


Exercise to Determine CCCH Requirements
Using the following statistics calculate the number of PCH, AGCH and hence the number of CCCH blocks required to support this cell: Erlangs supported by LAC = 1,000 Erls Erlangs suported by this cell (E) = 30 erls Call Hold time (T) = 120 secs Ratio of SMS to calls (SMS) = 0.1 Ratio of location updates to calls (L) = 7 CCCH utilization figure = 33% (0.33) 20% of all calls are expected to be MS terminated. IMSI detached is disabled. Paging is to be done by the IMSI. Average of 2 pages sent for every call set-up.

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Exercise Work Area

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Exercise Work Area

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BTS Exercise Number 2:

BTS Exercise Number 2:


Exercise to determine SDCCH requirements.
Using the following statistics calculate the number of SDCCHs required to support this cell. Erlangs supported by this cell (E) = 14 Erls Ratio of location updates to calls (L) = 2 Ratio of SMS to calls (SMS) = 0.1 Call hold time (T) = 120 secs Time duration for location updates (TLU) = 4 secs Time duration for SMS(TSMS) = 6 secs Time duration for call set ups (TC) = 5 secs Guard time for SDCCH (Tg) = 4 secs Probability of blocking for SDCCHs = 1% IMSI detach is disabled.

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Exercise Work Area

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Exercise Work Area

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BTS Exercise Number 3

BTS Exercise Number 3


You are to determine the requirements for BTS site No. 2 as shown in the diagram opposite. BTS Site No. 2 is to be a newly commissioned site and will consist of three sectors. The traffic requirement for the area of coverage has been determined as 1875 subscribers. It has been found that the distribution of these subscribers across the three sector area are as follows: (1) Sector A= 44%; (2) Sector B= 32% (3) Sector C= 24% 20% of calls are mobile terminated. Paging is by IMSI. Utilising the following parameters you are required to determine the configuration of: 1) Traffic channels; 2) Common control channels; 3) Dedicated control channels; 4) Hardware required; 5) 2 Mbit bearers to support the functionality of this site. PARAMETER Call duration Ratio of SMSs per call Ratio of location updates to calls - non-location area border Ratio of location updates to calls - location area border Ratio of IMSI detaches to calls Location update factor - non-location area border (1) Location update factor - location area border (1) Number of handovers per call Time duration for location update Time duration for SMSs Time duration for call set-ups Guard time for SDCCHs Probability of blocking for TCHs Probability of blocking for SDCCHs IMSI detached is disabled CCCH utilization figure Average of pages sent for every call set up Erlangs supported by LAC Erlangs per subscriber ASSUMED VALUE T= 120 secs S= 0.1 I= 2 I=7 I= 0 L= 2 L= 7 H= 2.5 TLU= 4 secs TSMs= 6 secs TC= 5 secs TG= 4 secs PB - TCH = 2% PB - SDCCH = 1% 33% (0.33) 2 2500 0.033

Determine a suitable hardware configuration utilizing the Horizonmacro GSM900 equipment range.

10-8

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BTS Exercise Number 3

Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 3

LAC2

BTS SITE No. 1

BTS SITE No. 2

Key:

Indicates location area border

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SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

10-9

Version 1 Rev 3

BSC Exercise Number 1

BSC Exercise Number 1


Using the diagram opposite and the following information: Transcoding is being performed remotely. Typical call parameters are to be used. Full redundancy; utilising all available alternate paths. 2 OMLs are required. One 64 kbit/s XBL is required. The BSC must be capable of supporting a total of 150 Erlangs (this includes a growth factor of 20%). BSC-MSC blocking= 1%. MTL utilisation is 20%. Each BTS has 6 RTFs and requires an RSL per path. IMSI detach is disabled. GPROC2s are to be used.

Determine the planning requirements, to include: Number of timeslots and hence the number of 2 Mbit/s links required between: BSC -BTS 1 BTS1-BTS 2 BTS1-BTS 3 BTS1-BTS 4 BTS3-BTS 4

Number of trunks between BSC-RXCDR. Number of MTLs between BSC-MSC. Number of 2 Mbit/s links between BSC-RXCDR. Total number of MSI cards required at the BSC. Number of links between RXCDR-MSC.

10-10

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MOTOROLA LTD.2002

BSC Exercise Number 1

Version 1 Rev 3

Exercise 1

MSC

RXCDR

OMC-R

BSC

BTS 3 BTS 1 BTS 2

BTS 4

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10-11

Version 1 Rev 3

BSC Exercise Number 2

BSC Exercise Number 2


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Site BTS 1 BTS 2 BTS 3 BTS 4 BTS 5 BTS 6 BTS 7 BTS 8 BTS 9 BTS 10 The BSC is a Type 1 Typical call parameters are to be used. Redundancy for the BSP is required. One pool GPROC should be equipped. It has been calculated that 3 MTLs are required. The following BTSs and cells are supported by this BSC. Dedicated CSFP is required. GPROC2s are to be used. RTFs 6 6 12 6 12 16 3 2 2 2 Cells 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 TCHs 42 42 84 42 84 116 20 14 14 14

You are to determine the number of GPROC2s (BSP, LCF) required at the BSC Ensure the LCF loading has not been exceeded.

10-12

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Version 1 Rev 3

BSC Exercise Number 2

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10-13

Version 1 Rev 3

BSC Exercise Number 3

BSC Exercise Number 3


It has been identified from traffic statistics that there is a requirement for a new BSC to be installed in a local area. This BSC will be connected to 24 BTS remote sites where: Sites 1-10 are configured with 3 cells each with 2 CTUs per cell. (2 x Control Channels). Sites 11-24 are omni cells with 2 CTUs per cell (2 x Control Channels). The Erlangs (traffic capacity) of each of the 24 BTS are listed in table 1. You are to plan the BSC requirements for this new BSC site with a 20% growth factor, with 1.0% blocking on the BSC to MSC interface. The BTS sites are to be connected in a total of 8 x 3 BTS site closed loop configuration with a mix of sector/omi cells. The traffic parameters are assumed to be as the standard traffic model. BSP redundancy is required. A pool GPROC is required.

10-14

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MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Version 1 Rev 3

BSC Exercise Number 3

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SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

10-15

Version 1 Rev 3

Table 1

Table 1
Site # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Totals Surveyed Erlangs 26.532 25.212 23.364 17.127 17.358 22.803 22.143 15.015 18.744 26.367 6.963 4.917 4.092 6.171 3.102 6.204 3.069 1.947 3.432 5.346 5.082 7.326 6.963 6.171 285.45 RTFs 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 88 TCHs 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 616 Subs @ 0.033Erl 804 764 708 519 526 691 671 455 568 799 211 149 124 187 94 188 93 59 104 162 154 222 211 187 8650

10-16

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MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Table 1

Version 1 Rev 3

Stage 1
Determine traffic requirements for the BSC including the growth factor. Answer

Stage 2
Calculate number of C7 signalling links required (Each link being 20% utilised). Given: Call duration = 120 sec Ratio of SMS per call = 0.1 Ratio of handovers = 2.5 Ratio of total pages sent = 3 Ratio of Intra-BSC handovers = 0.6 Ratio of Location Updates = 2 Answer

Stage 3
Determine the 2.048 Mbit/s requirements, (transcoding is being carried out at the MSC). Answer

Stage 4
Calculate the number of LCFs required for RSL support. Answer

Stage 5
Determine number of GPROCs required. Answer

Stage 6
Determine the number of MSI boards required. Answer

Stage 7
List the hardware requirements for the BSSC. Answer

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SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

10-17

Version 1 Rev 3

Table 1

This page intentionally left blank.

10-18

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MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Erlang Tables

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 11

Erlang Tables

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

11-1

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang Tables

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Grade of Service 0.01% 0.0001 0.0142 0.0868 0.2347 0.4520 0.7282 1.0541 1.4219 1.8256 2.2601 2.7216 3.2069 3.7133 4.2387 4.7811 5.3389 5.9109 6.4958 7.0927 7.7005 8.3186 8.9462 9.5826 10.2274 10.8800 11.5400 12.2069 12.8803 13.5600 14.2456 14.9367 0.1% 0.0010 0.0458 0.1938 0.4393 0.7621 1.1459 1.5786 2.0513 2.5575 3.0920 3.8511 4.2314 4.8305 5.4464 6.0772 6.7215 7.3781 8.0459 8.7239 9.4115 10.1077 10.8121 11.5241 12.2432 12.9689 13.7008 14.4385 15.1818 15.9304 16.6839 17.4420 0.5% 0.0050 0.1054 0.3490 0.7012 1.1320 1.6218 2.1575 2.7299 3.3326 3.9607 4.6104 5.2789 5.9638 6.6632 7.3755 8.0995 8.8340 9.5780 10.3308 11.0916 11.8598 12.6349 13.4164 14.2038 14.9968 15.7949 16.5980 17.4057 18.2177 19.0339 19.8540 1.0% 0.0101 0.1526 0.4555 0.8694 1.3608 1.9090 2.5009 3.1276 3.7825 4.4612 5.1599 5.8760 6.6072 7.3517 8.1080 8.8750 9.6516 10.4369 11.2301 12.0306 12.8378 13.6513 14.4705 15.2950 16.1246 16.9588 17.7974 18.6402 19.4869 20.3373 21.1912 2.0% 0.0204 0.2235 0.6022 1.0923 1.6571 2.2759 2.9354 3.6271 4.3447 5.0840 5.8415 6.6147 7.4015 8.2003 9.0096 9.8284 10.6558 11.4909 12.3330 13.1815 14.0360 14.8959 15.7609 16.6306 17.5046 18.3828 19.2648 20.1504 21.0394 21.9316 22.8268 4.0% 0.0417 0.3333 0.8120 1.3994 2.0573 2.7649 3.5095 4.2830 5.0796 5.8954 6.7272 7.5727 8.4300 9.2977 10.1745 11.0594 11.9516 12.8504 13.7552 14.6654 15.5807 16.5005 17.4245 18.3526 19.2842 20.2193 21.1576 22.0988 23.0429 23.9896 24.9388 5.0% 0.0526 0.3813 0.8994 1.5246 2.2185 2.9603 3.7378 4.5430 5.3702 6.2157 7.0764 7.9501 8.8349 9.7295 10.6327 11.5436 12.4613 13.3852 14.3147 15.2493 16.1885 17.1320 18.0795 19.0307 19.9853 20.9430 21.9037 22.8672 23.8333 24.8018 25.7726

11-2

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Erlang Tables

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

Grade of Service 0.01% 15.6332 16.3348 17.0412 17.7523 18.4678 19.1876 19.9115 20.6392 21.3708 22.1059 22.8446 23.5867 24.3319 25.0804 25.8318 26.5862 27.3435 28.1035 28.8661 29.6313 30.3991 31.1693 31.9418 32.7166 33.4937 34.2730 35.0543 35.8377 36.6232 37.4105 38.1998 38.9910 39.7839 40.5787 41.3751 0.1% 18.2047 18.9716 19.7426 20.5174 21.2960 22.0781 22.8636 23.6523 24.4442 25.2391 26.0369 26.8374 27.6407 28.4466 29.2549 30.0657 30.8789 31.6943 32.5119 33.3316 34.1533 34.9771 35.8028 36.6305 37.4599 38.2911 39.1241 39.9587 40.7950 41.6328 42.4723 43.3132 44.1557 44.9995 45.8448 0.5% 20.6777 21.5050 22.3356 23.1694 24.0063 24.8461 25.6887 26.5340 27.3818 28.2321 29.0848 29.9397 30.7969 31.6562 32.5175 33.3807 34.2459 35.1129 35.9818 36.8523 37.7245 38.5983 39.4737 40.3506 41.2290 42.1089 42.9901 43.8727 44.7566 45.6418 46.5283 47.4160 48.3049 49.1949 50.0861 1.0% 22.0483 22.9087 23.7720 24.6381 25.5070 26.3785 27.2525 28.1288 29.0074 29.8882 30.7712 31.6561 32.5430 33.4317 34.3223 35.2146 36.1086 37.0042 37.9014 38.8001 39.7003 40.6019 41.5049 42.4092 43.3149 44.2218 45.1299 46.0392 46.9497 47.8613 48.7740 49.6878 50.6026 51.5185 52.4353 2.0% 23.7249 24.6257 25.5291 26.4349 27.3431 28.2536 29.1661 30.0808 30.9973 31.9158 32.8360 33.7580 34.6817 35.6069 36.5337 37.4619 38.3916 39.3227 40.2551 41.1889 42.1238 43.0600 43.9973 44.9358 45.8754 46.8160 47.7577 48.7004 49.6441 50.5887 51.5342 52.4807 53.4280 54.3762 55.3252 4.0% 25.8904 26.8442 27.8002 28.7581 29.7180 30.6796 31.6431 32.6081 33.5748 34.5430 35.5126 36.4837 37.4560 38.4297 39.4046 40.3807 41.3580 42.3363 43.3157 44.2962 45.2776 46.2600 47.2434 48.2278 49.2127 50.1987 51.1854 52.1730 53.1613 54.1504 55.1403 56.1308 57.1220 58.1139 59.1064 5.0% 26.7457 27.7207 28.6978 29.6767 30.6573 31.6397 32.6236 33.6090 34.5960 35.5843 36.5739 37.5648 38.5570 39.5503 40.5447 41.5403 42.5369 43.5345 44.5331 45.5326 46.5330 47.5343 48.5364 49.5394 50.5431 51.5477 52.5529 53.5589 54.5656 55.5730 56.5810 57.5897 58.5989 59.6088 60.6193

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

11-3

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang Tables

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101

Grade of Service 0.01% 42.1733 42.9631 43.7745 44.5775 45.3820 46.1881 46.9956 47.8046 48.6150 49.4268 50.2399 51.0544 51.8701 52.6872 53.5055 54.3251 55.1458 55.9678 56.7909 57.6152 58.4406 59.2671 60.0946 60.9233 61.7530 62.5837 63.4155 64.2482 65.0819 65.9166 66.7522 67.5888 68.4263 69.2647 70.1040 0.1% 46.6915 47.5395 48.3888 49.2394 50.0913 50.9444 51.7987 52.6542 53.5108 54.3685 55.2274 56.0873 56.9483 57.8104 58.6734 59.5375 60.4025 61.2685 62.1354 63.0033 63.8721 64.7417 65.6123 66.4837 67.3559 68.2290 69.1029 69.9776 70.8531 71.7294 72.6064 73.4842 74.3627 75.2420 76.1220 0.5% 50.9783 51.8717 52.7661 53.6615 54.5579 55.4554 56.3537 57.2530 58.1533 59.0544 59.9564 60.8593 61.7630 62.6676 63.5729 64.4791 65.3860 66.2937 67.2021 68.1113 69.0212 69.9318 70.8431 71.7551 72.6677 73.5811 74.4950 75.4096 76.3248 77.2407 78.1571 79.0741 79.9917 80.9099 81.8287 1.0% 53.3531 54.2718 55.1915 56.1120 57.0335 57.9558 58.8789 59.8028 60.7276 61.6531 62.5794 63.5065 64.4343 65.3628 66.2920 67.2219 68.1524 69.0837 70.0156 70.9481 71.8812 72.8150 73.7494 74.6843 75.6198 76.5560 77.4926 78.4298 79.3676 80.3059 81.2447 82.1840 83.1238 84.0642 85.0050 2.0% 56.2750 57.2256 58.1770 59.1291 60.0820 61.0355 61.9898 62.9448 63.9004 64.8567 65.8136 66.7712 67.7293 68.6881 69.6474 70.6073 71.5678 72.5288 73.4904 74.4525 75.4151 76.3782 77.3418 78.3059 79.2705 80.2356 81.2011 82.1671 83.1335 84.1003 85.0676 86.0353 87.0035 87.9720 88.9409 4.0% 60.0996 61.0934 62.0878 63.0827 64.0783 65.0744 66.0710 67.0682 68.0659 69.0641 70.0628 71.0619 72.0616 73.0617 74.0622 75.0632 76.0647 77.0665 78.0688 79.0715 80.0745 81.0780 82.0818 83.0861 84.0906 85.0956 86.1009 87.1065 88.1125 89.1188 90.1254 91.1324 92.1396 93.1472 94.1551 5.0% 61.6304 62.6420 63.6541 64.6668 65.6800 66.6937 67.7079 68.7225 69.7377 70.7532 71.7693 72.7857 73.8026 74.8199 75.8376 76.8557 77.8742 78.8930 79.9123 80.9319 81.9518 82.9721 83.9927 85.0137 86.0350 87.0566 88.0786 89.1008 90.1233 91.1462 92.1693 93.1927 94.2164 95.2404 96.2646

11-4

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Erlang Tables

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136

Grade of Service 0.01% 70.9441 71.7852 72.6270 73.4698 74.3133 75.1577 76.0028 76.8488 77.6955 78.5430 79.3913 80.2403 81.0901 81.9405 82.7917 83.6437 84.4963 85.3496 86.2036 87.0582 87.9135 88.7695 89.6261 90.4834 91.3413 92.1998 93.0589 93.9187 94.7790 95.6400 96.5015 97.3636 98.2263 99.0896 99.9534 0.1% 77.0026 77.8840 78.7661 79.6488 80.5322 81.4163 82.3010 83.1863 84.0723 84.9588 85.8460 86.7338 87.6222 88.5112 89.4007 90.2908 91.1815 92.0727 92.9645 93.8568 94.7496 95.6430 96.5369 97.4312 98.3261 99.2215 100.1174 101.0138 101.9106 102.8080 103.7058 104.6040 105.5028 106.4019 107.3015 0.5% 82.7480 83.6678 84.5882 85.5092 86.4306 87.3526 88.2750 89.1980 90.1215 91.0454 91.9698 92.8947 93.8201 94.7459 95.6722 96.5989 97.5260 98.4536 99.3816 100.3100 101.2389 102.1681 103.0978 104.0279 104.9583 105.8892 106.8204 107.7520 108.6840 109.6163 110.5490 111.4821 112.4155 113.3493 114.2834 1.0% 85.9463 86.8880 87.8303 88.7729 89.7161 90.6597 91.6037 92.5481 93.4930 94.4383 95.3840 96.3301 97.2766 98.2235 99.1707 100.1184 101.0664 102.0148 102.9638 103.9128 104.8622 105.8121 106.7623 107.7128 108.6637 109.6149 110.5664 111.5183 112.4705 113.4230 114.3758 115.3289 116.2823 117.2360 118.1900 2.0% 89.9102 90.8800 91.8500 92.8205 93.7914 94.7626 95.7341 96.7060 97.6783 98.6509 99.6238 100.5971 101.5707 102.5446 103.5188 104.4934 105.4682 105.4434 107.4188 108.3945 109.3706 110.3469 111.3235 112.3004 113.2775 114.2549 115.2326 116.2106 117.1888 118.1673 119.1460 120.1250 121.1042 122.0836 123.0633 4.0% 95.1633 96.1717 97.1805 98.1895 99.1988 100.2084 101.2183 102.2284 103.2388 104.2494 105.2603 106.2715 107.2829 108.2945 109.3063 110.3184 111.3308 112.3433 113.3561 114.3691 115.3823 116.3957 117.4093 118.4231 119.4372 120.4514 121.4658 122.4805 123.4953 124.5103 125.5255 126.5409 127.5564 128.5722 129.5881 5.0% 97.2891 98.3139 99.3389 100.3642 101.3897 102.4154 103.4414 104.4677 105.4941 106.5208 107.5477 108.5748 109.6022 110.6297 111.6575 112.6855 113.7136 114.7420 115.7706 116.7993 117.8283 118.8574 119.8868 120.9163 121.9459 122.9758 124.0058 125.0360 126.0664 127.0970 128.1277 129.1585 130.1896 131.2207 132.2521

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

11-5

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang Tables

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171

Grade of Service 0.01% 100.8178 101.6827 102.5481 103.4141 104.2807 105.1477 106.0153 106.8834 107.7520 108.6211 109.4906 110.3607 111.2313 112.1024 112.9739 113.8459 114.7184 115.5913 116.4647 117.3385 118.2128 119.0875 119.9627 120.8383 121.7144 122.5908 123.4877 124.3450 125.2228 126.1009 126.9795 127.8584 128.7378 129.6175 130.4976 0.1% 108.2016 109.1021 110.0030 110.9044 111.8062 112.7084 113.6110 114.5140 115.4174 116.3212 117.2255 118.1301 119.0351 119.9404 120.8482 121.7523 122.6588 123.5657 124.4729 125.3805 126.2885 127.1968 128.1054 129.0144 129.9238 130.8335 131.7435 132.6538 133.5645 134.4755 135.3868 136.2985 137.2104 138.1227 139.0353 0.5% 115.2179 116.1527 117.0879 118.0234 118.9592 119.8953 120.8318 121.7685 122.7056 123.6430 124.5807 125.5187 126.4570 127.3956 128.3345 129.2737 130.2131 131.1529 132.0929 133.0332 133.9738 134.9147 135.8558 136.7972 137.7389 138.6808 139.6230 140.5654 141.5081 142.4510 143.3942 144.3377 145.2814 146.2253 147.1694 1.0% 119.1443 120.0989 121.0538 122.0090 122.9645 123.9202 124.8762 125.8325 126.7890 127.7458 128.7029 129.6602 130.6178 131.5756 132.5337 133.4920 134.4506 135.4094 136.3684 137.3277 138.2872 139.2470 140.2070 141.1672 142.1276 143.0883 144.0491 145.0102 145.9715 146.9330 147.8948 148.8567 149.8189 150.7812 151.7438 2.0% 124.0433 125.0234 126.0038 126.9845 127.9653 128.9464 129.9277 130.9092 131.8910 132.8729 133.8551 134.8375 135.8200 136.8028 137.7858 138.7690 139.7523 140.7359 141.7196 142.7036 143.6877 144.6720 145.6565 146.6412 147.6261 148.6111 149.5963 150.5817 151.5673 152.5530 153.5389 154.5250 155.5112 156.4976 157.4842 4.0% 130.6042 131.6204 132.6369 133.6535 134.6702 135.6872 136.7043 137.7215 138.7389 139.7565 140.7742 141.7921 142.8101 143.8282 144.8466 145.8650 146.8836 147.9024 148.9212 149.9403 150.9594 151.9787 152.9981 154.0177 155.0374 156.0572 157.0771 158.0972 159.1174 160.1377 161.1581 162.1787 163.1993 164.2201 165.2410 5.0% 133.2836 134.3152 135.3470 136.3789 137.4110 138.4432 139.4756 140.5081 141.5408 142.5736 143.6065 144.6395 145.6727 146.7060 147.7394 148.7730 149.8067 150.8405 151.8744 152.9085 153.9426 154.9769 156.0113 157.0459 158.0805 159.1152 160.1501 161.1850 162.2201 163.2553 164.2906 165.3260 166.3615 167.3970 168.4327

11-6

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Erlang Tables

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Grade of Service 0.01% 131.3782 132.2591 133.1404 134.0221 134.9041 135.7865 136.6693 137.5525 138.4360 139.3199 140.2041 141.0887 141.9737 142.8590 143.7446 144.6306 145.5169 146.4035 147.2905 148.1778 149.0655 149.9535 150.8418 151.7304 152.6193 153.5086 154.3981 155.2880 156.1782 157.0686 157.9594 158.8505 159.7419 160.6336 161.5256 0.1% 139.9482 140.8614 141.7749 142.6887 143.6028 144.5172 145.4319 146.3468 147.2621 148.1776 149.0935 150.0096 150.9260 151.8426 152.7595 153.6768 154.5942 155.5120 156.4299 157.3482 158.2667 159.1855 160.1045 161.0238 161.9433 162.8631 163.7831 164.7034 165.6239 166.5447 167.4657 168.3869 169.3084 170.2301 171.1520 0.5% 148.1138 149.0585 150.0033 150.9484 151.8938 152.8393 153.7851 154.7311 155.6773 156.6237 157.5704 158.5172 159.4643 160.4116 161.3591 162.3068 163.2547 164.2028 165.1511 166.0997 167.0484 167.9973 168.9464 169.8957 170.8452 171.7948 172.7447 173.6948 174.6450 175.5954 176.5460 177.4968 178.4478 179.3989 180.3502 1.0% 152.7065 153.6695 154.6326 155.5960 156.5595 157.5232 158.4872 159.4513 160.4156 161.3800 162.3447 163.3095 164.2746 165.2397 166.2051 167.1707 168.1364 169.1023 170.0684 171.0346 172.0010 172.9675 173.9343 174.9012 175.8682 176.8354 177.8028 178.7703 179.7380 180.7059 181.6739 182.6420 183.6103 184.5787 185.5473 2.0% 158.4709 159.4578 160.4448 161.4320 162.4194 163.4069 164.3945 165.3823 166.3702 167.3583 168.3466 169.3350 170.3235 171.3121 172.3009 173.2899 174.2790 175.2682 176.2575 177.2470 178.2366 179.2264 180.2153 181.2063 182.1964 183.1867 184.1771 185.1676 186.1582 187.1490 188.1398 189.1308 190.1219 191.1132 192.1045 4.0% 166.2620 167.2832 168.3044 169.3258 170.3472 171.3688 172.3905 173.4123 174.4342 175.4562 176.4783 177.5005 178.5228 179.5452 180.5678 181.5904 182.6131 183.6359 184.6588 185.6818 186.7049 187.7280 188.7513 189.7747 190.7981 191.8217 192.8453 193.8690 194.8929 195.9168 196.9407 197.9648 198.9890 200.0132 201.0375 5.0% 169.4685 170.5044 171.5404 172.5765 173.6127 174.6490 175.6853 176.7218 177.7583 178.7950 179.8317 180.8686 181.9055 182.9425 183.9795 185.0167 186.0540 187.0913 188.1287 189.1662 190.2038 191.2415 192.2792 193.3170 194.3549 195.3929 196.4310 197.4691 198.5073 199.5456 200.5839 201.6224 202.6609 203.6994 204.7381

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

11-7

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang Tables

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241

Grade of Service 0.01% 162.4178 163.3104 164.2032 165.0964 165.9898 166.8835 167.7774 168.6717 169.5662 170.4610 171.3561 172.2514 173.1470 174.0429 174.9391 175.8354 176.7321 177.6290 178.5262 179.4236 180.3213 181.2192 182.1174 183.0158 183.9145 184.8134 185.7126 186.6120 187.5117 188.4115 189.3116 190.2120 191.1126 192.0134 192.9145 0.1% 172.0741 172.9965 173.9191 174.8420 175.7650 176.6883 177.6118 178.5355 179.4595 180.3836 181.3080 182.2326 183.1573 184.0823 185.0075 185.9329 188.8585 187.7844 188.7104 189.6366 190.5630 191.4896 192.4164 193.3434 194.2706 195.1980 196.1256 197.0533 197.9813 198.9094 199.8377 200.7662 201.6949 202.6238 203.5528 0.5% 181.3017 182.2534 183.2052 184.1572 185.1094 186.0618 187.0143 187.9670 188.9198 189.8728 190.8260 191.7793 192.7328 193.6865 194.6403 195.5942 196.5484 197.5026 198.4571 199.4116 200.3664 201.3212 202.2763 203.2314 204.1868 205.1422 206.0978 207.0536 208.0095 208.9655 209.9217 210.8780 211.8345 212.7911 213.7478 1.0% 186.5161 187.4850 188.4540 189.4232 190.3925 191.3620 192.3316 193.3013 194.2712 195.2412 196.2114 194.1816 198.1521 199.1226 200.0933 201.0641 202.0351 203.0061 203.9774 204.9487 205.9201 206.8917 207.8634 208.8353 209.8072 210.7793 211.7515 212.7238 213.6962 214.6688 215.6415 216.6143 217.5872 218.5602 219.5333 2.0% 193.0960 194.0876 195.0793 196.0711 197.0630 198.0551 199.0472 200.0395 201.0318 202.0243 203.0169 204.0096 205.0023 205.9952 206.9882 207.9813 208.9745 209.9678 210.9612 211.9547 212.9483 213.9421 214.9358 215.9297 216.9237 217.9178 218.9120 219.9063 220.9006 221.8951 222.8897 223.8843 224.8790 225.8739 226.8688 4.0% 202.0619 203.0864 204.1109 205.1356 206.1603 207.1851 208.2100 209.2349 210.2599 211.2850 212.3102 213.3355 214.3608 215.3862 216.4117 217.4372 218.4628 219.4885 220.5143 221.5401 222.5660 223.5919 224.6180 225.6441 226.6702 227.6965 228.7227 229.7491 230.7755 231.8020 232.8286 233.8552 234.8819 235.9086 236.9354 5.0% 205.7768 206.8156 207.8544 208.8933 209.9323 210.9714 212.0105 213.0497 214.0889 215.1283 216.1676 217.2071 218.2466 219.2862 220.3258 221.3655 222.4052 223.4450 224.4849 225.5248 226.5648 227.6049 228.6450 229.6852 230.7254 231.7657 232.8060 233.8464 234.8868 235.9273 236.9679 238.0085 239.0492 240.0899 241.1307

11-8

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Erlang Tables

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276

Grade of Service 0.01% 193.8157 194.7172 195.6190 196.5209 197.4231 198.3255 199.2281 200.1310 201.0340 201.9373 202.8408 203.7445 204.6484 205.5525 206.4568 207.3614 208.2661 209.1711 210.0763 210.9816 211.8872 212.7930 213.6989 214.6051 215.5115 216.4180 217.3248 218.2317 219.1389 220.0462 220.9537 221.8614 222.7694 223.6774 224.5857 0.1% 204.4821 205.4115 206.3411 207.2708 208.2008 209.1309 210.0612 210.9916 211.9222 212.8530 213.7840 214.7151 215.6484 216.5779 217.5095 218.4413 219.3732 220.3053 221.2376 222.1700 223.1026 224.0354 224.9683 225.9013 226.8345 227.7679 228.7014 229.6351 230.5689 231.5029 232.4370 233.3712 234.3056 235.2402 236.1749 0.5% 214.7046 215.6616 216.6188 217.5760 218.5334 219.4910 220.4486 221.4064 222.3643 223.3224 224.2806 225.2388 226.1973 227.1558 228.1145 229.0733 230.0322 230.9912 231.9504 232.9097 233.8691 234.8286 235.7882 236.7480 237.7078 238.6678 239.6279 240.5881 341.5485 242.5089 243.4694 244.4301 245.3909 246.3518 247.3127 1.0% 220.5066 221.4799 222.4534 223.4270 224.4007 225.3745 226.3484 227.3224 228.2965 229.2707 230.2451 231.2195 232.1941 233.1687 234.1435 235.1183 236.0933 237.0683 238.0435 239.0188 239.9941 240.9696 241.9451 242.9208 243.8965 244.8724 245.8483 246.8244 247.8005 248.7767 249.7530 250.7294 251.7059 252.6825 253.6592 2.0% 227.8638 228.8589 229.8540 230.8493 231.8446 232.8401 233.8356 234.8312 235.8269 236.8226 237.8185 238.8144 239.8104 240.8065 241.8027 242.7990 243.7953 244.7917 245.7882 246.7848 247.7814 248.7781 249.7749 250.7718 251.7687 252.7658 253.7629 254.7600 255.7573 256.7546 257.7520 258.7494 259.7470 260.7445 261.7422 4.0% 237.9623 238.9892 240.0162 241.0432 242.0703 243.0975 244.1247 245.1520 246.1793 247.2067 248.2341 249.2616 250.2892 251.3168 252.3445 253.3722 254.4000 255.4278 256.4557 257.4836 258.5116 259.5397 260.5678 261.5959 262.6241 263.6524 264.6807 265.7090 266.7374 267.7659 268.7944 269.8229 270.8515 271.8802 272.9089 5.0% 242.1715 243.2123 244.2533 245.2942 246.3353 247.3763 248.4175 249.4586 250.4999 251.5411 252.5824 253.6238 254.6652 255.7067 258.7482 257.7897 258.8313 259.8730 260.9147 261.9564 262.9982 264.0400 265.0819 266.1238 267.1658 268.2078 269.2498 270.2919 271.3340 272.3762 273.4184 274.4606 275.5029 276.5453 277.5876

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

11-9

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang Tables

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311

Grade of Service 0.01% 225.4942 226.4028 227.3117 228.2207 229.1299 230.0393 230.9488 231.8585 232.7685 233.6785 234.5888 235.4992 236.4099 237.3206 238.2316 239.1427 240.0540 240.9655 241.8771 242.7889 243.7009 244.6130 245.5253 246.4378 247.3504 248.2632 249.1762 250.0893 251.0025 251.9160 252.8296 253.7433 254.6572 255.5713 258.4855 0.1% 237.1098 238.0447 238.9799 239.9152 240.8506 241.7861 242.7218 243.6577 244.5936 245.5298 246.4680 247.4024 248.3389 249.2756 250.2124 251.1493 252.0863 253.0235 253.9608 254.8983 255.8359 256.7736 257.7114 258.6494 259.5875 260.5257 261.4640 262.4025 263.3411 264.2798 265.2186 266.1576 267.0967 268.0359 268.9752 0.5% 248.2738 249.2351 250.1964 251.1578 252.1193 253.0809 254.0427 255.0045 255.9665 256.9285 257.8907 258.8529 259.8153 260.7777 261.7403 262.7030 263.6657 264.6286 265.5915 266.5546 267.5177 268.4810 269.4443 270.4077 271.3713 272.3349 273.2986 274.2624 275.2263 276.1903 277.1544 278.1186 279.0828 280.0472 281.0117 1.0% 254.6360 255.6129 256.5898 257.5669 258.5440 259.5212 260.4985 261.4759 262.4534 263.4309 264.4086 265.3863 266.3641 267.3420 268.3200 269.2981 270.2762 271.2545 272.2328 273.2112 274.1896 275.1682 276.1468 277.1255 278.1043 279.0832 280.0621 281.0412 282.0203 282.9994 283.9787 284.9580 285.9374 286.9169 287.8985 2.0% 262.7400 263.7378 264.7357 265.7336 266.7316 267.7297 268.7279 269.7261 270.7244 271.7227 272.7211 273.7196 274.7181 275.7168 276.7154 277.7142 278.7130 279.7118 280.7108 281.7097 282.7088 283.7079 284.7071 285.7063 286.7056 287.7050 288.7044 289.7038 290.7034 291.7030 292.7026 293.7023 294.7021 295.7019 296.7018 4.0% 273.9376 274.9664 275.9952 277.0241 278.0530 279.0820 280.1110 281.1401 282.1692 283.1983 284.2275 285.2588 286.2861 287.3154 288.3447 289.3742 290.4036 291.4331 292.4627 293.4922 294.5219 295.5515 296.5812 297.6110 298.6408 299.6708 300.7005 301.7304 302.7603 303.7903 304.8203 305.8504 306.8805 307.9107 308.9408 5.0% 278.6301 279.6725 280.7150 281.7575 282.8001 283.8427 284.8854 285.9281 286.9708 288.0135 289.0563 290.0992 291.1420 292.1850 293.2279 294.2709 295.3139 296.3570 297.4001 298.4432 299.4863 300.5295 301.5728 302.6160 303.6593 304.7027 305.7460 306.7894 307.8329 308.8763 309.9198 310.9633 312.0069 313.0505 314.0941

11-10

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Erlang Tables

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346

Grade of Service 0.01% 257.3998 258.3144 259.2290 260.1439 261.0588 261.9740 262.8892 263.8047 264.7202 265.6359 266.5518 267.4678 268.3840 269.3003 270.2167 271.1333 272.0501 272.9669 273.8839 274.8011 275.7184 276.6358 277.5534 278.4711 279.3890 280.3070 281.2251 282.1433 283.0617 283.9803 284.8989 285.8177 286.7366 287.6557 288.5749 0.1% 269.9146 270.8542 271.7939 272.7337 273.6738 274.6138 275.5538 276.4940 277.4344 278.3749 279.3155 280.2562 281.1970 282.1380 283.0791 284.0202 284.9615 285.9029 286.8444 287.7860 288.7277 289.6695 290.6115 291.5535 292.4956 293.4379 294.3803 295.3227 296.2653 297.2079 298.1507 299.0936 300.0366 300.9797 301.9228 0.5% 281.9762 282.9408 283.9055 284.8703 285.8352 286.8002 287.7653 288.7304 289.6957 290.6610 291.6264 292.5919 293.5575 294.5231 295.4889 296.4547 297.4206 298.3866 299.3527 300.3188 301.2851 302.2514 303.2178 304.1843 305.1508 306.1174 307.0842 308.0510 309.0178 309.9848 310.9518 311.9189 312.8861 313.8533 314.8206 1.0% 288.8761 289.8558 290.8355 291.8154 292.7953 293.7753 294.7554 295.7355 298.7157 297.6960 298.6763 299.6567 300.6372 301.6178 302.5984 303.5791 304.5598 305.5407 306.5215 307.5025 308.4835 309.4646 310.4458 311.4270 312.4083 313.3896 314.3711 315.3525 316.3341 317.3157 318.2974 319.2791 320.2609 321.2428 322.2247 2.0% 297.7017 298.7017 299.7017 300.7018 301.7020 302.7022 303.7025 304.7028 305.7032 306.7036 307.7041 308.7046 309.7052 310.7059 311.7066 312.7073 313.7081 314.7089 315.7099 316.7108 317.7118 318.7129 319.7140 320.7151 321.7163 322.7176 323.7189 324.7202 325.7216 326.7231 327.7246 328.7261 329.7277 330.7294 331.7310 4.0% 309.9711 311.0013 312.0316 313.0619 314.0923 315.1227 316.1532 317.1836 318.2141 319.2447 320.2753 321.3059 322.3366 323.3672 324.3980 325.4287 326.4595 327.4904 328.5212 329.5521 330.5830 331.6140 332.6450 333.6760 334.7071 335.7382 336.7693 337.8007 338.8317 339.8629 340.8942 341.9255 342.9568 343.9881 345.0195 5.0% 315.1378 316.1815 317.2252 318.2690 319.3127 320.3566 321.4004 322.4443 323.4882 324.5321 325.5761 326.6201 327.6641 328.7082 329.7523 330.7964 331.8405 332.8847 333.9289 334.9731 336.0174 337.0617 338.1060 339.1503 340.1947 341.2391 342.2835 343.3279 344.3724 345.4169 346.4614 347.5060 348.5506 349.5952 350.6398

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

11-11

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang Tables

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381

Grade of Service 0.01% 289.4942 290.4137 291.3332 292.2530 293.1728 294.0928 295.0128 295.9331 296.8534 297.7739 298.6945 299.6152 300.5360 301.4570 302.3781 303.2993 304.2207 305.1421 306.0637 306.9854 307.9072 308.8291 309.7512 310.6734 311.5957 312.5181 313.4406 314.3632 315.2860 316.2089 317.1319 318.0550 318.9782 319.9015 320.8249 0.1% 302.8661 303.8095 304.7530 305.6966 306.6403 307.5840 308.5279 309.4719 310.4160 311.3602 312.3044 313.2488 314.1933 315.1378 316.0825 317.0272 317.9721 318.9170 319.8620 320.8072 321.7524 322.6977 323.6431 324.5886 325.5341 326.4798 327.4256 328.3714 329.3174 330.2634 331.2095 332.1557 333.1020 334.0484 334.9949 330.3078 331.2764 332.2450 333.2137 334.1825 335.1513 336.1202 337.0892 338.0582 339.0273 339.9965 340.9657 341.9350 342.9044 343.8738 355.8433 345.8129 346.7825 347.7522 348.7220 0.5% 315.7880 316.7555 317.7231 318.6907 319.6584 320.6262 321.5940 322.5619 323.5299 324.4980 325.4661 326.4343 327.4026 328.3709 1.0% 323.2067 324.1887 325.1708 326.1530 327.1352 328.1175 329.0999 330.0823 331.0647 332.0473 333.0298 334.0125 334.9952 335.9780 336.9608 337.9437 338.9266 339.9098 340.8926 341.8757 342.8589 343.8421 344.8254 345.8087 346.7921 347.7755 348.7590 349.7426 350.7262 351.7098 352.6935 353.6773 354.6811 355.6450 356.6289 2.0% 332.7328 333.7346 334.7364 335.7383 350.1769 351.2084 352.2400 353.2717 354.3033 355.3350 356.3667 343.7549 344.7572 345.7595 346.7618 347.7643 348.7667 349.7692 350.7717 351.7743 352.7770 353.7796 354.7823 355.7851 356.7879 357.7907 358.7936 359.7965 360.7995 361.8025 362.8055 363.8086 264.8117 365.8149 366.8181 4.0% 345.0509 347.0824 348.1138 349.1453 350.1769 351.2084 352.2400 353.2717 354.3033 355.3350 356.3667 357.3985 358.4302 359.4620 360.4939 361.5257 362.5576 363.5895 364.6215 365.6534 366.6854 367.7175 368.7495 369.7813 370.8137 371.8458 372.8780 373.9102 374.9424 375.9747 377.0069 378.0392 379.0715 380.1039 381.1363 5.0% 351.6845 352.7292 353.7739 354.8186 355.8634 356.9082 357.9530 358.9978 360.0427 361.0875 362.1325 363.1774 364.2223 365.2673 366.3123 367.3574 368.4024 369.4475 370.4926 371.5388 372.5829 373.6280 374.6732 375.7184 376.7637 377.8089 378.8542 379.8995 380.9448 381.9902 383.0356 384.0810 385.1264 386.1718 387.2173

11-12

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Erlang Tables

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang B
Offered Erl

No of Traffic Channels 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400

Grade of Service 0.01% 321.7485 322.6722 323.5959 324.5198 325.4438 326.3679 327.2922 328.2165 329.1409 330.0655 330.9901 331.9149 332.8398 333.7648 334.6898 335.6150 336.5403 337.4657 338.3912 0.1% 335.9414 336.8881 337.8348 338.7816 339.7285 340.6755 341.6226 342.5698 343.5170 344.4643 345.4117 346.3592 347.3068 348.2544 349.2022 350.1500 351.0979 352.0459 352.9939 0.5% 349.6918 350.6617 351.6316 352.6017 353.5717 354.5419 355.5121 356.4823 357.4527 358.4231 359.3935 360.3640 361.3346 362.3052 363.2759 364.2467 365.2175 366.1884 367.1593 1.0% 357.6129 358.5969 359.5810 360.5651 361.5493 362.5335 363.5178 364.5021 365.4865 366.4710 367.4555 368.4400 369.4246 370.4092 371.3939 372.3786 373.3634 374.3483 375.3331 2.0% 367.8213 368.8246 369.8279 370.8312 371.8346 372.8381 373.8415 374.8451 375.8486 376.8522 377.8558 378.8595 379.8632 380.8669 381.8707 382.8745 383.8784 384.8822 385.8862 4.0% 382.1687 383.2011 384.2335 385.2660 386.2985 387.3310 388.3636 389.3962 390.4288 391.4614 392.4940 393.5267 394.5594 395.5921 396.6249 397.6577 398.6905 399.7233 400.7561 5.0% 388.2627 389.3082 390.3538 391.3993 392.4449 393.4904 394.5360 395.5817 396.6273 397.6730 398.7187 399.7644 400.8101 401.8558 402.9016 403.9474 404.9932 406.0390 407.0849

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

11-13

Version 1 Rev 3

Erlang Tables

This page intentionally left blank.

11-14

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Answers

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 12

Answers

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

12-1

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

This page intentionally left blank.

12-2

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Answers

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers
BTS Exercise Number 1 Answers
Firstly, we must work out the value for P: Total Erls in LAC Call hold time = = 1,000 120 secs

Call rate 20% of 30,000 Pages per hour

= = =

30,000 calls/hour 6,000 12,000

20% all calls MS terminated 2 pages for every call set-up

Value of P = 3.333

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

12-3

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BTS Exercise Number 1 Answers . . .


Secondly we must work out the number of paging channels Number of paging channels

Thirdly we must now determine the number of AGCH to support the CELL:

Next, calculate the rate of access grant (AGCH):

= 2.025

12-4

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Answers

Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 1 Answers . . .


With this figure we can now calculate the number of AGCH blocks required: NAGCH =

Finally we can now calculate the CCCH blocks required: NPAGCH =

NPAGCH =

Therefore we will require at least a minimum of 2 CCCH blocks to be provided to support the functionality of this cell.

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

12-5

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BTS Exercise Number 2 Answers


Firstly we must calculate the following

Secondly we can now calculate the quantity of erlangs offered. Erlangs offered:

Now utilizing the erlang B tables at 1% blocking we can convert2.566 Erls into the quantity of SDCCH blocks required 8 blocks

12-6

SYS04 - BSS Subsystem Planning TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY - THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

MOTOROLA LTD.2002

Answers

Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers


Stage 1 We can first of all determine the quantity of Traffic Channels required over the air interface per sector to support the subscribers: Sector A Quantity of subscribers: = 44% of 1875 = 825 subscribers Traffic Channels required: = 825 x 0.033 Erls = 27.225 Erls Utilising Erlang B tables @2% blocking: = 36 Traffic Channels Sector B Quantity of subscribers: = 32% of 1875 = 600 subscribers Traffic Channels required: = 600 x 0.033 Erls = 19.8 Erls Utilising Erlang B tables @2% blocking: = 28 Traffic Channels Sector C Quantity of subscribers: = 24% of 1875 = 450 subscribers Traffic Channels required: = 450 x 0.033 Erls = 14.85 Erls Utilising Erlang B tables @2% blocking: = 22 Traffic Channels

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12-7

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 2 We now must calculate the number of Common Control Channels per sector. Sector A We must work out the value of P: Total erlangs in LAC = 2500 Erls Call Hold Time = 120 secs Call Rate =

= 75,000 calls/hour With 20% of all calls expected to be MS terminated: 20% of 75000 = 15,000 2 pages for every call set up: Pages per hour = 30,000 Pages per second =

Value of P = 8.33 Now we can calculate the number of paging channels required:

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Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 2 . . . We can now determine the number of AGCH to support this sector:

= 816.75

(Remember sector A is a non-location area border) = 1633.5

= 81.675 Calculate the rate of access grant (AGCH):

= 0.7033 With this figure we can now calculate the number of AGCH blocks required:

Finally we can now calculate the CCCH blocks required:

= 3.22 blocks We will therefore require at least a minimum of 4 CCCH blocks to be provided to support the functionality of this sector.

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12-9

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Sector B Because we page on a location area basis the number of channels required will be the same as Sector A. NPCH = 0.98 We can now determine the number of AGCH to support this sector:

= 594

(Remember Sector B is a location area border) = 4158

= 59.4 Calculate AGCH:

= 1.3365 With this figure we can now calculate the number of AGCH blocks required:

Finally, we can now calculate the CCCH blocks required:

= 3.44 Blocks We will therefore require at least a minimum of 4 CCCH blocks to be provided to support the functionality of this sector.

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Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Sector C Because we page on a location area basis, the number of paging channels required will be the same as both Sector A and Sector B. NPCH = 0.98 We can now determine the number of AGCH to support this sector:

= 445.5

(Remember Sector C is a non-location area border) = 891

= 44.55 Calculate AGCH:

= 0.3836 With this figure we can now calculate the number of AGCH blocks required:

= 0.0451 With this figure we can now calculate the number of CCCH blocks required: NPAGCH =

= 3.1 blocks

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Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

We will therefore require at least a minimum of 4 CCCH blocks to be provided to support the functionality of this sector.

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Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 3 We can now calculate and determine the number of Dedicated Control Channels to support the functionality of each other. Sector A Erlangs offered:

= 4.991 Erlangs Therefore utilising the Erlang B table @ 1% blocking the quantity of SDCCHs in Sector A will be: 11 BLOCKS

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12-13

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 3 . . . Sector B Erlangs offered:

= 10.23 Erlangs Therefore utilising the Erlang B table @ 1% blocking the quantity of SDCCHs in Sector B will be: 18 BLOCKS Sector C Erlangs offered:

= 2.7225 Erlangs Therefore utilising the Erlang B table @ 1% blocking the quantity of SDCCHs in Sector C will be: 8 BLOCKS

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Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 4 We can now determine the number of CTUs per cell. Sector A The following is the requirement for Sector A: 825 subscribers = 27.225 Erls = 36 Traffic Channels 4 CCCH Blocks 11 SDCCH Blocks Our BCCH Configuration: 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH (Timeslot zero). We require a further two timeslots for our SDCCH requirements. We will require 36 Timeslots for our traffic requirements:

5 CTUs required

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Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 4 Sector B The following is the requirement for Sector B: 600 subscribers = 19.8 Erls = 28 Traffic Channels 4 CCCH Blocks 18 SDCCH Blocks Our BCCH Configuration: 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH (Timeslot zero). We require a further three timeslots for our SDCCH requirements. We will require 28 Timeslots for our traffic requirements:

4 CTUs required NOTE This is going to be fully occupied from day 1. The decision to upgrade is yours.

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Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 4 . . . Sector C The following is the requirement for Sector C: 450 subscribers = 14.85 Erls = 22Traffic Channels 4 CCCH Blocks 8 SDCCH Blocks Our BCCH Configuration: 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH (Timeslot zero). We require a further timeslot for our SDCCH requirements. We will require 22 Timeslots for our traffic requirements:

3 CTUs required NOTE This is going to be fully occupied from day 1. The decision to upgrade is yours.

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12-17

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 5 We can now determine the quantity of BTS hardware required.

Sector A: 5 CTUs Sector B: 4 CTUs Sector C: 3 CTUs This gives a grand total of: 12 CTUs Stage 6 Horizon Range of Equipment We must therefore use a configuration of 2 Horizonmacro cabinets. The diagram opposite shows a possible configuration for the cabinets. It must also be remembered whether it is an outdoor or indoor installation.

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Version 1 Rev 3

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers

CAB 0
Tx/Rx
2B 1B 0B 2A 1A 0A B A

CAB 1
Tx/Rx Tx/Rx
2B 1B 0B 2A 1A 0A

Rx
B

Tx/Rx
A

Tx/Rx

0 = Ae Sel 1 1 = Ae Sel 2 2 = Ae Sel 3

LOAD PLATE

DCF

Rx Rx

DDF

DDF

Rx Rx

DCF

DCF

5 4 3

Rx

CTUs

CTUs

CTUs

CTUs

CTUs

CTUs

5 Carrier Cell T43

3 Carrier Cell

4 Carrier Cell

12 Carriers =24 RTF timeslots +1 RSL timeslot = 25 timeslots = 1 x E1 link

A L A R M D B

M C U F B

M C U F A

B P S M N I U 0 B P S M

A L A R M D B 2

F M U x F M U x

B P S M B P S M

REDUNDANT

MASTER

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Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BTS Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 7 The number of 2 Mbit bearers required:

1 timeslot @ 64 kbit/s for the RSL As we have 12 CTUs: A total of 24 timeslots @ 64 kbits is required to cater for them 25 timeslots @ 64 kbit/s = 1 x 2.048Mbit/s bearer

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Version 1 Rev 3

BSC Exercise Number 1 Answers


First Calculate the number of timeslots between the following sites: BTS 3 - BTS 4 Each BTS has 6 RTFs plus 1 RSL. Therefore, the quantity of timeslots required at each site: = 6 RTFs x 2 1 RSL Total = 12 @ 64 kbit/s = 1 @ 64 kbit/s = 13 Timeslots @ 64 kbit/s

With full redundancy between BTS 3 and BTS 4 we will need 26 timslots at 64 kbit/s, therefore requiring 1 x 2 Mbit/s link. BTS 3 - BTS 1 Again we will need a total of 26 timeslots @ 64 kbit/s, offering full redundancy. We will require 1 x 2 Mbit/s link. BTS 4 - BTS 1 Again we will need a total of 26 timeslots @ 64 kbit/s offering full redundancy. We will require 1 x 2 Mbit/s link. BTS 2 - BTS 1 We require a total of 13 timeslots @ 64 kbit/s. We will therefore require 1 x 2 Mbit/s link. BSC - BTS1 The total number of 64 kbit/s timeslots required by BTS 1 again is 13. However the total number of 64 kbit/s timeslots required between BSC and BTS 1 is the total of all BTS sites. Therefore, BTS 3 - BTS 1= BTS 4 - BTS 1= BTS 2 BTS1= BTS 1 - BSC= Grand Total= 78 Timeslots @ 64 kbit/s. The number of 2 Mbit/s link required is 3. This is offering full redundancy. 26 Timeslots 26 Timeslots 13 Timeslots 13 Timeslots

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12-21

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BSC Exercise Number 1 Answers . . .


We now have to calculate the quantity of timeslots required @ 64 kbit/s between the BSC and the RXCDR. 1. Utilising the Trunking effect and using the Erlangs B table we convert 150 Erlangs into traffic Channels @ 1 % Blocking: 150 Erlangs= 170 traffic channels 43 Timeslots @ 64 kbit/s 2. We also must include 2 x OMLs @ 64 kbit/s 1 x XBL @ 64 kbit/s 2 x MTL @ 64 kbit/s to support 170 traffic channels. Therefore the quantity of timeslots required @ 64 kbit/s to support the configuration: = 48 timeslots @ 64 kbit/s Therefore we will require: 2 x 2 Mbit/s links 3. This configuration will result in 3 MSI cards minimum to be located at the BSC. We now have to calculate the quantity of timeslots required between the RXCDR and the MSC: 170 @ 64 kbit/s (Traffic Channels) 2 @ 64 kbit/s (MTL) We need a total of 172 timelsots @ 64 kbit/s, which will result in 6 x 2 Mbit/s links.

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Version 1 Rev 3

BSC Exercise Number 2 Answers


Number of GPROCs

= 0.445 + 0.063 + 0.18 =0.688 1 LCF GPROCs BSP + 1 RED LCF MTL Pool GPROC CSFP Total = 2 1 2 1 1 7 GPROCS

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Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BSC Exercise Number 3 Answers


Stage 1 Total Erlangs (surveyed) = 285.45 We must include a 20% growth factor. = 342.54 Erlangs Utilising blocking at 1% and the erlang B tables: = 367 traffic channels Stage 2 There are two methods we can use to determine the number of C7 signalling links. 1. 2. By utilising the table reflecting the use of typical call parameters. Should the call parameters differ significantly we can use the formula.

However, as these parameters are fairly typical we can therefore deduce: 367 traffic channels = 3 MTLs @ 20% utilization Stage 3 The number of 2.048 Mbit/s links between the XCDR and the BSC is as follows: 3 MTLs (C7 signalling channels) @ 64 kbit/s 1 OML control channel @ 64 kbit/s 1 XBL signalling channel @ 64 kbit/s. 367 traffic channels @ 16 kbit/s.

Total = 97 timeslots @ 64 kbit/s. We require a minimum of 4 x 2.048 Mbit/s links.

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Version 1 Rev 3

BSC Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 4 Calculate the number of LCFs to support RSL layer 3 processing: We are using the standard model parameters so we use the formula:

= 1.097 2 LCFs Stage 5 Determine the number of GPROC2s. BSP active BSP redundant LCFs for RSL control LCFs for MTL control Pool GPROC Total: Stage 6 24 BTS with 8 x 3 BTS closed loops. For BTS connectivity we will require 16 ports = 8 MSI cards We also require 4 x 2.048 Mbit/s links to the XCDR located at the MSC. A further 2 MSI cards are required to support this. Grand total of 10 MSI cards required. 1 1 2 2 1 7 GPROC2s

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12-25

Version 1 Rev 3

Answers

BSC Exercise Number 3 Answers . . .


Stage 7 To support the functionality and the following configuration: 7 x GPROC2s 10 x MSIs BSSC Cabinet with one BSU cage. Stage 8 1 x KSW 1 x GCLK 4 x T43 Boards 1 x PIX 1 x BBBX

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Glossary of technical terms

Version 1 Rev 3

Chapter 13

Glossary of technical terms

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Glossary of technical terms

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Glossary of technical terms

Version 1 Rev 3

Glossary of technical terms


This Glossary of technical terms contains standard Motorola acronyms, abbreviations and numbers used throughout the documentation set.

A Interface - AUTO
A Interface Interface between MSC and BSS. The interface is based on the use of one or more E1/T1 digital links. The channels on these links can be used for traffic or signalling. Authentication algorithm that produces SRES, using RAND and Ki. A single algorithm performing the function of A3 and A8. Stream cipher algorithm, residing on an MS, that produces ciphertext out of plaintext, using Kc. Ciphering key generating algorithm that produces Kc using RAND and Ki. See Access Burst. Interface between a remote BSC and BTS. Motorola offers a GSM standard and a unique Motorola Abis interface. The Motorola interface reduces the amount of message traffic and thus the number of 2 Mbit/s lines required between BSC and BTS. Answer Bid Ratio. The ABR is the ratio of successful calls to total number of calls. As a measure of effective calls, it reflects the performance of the total network AC-DC Power Supply module. Alternating Current. In electricity, AC occurs when charge carriers in a conductor or semiconductor periodically reverse their direction of movement. Household utility current in most countries is AC with a frequency of either 50 or 60 hertz (complete cycles per second). The RF current in antennas and transmission lines is another example of AC. An AC waveform can be sinusoidal, square, or sawtooth-shaped. Some AC waveforms are irregular or complicated. Square or sawtooth waves are produced by certain types of electronic oscillators, and by a low-end UPS when it is operating from its battery. Access Class (C0 to C15). Application Context. Automatic Congestion Control. A method by which congested switches automatically communicate their congestion level to other switches. The Access Burst is used by the MS to access the BTS. It carries RACH uplink from the MS to the BTS to start a call. Associated Control CHannel. Control information associated with TCH or DCCH. ACKnowledgement.

A3 A38 A5 A8 AB Abis interface

ABR

ac-dc PSM ac

AC AC ACC

Access Burst ACCH ACK, Ack

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Glossary of technical terms

ACM

Accumulated Call meter. The ACM is a function contained within the SIM. It accumulates the total units (in the home currency) for both the current call and all preceding calls. For security reasons, the SIM only allows the value of the ACM to be incremented, not decremented. Resetting of the ACM is only possible after entering PIN2. Address Complete Message. AC Power Interface Module. Used in M-Cell6 indoor ac BTS equipment. AC Power Supply Module. Used in M-Cell6 BTS equipment. Association Control Service Element. The ACSE is one of the three Application Service Elements (ASE) which reside in the application layer of the OSI protocol and act as an interface to the lower layer protocols. It is used by applications to create a title for identification. See also ASI and ROSE. Antenna Combining Unit. Analogue to Digital (converter). See ADC. ADministration Centre. Analogue to Digital Converter. A device that converts a signal that is a function of a continuous variable into a representative number sequence carrying equivalent information. Advanced Data Communications Control Protocol. A bit-oriented data-link-layer (DL) protocol used to provide point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transmission of data frames that contain error-control information. Note: ADCCP closely resembles high-level data link control (HDLC). ADMinistration processor. ADMINistration. Abbreviated Dialling Number. Abbreviated dialling is a telephone service feature that (a) permits the user to dial fewer digits to access a network than are required under the nominal numbering plan, and (b) is limited to a subscriber-selected set of frequently dialled numbers. Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation. Differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) in which the prediction algorithm is adjusted in accordance with specific characteristics of the input signal. Application Entity. The system-independent application activities that are made available as application services to the application agent. Acoustic Echo Control. In a system, the reduction of the power level of an echo or the elimination of an echo. Additional Elementary Functions. Active Events Table. Alarms and events are sent to the Events Log in the GUI. Different operators will have different subscription lists. All alarms and events are sent to the AET before they are re-routed to different subscription lists.

ACM ACPIM AC PSM ACSE

ACU A/D ADC ADC

ADCCP

ADM ADMIN ADN

ADPCM

AE

AEC AEF AET

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AFC

Automatic Frequency Control. A device or circuit that maintains the frequency of an oscillator within the specified limits with respect to a reference frequency. Absolute Frame Number. Automatic Gain Control. A process or means by which gain is automatically adjusted in a specified manner as a function of a specified parameter, such as received signal level. Access Grant CHannel. A GSM common control channel used to assign MS to a SDCCH or a TCH. Action indicator. Artificial Intelligence. A branch of computer science whose goal is to develop electronic devices that can operate with some of the characteristics of human intelligence. Among these properties are logical deduction and inference, creativity, the ability to make decisions based on past experience or insufficient or conflicting information, and the ability to understand natural language. Alarm Interface Board. A class of processor. The radio link between the BTS and the MS. See Application Layer. Amplitude Modulation. Modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in accordance with some characteristic of the modulating signal. Automatic Message Accounting (processor). A service feature that automatically records data regarding user-dialled calls. Adaptive Multi-Rate. The capability of operating at gross bit-rates of 11.4 kbit/s (half-rate) and 22.8 kbit/s (full-rate) over the air interface. Cell broadcast mobile terminated message. A message broadcast to all MSs in a cell. American National Standards Institute. ANSI is the primary organisation for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States. ANSI works with industry groups and is the U. S. member of ISO and the IEC. Long established computer standards from ANSI include ASCII and SCSI. A transmitter/receiver which converts electrical currents into RF and vice versa. In GSM systems, transmits and receives RF signals between the BTS and MS. Advice of Charge. Advice of Charge Charging supplementary service. Advice of Charge Information supplementary service. Automatic Output Control. Application Process.

AFN AGC

AGCH Ai AI

AIB AIO Air interface AL AM

AMA AMR

AM/MP ANSI

Antenna

AoC AoCC AoCI AOC AP

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Glossary of technical terms

Application Layer

See OSI RM. The Application Layer is the highest of seven hierarchical layers. It interfaces directly to, and performs common application services for, the application processes. It also issues requests to the Presentation Layer. The common application services provide semantic conversion between associated application processes. Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. The GSM available frequency is divided in two bands. Each band is divided into 200kHz slots called ARFCN. Each ARFCN is shared between 8 mobiles, each using it in turn. Each mobile uses the ARFCN for one TS (Timeslot) and then waits for its turn to come around again. A mobile has use of the ARFCN once per the TDMA frame. The combination of a TS number and ARFCN is called a physical channel. Automatic Repeat-reQuest. Error control for data transmission in which the receiver detects transmission errors in a message and automatically requests a retransmission from the transmitter. Address Resolution Protocol. A Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol that dynamically binds a Network Layer (NL) IP address to a Data Link Layer (DL) physical hardware address, e.g., Ethernet address. Association Control Service Element. An ASE which provides an AP with the means to establish and control an association with an AP in a remote NE. Maps directly onto the Presentation layer (OMC). American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII is a standard developed by ANSI to define how computers write and read characters. It is the most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet. In an ASCII file, alphabetic, numeric, and special characters are represented with a 7-binary digit binary number. 128 possible characters are defined. UNIX and DOS-based operating systems (except for Windows NT) use ASCII for text files. Windows NT uses a newer code, Unicode. IBMs System 390 servers use a proprietary 8-bit code called extended binary-coded decimal interchange code. Conversion programs allow different operating systems to change a file from one code to another. Application Service Element (OMC). A coherent set of integrated functions to help accomplish application communication, e.g., within an application entity (AE). Application Specific Entity (TCAP). Abstract Syntax Notation One. A formal notation used for describing data transmitted by telecommunications protocols, regardless of language implementation and physical representation of these data, whatever the application, whether complex or very simple. Alarm and Status Panel. Answer Seizure Ratio. The percentage of calls that are completed successfully. All Trunks Busy. An equipment condition in which all trunks (paths) in a given trunk group are busy. The interface between XCDR and BSC.

ARFCN

ARQ

ARP

ASCE

ASCII

ASE

ASE ASN.1

ASP ASR ATB Ater

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ATI ATM

Antenna Transceiver Interface. Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A high-speed multiplexing and switching method utilising fixed-length cells of 53 octets to support multiple types of traffic. ATTach. Automatic Trunk Testing Subsystem. Ensures the quality of telephone lines by means of a series of tests. ATTS can be initiated by either an operator command or by a command file, which can be activated at a predetermined time. Access Unit. Authentication Centre. A GSM network entity which provides the functionality for verifying the identity of an MS when requested by the system. Often a part of the HLR. AUThentication. AUTOmatic mode.

ATT (flag) ATTS

AU AUC

AUT(H) AUTO

B Interface - Byte
B Interface BA BAIC BAOC Baud Interface between MSC and VLR. BCCH Allocation. The radio frequency channels allocated in a cell for BCCH transmission. Barring of All Incoming Calls supplementary service. Barring of All Outgoing Calls supplementary service. The unit in which the information carrying capacity or signalling rate of a communication channel is measured. One baud is one symbol (state transition or level-transition) per second. This coincides with bits per second only for two-level modulation with no framing or stop bits Battery Backup Board. Base Band Hopping. Method of frequency hopping in which each transceiver at the base station is tuned to a different frequency, and the signal is switched to a different transceiver for each burst. Base station Colour Code. The BCC and the NCC are part of the BSIC. The BCC comprises three bits in the range 000 to 111. See also NCC and BSIC. Broadcast Control CHannel. A GSM control channel used to broadcast general information about a BTS site on a per cell or sector basis. Binary Coded Decimal. The representation of a decimal digit by a unique arrangement of no fewer than four binary digits. Base station Control Function. The GSM term for the digital control circuitry which controls the BTS. In Motorola cell sites this is a normally a BCU which includes DRI modules and is located in the BTS cabinet. Bearer channel. Used in ISDN services to carry 64kbit/s of data, when used at full capacity.

BBBX BBH

BCC

BCCH

BCD BCF

B channel

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Glossary of technical terms

BCIE

Bearer Capability Information Element. Specific GSM parameters in the Setup message are mapped into a BCIE for signalling to the network and within the PLMN. The BCIE is used to request a bearer service (BS) from the network. Base station Control Unit. A functional entity of the BSS which provides the base control function at a BTS site. The term no longer applies to a type of shelf (see BSC and BSU). Base Controller Unit Power. Bit Error Probability. Bit Error Rate. The number of erroneous bits divided by the total number of bits transmitted, received, or processed over some stipulated period. The BER is usually expressed as a coefficient and a power of 10; for example, 25 erroneous bits out of 100,000 bits transmitted would be 25 out of 105 or 25 x 10-5. Business Exchange Services. Bad Frame Indication. An indication of unsuccessfully decoded speech frames. See FER. Busy Hour. In a communications system, the sliding 60-minute period during which occurs the maximum total traffic load in a given 24-hour period. Busy Hour Call Attempt. A statistic based on call attempts that a switch processes during a BH. See also BH. Barring of all Incoming call supplementary service. Balanced-line Interconnect Board. Provides interface to 12 balanced (6-pair) 120 ohm (37-pin D-type connector) lines for 2 Mbit/s circuits. See also T43. Barring of all Incoming Calls when Roaming outside the Home PLMN Country supplementary service. See Reciprocal neighbour.. Balanced-line Interconnect Module. From BINary. An area in a data array used to store information. Also, a name for a directory that contain files stored in binary format. BootLoad. Also known as download. For example, databases and software can be downloaded to the NEs from the BSS. Block Error Rate BiLLiNG. Binary digit. A character used to represent one of the two states or digits (0 or 1) in the numeration system with a radix of two. Also, a unit of storage capacity. Bits per second (bps). A measure of data transmission speed. The number of binary characters (1s or 0s) transmitted in one second. For example, an eight-bit parallel transmission link which transfers one character (eight bits) per second is operating at 8 bps. A group of bits (binary digits) transmitted as a unit, over which a parity check procedure is applied for error control purposes. Full rate traffic channel. See also Full Rate.

BCU

BCUP BEP BER

BES BFI BH

BHCA BI BIB

BIC-Roam Bi-directional neighbour BIM Bin

BL BLER BLLNG bit

bit/s

block Bm

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Version 1 Rev 3

BN BPF

Bit Number. Number which identifies the position of a particular bit period within a timeslot. Bandpass Filter. A filter that ideally passes all frequencies between two non-zero finite limits and bars all frequencies not within the limits. BCU Power Supply Module. Basic Rate Interface. An ISDN multipurpose user interface allowing simultaneous voice and data services provided over two clear 64 kb/s channels (B channels) and one clear 16 kb/s channel (D channel). The interface is also referred to as 2B+D. Base Station. See BSS. Basic Service (group). Bearer Service. A type of telecommunication service that provides the capability for the transmission of signals between user-network interfaces. The PLMN connection type used to support a bearer service may be identical to that used to support other types of telecommunication service. Base Station Controller. A network component in the GSM PLMN which has the digital control function of controlling all BTSs. The BSC can be located within a single BTS cabinet (forming a BSS) but is more often located remotely and controls several BTSs (see BCF, BCU, and BSU). Basic Service Group. Base Transceiver Station Identity Code. Each cell has a BSIC. It is a local colour code that allows a mobile station to distinguish between different neighbouring base stations. The BSIC is an octet, consisting of three bits for the Network Colour Code (NCC) and three bits for the Base station Colour Code (BCC). The remaining two bits are unused. See also NCC and BCC. BSIC of an adjacent cell. Base Site control Processor (at BSC). Backward Sequence Number. A field in a signal unit (SU) that contains the forward sequence number (FSN) of a correctly received signal unit being acknowledged in the signal unit that is being returned to the sender. See also FSN and SU. Base Station System. The system of base station equipment (Transceivers, controllers and so on) which is viewed by the MSC through a single interface as defined by the GSM 08 series of recommendations, as being the entity responsible for communicating with MSs in a certain area. The radio equipment of a BSS may cover one or more cells. A BSS may consist of one or more base stations. If an internal interface is implemented according to the GSM 08.5x series of recommendations, then the BSS consists of one BSC and several BTSs. BSS Application Part (part of SS7) . Protocol for LAPD or LAPB signalling links on the A-interface. Comprises DTAP and BSSMAP messages. Supports message communication between the MSC and BSS. Base Station System Control cabinet. The cabinet which houses one or two BSU shelves at a BSC or one or two RXU shelves at a remote transcoder (RXCDR).

BPSM BRI

BS BS BS

BSC

BSG BSIC

BSIC-NCELL BSP BSN

BSS

BSSAP

BSSC

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BSSMAP

Base Station System Management Application Part (part of SS7). Call processing protocol for A-interface messages exchanged between the MSC and BSS. The BSS interprets these messages. BSS Operation and Maintenance Application Part (part of SS7). Base Station Unit shelf. The shelf which houses the digital control modules for the BTS (part of BTS cabinet) or BSC (part of BSSC cabinet). British Telecom. Bus Terminator. In order to avoid signal reflections on the bus, each bus segment has to be terminated at its physical beginning and at its end with the characteristic impedance. Bus Terminator Card. Base Transceiver Function. Base Transceiver Processor (at BTS). One of the six basic task groups within the GPROC. Base Transceiver Station. A network component in the GSM PLMN which serves one cell, and is controlled by a BSC. The BTS contains one or more Transceivers (TRXs). A period of modulated carrier less than one timeslot. The physical content of a timeslot. A sequence of adjacent binary digits operated upon as a unit. Generally consists of eight bits, usually presented in parallel. A byte is usually the smallest addressable unit of information in a data store or memory.

BSSOMAP BSU

BT BT

BTC BTF BTP BTS

Burst Byte

C - CW
C C Interface C7 CA CA CAB CADM Conditional. Interface between MSC and HLR/AUC. See SS7. Cell Allocation. The radio frequency channels allocated to a particular cell. Central Authority. Software process that controls the BSS. Cabinet. Country ADMinistration. The Motorola procedure used within DataGen to create new country and network files in the DataGen database. Charge Advice Information. Cell Analysis Tool. The CAT is part of the Motorola Cell Optimization product. It is intended for engineering staff and OMC administrators. CAT provides information about GSM network cell performance. Cell Balancer. The CB process balances the cells configured for GPRS across PRPs. In the event of a PRP outage, this process sends message(s) indicating that GPRS service is unavailable to the appropriate CRM(s) for the cells that could not be moved to an INS (IN Service) PRP.

CAI CAT

CB

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Version 1 Rev 3

CB CB CBA CBC CBCH CBF CBL CBM CDMA

Cell Broadcast. See CBSMS. Circuit Breaker. Cell Broadcast Agent. Cell Broadcast Centre. The call processing centre for CBSMS messages. Cell Broadcast CHannel. The channel which is used to broadcast messages to all MSs in a specific cell. Combining Bandpass Filter. Cell Broadcast Link. A bi-directional data link which allows communications between the BSS and the CBC. Circuit Breaker Module. Code-Division Multiple Access. CDMA is a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems, such as GSM, that use TDM, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. Cell Broadcast Message Identifier. Cell Broadcast Service. See CBSMS. Cell Broadcast Short Message Service. CBSMS allows a number of unacknowledged general messages to be broadcast to all MSs within a particular region. The content may include information such as local traffic conditions, the weather, the phone number of the local taxi company, etc. The messages are sent from a CBC via a BSC to a BTS and from there on a special cell broadcast channel to the MSs. The CBC is considered as a node outside the PLMN and can be connected to several BSCs. However, a BSC is only connected to one CBC. Clock Bus. Connection Confirm. Part of SCCP network connectivity. Country Code. A one to three digit number which specifically identifies a country of the world that an international call is being routed to (e.g., 1 = North America, 44 = United Kingdom). Call Control. CC functions, such as number translations and routeing, matrix path control, and allocation of outgoing trunks are performed by the MSC. Cavity Combining Block, a three way RF combiner. There are two types of CCB, CCB (Output) and CCB (Extension). These, with up to two CCB Control cards, may comprise the TATI. The second card may be used for redundancy. Completion of Calls to Busy Subscriber supplementary service. Common Control CHannels. A class of GSM control channels used to control paging and grant access. Includes AGCH, PCH, and RACH. Group of MSs in idle mode. Common Channel Distributor. Channel Coding Digital Signal Processor.

CBMI CBS CBSMS

CBUS CC CC

CC

CCB

CCBS CCCH

CCCH_GROUP CCD CCDSP

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CCF CCH CCH CCITT CCM CCP CCPE CCS

Conditional Call Forwarding. See CFC. Control CHannel. Control channels are channels which carry system management messages. Council for Communications Harmonization (referred to in GSM Recommendations). Comit Consultatif International Tlgraphique et Tlphonique. This term has been superseded. See ITU-TSS. Current Call Meter. Capability/Configuration Parameter. Control Channel Protocol Entity. Hundred call-seconds. A single call lasting one hundred seconds is one CCS. Also, a measure of traffic load obtained by multiplying the number of calls per hour by the average holding time per call expressed in seconds, and dividing by 100. Often used in practice to mean hundred call seconds per hour with per hour" implied; as such, it is a measure of traffic intensity. See also erlang. Channel Codec Unit. The CCU performs the following functions: Channel coding functions, including FEC and interleaving, Radio channel measurement functions, including received quality level, received signal level, and information related to timing advance measurements. Circuit. Control Driver Board. Common Desktop Environment. Part of the SUN software (crontab - cron job file). Call Detail Record. A record of voice or data SVCs, which includes calling and called numbers, local and remote node names, data and timestamp, elapsed time, and call failure class fields. This is the information needed to bill the customer for calls and facility usage data for calls. Compact Disk-Read Only Memory. Chargeable DURation. Control Equalizer Board (BTS). Called station identifier. Central Equipment Identity Register. By GSM definition, a cell is an RF coverage area. At an omni-site, cell is synonymous with site; at a sectored site, cell is synonymous with sector. This differs from analogue systems where cell is taken to mean the same thing as site. (See below)

CCU

Cct CDB CDE CDR

CD-ROM CDUR CEB CED CEIR Cell

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Version 1 Rev 3

Illustration Not Found

CEND

End of charge point. The time at which the calling, or called, party stops charging by the termination of the call or by an equivalent procedure invoked by the network or by failure of the radio path. Confrence des administrations Europennes des Postes et Telecommunications. Circuit Error Rate Monitor. Identifies when discontinuity is detected in a circuit. An alarm is generated and sent to the OMC-R when the error count exceeds an operator specified threshold. The alarm identifies the RCI or CIC and the path where the error is detected. Conversion Facility. Call Forwarding. A feature available to the mobile telephone user whereby, after initiation of the feature by an authorised subscriber, calls dialled to the mobile telephone of an authorised subscriber will automatically be routed to the desired number. See also CFC and CFU. Control Function. CF performs the SGSN mobility management functions and OA&M functions for the GSN module. Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Busy supplementary service. Service automatically redirects incoming calls for phone busy situations. Call Forwarding Conditional supplementary service. Service automatically redirects incoming calls for busy, no reply, or not reachable situations. See also CFB, CFNRc, and CFNRy. Configuration Fault Management RSS process. Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Not Reachable supplementary service. Service automatically redirects incoming calls for not reachable situations. Call Forwarding on No Reply supplementary service. Service automatically redirects incoming calls for no reply situations. Call Forwarding Unconditional supplementary service. Service automatically redirects all incoming calls. Charging Gateway.

CEPT CERM

CF CF

CF CFB

CFC

CFM CFNRc

CFNRy CFU CG

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CGF Channel

Charging Gateway Function. A means of one-way transmission. A defined sequence of periods (for example, timeslots) in a TDMA system; a defined frequency band in an FDMA system; a defined sequence of periods and frequency bands in a frequency hopped system. Coaxial Interconnect Module. See Full Rate and Half Rate. These are the channel modes that are currently used. CHarging Point. Card Holder Verification information. Ciphering Key Sequence Number. The CKSN is a number which is associated with the ciphering key, Kc. It is used to ensure authentication consistency between the MS and the VLR. Cell Identity. A block of code which identifies a cell within a location area. CUG Index. Carrier to Interference ratio. Circuit Identity Code. The unique identifier of the terrestrial portion of a circuit path. A CIC is either a 64 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s connection depending on whether a site has local or remote transcoding. A CIC with local transcoding occupies a complete E1/T1 timeslot. A 16 kbit/s CIC, at a site with remote transcoding, occupies a sub-channel of an E1/T1 timeslot. Carrier to Interference Ratio. Indicates the received signal power level relative to the interference power level. Unintelligible data produced through the use of encipherment. Ciphering Key Sequence Number. Calling Line Identity. The identity of the caller. See also CLIP and CLIR. Calling Line Identification Presentation supplementary service. Allows the called party to identify the caller. See also CLIR. Calling Line Identification Restriction supplementary service. Allows the caller to withhold their identity from the called party. See also CLIP. Clock. Clock Extender half size board. The fibre optic link that distributes GCLK to boards in system (part of the BSS, etc). ConnectionLess Manager. Coordinates global control over the BSS by handling of all connectionless messages (that is, messages that are not directly concerned with a connected call). This includes such messages as global resets, load limiting and circuit blocking. CLeaR. Configuration Management. Configuration management allows the operator to perform network configuration tasks, and to maintain all details of the network configuration at the OMC. Connection Management. See CLM.

CIM Channel Mode CHP CHV CKSN

CI CI C/I CIC

CIR, C/I Ciphertext CKSN CLI CLIP CLIR

CLK CLKX CLM

CLR CM

CM

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Version 1 Rev 3

CM CMD CMM

Connectionless Manager. See CLM. CoMmanD. Channel Mode Modify. Message sent to an MS to request a channel mode change. When it has received the CMM message, the MS changes the mode to the indicated channel and replies with a Channel Mode Modify Acknowledge message indicating the new channel mode. Common Management Information Protocol. Protocol used for communication over the OML. Common Management Information Service Element. An ASE which provides a means to transfer management information via CMIP messages with another NE over an association established by ASCE using ROSE (OMC). Cellular Manual Revision. Documentation updates. CalliNg tone. Coder/Decoder. A speech coding unit that converts speech into a digital format for radio broadcast, and vice versa. Manufacturers name for a type of multiplexer and packet switch commonly installed at the Motorola OMC-R. A cell whose cell boundary follows the boundary of a co-located neighbour cell. The coincident cell has a different frequency type, but the same BSIC, as that of the neighbour cell. COnnected Line Identity. Identity of the connected line. See also COLP and COLR. Placed together; two or more items together in the same place. An 8-bit code assigned to a BTS to distinguish interfering signals from another cell. COnnected Line Identification Presentation supplementary service. Allows the calling party to identify the line identity of the connected party. See also COLR. COnnected Line Identification Restriction supplementary service. Allows the connected party to withhold its line identity from the calling party. See also COLP. Code Object Manager (software). COMplete. Combiner. The purpose of a combiner in the BSS is to combine transmitter outputs from the RCUs onto an antenna. COMMunications. Communications Hub. Provides Ethernet switching and IP routeing for the GSN complex local networking and GSN complex E1 interfaces to the public data network. Communications Link. See also 2 Mbit/s link. See cPCI. CONFerence circuit. Circuit used for multi-party conference calls. CONFIGuration Control Program.

CMIP CMISE

CMR CNG Codec CODEX Coincident Cell

COLI Collocated Colour Code COLP

COLR

COM COM COMB COMM, Comms CommHub

CommsLink Compact PCI CONF CONFIG

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Congestion CONNACK

Situation occurring when an element cannot receive all the service it is requesting. CONNect ACKnowledgement. Part of the synchronization process. After a connection has been established, the CONNACK message indicates that traffic channels are available. Call Processing. The CP process in the BTS controls the MS to BSS to MS signalling link, MS originated and terminated calls and inter-BSS and inter-BTS handovers. Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect. A set of standards that define a common card cage, power supplies, and processor boards. CCCH Paging Manager. The CPGM processes the paging messages sent from the SGSN to the BSC/BTS. Code and Puncturing Scheme. Central Processing Unit. The portion of a computer that controls the interpretation and execution of instructions. Also, the portion of a digital communications switch that executes programmed instructions, performs arithmetic and logical operations on signals, and controls input/output functions. Command/Response field bit. Carriage Return (RETURN). Connection Request (Part of SCCP network connectivity). An SCCP Connection Request message is sent from the BSS to the MSC to establish a connection. See also CREF. Cyclic Redundancy Check (3 bit). An error-detection scheme that (a) uses parity bits generated by polynomial encoding of digital signals, (b) appends those parity bits to the digital signal, and (c) uses decoding algorithms that detect errors in the received digital signal. Call RE-establishment procedure. Procedure for re-establishing a call in the event of a radio link failure. Connection REFused (Part of SCCP network connectivity). In a number of operating circumstances, a CREF message may be sent from the MSC to the BSS in response to a Connection Request (CR). Cell Resource Manager. The CRM allocates and activates timeslots and subchannels on the available carriers. Cell Resource Machine. Cellular Radio Modem-Low Speed/High Speed. Low speed modem used to interwork 300 to 2400 bit/s data services under V.22bis, V.23, or V.21 standards. High speed modem used to interwork 1200 to 9600 bit/s data services under V.22bis, V.32, or V.29/V.27ter/V.21 standards. Motorola Controlled Roll Out Group. A CRO consists of a customer site implementation of a new product, software release, or combination of products/releases. Cathode Ray Tube (video display terminal). Circuit Switched. GPRS Coding Scheme-1 (9.05 kbit/s per TCH).

CP

cPCI

CPGM CPS CPU

C/R CR CR

CRC

CRE CREF

CRM CRM CRM-LS/HS

CRO

CRT CS CS-1

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Version 1 Rev 3

CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 CSFP

GPRS Coding Scheme-2 (13.4 kbit/s per TCH). GPRS Coding Scheme-3 (15.6 kbit/s per TCH). GPRS Coding Scheme-4 (21.4 kbit/s per TCH). Code Storage Facility Processor (at BSC and BTS). A GPROC device which facilitates the propagating of new software instances with reduced system down time. See also IP. Central Statistics Process. The statistics process in the BSC. Circuit Switched Public Data Network. A publicly available communications network using circuit switched digital data circuits. Call Transfer supplementary service. Channel Tester. Channel Type. Call Trace Product (Tool). The CTP is designed to help operators of GSM900 and DCS1800 communication networks tune and optimize their systems. CTP allows Call Trace data to be analysed and decoded. Control Terminal Port. Common Technical Regulation. Clear to Send. A handshake signal used with communication links, especially RS232 or CCITT Rec. V.24, to indicate (to a transmitter from a receiver) that transmission may proceed. Generated in response to a request to send signal. See also RTS. Compact Transceiver Unit (M-Cellhorizon radio). Closed User Group supplementary service. A CUG is used to control who can receive and/or place calls, by creating a unique group. When a CUG is configured for an interface, only those subscribers that are members of the same CUG can receive/place calls. The total value for an entire statistical interval. Call Waiting supplementary service. A subscriber feature which allows an individual mobile telephone user currently engaged in a call to be alerted that another caller is trying to reach him. The user has a predetermined period of time in which to terminate the existing conversation and respond to the second call.

CSP CSPDN

CT CT CT CTP

CTP CTR CTS

CTU CUG

Cumulative value CW

D Interface - DYNET
D Interface D/A DAB DAC DACS DAK Interface between VLR and HLR. Digital to Analogue (converter). See DAC. Distribution Alarm Board (in BTS6 cabinet). Digital to Analogue Converter. A device that converts an input number sequence into a function of a continuous variable. Digital Access Cross-connect System. A data concentrator and organizer for Tl / El based systems. Downlink Acknowledgement

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DAN DAS DAT

Digital ANnouncer (for recorded announcements on MSC). Data Acquisition System. Digital Audio Tape. Audio-recording and playback medium/format that maintains a signal quality equal to that of the CD-ROM medium/format. Sysgen Builder System. A Motorola offline BSS binary object configuration tool. See OSI RM. This layer responds to service requests from the Network Layer and issues service requests to the Physical Layer. It provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. Decibel. A unit stating the logarithmic ratio between two numeric quantities. See also dBm. DataBase. Dummy Burst (see Dummy burst). DataBase Administration/Database Administrator. A dB referenced to 1 milliwatt; 0 dBm equals one milliwatt. DataBase Management System. Direct Current. DC is the unidirectional flow or movement of electric charge carriers, usually electrons. The intensity of the current can vary with time, but the general direction of movement stays the same at all times. As an adjective, the term DC is used in reference to voltage whose polarity never reverses. Diversity Control Board (part of DRCU). Dedicated Control CHannel. A class of GSM control channels used to set up calls and report measurements. Includes SDCCH, FACCH, and SACCH. Data Carrier Detect signal. Hardware signal defined by the RS-232-C specification that indicates that a device such as a modem is on-line and ready for transmission. Data Circuit terminating Equipment. The DCE performs functions such as signal conversion and coding, at the network end of the line between the DTE and the line. Also, The RS232 configuration designated for computers. DCE equipment can be connected to DTE equipment with a straight cable, but to other DCE equipment only with a null modem cable. Data Communications Function. Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter. (Used in Horizonmacro). Data channel. Used in ISDN to perform call signalling and connection setup functions. In some circumstances, the channel can also be used to carry user data. Data Communications Network. A DCN connects Network Elements with internal mediation functions or mediation devices to the Operations Systems. DC Power Supply Module.

DataGen Data Link Layer

dB DB DB DBA dBm DBMS dc

DCB DCCH

DCD

DCE

DCF DCF D channel

DCN

DC PSM

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Version 1 Rev 3

DCS1800

Digital Cellular System at 1800 MHz. A cellular phone network using digital techniques similar to those used in GSM 900, but operating on frequencies of 1710 - 1785 MHz (receive) and 1805 - 1880 MHz (transmit). Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter. (Used in Horizonmacro). The DDF is an integrated combiner, filter and duplexer. DataGen Data Store. Store area for DataGen input and output files. Data Drive Storage. Direct Digital Synthesis. A technology for generating highly accurate and frequency-agile (rapidly changeable frequency over a wide range), low-distortion output waveforms. Diversity Equalizer Board. DETach. Decision Feedback Equalizer. A receiver component/function. The DFE results in a very sharp Bit Error Rate (BER) threshold by using error feedback. Data Gathering Tool. The DGT collects all the relevant data relating to a specified problem and copies it to tape or file, together with a problem description. The file or tape is then sent to Motorola for analysis. Digital Host Processor. A hard GPROC based device located at Horizonmicro2 BTS sites. It represents the MCU of a slave Horizonmicro2 FRU. The MCU that the DHP represents is responsible for providing DRI and carrier support. Drum Intercept Announcer. Line termination module (part of Horizonmicro). Line termination module (part of Horizonmicro). DISConnect. Discontinuous. Diversity In phase and Quadrature phase. Device Interface Routine. Software routine used in the BSS. Data Link (layer). See Data Link Layer. See Downlink. Data Link Connection Identifier. In frame-relay transmission systems, 13-bit field that defines the destination address of a packet. The address is local on a link-by-link basis. Data Link Discriminator. Diversity Low Noise Block. DownLink Segmentator. The DLS segments LLC frames into RLC data blocks to be transmitted over the air interface. Data Link Service Process. Handles messages for an OMP and a shelf GPROC. Digital Link Signalling Processor. Control channel (ISDN terminology applied to mobile service).

DDF DDS DDS DDS

DEQB DET DFE

DGT

DHP

DIA DINO E1/HDSL DINO T1 DISC Discon DIQ DIR DL DL DLCI

DLD DLNB DLS DLSP DLSP Dm

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DMA DMA

Deferred Maintenance Alarm. An alarm report level; an immediate or deferred response is required (see also PMA). Direct Memory Access. Transfer of data from a peripheral device, such as a hard disk drive, into memory without that data passing through the microprocessor. DMA transfers data into memory at high speeds with no processor overhead. Digital Mobile Radio. Distributed Electronic Mobile Exchange (Motorolas networked EMX family). Directory Number. Data Network Identifier Code. In the CCITT International X.121 format, the first four digits indicate the international data number, the next three digits are the data country code, and the final digit is the network code. Domain Name Service. A service that translates from logical domain or equipment names to IP addresses. Physical link from the BTS towards the MS (BTS transmits, MS receives). Dial/Dialled Pulse. A dc pulse produced by an end instrument that interrupts a steady current at a sequence and rate determined by the selected digit and the operating characteristics of the instrument. Destination Point Code. A part of the label in a signalling message that uniquely identifies, in a signalling network, the (signalling) destination point of the message. Digital Processing and Control board. Pulse-code modulation (PCM) in which an analog signal is sampled and the difference between the actual value of each sample and its predicted value, derived from the previous sample or samples, is quantified and converted, by encoding, to a digital signal. Note: There are several variations of differential pulse-code modulation. Digital Private Network Signalling System (BT standard for PABX interface). Dual Path Preselector. BTS module. Dual Port Random Access Memory. Data PROCessor. Digital Power Supply Module. Dynamic Random Access Memory. A type of semiconductor memory in which the information is stored in capacitors on a integrated circuit. Data Rate Converter board. Provides data and protocol conversion between PLMN and destination network for 8 circuits. Part of IWF. Diversity Radio Channel Unit. Contains transceiver, digital control circuits, and power supply. Part of the BSS. Digital Radio Interface. Provides encoding/decoding and encryption/decryption for radio channels. Part of BSS.

DMR DMX DN DNIC

DNS Downlink DP

DPC

DPC DPCM

DPNSS DPP DPR, DPRAM DPROC DPSM DRAM

DRC

DRCU DRI

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DRIM DRIX DRX, DRx

Digital Radio Interface extended Memory. A DRI with extra memory. DRI Extender half size board. Fibre optic link from DRI to BCU. Part of the BSS. Discontinuous reception (mechanism). A means of saving battery power (for example in hand-portable units) by periodically and automatically switching the MS receiver on and off. Digital transmission System 1 (or Digital Signal level 1). Term used to refer to the 1.44 Mbit/s (U. S.) or 2.108 Mbit/s (Europe) digital signal carried on a T1 facility. German term for 2 Mbit/s line (PCM interface). Data Switching Exchange. Digital Speech Interpolation. A compression technique that relies on the pauses between speech bursts to provide additional compression. DSI enables users to gain an additional 2:1 compression on the average on their line. 64 kbit/s timeslot on an E1/T1. Digital Signal Processor. A specialized, programmable computer processing unit that is able to perform high-speed mathematical processing. Digital Subscriber Signalling No 1. N-ISDN user network interface signalling. Diversity Signal Strength Indication. Direct Transfer Application Part (Part of SS7). Call processing protocol for A-Interface messages exchanged directly between the MSC and the mobile unit without interpretation by the BSS. Data Terminal Equipment. An end instrument that converts user information into signals for transmission or reconverts the received signals into user information. Also, the RS232 configuration designated for terminals. DTE equipment can be connected to DCE with a straight cable, but to other DTE equipment only with a null modem. Digital Trunk Frame. A frame or electronic rack of digital trunk interface equipment. DaTa form 1 (Part of SCCP network connectivity). Digital Trunk Interface. Dual Transer Mode. Dual Tone Multi-Frequency. Multifrequency signalling in which specified combinations of two voice band frequencies, one from a group of four low frequencies and the other from a group of four higher frequencies, are used. The sounds a push button tone telephone makes when it dials a number. Data Terminal Ready signal. Method of flow control (RS232 Interface). A modem interface control signal sent from the DTE to the modem, usually to indicate to the modem that the DTE is ready to transmit data. Dual Transceiver Module. (Radio used in Horizonmicro (M-Cellarena) and Horizonmacro (M-Cellarenamacro)).

DS-1

DS-2 DSE DSI

DSO DSP

DSS1 DSSI DTAP

DTE

DTF DT1 DTI DTM DTMF

DTR

DTRX

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DTX, DTx

Discontinuous Transmission (mechanism). A means of saving battery power (for example in hand-portable units) and reducing interference by automatically switching the transmitter off when no speech or data are to be sent. A period of carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation is a defined sequence that carries no useful information. A dummy burst fills a timeslot with an RF signal when no information is to be delivered to a channel. DYnamic NETwork. Used to specify BTSs sharing dynamic resources.

Dummy burst

DYNET

E - EXEC
E E1 See Erlang. Also known as CEPT1. The 2.048 Mbit/s rate used by European CEPT carrier to transmit 30 64 kbit/s digital channels for voice or data calls, plus a 64 kbit/s signalling channel and a 64 kbit/s channel for framing and maintenance. Interface between MSC and MSC. External Alarm. See EAS. Typical external alarms are: Door open, High humidity, Low humidity, Fire, Intruder. External Alarm System. The EAS is responsible for the monitoring of all customer-defined environmental alarms at a site. The customer defines the alarm string and the severity of the alarms based on the individual requirements of the site. Indications are provided when the alarms are set or cleared. Energy per Bit/Noise floor, where Eb is the signal energy per bit and No is the noise energy per hertz of noise bandwidth. Elementary Basic Service Group. Echo Canceller. Performs echo suppression for all voice circuits. If cancellation does not take place, the PLMN subscriber hears the voice signal as an echo, due to the total round-trip delay introduced by the GSM system (typically 180 ms). Provides echo cancelling for telephone trunks for 30 channels (EC). The Motorola European Cellular Infrastructure Division. Error Correction Mode. A facsimile mode, in which the sending machine will attempt to send a partial page up to four times. Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density. Event Counting Tool. The ECT provides information about the number and type of events and alarms generated throughout the network. It extracts data from the event log files for specified dates, allowing the user to generate reports on individual network elements, groups of elements, or the whole network. Explicit Call Transfer supplementary service. ECT enables a user to connect two other parties with which he is engaged in a telephone call and leave the connection himself. Enhanced Data-rates for Global Evolution.

E Interface EA EAS

Eb/No EBCG EC

ECB ECID ECM Ec/No ECT

ECT

EDGE

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EEL EEPROM

Electric Echo Loss. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. An EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge. Like other types of PROM, EEPROM retains its contents even when the power is turned off. Enhanced GPRS. Extended GSM900. EGSM900 provides the BSS with a further range of frequencies for MS and BSS transmit. EGSM MSs can use the extended frequency band as well as the primary band, while non-EGSM MSs cannot use the extended frequency band. A GSM900 cell can contain both GSM900 and EGSM900 carrier hardware. EGSM operates on the frequency range, 880 - 915 MHz (receive) and 925 - 960 MHz (transmit). Events Interface. Part of the OMC-R GUI. Electronic Industries Alliance. Equipment Identity Register. The EIR contains a centralized database for validating the IMEI. The register consists of lists of IMEIs organised as follows: White List - IMEIs which are known to have been assigned to valid MS equipment. Black List - IMEIs which have been reported stolen or which are to be denied service for some other reason. Grey List - IMEIs which have problems (for example, faulty software). These are not, however, sufficiently significant to warrant a black listing. Effective Isotropically Radiated Power. The arithmetic product of the power supplied to an antenna and its gain. Equipment Identity Register Procedure. Echo Loss. Event Management. An OMC-R application. It provides a centralised facility for reporting network-wide generated events and alarms, and for monitoring the status of the Network. ElectroMagnetic Compatibility. The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended operational environments without suffering unacceptable degradation or causing unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. Electro Motive Force. The rate at which energy is drawn from a source that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit; expressed in volts. Electro Magnetic Interference. Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics/electrical equipment. enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption service. This service has two parts: precedence and pre-emption. Precedence involves assigning a priority level to a call in combination with fast call set-up. Pre-emption involves the seizing of resources, which are in use by a call of a lower precedence, by a higher level precedence call in the absence of idle resources. Pre-emption can also involve the disconnection of an on-going call of lower precedence to accept an incoming call of higher precedence. Electrical Man Machine Interface.

EGPRS EGSM900

EI EIA EIR

EIRP EIRP EL EM

EMC

EMF

EMI

eMLPP

EMMI

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EMX en bloc

Electronic Mobile Exchange (Motorolas MSC family). Fr. - all at once (a CCITT #7 Digital Transmission scheme); En bloc sending means that digits are sent from one system to another ~ (that is, all the digits for a given call are sent at the same time as a group). ~ sending is the opposite of overlap sending. A system using ~ sending will wait until it has collected all the digits for a given call before it attempts to send digits to the next system. All the digits are then sent as a group. Enhanced One-Phase End of Tape. EGPRS Packet Channel Request. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EPROM is a type of memory that retains its contents until it is exposed to ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet light clears its contents, making it possible to re-program the memory. Enhanced Power Supply Module. Used in +27 V positive earth cabinets. Static model against which the performance of the equalizer is tested to extremes. See also TU3, TU50, HT100 and RA250. Equalizer Board. Control circuit for equalization for 8 time slots each with equalizing circuitry and a DSP. Equalizer Control Processor. Equalizer Digitizer Signal Processor. The process by which attenuation and/or phase shift is rendered essentially constant over a band of frequencies, even though the transmission medium or the equipment has losses that vary with frequency. An electrical network in which attenuation (or gain) and/or phase shift varies as a function of frequency. Used to provide equalization. International (dimensionless) unit of traffic intensity defined as the ratio of time a facility is occupied to the time it is available for occupancy. One erlang is equal to 36 CCS. In the US this is also known as a traffic unit (TU). Ear Reference Point. Facility for assessing handset and headset acoustic responses. Effective Radiated Power. The power supplied to an antenna multiplied by the antenna gain in a given direction. ERRor. Electro-static Point. Connection point on the equipment for an anti-static wrist strap. Embedded SQL (Structured Query Language). An RDBMS programming interface language. Extended TACS (analogue cellular system, extended).

EOP EOT EPCR EPROM

EPSM EQ50 EQB EQCP EQDSP Equalization

Equalizer

Erlang

ERP ERP ERR ESP ESQL E-TACS

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Ethernet

A standard protocol (IEEE 802.3) for a 10 Mbit/s baseband local area network (LAN) bus using carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) as the access method, implemented at the Physical Layer in the OSI RM, establishing the physical characteristics of a CSMA/CD network. ETSI Technical Report. European Telecommunication Standard. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. End of Transmission. Executive Process.

ETR ETS ETSI ETX EXEC

F Interface - Full Rate


F Interface FA Interface between MSC and EIR. Fax Adaptor. Device which complements Group 3 facsimile apparatus in order to be able to communicate over a GSM PLMN. Full Allocation. Functional Area. Final Assembly Code. Fast Associated Control Channel. A GSM dedicated control channel which temporarily uses the TCH to perform high speed transmissions, and carries control information after a call is set up. See also SDCCH. Fast Associated Control Channel/Full rate. See also Full Rate. Fast Associated Control Channel/Half rate. See also Half Rate. See Frequency correction burst. Flow control Buffer Management. FBM is a functional unit residing on the PRP. It controls buffer capacity for each cell and each mobile so that the incoming data from the SGSN matches the air throughput. Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop. A serial data transfer architecture. FC-AL is designed for mass storage devices and other peripheral devices that require very high bandwidth. Using optical fibre to connect devices, FC-AL supports full-duplex data transfer rates of 100MBps. Frequency Correction CHannel. A GSM broadcast control channel which carries information for frequency correction of the MS. Fault Collection Process. Part of the fault management process in the BTS. Frame Check Sequence. The extra characters added to a frame for error detection and correction.

FA FA FAC FACCH

FACCH/F FACCH/H FB FBM

FC-AL

FCCH

FCP FCS

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FDM

Frequency Division Multiplex. A multiplexing technique that uses different frequencies to combine multiple streams of data for transmission over a communications medium. FDM assigns a discrete carrier frequency to each data stream and then combines many modulated carrier frequencies for transmission. Frequency Division Multiple Access. The use of frequency division to provide multiple and simultaneous transmissions to a single transponder. Fixed Dialling Number. The fixed dialling feature limits dialling from the MS to a pre-determined list maintained on the SIM card. It can be used to limit calling to certain areas, exchanges or full phone numbers. Fault Diagnostic Procedure. Forward Error Correction. Correction of transmission errors by transmitting additional information with the original bit stream. If an error is detected, the additional information is used to recreate the original information. Front End Processor. An OMC-R device. The FEP is a driver that stores data in its own database about all of the sites in the system. All bursts from the sites are directed to the FEP. It can also interrogate the sites and collect its data either manually or automatically at pre-defined times. Frame Erasure Ratio. The ratio of successfully decoded good speech frames against unsuccessfully decoded bad frames. For Further Study. See Frequency Hopping. Frequency Hopping Indicator. Forward Indicator Bit. Used in SS7 - Message Transfer Part. The forward indicator bit and backward indicator bit together with the forward sequence number and backward sequence number are used in the basic error control method to perform the signal unit sequence control and acknowledgement functions. Memory logic device in which the information placed in the memory in a given order is retrieved in that order. Finite Impulse Response (filter type). Foreign Key. A database column attribute; the foreign key indicates an index into another table. Fault Management (at OMC). Frequency Modulation. Modulation in which the instantaneous frequency of a sine wave carrier is caused to depart from the centre frequency by an amount proportional to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. Fault Management Initiated Clear. An alarm type. If an FMIC alarm is received, the fault management software for the network item clears the alarm when the problem is solved. See also Intermittent and OIC. Fibre optic MUltipleXer module.

FDMA

FDN

FDP FEC

FEP

FER FFS, FS FH FHI FIB

FIFO FIR FK FM FM

FMIC

FMUX

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FN FOA

Frame Number. Identifies the position of a particular TDMA frame within a hyperframe. First Office Application. A full functional verification of new product(s) on a commercial system using accepted technology and approved test plans. Fibre Optic eXtender board. See Full Rate. Frame Relay. An interface protocol for statistically multiplexed packet-switched data communications in which (a) variable-sized packets (frames) are used that completely enclose the user packets they transport, and (b) transmission rates are usually between 56 kb/s and 1.544 Mb/s (the T-1 rate). A set of consecutive Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) time slots containing samples from all channels of a group, where the position of each sample is identified by reference to a frame alignment signal. Also, an information or signal structure which allows a receiver to identify uniquely an information channel. The state in which the frame of the receiving equipment is synchronized with respect to that of the received signal to accomplish accurate data extraction. Field Replaceable Unit. A board, module, etc. which can be easily replaced in the field with a few simple tools. Period of RF carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation bit stream allows frequency correction to be performed easily within an MS burst. The repeated switching of frequencies during radio transmission according to a specified algorithm. Frequency hopping improves capacity and quality in a highly loaded GSM network. Multipath fading immunity can be increased by using different frequencies and interference coming from neighbour cells transmitting the same or adjacent frequencies can be reduced. Frequency Synchronization. All BSS frequencies and timing signals are synchronized to a high stability reference oscillator in the BSS. This oscillator can free run or be synchronized to the recovered clock signal from a selected E1/T1 serial link. MSs lock to a reference contained in a synchronization burst transmitted from the BTS site. Free Space Loss. The decrease in the strength of a radio signal as it travels between a transmitter and receiver. The FSL is a function of the frequency of the radio signal and the distance the radio signal has travelled from the point source. Forward Sequence Number. See FIB. File Transfer, Access, and Management. An ASE which provides a means to transfer information from file to file. (OMC). forwarded-to number. Fault Translation Process (in BTS).

FOX FR FR

Frame

Frame Alignment

FRU Frequency Correction

Frequency Hopping

FS

FSL

FSN FTAM ftn FTP

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FTP

File Transfer Protocol. A client-server protocol which allows a user on one computer to transfer files to and from another computer over a TCP/IP network. Also the client program the user executes to transfer files. Refers to the current capacity of a data channel on the GSM air interface, that is, 8 simultaneous calls per carrier. See also HR - Half Rate.

Full Rate

G Interface - GWY
G Interface Gateway MSC Interface between VLR and VLR. An MSC that provides an entry point into the GSM PLMN from another network or service. A gateway MSC is also an interrogating node for incoming PLMN calls. Gigabyte. 230 bytes = 1,073,741,824 bytes = 1024 megabytes. Gigabit Interface Converter Converter for connection to the Gigabit Ethernet. Gb Link. Gb Manager. Generic Clock board. System clock source, one per site (part of BSS, BTS, BSC, IWF, RXCDR). Group Call Register. The register which holds information about VGCS or VBS calls. Generic DSP Processor board. Interchangeable with the XCDR board. GDP board configured for E1 link usage. GDP board configured for T1 link usage. GPRS Data Stream. Gateway GPRS Support Node. The GGSN provides internet working with external packet-switched networks. Giga-Hertz (109). Group ID. A unique number used by the system to identify a users primary group. GPRS Initialization Process GSM Multiplexer Board (part of the BSC). GPRS Mobility Management. General Manual Revision. Gateway Mobile-services Switching Centre. See Gateway MSC. Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying. The modulation technique used in GSM. GrouND.

GB, Gbyte GBIC GBL GBM GCLK GCR GDP GDP E1 GDP T1 GDS GGSN GHz GID GIP GMB GMM GMR GMSC GMSK GND

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GOS

Grade of Service. A traffic statistic defined as the percentage of calls which have a Probability of Busy or Queueing Delay. An alternative criterion is a maximum time for a percentage of calls to wait in the busy queue before they are assigned a voice channel. GSM PLMN Area. General Protocol Converter. Generic Processor board. GSM generic processor board: a 68030 with 4 to 16 Mb RAM (part of BSS, BTS, BSC, IWF, RXCDR). Generic Processor board. GSM generic processor board: a 68040 with 32 Mb RAM (part of BSS, BTS, BSC, IWF, RXCDR). Generic Processor board. GSM generic processor board: a 68060 with 128 Mb RAM (part of BSS, BTS, BSC, IWF, RXCDR). General Packet Radio Service. A GSM data transmission technique that does not set up a continuous channel from a portable terminal for the transmission and reception of data, but transmits and receives data in packets. It makes very efficient use of available radio spectrum, and users pay only for the volume of data sent and received. Global Positioning by Satellite. A system for determining position on the Earths surface by comparing radio signals from several satellites. Gb Router. GSM Service Area. The area in which an MS can be reached by a fixed subscriber, without the subscribers knowledge of the location of the MS. A GSA may include the areas served by several GSM PLMNs. GSM System Area. The group of GSM PLMN areas accessible by GSM MSs. GSM Systems Division. GPRS Signalling Link. Groupe Spcial Mobile (the committee). Global System for Mobile communications (the system). See PGSM. GSM Mobile Station. GSM Public Land Mobile Network. GSM Radio Frequency. GPRS Support Node. The combined functions provided by the SGSN and GGSN. A GSN Complex consists of an ISS Cluster, GGSN and SGSNs connected to a single CommHub. GSM Software Release.

GPA GPC GPROC

GPROC2 {4354} GPROC3

GPRS

GPS

GR GSA

GSA GSD GSL GSM GSM GSM900 GSM MS GSM PLMN GSM RF GSN GSN Complex GSR

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GT

Global Title. A logical or virtual address used for routing SS7 messages using SCCP capabilities. To complete message routing, a GT must be translated to a SS7 point code and subsystem number. Gb Transmit Manager. Generic Table Editor. The Motorola procedure which allows users to display and edit MCDF input files. GBRS TBF Scheduler Period at the beginning and end of timeslot during which MS transmission is attenuated. Graphical User Interface. A computer environment or program that displays, or facilitates the display of, on-screen options. These options are usually in the form of icons (pictorial symbols) or menus (lists of alphanumeric characters) by means of which users may enter commands. A computer used to display a GUI from an OMC-R GUI application which is being run on a GUI server. A computer used to serve the OMC-R GUI application process running locally (on its processor) to other computers (GUI clients or other MMI processors). GateWay Manager. GateWaY (MSC/LR) interface to PSTN.

GTM GTE GTS Guard period GUI

GUI client GUI server

GWM GWY

H Interface - Hyperframe
H Interface H-M HAD, HAP Half Rate Interface between HLR and AUC. Human-Machine Terminals. HLR Authentication Distributor. Refers to a type of data channel that will double the current GSM air interface capacity to 16 simultaneous calls per carrier (see also FR - Full Rate). HANDOver. The action of switching a call in progress from one radio channel to another radio channel. Handover allows established calls to continue by switching them to another radio resource, as when an MS moves from one BTS area to another. Handovers may take place between the following GSM entities: timeslot, RF carrier, cell, BTS, BSS and MSC. Hybrid Combining Unit. (Used in Horizonmacro). Part of the DDF, the HDU allows the outputs of three radios to be combined into a single antenna. High level Data Link Control. A link-level protocol used to facilitate reliable point-to-point transmission of a data packet. Note: A subset of HDLC, LAP-B, is the layer-two protocol for CCITT Recommendation X.25. High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. HDSL is a data transmission mechanism which supports duplex high speed digital communication (at E1 rates) on one or more unshielded twisted pair lines.

HANDO, Handover

HCU

HDLC

HDSL

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HLC

High Layer Compatibility. The HLC can carry information defining the higher layer characteristics of a teleservice active on the terminal. Home Location Register. The LR where the current location and all subscriber parameters of an MS are permanently stored. Heat Management System. The system that provides environmental control of the components inside the ExCell, TopCell and M-Cell cabinets. HandOver. See HANDO. Hand Portable Unit. A handset. Call hold supplementary service. Call hold allows the subscriber to place a call on hold in order to make another call. When the second call is completed, the subscriber can return to the first call. Home PLMN. See Half Rate. HandSet. High Speed Interface card. HLR Subscriber Management. Hopping Sequence Number. HSN is a index indicating the specific hopping sequence (pattern) used in a given cell. It ranges from 0 to 63. Hilly Terrain with the MS travelling at 100 kph. Dynamic model against which the performance of a GSM receiver can be measured. See also TU3, TU50, RA250 and EQ50. Home Units. The basic telecommunication unit as set by the HPLMN. This value is expressed in the currency of the home country. Hardware. A combiner device which requires no software control and is sufficiently broadband to be able to cover the GSM transmitter frequency band. See also COMB. A circuit used in telephony to convert 2-wire operation to 4-wire operation and vice versa. For example, every land-line telephone contains a hybrid to separate earpiece and mouthpiece audio and couple both into a 2-wire circuit that connects the phone to the exchange. 2048 superframes. The longest recurrent time period of the frame structure.

HLR HMS

HO HPU HOLD

HPLMN HR HS HSI/S HSM HSN

HT100

HU

HW Hybrid Combiner

Hybrid Transformer

Hyperframe

I - IWU
I IA Information frames. Part of RLP. Incoming Access supplementary service. An arrangement which allows a member of a CUG to receive calls from outside the CUG. International Alphanumeric 5 character set.

IA5

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IADU

Integrated Antenna Distribution Unit. The IADU is the equivalent of the Receive Matrix used on BTSs that pre-date the M-Cell range. Initial Address Message. A message sent in the forward direction that contains (a) address information, (b) the signaling information required to route and connect a call to the called line, (c) service-class information, (d) information relating to user and network facilities, and (e) call-originator identity or call-receiver identity. Internal Alarm System. The IAS is responsible for monitoring all cabinet alarms at a BSS. Integrated Circuit. An electronic circuit that consists of many individual circuit elements, such as transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, inductors, and other active and passive semiconductor devices, formed on a single chip of semiconducting material and mounted on a single piece of substrate material. Interlock Code. A code which uniquely identifies a CUG within a network. Interlock Code of the preferential CUG. Incoming Calls Barred. An access restriction that prevents a CUG member from receiving calls from other members of that group. Integrated Circuit(s) Card. In-Call Modification. Function which allows the service mode (speech, facsimile, data) to be changed during a call. Internet Control Message Protocol. An extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages, test packets, and informational messages related to IP. The PING command, for example, uses ICMP to test an Internet connection. IDentification/IDentity/IDentifier. Integrated Digital Network. A network that uses both digital transmission and digital switching. Interface Design Specification. Informix Dynamic Server. The OMC-R relational database management system. Information Element. The part of a message that contains configuration or signalling information. International Electrotechnical Commission. An international standards and conformity assessment body for electrical, electronic and related technologies. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. A non-profit, technical professional association. Information Element Identifier. The identifier field of the IE. Interim European Telecommunication Standard. Intermediate Frequency. A frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception.

IAM

IAS IC

IC IC(pref) ICB

ICC ICM ICMP

ID, Id IDN IDS IDS IE IEC

IEEE IEI I-ETS IF

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IFAM IM

Initial and Final Address Message. InterModulation. The production, in a nonlinear element of a system, of frequencies corresponding to the sum and difference frequencies of the fundamentals and harmonics thereof that are transmitted through the element. Intelligent Monitor And Control System. International Mobile station Equipment Identity. Electronic serial number that uniquely identifies the MS as a piece or assembly of equipment. The IMEI is sent by the MS along with request for service. See also IMEISV. International Mobile station Equipment Identity and Software Version number. The IMEISV is a 16 digit decimal number composed of four elements:- a 6 digit Type Approval Code; - a 2 digit Final Assembly Code; - a 6 digit Serial Number; and - a 2 digit Software Version Number (SVN). The first three elements comprise the IMEI. When the network requests the IMEI from the MS, the SVN (if present) is also sent towards the network. See also IMEI and SVN. IMMediate assignment message. IMMs are sent from the network to the MS to indicate that the MS must immediately start monitoring a specified channel. International Mobile Subscriber Identity. Published mobile number (prior to ISDN) that uniquely identifies the subscription. It can serve as a key to derive subscriber information such as directory number(s) from the HLR. See also MSISDN. Intelligent Network. A network that allows functionality to be distributed flexibly at a variety of nodes on and off the network and allows the architecture to be modified to control the services. Interrogating Node. A switching node that interrogates an HLR, to route a call for an MS to the visited MSC. IN Service. Intelligent Network Service. A service provided using the capabilities of an intelligent network. See also IN. Interference Algorithm. Intermittent alarms are transient and not usually associated with a serious fault condition. After the intermittent alarms are displayed in the Alarm window, the operator must handle and clear the alarm. The system will report every occurrence of an intermittent alarm unless it is throttled. See also FMIC and OIC. The general term used to describe the inter-operation of networks, services, supplementary services and so on. See also IWF. A recording period of time in which a statistic is pegged. The end of an interval. Input/Output. Intelligent Optimization Service. Tool for improving the network quality. The IOS generates reports based on performance data from the BTS and OMC-R.

IMACS IMEI

IMEISV

IMM

IMSI

IN

IN INS INS InterAlg Intermittent

Interworking

Interval Interval expiry I/O IOS

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IP

Initialisation Process. The IP is primarily responsible for bringing up the site from a reset, including code loading the site from a suitable code source. IP also provides the CSFP functionality, allowing two BSS code load version to be swapped very quickly, allowing the site to return to service as soon as possible. Internet Protocol. A standard protocol designed for use in interconnected systems of packet-switched computer communication networks. IP provides for transmitting blocks of data called datagrams from sources to destinations, where sources and destinations are hosts identified by fixed-length addresses. The internet protocol also provides for fragmentation and reassembly of long datagrams, if necessary, for transmission through small-packet networks. See also TCP and TCP/IP. Inter-Process Communication. Exchange of data between one process and another, either within the same computer or over a network. INtermodulation Products. Distortion. A type of spurious emission. Intellectual PRoperty. Integrated Power Supply Module (-48 V). Internetwork Packet EXchange A networking protocol used by the Novell NetWare operating systems. Like UDP/IP, IPX is a datagram protocol used for connectionless communications. Higher-level protocols are used for additional error recovery services. Incremental Redundancy (Hybrid Type II ARQ) A communications system comprising a constellation of 66 low-earth-orbiting (LEO) satellites forming a mobile wireless system allowing subscribers to place and receive calls from any location in the world. The satellite constellation is connected to existing terrestrial telephone systems through a number of gateway ground-stations. Indexed Sequential Access Method. A method for managing the way a computer accesses records and files stored on a hard disk. While storing data sequentially, ISAM provides direct access to specific records through an index. This combination results in quick data access regardless of whether records are being accessed sequentially or randomly. International Switching Centre. The ISC routes calls to/from other countries. Integrated Services Digital Network. A digital network using common switches and digital transmission paths to establish connections for various services such as telephony, data telex, and facsimile. See also B channel and D channel. Motorola Information Systems group (formerly CODEX). International Organisation for Standardization. ISO is a world-wide federation of national standards bodies from some 130 countries, one from each country.

IP

IPC

IP, INP IPR IPSM IPX

IR Iridium

ISAM

ISC ISDN

ISG ISO

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ISQL ISS

An Interactive Structured Query Language client application for the database server. See also IDS. Integrated Support Server. The ISS resides on a Sun Netra t 1125 and performs the CGF, DNS, NTP, and NFS functions for the GSN. Integrated System Test. ISDN User Part. An upper-layer application supported by signalling system No. 7 for connection set up and tear down. Inactivity Test (Part of SCCP network connectivity). Information Transfer Capability. A GSM Bearer Capability Element which is provided on the Dm channel to support Terminal adaptation function to Interworking control procedures. International Telecommunication Union. An intergovernmental organization through which public and private organizations develop telecommunications. It is responsible for adopting international treaties, regulations and standards governing telecommunications. International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunications Standardization Sector. The standardization functions were formerly performed by CCITT, a group within the ITU. InterWorking Function. A network functional entity which provides network interworking, service interworking, supplementary service interworking or signalling interworking. It may be a part of one or more logical or physical entities in a GSM PLMN. InterWorking MSC. MSC that is used to deliver data to/from SGSN. InterWorking Unit. Unit where the digital to analogue (and visa versa) conversion takes place within the digital GSM network.

IST ISUP IT ITC

ITU

ITU-T

IWF

IWMSC IWU

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k - KW
k k K KAIO kb, kbit kbit/s, kbps kbyte Kc kHz Ki KIO KPI KSW KSWX kW kilo (103). Windows size. Constraint length of the convolutional code. Kernel Asynchronous Input/Output. Part of the OMC-R relational database management system. kilo-bit. kilo-bits per second. kilobyte. 210 bytes = 1024 bytes Ciphering key. A sequence of symbols that controls the operation of encipherment and decipherment. kilo-Hertz. Individual subscriber authentication Key. Part of the authentication process of the AUC. A class of processor. Key Performance Indicator. Kiloport SWitch board. TDM timeslot interchanger to connect calls. Part of the BSS. KSW Expander half size board. Fibre optic distribution of TDM bus. Part of the BSS. kilo-Watt.

L1 - LV
L1 L2 L2ML Layer 1 (of a communications protocol). Layer 2 (of a communications protocol). Layer 2 Management Link. L2ML is used for transferring layer 2 management messages to TRX or BCF. One link per TRX and BCF. Layer 2 Relay function. A function of an MS and IWF that adapts a users known layer 2 protocol LAPB onto RLP for transmission between the MT and IWF. L2R Bit Orientated Protocol. L2R Character Orientated Protocol. Layer 3 (of a communications protocol). Link Adaptation. Location Area. An area in which an MS may move freely without updating the location register. An LA may comprise one or several base station areas. Location Area Code. The LAC is part of the LAI. It is an operator defined code identifying the location area.

L2R

L2R BOP L2R COP L3 LA LA

LAC

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LAI

Location Area Identity. The information indicating the location area in which a cell is located. The LAI data on the SIM is continuously updated to reflect the current location of the subscriber. Local Area Network. A data communications system that (a) lies within a limited spatial area, (b) has a specific user group, (c) has a specific topology, and (d) is not a public switched telecommunications network, but may be connected to one. LAN Extender half size board. Fibre optic distribution of LAN to/from other cabinets. Part of BSS, etc. Link Access Protocol Balanced. The balanced-mode, enhanced version of HDLC. Used in X.25 packet-switching networks. Link Access Protocol D-channel (Data). A protocol that operates at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI architecture. LAPD is used to convey information between layer 3 entities across the frame relay network. The D-channel carries signalling information for circuit switching. Link Access Protocol on the Dm channel. A link access procedure (layer 2) on the CCH for the digital mobile communications system. See OSI-RM and Physical Layer. See OSI-RM and Data Link Layer. See OSI-RM and Network Layer. See OSI-RM and Transport Layer. See OSI-RM and Session Layer. See OSI-RM and Presentation Layer. See OSI-RM and Application Layer. Inductor Capacitor. A type of filter. Link Control Function. LCF GPROC controls various links in and out of the BSC. Such links include MTL, XBL, OMF and RSL. See also LCP. Local Communications Network. A communication network within a TMN that supports data communication functions (DCFs) normally at specified reference points q1 and q2. LCNs range from the simple to the complex. LCN examples include point-to-point connections and networks based on star and bus topologies. Link Control Processor. An LCP is a GPROC or PCMCIA board device which supplies the LCF. Once the LCF has been equipped, and assuming GPROCs have been equipped, processors are allocated by the software. Location Services Local Exchange. Light Emitting Diode. A type of diode that emits light when current passes through it. Depending on the material used the colour can be visible or infrared.

LAN

LANX LAPB LAPD

LAPDm

Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5 Layer 6 Layer 7 LC LCF

LCN

LCP

LCS LE LED

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LF

Line Feed. A code that moves the cursor on a display screen down one line. In the ASCII character set, a line feed has a decimal value of 10. On printers, a line feed advances the paper one line. Length Indicator. Delimits LLC PDUs within the RLC data block, when an LLC PDU boundary occurs in the block. Line Identity. The LI is made up of a number of information units: the subscribers national ISDN/MSISDN number; the country code; optionally, subaddress information. In a full ISDN environment, the line identity includes all of the address information necessary to unambiguously identify a subscriber. The calling line identity is the line identity of the calling party. The connected line identity is the line identity of the connected party. Logical Link Control. Lower Layer Compatibility. The LLC can carry information defining the lower layer characteristics of the terminal. Traffic channel with capacity lower than a Bm. LAN Monitor Process. Each GPROC which is connected to a LAN has an LMP, which detects faults on the LAN. LAN alarms are generated by the GPROC. Least Mean Squares. Parameters determined by minimizing the sum of squares of the deviations. Local Mobile Station Identity. A unique identity temporarily allocated to visiting mobile subscribers in order to speed up the search for subscriber data in the VLR, when the MSRN allocation is done on a per cell basis. Local Maintenance Terminal. Diagnostic tool, typically an IBM compatible PC. Low Noise Amplifier. An amplifier with low noise characteristics. Last Number Dialled. An area in which a mobile station may move freely without updating the location register. A location area may comprise one or several base station areas. Linear Predictive Coding. A method of digitally encoding analog signals. It uses a single-level or multi-level sampling system in which the value of the signal at each sample time is predicted to be a linear function of the past values of the quantified signal. Local PLMN. Link Quality Control. Location Register. The GSM functional unit where MS location information is stored. The HLR and VLR are location registers. Link Stations Signalling Unit (Part of MTP transport system). Listener Side Tone Rating. A rating, expressed in dB, based on how a listener will perceive the background noise picked up by the microphone. Long Term Average. The value required in a BTSs GCLK frequency register to produce a 16.384 MHz clock.

LI LI

LLC LLC Lm LMP

LMS LMSI

LMT LNA LND Location area

LPC

LPLMN LQC LR LSSU LSTR

LTA

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LTE LTP LTU LU LU LV

Local Terminal Emulator. Long Term Predictive. Line Terminating Unit. Local Units. Location Update. A location update is initiated by the MS when it detects that it has entered a new location area. Length and Value.

M - MUX
M M M-Cell M&TS Mandatory. Mega (106). Motorola Cell. Maintenance and TroubleShooting. Functional area of Network Management software which (1) collects and displays alarms, (2) collects and displays Software/Hardware errors, and (3) activates test diagnostics at the NEs (OMC). Mobile Allocation. The radio frequency channels allocated to an MS for use in its frequency hopping sequence. Medium Access Control. MAC includes the functions related to the management of the common transmission resources. These include the packet data physical channels and their radio link connections. Two Medium Access Control modes are supported in GSR5, dynamic allocation and fixed allocation. Mobile Allocation Channel Number. See also MA. A cell in which the base station antenna is generally mounted away from buildings or above rooftop level. Mobile Additional Function. Mobile Access Hunting supplementary service. An automatic service which searches for the first available mobile user out of a defined group. Mobile Allocation Index. Mean Accumulated Intrinsic Down Time. MAINTenance. Mobile Allocation Index Offset. The offset of the mobile hopping sequence from the reference hopping sequence of the cell. Mobile Application Part (part of SS7 standard). The inter-networking signalling between MSCs and LRs and EIRs. Mobile Application Part Processor. Megabyte. 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1024 kilobytes. Megabits per second. Motorola Cellular Advanced Processor. The MCAP Bus is the inter-GPROC communications channel in a BSC. Each card cage in a BSC needs at least one GPROC designated as an MCAP Server.

MA MAC

MACN Macrocell MAF MAH

MAI MAIDT MAINT MAIO MAP MAPP MB, Mbyte Mbit/s MCAP

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MCC MCDF MCI

Mobile Country Code. The first three digits of the IMSI, used to identify the country. Motorola Customer Data Format used by DataGen for simple data entry and retrieval. Malicious Call Identification supplementary service. This feature is supported by a malicious call trace function by printing the report at the terminating MSC when the mobile subscriber initiates a malicious call trace request. Modulation and Coding Scheme. Motorola Customer Support Centre. Main Control Unit for M-Cell2/6. Also referred to as the Micro Control Unit in software. Main Control Unit, with dual FMUX. (Used in M-Cellhorizon). Main Control Unit for M-Cellmicro sites (M-Cellm). Also referred to as the Micro Control Unit in software. The software subtype representation of the Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) for the MCU-m. Mediation Device. The MD (which handles the Q3 interface) allows the OSI Processor to communicate between the Network Management Centre (NMC) and OMC-R for network configuration, events and alarms. mobile Management entity - Data Link layer. Maintenance Entity (GSM Rec. 12.00). Mobile Equipment. Equipment intended to access a set of GSM PLMN and/or DCS telecommunication services, but which does not contain subscriber related information. Services may be accessed while the equipment, capable of surface movement within the GSM system area, is in motion or during halts at unspecified points. Maintenance Entity Function (GSM Rec. 12.00). A function which possesses the capability to detect elementary anomalies and convey them to the supervision process. MultiFrame. In PCM systems, a set of consecutive frames in which the position of each frame can be identified by reference to a multiframe alignment signal. Multi-Frequency (tone signalling type). See DTMF. MultiFunction block. Management. Manager. Message Handling System. The family of services and protocols that provides the functions for global electronic-mail transfer among local mail systems. Mobile Handling Service. Mega-Hertz (106). Maintenance Information. Management Information Base. A Motorola OMC-R database. There is a CM MIB and an EM MIB.

MCS MCSC MCU MCUF MCU-m MCUm MD

MDL ME ME

MEF

MF

MF MF MGMT, mgmt MGR MHS

MHS MHz MI MIB

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MIC Microcell

Mobile Interface Controller. A cell in which the base station antenna is generally mounted below rooftop level. Radio wave propagation is by diffraction and scattering around buildings, the main propagation is within street canyons. minute(s). micro-second (10-6). Micro Base Control Unit. The BCU is the Macro/Microcell implementation of a BTS site controller. Management Information Tree. A file on the Motorola OMC-R. The MIT file effectively monitors data on every device and every parameter of each device that is in the current versions of software on the OMC-R. The data is stored as a text file on the OMC-R. The MIT file also contains the hierarchical relationships between the network devices. Man Machine. See MMI. Mobility Management. MM functions include authorization, location updating, IMSI attach/detach, periodic registration, ID confidentiality, paging, handover, etc. Mobile Management Entity. Middle Man Funnel process. Man Machine Interface. The method by which the user interfaces with the software to request a function or change parameters. The MMI may run on a terminal at the OMC, or an LMT. The MMI is used to display alarm reports, retrieve device status, take modules out of service and put modules into service. A machine configured to use the OMC-R software from an MMI server. MMI client/MMI server. A computer which has its own local copy of the OMC-R software. It can run the OMC-R software for MMI clients to mount. Man Machine Language. The tool of MMI. Multiple Serial Interface Link. (see also 2Mbit/s link) Mobile Network Code. The fourth, fifth and optionally sixth digits of the IMSI, used to identify the network. MaiNTenance. Motorola Signalling Link between the BSC and BTS. Mobile Originated. Mobile Originated Point-to-Point messages. Transmission of a SMS from a mobile to a message handling system. The maximum length of the message is 160 characters. The message can be sent whether or not the MS is engaged in a call. Motorola OMAP.

min s BCU MIT

MM MM

MME MMF MMI

MMI client MMI processor MMI server

MML MMS MNC MNT Mobis MO MO/PP

MOMAP

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MoU

Memorandum of Understanding. Commercial term. An MoU usually sets out the broad parameters of an understanding as well as the general responsibilities and obligations of each party in a proposed venture. It has little legal significance except to indicate the parties commitments and acts as an aid to interpreting the parties intentions. There are various types of MOUs: compliance MOUs help ensure that all Motorola units comply with applicable laws and regulations; intellectual property MOUs deal with copyright, trademark, and patent rights; and business arrangement MOUs relate to the terms and conditions of a product or service transfer. Multi Personal Computer (was part of the OMC). (mobile) Management (entity) - PHysical (layer) [primitive]. Master Processor MultiParTY (Multi ParTY) supplementary service. MPTY provides a mobile subscriber with the ability to have a multi-connection call, i.e. a simultaneous communication with more than one party. MultiPleXed. Micro Radio Control Unit. Mobile Roaming Number. Mouth Reference Point. Facility for assessing handset and headset acoustic responses. Mobile Station. The GSM subscriber unit. A subscriber handset, either mobile or portable, or other subscriber equipment, such as facsimile machines, etc. Mobile-services Switching Centre, Mobile Switching Centre. The MSC handles the call set up procedures and controls the location registration and handover procedures for all except inter-BTS, inter-cell and intra-cell handovers. MSC controlled inter-BTS handovers can be set as an option at the switch. Mobile Station Class Mark. Mobile Station Control Unit. millisecond (.001 second). Multiple Serial Interface board. Intelligent interface to two 2 Mbit/s digital links. See 2 Mbit/s link and DS-2. Part of BSS. Mobile Station Identification Number. The part of the IMSI identifying the mobile station within its home network. Mobile Station International ISDN Number. Published mobile number (see also IMSI). Uniquely defines the mobile station as an ISDN terminal. It consists of three parts: the Country Code (CC), the National Destination Code (NDC) and the Subscriber Number (SN). Mobile Station Roaming Number. A number assigned by the MSC to service and track a visiting subscriber. Message Signal Unit (Part of MTP transport system). A signal unit containing a service information octet and a signalling information field which is retransmitted by the signalling link control, if it is received in error.

MPC MPH MPROC MPTY

MPX MRC MRN MRP MS

MSC

MSCM MSCU msec MSI MSIN MSISDN

MSRN MSU

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MT MT (0, 1, 2)

Mobile Terminated. Describes a call or short message destined for an MS. Mobile Termination. The part of the MS which terminates the radio transmission to and from the network and adapts terminal equipment (TE) capabilities to those of the radio transmission. MT0 is mobile termination with no support for terminal, MT1 is mobile termination with support for an S-type interface and MT2 is mobile termination with support for an R-type interface. Mean Time Between Exceptions. Mean Time Between Failures. An indicator of expected system reliability calculated on a statistical basis from the known failure rates of various components of the system. MTBF is usually expressed in hours. Message Transfer Link. The MTL is the 64 kbit/s PCM timeslot that is used to convey the SS7 signalling information on the A interface between the MSC and the BSC. Mobile-To-Mobile (call). Message Transfer Part. The part of a common-channel signaling system that transfers signal messages and performs associated functions, such as error control and signaling link security. Mobile Terminated Point-to-Point messages. Transmission of a short message from a message handling system to a mobile. The maximum length of the message is 160 characters. The message can be received whether or not the MS is engaged in a call. Mean Time To Repair. The total corrective maintenance time divided by the total number of corrective maintenance actions during a given period of time. Two types of multiframe are defined in the system: a 26-frame multiframe with a period of 120 ms and a 51-frame multiframe with a period of 3060/13 ms. Mark Up. Multi User Mobile Station. Multiplexer. A device that combines multiple inputs into an aggregate signal to be transported via a single transmission channel.

MTBE MTBF

MTL

MTM MTP

MT/PP

MTTR

Multiframe

MU MUMS MUX

NACK - nW
NACK, Nack N/W NB NBIN NCC No Acknowledgement Network. Normal Burst (see Normal burst). A parameter in the frequency hopping sequence generation algorithm. Network Colour Code. The NCC and the BCC are part of the BSIC. The NCC comprises three bits in the range 000 to 111. It is the same as the PLMN Colour Code. See also NCC and BSIC.

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NCELL NCH

Neighbouring (of current serving) Cell. Notification CHannel. Part of the downlink element of the CCCH reserved for voice group and/or voice broad-cast calls and notification messages. Network Cell Reselection Manager. No Duplicates. A database column attribute meaning the column contains unique values (used only with indexed columns). National Destination Code. Part of the MSISDN. An NDC is allocated to each GSM PLMN. Network Determined User Busy. An NDUB condition occurs when a call is about to be offered and the maximum number of total calls for the channel has been reached. In practice, the total number of calls could be three: one for the basic call, one for a held call and one for call waiting. Network Element (Network Entity). A piece of telecommunications equipment that provides support or services to the user. Network Element Function block. A functional block that communicates with a TMN for the purpose of being monitored, or controlled, or both. Norme Europennes de Telecommunications. An RF planning tool, NetPlan can import data from the OMC and use it to carry out a network frequency replan. See OSI RM. The Network Layer responds to service requests from the Transport Layer and issues service requests to the Data Link Layer. It provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport Layer. The Network Layer performs network routing, flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control functions. Network Function. Network File System. A file system that is distributed over a computer network. Also, a file system, on a single computer, that contains the low-level networking files for an entire network. Network Health Analyst. The NHA is an optional feature. It detects problems by monitoring network statistics and events via the OMC-R. The NHA analyses the event history, statistics and network configuration data to try to determine the cause of the detected problems. Network Interface Board. Network Interface Card. A network interface device in the form of a circuit card that provides network access. Network Independent Clocking. Network Information Service. It allows centralised control of network information for example hostnames, IP addresses and passwords.

NCRM ND

NDC NDUB

NE

NEF

NET NetPlan Network Layer

NF NFS

NHA

NIB NIC NIC NIS

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N-ISDN

Narrowband Integrated Services Digital Network: Services include basic rate interface (2B+D or BRI) and primary rate interface (30B+D - Europe and 23B+D - North America or PRI). Supports narrowband speeds at/or below 1.5 Mbps. Network Interface Unit. A device that performs interface functions, such as code conversion, protocol conversion, and buffering, required for communications to and from a network. Network Interface Unit, micro. M-Cellmicro MSI. See Network Layer. Network LinK processor(s). Newton metres. Network Management (manager). NM is all activities which control, monitor and record the use and the performance of resources of a telecommunications network in order to provide telecommunication services to customers/users at a certain level of quality. Network Management Application Service Element. Network Management Centre. The NMC node of the GSM TMN provides global and centralised GSM PLMN monitoring and control, by being at the top of the TMN hierarchy and linked to subordinate OMC nodes. National Mobile Station Identification number, or, National Mobile Subscriber Identity. The NMSI consists of the MNC and the MSIN. Nordic Mobile Telephone system. NMT produced the worlds first automatic international mobile telephone system. No Nulls. A database column attribute meaning the column must contain a value in all rows. A period of modulated carrier less than a timeslot. Number Plan Identifier. Non Return to Zero. A code in which ones are represented by one significant condition and zeros are represented by another, with no neutral or rest condition. Network Service Access Point. An NSAP is a registration made by an application which specifies its desired listening criteria. The registration is limited to a particular CPU and port number. Criteria can include: DNICs, national numbers, subaddress ranges, protocol-ids, and extended addresses. Network Service Provider. A national or regional company that owns or maintains a portion of the network and resells connectivity. Network Status Summary. A feature of the OMC-R MMI, which provides different network maps giving visual indication of the network configuration and performance, and how the different network management functions are implemented by the OMC-R. Network Service Test(er). A PCU process that periodically tests all alive NS-VCs on a PICP board. Network Service - Virtual Circuit.

NIU

NIU-m NL NLK Nm NM

NMASE NMC

NMSI

NMT NN Normal burst NPI NRZ

NSAP

NSP

NSS

NST NS-VC

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NT

Network Termination. Network equipment that provides functions necessary for network operation of ISDN access protocols. Non Transparent. NTRAC Type Approvals Advisory Board. Committee engaged in harmonisation type approval of telecom terminals in Europe. Network Time Protocol. A protocol built on top of TCP/IP that assures accurate local timekeeping with reference to radio, atomic or other clocks located on the Internet. This protocol is capable of synchronizing distributed clocks within milliseconds over long time periods. # - The symbol used for number.2 Mbit/s link - As used in this manual set, the term applies to the European 4-wire 2.048 Mbit/s digital line or link which can carry 30 A-law PCM channels or 120 16 kbit/s GSM channels.4GL - 4th Generation Language. Closer to human languages than typical high-level programming languages. most 4GLs are used to access databases. Network User Access. Network User Identification. National User Part. (part of SS7). NonVolatile. Non-Volatile Random Access Memory. Static random access memory which is made into non-volatile storage either by having a battery permanently connected, or, by saving its contents to EEPROM before turning the power off and reloading it when power is restored. Nano-Watt (10-9).

NT NTAAB NTP

Numbers

NUA NUI NUP NV NVRAM

nW

O - Overlap
O OA Optional. Outgoing Access supplementary service. An arrangement which allows a member of a CUG to place calls outside the CUG. Operation, Administration, & Management. Operation, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning. Operations and Maintenance. Off-Air-Call-Set-Up. The procedure in which a telecommunication connection is being established whilst the RF link between the MS and the BTS is not occupied. Outgoing Calls Barred within the CUG supplementary service. An access restriction that prevents a CUG member from placing calls to other members of that group. Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator. High stability clock source used for frequency synchronization. Optional for operators to implement for their aim.

OA&M OAMP O&M OASCU

OCB

OCXO OD

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OFL offline online OIC

% OverFlow. IDS shutdown state. IDS normal operating state. Operator Initiated Clear. An alarm type. OIC alarms must be cleared by the OMC-R operator after the fault condition that caused the alarm is resolved. See also FMIC and Intermittent. Off_Line MIB. A Motorola DataGen database, used to modify and carry out Radio Frequency planning on multiple BSS binary files. Overall Loudness Rating. Operations and Maintenance Application Part (part of SS7 standard) (was OAMP). Operations and Maintenance Centre. The OMC node of the GSM TMN provides dynamic O&M monitoring and control of the PLMN nodes operating in the geographical area controlled by the specific OMC. Operations and Maintenance Centre - Gateway Part. (Iridium) Operations and Maintenance Centre - GPRS Part. Operations and Maintenance Centre - Radio Part. Operations and Maintenance Centre - Switch Part. Operations and Maintenance Function (at BSC). Operations and Maintenance Link. The OML provides communication between an OMC-R and a BSC or RXCDR for transferring network management (O&M) data. Operation and Maintenance Processor. Part of the BSC. Operation and Maintenance System (BSC-OMC). Operation and Maintenance SubSystem. Out Of Service. Identifies a physical state. The OOS state indicates the physical device is out of service. This state is reserved for physical communication links. Also, identifies a telephony state. The OOS state is used by the BTS device software to indicate that the BTS is completely out of service. Originating Point Code. A part of the label in a signalling message that uniquely identifies, in a signalling network, the (signalling) origination point of the message. Olympus Radio Architecture Chipset. Operating System. The fundamental program running on a computer which controls all operations. Open Systems Interconnection. The logical structure for communications networks standardized by the ISO. The standard enables any OSI-compliant system to communicate and exchange information with any other OSI-compliant system.

OLM

OLR OMAP OMC

OMC-G OMC-G OMC-R OMC-S OMF OML

OMP OMS OMSS OOS

OPC

ORAC OS OSI

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OSI RM

OSI Reference Model. An abstract description of the digital communications between application processes running in distinct systems. The model employs a hierarchical structure of seven layers. Each layer performs value-added service at the request of the adjacent higher layer and, in turn, requests more basic services from the adjacent lower layer:Layer 1 - Physical Layer, Layer 2 - Data Link Layer, Layer 3 - Network Layer, Layer 4 - Transport Layer, Layer 5 - Session Layer, Layer 6 Presentation Layer, Layer 7 - Application Layer. Operation Systems Function block. Open Software Foundation Motif. The basis of the GUI used for the Motorola OMC-R MMI. Operator Services System. Overlap sending means that digits are sent from one system to another as soon as they are received by the sending system. A system using ~ will not wait until it has received all digits of a call before it starts to send the digits to the next system. This is the opposite of en bloc sending where all digits for a given call are sent at one time. See en bloc.

OSF OSF/MOTIF OSS Overlap

PA - PXPDN
P1, P2, P3 PA PAB PABX Puncturing Schemes 1, 2, and 3. Power Amplifier. Power Alarm Board. Part of the BSS. Private Automatic Branch eXchange. A private automatic telephone exchange that allows calls within the exchange and also calls to and from the public telephone network. Packet Associated Control Channel. A sequence of binary digits, including data and control signals, that is transmitted and switched as a composite whole. The process of routing and transferring data by means of addressed packets so that a channel is occupied during the transmission of the packet only, and upon completion of the transmission the channel is made available for the transfer of other traffic. Packet Assembler/Disassembler facility. A hardware device that allows a data terminal that is not set up for packet switching to use a packet switching network. It assembles data into packets for transmission, and disassembles the packets on arrival. The procedure by which a GSM PLMN fixed infrastructure attempts to reach an MS within its location area, before any other network-initiated procedure can take place. CEPT 2 Mbit/s route through the BSS network. Packet Braodcast Control channel. Processor Bus.

PACCH Packet Packet Switching

PAD

Paging

PATH PBCCH PBUS

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PBX

Private Branch eXchange. In the general use of the term, PBX is a synonym for PABX. However, a PBX operates with only a manual switchboard; a private automatic exchange (PAX) does not have a switchboard, a private automatic branch exchange (PABX) may or may not have a switchboard. Personal Computer. A general-purpose single-user microcomputer designed to be operated by one person at a time. PCU Central Authority. One pCA software process is located at every PCU. The CA is in control of the PCU. It is resident on the master DPROC (MPROC) only, and maintains a list of the status of every device and every software process at the site. Packet Common Control Channel. Paging CHannel. A common access RF channel providing point-to-multipoint unidirectional signaling downlink. Provides simultaneous transmission to all MSs over a wide paging area. Paging Channel Network. Physical Channel. The physical channel is the medium over which the information is carried. In the case of GSM radio communications this would be the Air Interface. Each RF carrier consists of eight physical channels (or timeslots) used for MS communications. In the case of a terrestrial interface the physical channel would be cable. See also Physical Layer. Packet Control Interface. Peripheral Component Interconnect. A standard for connecting peripherals to a personal computer, PCI is a 64-bit bus, though it is usually implemented as a 32-bit bus. Pulse Code Modulation. Modulation in which a signal is sampled, and the magnitude (with respect to a fixed reference) of each sample is quantized and converted by coding to a digital signal. Provides undistorted transmission, even in the presence of noise. See also 2 Mbit/s link, which is the physical bearer of PCM. PCU Configuration Management. pCM is a GWM process. It distributes all database changes performed at the BSC to the PCU boards. Personal Communications Network. Any network supporting PCS, but in particular DCS1800. Preventative Cyclic Retransmission. A form of error correction suitable for use on links with long transmission delays, such as satellite links.

PC

pCA

PCCCH PCH

PCHN PCHN

PCI PCI

PCM

pCM

PCN PCR

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PCS

The U. S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) term used to describe a set of digital cellular technologies being deployed in the U.S. PCS works over GSM, CDMA

(also called IS-95), and North American TDMA (also called IS-136) air interfaces. PCS System Personal Communications Services System. In PCS, a collection of facilities that provides some combination of personal mobility, terminal mobility, and service profile management. Note: As used here, "facilities" includes hardware, software, and network components such as transmission facilities, switching facilities, signalling facilities, and databases. A cellular phone network using the higher frequency range allocated in countries such as the USA. It operates on the frequency range, 1850 - 1910 MHz (receive) and 1930 - 1990 MHz (transmit). Packet Control Unit. A BSS component that provides GPRS with packet scheduling over the air interface with the MS, and packet segmentization and packetization across the Frame Relay link with the SGSN. Picocell Control unit. Part of M-Cellaccess. Potential difference. Voltage. Protocol Discriminator field. The first octet of the packet header that identifies the protocol used to transport the frame. Public Data. See PDN. Power Distribution Board. Packet Data Channel. PDCH carries a combination of PBCCH and PDTCH logical channels. Power Distribution Frame (MSC/LR). Public Data Network. A network established and operated by a telecommunications administration, or a recognized private operating agency, for the specific purpose of providing data transmission services for the public. Packet Data Protocol. Packet Data Traffic Channels Power Distribution Unit. The PDU consists consisting of the Alarm Interface Board (AIB) and the Power Distribution Board (PDB). Protected Data Unit. Protocol Data Unit. A term used in TCP/IP to refer to a unit of data, headers, and trailers at any layer in a network.

PCS1900

PCU

PCU pd PD PD PDB PDCH PDF PDN

PDP PDTCH PDU

PDU PDU

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PEDC Peg

Pan-European Digital Cellular network. The GSM network in Europe. A single incremental action modifying the value of a statistic. Also, A number indicating the use of a device or resource. Each time the device or resource is used the peg count is incremented. Modifying a statistical value. PCU Fault Collection Process. See pFTP. PCU Fault Transaction Process. The pFTP resides on the PSP as part of the GWM Functional Unit process. All alarms at the PCU are reported to pFTP. All DPROCs and the MPROC have a local pFCP to handle Software Fault Management indications (SWFMs). The pFTP forwards alarms to the Agent at the BSC and generates messages to pCA for device transitions as needed, based on faults reported. Primary GSM. PGSM operates on the standard GSM frequency range, 890 - 915 MHz (receive) and 935 - 960 MHz (transmit). Packet Handler. A packet handler assembles and disassembles packets. PHysical (layer). See Physical Layer. Packet Handler Interface. See OSI-RM. The Physical Layer is the lowest of seven hierarchical layers. It performs services requested by the Data Link Layer. The major functions and services of the layer are: (a) establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium; (b) participation in the process of sharing communication resources among multiple users; and, (c) conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. Presentation Indicator. The PI forms part of the calling name information. Depending on database settings, the PI may prevent the called party from seeing the identity of the calling party. Packet Immediate Assignment. A cell site where the base station antenna is mounted within a building. Packet Interface Control Processor. A PCU hardware component, the PICP is a DPROC board used for network interfacing functions such as SGSN and BSC. Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement. A statement made by the supplier of an implementation or system claimed to conform to a given specification, stating which capabilities have been implemented. Process IDentifier/Process ID. PCM Interface Module (MSC). Personal Identification Number. A password, typically four digits entered through a telephone keypad. Problem Identification Number.

Pegging pFCP pFTP

PGSM PH PH PHI Physical Layer

PI

PIA Picocell PICP

PICS

PID PIM PIN PIN

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PIX

Parallel Interface Extender half size board. Customer alarm interface, part of the BSS. The PIX board provides a means of wiring alarms external to the BSS, BSC, or BTS into the base equipment. Protocol Implementation eXtra information for Testing. A statement made by a supplier or implementor of an implementation under test (IUT) which contains information about the IUT and its testing environment which will enable a test laboratory to run an appropriate test suite against the IUT. Primary Key. A database column attribute, the primary key is a not-null, non-duplicate index. See Presentation Layer. Unciphered data. Frequency planning tool. Phase Lock Loop (refers to phase locking the GCLK in the BTS). PLL is a mechanism whereby timing information is transferred within a data stream and the receiver derives the signal element timing by locking its local clock source to the received timing information. Public Land Mobile Network. The mobile communications network. Performance Management. An OMC application. PM enables the user to produce reports specific to the performance of the network. Prompt Maintenance Alarm. An alarm report level; immediate action is necessary. See also DMA. PCI Mezzanine Card. Packet Management Report. Pseudo MMS. Performance Management User Interface. PCM MUltipleXer. Permanent Nucleus group of the GSM committee. Prsentation des Normes Europennes. Presentation rules of European Standards. Point of Interconnection. A point at which the cellular network is connected to the PSTN. A cellular system may have multiple POIs. Plain Old Telephone Service. Basic telephone service without special features such as call waiting, call forwarding, etc. Peak-to-peak. Point-to-Point. Parts per billion. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) to PCI Bridge board. The PPB allows an MPROC to be linked to a separate bus. The PPB and MPROC are paired boards. Primitive Procedure Entity.

PIXT or PIXIT

PK PL Plaintext PlaNET PLL

PLMN PM

PMA PMC PMR PMS PM-UI PMUX PN PNE POI

POTS pp, p-p PP ppb PPB

PPE

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ppm Pref CUG

Parts per million (x 10-6). Preferential CUG. A Pref CUG, which can be specified for each basic service group, is the nominated default CUG to be used when no explicit CUG index is received by the network. See OSI RM. The Presentation Layer responds to service requests from the Application Layer and issues service requests to the Session Layer. It relieves the Application Layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation within the end-user systems. A cell which is already optimized in the network and has a co-located neighbour whose cell boundary follows the boundary of the said cell. The primary cell has a preferred band equal to the frequency type of the coincident cell. Packet Resource Manager. The PRM is a PRP process. It performs all RLC/MAC functions and realises UL/DL power control and timing advance. Programmable Read Only Memory. A storage device that, after being written to once, becomes a read-only memory. Packet Resource Process(or). A PCU hardware component, the PRP is a DPROC board which manages the packet resources at the PCU and is the processor where all of the radio related processing occurs. GPRS channels are routed to PRPs which perform the RLC/MAC processing, air interface scheduling, and frame synchronization of the channels. Location probability. Location probability is a quality criterion for cell coverage. Due to shadowing and fading a cell edge is defined by adding margins so that the minimum service quality is fulfilled with a certain probability. Puncturing Scheme. Periodic Supervision of Accessibility. PSA is a fault management function. It periodically sends messages to BSSs requesting information on their current state. This verifies whether the BSSs are operational or not. If a BSS fails to respond to a PSA request for its status, the OMC-R will generate an alarm for that BSS. Packet System Information. Presentation Services Access Point. PCU System Audit Process. pSAP is a GWM process. It periodically monitors the soft devices to maintain the reliability of the system. Power Supply Module. PCU Switch Manager. The pSM resides on the PSP as part of the GWM Functional Unit process. The pSM maintains data paths within the PCU and communicates with the BSC. PCU System Processor board. Part of GPRS. Packet Switched Public Data Network. See Packet Switching and PDN.

Presentation Layer

Primary Cell

PRM

PROM PRP

Ps

PS PSA

PSI PSAP pSAP

PSM pSM

PSP PSPDN

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PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network. The domestic land line telecommunications network. It is usually accessed by telephones, key telephone systems, private branch exchange trunks, and data arrangements. Power Supply Unit. Pure Sine Wave. Packet Timing Advance Control Channel Public Telecommunications Operator. Packet Timeslot Reconfiguration. Packet Uplink Assignment. Price per Unit Currency Table. The PUCT is the value of the Home unit in a currency chosen by the subscriber. The PUCT is stored in the SIM. The value of the PUCT can be set by the subscriber and may exceed the value published by the HPLMN. The PUCT value does not have any impact on the charges raised by the HPLMN. Permanent Virtual Circuit. Also, in ATM terminology, Permanent Virtual Connection. A virtual circuit that is permanently established, saving the time associated with circuit establishment and tear-down. See also SVC. Pass Word. Power. Private eXchange Public Data Network. See also PDN.

PSU PSW PTACH PTO PTR PUA PUCT

PVC

PW PWR PXPDN

QA- Quiesent mode


QA Q (Interface) - Adapter. TMN interface adapter used to communicate with non-TMN compatible devices and objects. Used to connect MEs and SEs to TMN (GSM Rec. 12.00). Interface between NMC and GSM network. See QA. Q-Adapter Function. Quad European Interface. Interfaces four 2 Mbit/s circuits to TDM switch highway. See MSI. Quarter Inch Cartridge (Data storage format). Quality Of Service. An alarm category which indicates that a failure is degrading service. Data structure in which data or messages are temporarily stored until they are retrieved by a software process. Also a series of calls waiting for service. See also FIFO. IDS intermediate state before shutdown.

Q3 Q-adapter QAF QEI QIC QoS Queue

Quiescent mode

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R - RXU
R Value of reduction of the MS transmitted RF power relative to the maximum allowed output power of the highest power class of MS (A). RAndom mode request information field. Radio Access. Routing Area. Rural Area with the MS travelling at 250 kph. Dynamic model against which the performance of a GSM receiver can be measured. See also TU3, TU50, HT100 and EQ50. Random Access Burst. Data sent on the RACH. Random Access Control CHannel. A GSM common control channel used to originate a call or respond to a page. Random Access CHannel. The RACH is used by the mobile station to request access to the network. See also RAB. A term applied to the transmission of electromagnetically radiated information from one point to another, usually using air or vacuum as the transmission medium. An electromagnetic wave frequency intermediate between audio frequencies and infrared frequencies used in radio and television transmission. Random Access Memory. A read/write, nonsequential-access memory in which information can be stored, retrieved and modified. This type of memory is generally volatile (i.e., its contents are lost if power is removed). RANDom number (used for authentication). The RAND is sent by the SGSN to the MS as part of the authentication process. Radio Access Technology Receive Antenna Transceiver Interface. Rate Adaptation. Remote BSS Diagnostic System (a discontinued Motorola diagnostic facility). Residual Bit Error Ratio. RBER is a ratio of the number of bits in error to the total number of bits received, within error detected speech frames defined as good. The measurement period over which the calculation is made is 480 ms. During this period, 24 speech frames are decoded and a ratio calculated. By referring to a lookup table, the ratio is then converted to an RBER Quality number between 0 and 7. Remote Base Transceiver Station. A BTS that is not co-located with the BSC that controls it. Radio Control Board. Part of the DRCU. Radio Channel Identifier. The unique identifier of the radio channel portion of the circuit path. Radio Channel Interface. The RCI changes the MS address used in the RSS (channel number) to the address used in Layer 3 in the BSC CP. Radio Control Processor.

RA RA RA RA250

RAB RACCH RACH Radio Frequency

RAM

RAND RAT RATI RAx RBDS RBER

RBTS RCB RCI RCI

RCP

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RCU

Radio Channel Unit. Part of the BSS. Contains transceiver, digital control circuits, and power supply. Note: The RCU is now obsolete, see DRCU. Receiver. Requirements Database. Relational DataBase Management System (INFORMIX). The database management system for the OMC-R database. Restricted Digital Information. Radio Digital Interface System. Reference Distribution Module. The RDM provides a stable 3MHz reference signal to all transceivers. It is used for carrier and injection frequency synthesis. Relative Distinguished Name. A series of RDNs form a unique identifier, the distinguished name, for a particular network element. RECommendation. Used to describe adjacent cells; each being designated as a neighbour of the other. Also known as bi-directional and two-way neighbour. The process of a MS registering its location with the MSC in order to make or receive calls. This occurs whenever the MS first activates or moves into a new service area. REJect(ion). RELease. Residual Excited Linear Predictive. A form of speech coding. RELP coders are usually used to give good quality speech at bit rates in the region of 9.6 kbit/s. RELP Long Term Prediction. A name for GSM full rate. See Full Rate. A combiner device which houses two processors (for paired-redundancy) and several tuneable cavities. See also COMB Resynchronize/resynchronization. REQuest. The minimum number of cells required in a pattern before channel frequencies are reused, to prevent interference. Varies between cell configuration type and channel type. The pattern shows assignments of adjacent channels to minimize interference between cells and sectors within the pattern area. A Motorola DataGen utility for producing an MMI script from a binary object database. See Radio Frequency. Radio Frequency Channel. A partition of the system RF spectrum allocation with a defined bandwidth and centre frequency. Radio Front End (module). Receiver Front End (shelf).

RCVR RDB RDBMS RDI RDIS RDM

RDN

REC, Rec Reciprocal neighbour

Registration

REJ REL RELP

RELP-LTP Remotely Tuned Combiner

resync REQ Reuse Pattern

Revgen RF RFC, RFCH

RFE RFE

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RFEB RFI RFM RFN RFU RJ45

Receiver Front End Board. Part of DRCU II. Radio Frequency Interference. Radio Frequency Module. Reduced TDMA Frame Number. Reserved for Future Use. Registered Jack 45. An eight-wire connector used commonly to connect computers onto a local-area networks (LAN), especially Ethernets. Reduced Instruction Set Computer. A type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instruction types, allowing it to operate at relatively higher speeds. Remote login. RL is a means by which the operator performs configuration management, fault management, and some performance management procedures at the NEs. The RL software manages the X.25 connection for remote login. The circuit is made by the OMC-R calling the NE. Release Complete. An SCCP message type used with RLSD to release a connection. Radio Link Control. Air interface transmission layer. The RLC function processes the transfer of PDUs from the LLC layer. RF Link Manager. Radio Link Protocol. An ARQ protocol used to transfer user data between an MT and IWF. See GSM 04.22. Receive Loudness Rating. See SLR. ReLeaSeD. An SCCP message type used with RLC to release a connection. Root Mean Square (value). The most common mathematical method of defining the effective voltage or current of an AC wave. For a sine wave, the rms value is 0.707 times the peak value. Remote Mobile Switching Unit. An RMSU is a line concentrator. It may be inserted between the MSC and some of the BSS sites served by the MSC to reduce the number of terrestrial signalling and traffic circuits required. Table of 128 integers in the hopping sequence. Reliability, Operability, Availability, Maintainability. Situation where mobile station operates in a cellular system other than the one from which service is subscribed. Read Only Memory. Computer memory that allows fast access to permanently stored data but prevents addition to or modification of the data. ROM is inherently non-volatile storage - it retains its contents even when the power is switched off. Remote Operations Service Element. An ASE which carries a message between devices over an association established by ASCE (a CCITT specification for O & M) (OMC). Time period between transmit and receive instant of a timeslot in the BTS, propagation determined by the response behaviour of the MS and the MS to BTS delay distance.

RISC

RL

RLC RLC RLM RLP RLR RLSD RMS

RMSU

RNTABLE ROAM Roaming ROM

ROSE

Roundtrip

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RPE RPE-LTP

Regular Pulse Excited (codec). See RPE-LTP. Regular Pulse Excitation - Long Term Prediction. The GSM digital speech coding scheme. GSM uses a simplified RPE codec, with long-term prediction, operating at 13 kbits/s to provide toll quality speech. Recognised Private Operating Agency. Private telecommunications operator recognised by the appropriate telecommunications authority. Read Privilege Required. Part of the table structure of the OMC database schema. Access to the column is allowed only for privileged accounts. Radio Resource management. Part of the GSM management layer. The functions provided by RR include paging, cipher mode set, frequency redefinition, assignments, handover and measurement reports. Receive Ready. Radio Resource State Machine. Translates messages through Call Processing (CP). Activates and deactivates radio channels as controlled by the CRM. Radio Resource Switch Manager. Recommended Standard 232. The interface between a terminal (DTE) and a modem (DCE) for the transfer of serial data. Standard serial interface. Radio System Entity. Radio Signalling Link. RSL is used for signalling between the BSC and BTSs. The interface uses a 64 kbit/s timeslot with a LAPD protocol. Radio System Link Function. Radio System Link Processor. Radio SubSystem (replaced by BSS). Received Signal Strength Indicator. A parameter returned from a transceiver that gives a measure of the RF signal strength between the MS and BTS, either uplink or downlink. Regional Subscription Zone Identity. The RSZI defines the regions in which roaming is allowed. The elements of the RSZI are:The Country Code (CC) which identifies the country in which the GSM PLMN is located,The National Destination Code (NDC) which identifies the GSM PLMN in that country,The Zone Code (ZC) which identifies a regional subscription zone as a pattern of allowed and not allowed location areas uniquely within that PLMN. Remotely Tuneable Channel Combiner. RTCs are used to fine-tune the cavities to the right frequency. A poorly tuned cavity can cause power destined for the antenna to be reversed. Remote Terminal Emulator. Radio Transceiver Function. RTF is the function that supports the air interface channel and the DRI/Transceiver pair. When equipping a DRI at a remote BTS, one or more RTFs must be equipped.

RPOA

RPR

RR

RR RRSM

RRSM RS232

RSE RSL

RSLF RSLP RSS RSSI

RSZI

RTC

RTE RTF

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RTF RTS

Receive Transmit Functions. Request to Send. A handshaking signal used with communication links, especially RS232 or CCITT Rec. V.24 to indicate (from a transmitter to a receiver) that data is ready for transmission. See also CTS. Rack Unit. System processor operating mode. Receive(r). Receive window buffer. Remote Transcoder. An RXCDR is used when the transcoding is performed at a site away from the BSC. This site would be at or near the MSC. This enables 4:1 multiplexing in which the transcoded data for four logical channels is combined onto one 64 kbit/s link, thus reducing the number of links required for interconnection to the BSCs. See also XCDR. Receive Function (of the RTF). Received signal level. An indication of received signal level based on the RSSI. RXLEV is one of the two criteria for evaluating the reception quality (the basis for handover and power control). See also RXQUAL. The MS reports RXLEV values related to the apparent received RF signal strength. It is necessary for these levels to attain sufficient accuracy for the correct functioning of the system. Received signal level downlink. Received signal level uplink. Received signal quality. An indication of the received signal quality based on the BER. RXQUAL is one of the two criteria for evaluating the reception quality (the basis for handover and power control). See also RXLEV. The MS measures the received signal quality, which is specified in terms of BER before channel decoding averaged over the reporting period of length of one SACCH multiframe. Received signal quality downlink. Received signal quality uplink. Remote Transcoder Unit. The shelf which houses the remote transcoder modules in a BSSC cabinet at a remote transcoder site.

RU Run level Rx RX RXCDR

RXF RXLEV

RXLEV-D RXLEV-U RXQUAL

RXQUAL-D RXQUAL-U RXU

S7- SYSGEN
S7 S/W SABM SABME See SS7. SoftWare. Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode. A message which establishes the signalling link over the air interface. SABM Extended.

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SACCH

Slow Associated Control CHannel. A GSM control channel used by the MS for conveying power control and timing advance information in the downlink direction, and RSSI and link quality reports in the uplink direction. Slow Associated Control CHannel/SDCCH/4. Slow Associated Control CHannel/SDCCH/8. Slow Associated Control CHannel/Traffic channel. Slow Associated Control CHannel/Traffic channel Full rate. Slow Associated Control CHannel/Traffic channel Half rate. A brand of trunk test equipment. Service Access Point. In the reference model for OSI, SAPs of a layer are defined as gates through which services are offered to an adjacent higher layer. System Audits Process. SAP is on each GPROC in the BSS. It monitors the status of the BSS on a periodic (scheduled) and on-demand basis during normal mode. SAP detects faulty or degrading hardware and software (through the use of audit tests) and notifies the Alarms handling software of the condition. Service Access Point Indicator (identifier). The OSI term for the component of a network address which identifies the individual application on a host which is sending or receiving a packet. Surface Acoustic Wave. SAW devices basically consist of an input transducer to convert electrical signals to tiny acoustic waves, which then travel through the solid propagation medium to the output transducer where they are reconverted to electrical signals. SAW band pass filters are used for sorting signals by frequency. Synchronization Burst (see Synchronization burst). Serial Bus. An SBUS is a logical device made up of the communication path between the GPROCs and LANX cards in a cage. Service Centre (used for Short Message Service). Service Code. System Change Control Administration. Software module which allows full or partial software download to the NE (OMC). Signalling Connection Control Part (part of SS7). Speech Coding Experts Group (of GSM). Synchronization CHannel. A GSM broadcast control channel used to carry information for frame synchronization of MSs and identification of base stations. Status Control Interface. A slave to the Status Control Manager. Serial Communication Interface Processor. Status Control Manager. Accepts messages from other processors within the switch requesting status displays in the form of one or more lights on a hardware panel. The SCM maps the status display requests into specific commands to the status control interface processor to turn on and/or turn off lights.

SACCH/C4 SACCH/C8 SACCH/T SACCH/TF SACCH/TH SAGE SAP

SAP

SAPI

SAW

SB SBUS

SC SC SCCA SCCP SCEG SCH

SCI SCIP SCM

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SCN SCP SCSI

Sub-Channel Number. One of the parameters defining a particular physical channel in a BS. Service Control Point (an intelligent network entity). Small Computer Systems Interface. A processor-independent standard for system-level interfacing between a computer and intelligent devices including hard disks, floppy disks, CD-ROM, printers, scanners, and many more. SCSI-1 can connect up to seven devices to a single SCSI adaptor (or host adaptor) on the computers bus. Slim Channel Unit. Slim Channel Unit for GSM900. Stand-alone Dedicated Control CHannel. A GSM control channel where the majority of call setup occurs. Used for MS to BTS communications before MS assigned to TCH. A SDCCH is used by a single MS for call setup, authentication, location updating and SMS point to point. Specification Description Language. A method for visually depicting the functionality of call processing, operations and maintenance software. Sub-rate Data Multiplexor SDL Development Tool. A software tool to model and validate real-time, state-based product software designs. Service Data Unit. In layered systems, a set of data that is sent by a user of the services of a given layer, and is transmitted to a peer service user semantically unchanged. Special Drawing Rights. The SDR is the International Monetary Fund unit of account. It also serves as a basis for the unit of account for a number of other international organizations and as a basis for private financial instruments. The SDR is based on the values of the euro, U .S. dollar, Jap

SCU SCU900 SDCCH

SDL

SDM SDT SDU

SDR

anese yen and pound sterling. SE Secondary Cell Support Entity. See SEF. A cell which is not optimized in the network and has a co-located neighbour whose cell boundary follows the boundary of the said cell. The secondary cell has a preferred band the same as that of its own frequency type. Support Entity Function. SEFs are functions not directly involved in the telecommunication process. They include fault localisation, protection switching, etc. (GSM Rec.12.00).

SEF

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Session Layer

See OSI RM. The Session Layer responds to service requests from the Presentation Layer and issues service requests to the Transport Layer. It provides the mechanism for managing the dialogue between end-user application processes. It provides for either duplex or half-duplex operation and establishes checkpointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. Synthesizer Frequency Hopping. The principle of SFH is that every mobile transmits its time slots according to a sequence of frequencies that it derives from an algorithm. The frequency hopping occurs between time slots and, therefore, a mobile station transmits (or receives) on a fixed frequency during one time slot. It must then hop before the time slot on the next TDMA frame. Due to the time needed for monitoring other base stations the time allowed for hopping is approximately 1 ms, according to the receiver implementation. The receive and transmit frequencies are always duplex frequencies. Serving GPRS Support Node. The SGSN provides the control, transmission, OAMP, and charging functions. It keeps track of the individual MS locations, and performs security functions and access control. The SGSN is connected to the BSS via a Frame Relay network. Screening Indicator. The supplementary service (SS) screening indicator is sent by the MS at the beginning of the radio connection to allow the network to assess the capabilities of the MS and hence determine either whether a particular network initiated SS operation may be invoked or which version of a network initiated SS operation should be invoked. The SS screening indicator is only relevant to network initiated SS operation and is valid for the duration of a radio connection. Service Interworking. Part of the IWF. Supplementary Information. System Information. Supplementary Information A. Silence Descriptor. The transmission of comfort noise information to the RX side is achieved by means of a SID frame. A SID frame is transmitted at the end of speech bursts and serves as an end of speech marker for the RX side. In order to update the comfort noise characteristics at the RX side, SID frames are transmitted at regular intervals also during speech pauses. This also serves the purpose of improving the measurement of the radio link quality by the radio subsystem (RSS). Signal Information Field. The bits of a message signal unit that carry information for a certain user transaction; the SIF always contains a label. See SS7. Subscriber Identity Module. Removable module which is inserted into a mobile equipment; it is considered as part of the MS. It contains security related information (IMSI, Ki, PIN), other subscriber related information and the algorithms A3 and A8. Single Inline Memory module.

SFH

SGSN

SI

SI SI SI SIA SID

SIF

Signalling System No.7 SIM

SIMM

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SIMM SIO

System Integrated Memory Module. A small plug-in circuit board providing additional RAM for a computer. Service Information Octet. Eight bits contained in a message signal unit, comprising the service indicator and sub-service field. A value in the SIF of an SS7 signalling message specifying the User Part type. BSC, BTS or collocated BSC-BTS site. Serial Interface eXtender. Converts interface levels to TTL levels. Used to extend 2 serial ports from GPROC to external devices (RS232, RS422, and fibre optics). Secondary Key. A database column attribute, the secondary key indicates an additional index and/or usage as a composite key. See Session Layer. Signalling Link. The signalling links between the various network elements are: Remote BTS to BSC - Radio Signalling Link (RSL), BSC to MSC - Message Transfer Link (MTL), OMC(R) to BSS - Operations and Maintenance Link (OML), Remote XCDR to BSC - XCDR signalling Link (XBL), CBC to BSC - Cell Broadcast Link (CBL). Serial Link. One of four communications paths between SCIP and peripheral equipment. The information on the link is sent serially in a bit-synchronous format. Send Loudness Rating. The SLR, in the mobile to land direction, and the Receive Loudness Rating (RLR) in the land to mobile direction, determine the audio signal levels for the customers speech. The loudness ratings are calculated from the send and receive sensitivity masks or frequency responses. Signalling Link Test Acknowledge. Message sent from the MSC to the BSC in response to an SLTM. Signalling Link Test Message. During the process of bringing an MTL link into service, the BSC sends an SLTM message to the MSC. The MSC responds with an SLTA message. Switch Manager. The function of the SM is to connect a MS terrestrial trunk from the MSC (designated by the MSC), to the radio channel given to a MS by the cell resource manager in the BSS software. Summing Manager. System Management Application Entity (CCITT Q795, ISO 9596). OSI terminology for a software Management Information Server that manages a network. System Management Application Service Element. Short Message Cell Broadcast. Short Message Entity. An entity that may send or receive Short Messages. The SME may be located in a fixed network, an MS, or a SC. See also SMS. Special Mobile Group. To avoid confusion between the GSM system and the GSM committee with its wider responsibilities, the committee was renamed SMG in 1992.

SITE SIX

SK

SL SL

SLNK

SLR

SLTA SLTM

SM

SM SMAE

SMASE SMCB SME

SMG

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SMP

Motorola Software Maintenance Program. A Motorola program designed to ensure the highest quality of software with the highest level of support. Short Message Service. SMS is a globally accepted wireless service that enables the transmission of alphanumeric messages between mobile subscribers and external systems such as electronic mail, paging, and voice-mail systems. It transfers the short messages, up to 160 characters, between Smts and MSs via an SMS-SC. See also SMS-SC, SMS/PP and Smt. Short Message Service Cell Broadcast. SMSCB is a service in which short messages may be broadcast from a PLMN to MSs. SMSCB messages come from different sources (e.g. traffic reports, weather reports). Messages are not acknowledged by the MS. Reception of SMSCB messages by the MS is only possible in idle mode. The geographical area over which each message is transmitted is selected by the PLMN operator, by agreement with the provider of the information. Short Message Service - Service Centre. SMS-SC is an interworking unit between stationary networks and the GSM Network. It acts as a store and forward centre for short messages. See also SMS, SMS/PP and Smt. Short Message Service/Point-to-Point. Two different point-to-point services have been defined: Mobile Originated (MO) and Mobile Terminated (MT). A short message always originates or terminates in the GSM network. This means that short messages can never be sent between two users both located in stationary networks. See also SMS, SMS-SC and Smt. Short message terminal. See also SMS, SMS-SC and SMS/PP. There are different types of Smt interfaces, one being the Computer Access Interface which provides services for external computers communicating with SMS-SCs through the Computer Access Protocol. Subscriber Number. SeND. SeNDeR. Serial NumbeR. Suppress Outgoing Access (CUG SS). An arrangement which prevents a member of a CUG placing calls outside the CUG. A complete set of software and firmware objects including the database object. Service Provider. The organisation through which the subscriber obtains GSM telecommunications services. This may be a network operator or possibly a separate body. Signalling Point. A signalling point is a node within a SS7 network. Special Product. SPare.

SMS

SMSCB

SMS-SC

SMS/PP

Smt

SN SND SNDR SNR SOA Software Instance SP

SP SP SP

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SPARC

Scalable Processor ArChitecture. a 32- and 64-bit microprocessor architecture from Sun Microsystems that is based on the Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). SPARC has become a widely-used architecture for hardware used with UNIX-based operating systems. Signalling Point Code. Suppress Preferential CUG. Prohibits the use of the preferential CUG, on a per call basis. Signalling Point Inaccessible. Single Path Preselector. Signal Quality Error. Structured Query Language. The standard language for relational database management systems as adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI X3.135-1989) and the International Standards Organization (ISO 9075-1989). Service Request Distributor. Signed RESponse (authentication). The SRES is calculated by the MS, using the RAND, and sent to the SGSN to authenticate the MS. Supplementary Service. A modification of, or a supplement to, a basic telecommunication service. System Simulator. ITU-TSS Common Channel Signalling System No. 7. Also known as C7, S7 or SS#7. The standard defines the procedures and protocol by which network elements in the PSTN exchange information over a digital signalling network to effect wireless (cellular) and wireline call setup, routing and control. SubSystem-Allowed. SSA is used for SCCP subsystem management. An SSA message is sent to concerned destinations to inform those destinations that a subsystem which was formerly prohibited is now allowed. (see ITU-T Recommendation Q.712 para 1.15). Site System Audits Processor. Supplementary Service Control string. When a subscriber selects a supplementary service control from the menu in a GSM network, the mobile station invokes the SSC by sending the network the appropriate functional signalling message. Subservice Field. The level 3 field containing the network indicator and two spare bits. SCCP Switch Manager. Signalling State Machine. SubSystem Number. In SS7, each signalling point (SP) may contain a number of subsystems. Each subsystem has a unique ID, the SSN (e.g. 149 for SGSN and 6 for HLR). Service Switching Point. Intelligent Network Term for the Class 4/5 Switch. The SSP has an open interface to the IN for switching signalling, control and handoff.

SPC SPC SPI SPP SQE SQL

SRD SRES

SS SS SS7

SSA

SSAP SSC

SSF SSM SSM SSN

SSP

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SSP

Subsystem-prohibited. SSP is used for SCCP subsystem management. An SSP message is sent to concerned destinations to inform SCCP Management at those destinations of the failure of a subsystem. Switching SubSystem. The SSC comprises the MSC and the LRs. Statistical ANalysis (processor). STATistics. Statistics. System Timing Controller. The STC provides the timing functions for the GPROC. Side Tone Masking rating. A rating, expressed in dB, based on how a speaker will perceive his own voice when speaking. Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor. A link error rate monitor. Signalling Transfer Point. A node in the SS7 telephone network that routes messages between exchanges and between exchanges and databases that hold subscriber and routing information. Signal Unit. A group of bits forming a separately transferable entity used to convey information on a signalling link. Sun Microsystems UNIX Operating System. SunOS was renamed Solaris. 51 traffic/associated control multiframes or 26 broadcast/common control multiframes (period 6.12s). User account that can access all files, regardless of protection settings, and control all user accounts. Sectorized Universal Receiver Front-end (Used in Horizonmacro). Switch Virtual Circuit. A temporary virtual circuit that is set up and used only as long as data is being transmitted. Once the communication between the two hosts is complete, the SVC disappears. See also PVC. SerVice Manager. The SVM provides overall management authority for all in-service service circuits. Software Version Number. The SVN allows the ME manufacturer to identify different software versions of a given type approved mobile. See also IMEI and IMEISV. Software. SoftWare Fault Management. Software faults are handled through a SWFM facility which routes those events to the OMC independently through the FCP. SYstem information Manager. The SYM builds and sends GPRS system information messages over the BCCH. synchronize/synchronization. Period of RF carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation bit stream carries information for the MS to synchronize its frame to that of the received signal.

SSS STAN STAT stats STC STMR SUERM STP

SU SunOS Superframe Super user SURF SVC

SVM SVN

SW SWFM

SYM sync Synchronization burst

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Synthesizer hopping

Synthesizer hopping is a method of frequency hopping in which the RCUs are re-tuned in real-time, from frequency to frequency. SYStem. SYStem GENeration. The Motorola procedure for loading a configuration database into a BTS.

SYS SYSGEN

T -TxBPF
T T T T1 Timer. Transparent. Type only. Digital WAN carrier facility that transmits DS-1-formatted data at 1544 kbp/s through the telephone-switching network. companies. T1 lines are widely used for private networks as well as interconnections between an organizations PBX or LAN and the telco. Type 43 Interconnect Board. Provides interface to 12 unbalanced (6-pair) 75 ohm (T43 coax connectors) lines for 2 Mbit/s circuits (See BIB). Terminal Adaptor. A physical entity in the MS providing terminal adaptation functions (see GSM 04.02). See Timing Advance. Type Approval Code. Part of the IMEISV. Total Access Communication System. European analogue cellular system. Terminal Adaptation Function. Transmit Antenna Transceiver Interface. The TATI consists of RF combining equipments, either Hybrid or Cavity Combining. See CCB. Transparent Asynchronous Transmitter/Receiver Interface (physical layer). A 100 Mbps ATM transmission standard defined by the ATM Forum. To Be Determined. Temporary Block Flow. MAC modes support the provision of TBFs allowing the point-to-point transfer of signalling and user data between the network and an MS. Technical Basis for Regulation. An ETSI document containing technical requirements and procedures. TDM Bus. A TBUS is a logical device made up of the TDM backplane of a cage, the KSW devices managing the TDM highway of the cage, and local and remote KSWX devices (if they exist).

T43

TA TA TAC TACS TAF TATI

TAXI

TBD TBF

TBR TBUS

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TC

Transaction Capabilities. TC refers to a protocol structure above the network layer interface (i.e., the SCCP service interface) up to the application layer including common application service elements but not the specific application service elements using them. TC is structured as a Component sub-layer above a Transaction sub-layer. Transaction Capabilities Application Part. The layer of the SS7 protocol that is used to obtain Routing data for certain services. TATI Control Board. Traffic CHannel. GSM logical channels which carry either encoded speech or user data. A full rate TCH. See also Full Rate. A full rate TCH at ? 2.4 kbit/s. A full rate TCH at 4.8 kbit/s. A full rate TCH at 9.6 kbit/s. A full rate Speech TCH. A half rate TCH. See also Half Rate. A half rate TCH at ? 2.4 kbit/s. A half rate TCH at 4.8 kbit/s. A half rate Speech TCH. Transceiver Control Interface. Transmission Control Protocol. TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent. See also IP and TCP/IP. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Two interrelated protocols that are part of the Internet protocol suite. TCP operates on the OSI Transport Layer and IP operates on the OSI Network Layer. See also IP and TCP. Technical Commitee Technical Report. Transceiver Control Unit. Twin Duplexed Filter. Used in M-Cellhorizon. Time Division Multiplexing. A type of multiplexing that combines data streams by assigning each stream a different time slot in a set. TDM repeatedly transmits a fixed sequence of time slots over a single transmission channel. Within T-Carrier systems, such as T-1 and T-3, TDM combines PCM streams created for each conversation or data stream. Time Division Multiple Access. A technology for delivering digital wireless service using TDM. TDMA works by dividing a radio frequency into time slots and then allocating slots to multiple calls. In this way, a single frequency can support multiple, simultaneous data channels. TopCell Digital Unit. Part of the TopCell BTS hardware. A TDU is capable of supporting 6 TRUs for supporting up to 6 sectors.

TCAP TCB TCH TCH/F TCH/F2.4 TCH/F4.8 TCH/F9.6 TCH/FS TCH/H TCH/H2.4 TCH/H4.8 TCH/HS TCI TCP

TCP/IP

TC-TR TCU TDF TDM

TDMA

TDU

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TE Tei TEI TEMP TEST TF

Terminal Equipment. Equipment that provides the functions necessary for the operation of the access protocols by the user. Terminal endpoint identifier. A number that identifies a specific connection endpoint within a service access point. Terminal Equipment Identity. TEMPorary. TEST control processor. Transmission Function. The TF provides layered protocol software for handling payload information transfer and for providing signalling communications between the control function and external systems. TransFer Allowed. An SPC route management message used to notify adjacent signalling points of an accessible route. TransFer Prohibited. An SPC route management message used to notify adjacent signalling points of an inaccessible route. Trivial File Transfer Protocol. TFTP is a simple form of FTP. It uses UDP and provides no security features. It is often used by servers to boot diskless workstations, X-terminals, and routers. Transaction Identifier. The multiplex subdivision in which voice and signalling bits are sent over the air. Each RF carrier is divided into 8 timeslots. See also ARFCN. A signal sent by the BTS to the MS. It enables the MS to advance the timing of its transmission to the BTS so as to compensate for propagation delay. See Transport Layer. Temporary Logical Link Identifier. Type, Length and Value. An encoding element composed of three fields: a type identifier, a length indicator, and content octets. Traffic Manager. TDM Modem Interface board. Provides analogue interface from IWF to modems for 16 circuits. Part of IWF. Traffic Metering and Measuring. TMM provides system tools to be used by traffic engineering and switch maintenance personnel to determine if the system is operating correctly. TMM reports are provided for trunk circuits, trunk groups, service circuits, call routing and miscellaneous system data.

TFA TFP

TFTP

TI Timeslot

Timing advance

TL TLLI TLV

TM TMI TMM

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TMN

Telecommunications Management Network. The physical entities required to implement the Network Management functionality for the PLMN. Also, TMN was originated formally in 1988 under the ITU-TS as a strategic goal to create or identify standard interfaces that would allow a network to be managed consistently across all network element suppliers. The concept has led to a series of interrelated efforts at developing standard ways to define and address network elements. TMN uses the OSI Management Standards as its framework. TMN applies to wireless communications and cable TV as well as to private and public wired networks. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity. A unique identity temporarily allocated by the MSC to a visiting mobile subscriber to process a call. May be changed between calls and even during a call, to preserve subscriber confidentiality. Timeslot Number. Tunneling of Messages. Type Of Number. Channels which carry users speech or data. See also TCH. Equivalent to an erlang. Sequence of modulating bits employed to facilitate timing recovery and channel equalization in the receiver. See OSI RM. The Transport Layer responds to service requests from the Session Layer and issues service requests to the Network Layer. Its purpose is to provide transparent transfer of data between end users, thus relieving the upper layers from any concern with providing reliable and cost-effective data transfer. Timeslot Resource Shifter. The TRS determines which timeslots are active in a PRP board to perform a control of the GPRS traffic. Transcoder Rate Adaption Unit. TRAU converts the encoded voice and rate adapted data into 64 kbps data for the PSTN. Terrestrial Resource Management. TopCell Radio unit. Transceiver(s). A network component which can serve full duplex communication on 8 full-rate traffic channels according to specification GSM 05.02. If Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) is not used, then the TRX serves the communication on one RF carrier. Technical Specification. TeleService. Any service provided by a telecommunication provider. TimeSlot (see Timeslot). Training Sequence 1. Training Sequence 2. TimeSlot Acquisition.

TMSI

TN TOM TON Traffic channels Traffic unit Training sequence Transport Layer

TRS

TRAU TRM TRU TRX

TS TS TS TS1 TS2 TSA

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TSA TSDA TSC

TimeSlot Assignment. Transceiver Speech & Data Interface. Training Sequence Code. A training sequence is sent at the centre of a burst to help the receiver identify and synchronize to the burst. The training sequence is a set sequence of bits which is known by both the transmitter and receiver. There are eight different TSCs numbered 0 to 7. Nearby cells operating with the same RF carrier frequency use different TSCs to allow the receiver to identify the correct signal. TimeSlot Interchange. The interchange of timeslots within a TDM stream. Transceiver Speech and Data Interface. Transceiver Station Manager. TRAU SyNc. Timeslot SWitch. Tree and Tabular Combined Notation. TTCN is a programming language endorsed by ISO that is used to write test suites for telecommunications systems. Transistor to Transistor Logic. A common semiconductor technology for building discrete digital logic integrated circuits. TeleTYpe (refers to any terminal). Traffic Unit. Typical Urban with the MS travelling at 3 kph. Dynamic model against which the performance of a GSM receiver can be measured. See also TU50, HT100, RA250 and EQ50. Typical Urban with the MS travelling at 50 kph. Dynamic model against which the performance of a GSM receiver can be measured. See also TU3, HT100, RA250 and EQ50. Telephone User Part. TUP was an earlier implementation of SS7 and generally does not allow for data type applications. Type and Value. See Reciprocal neighbour. Transmit(ter). Transmit window buffer. Transmit Function. See RTF. Transmit PoWeR. Tx power level in the MS_TXPWR_REQUEST and MS_TXPWR_CONF parameters. Transmit Bandpass Filter. See BPF.

TSI TSDI TSM TSN TSW TTCN

TTL TTY TU TU3

TU50

TUP TV Two-way neighbour Tx TX TXF TXPWR

TxBPF

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U - UUS
UA Unnumbered Acknowledgment. A message sent from the MS to the BSS to acknowledge release of radio resources when a call is being cleared. Universal Coded Character Set 2. A codeset containing all of the characters commonly used in computer applications. Unrestricted Digital Information. User Datagram Protocol. UDP is a connectionless protocol that, like TCP, runs on top of IP networks. Unlike TCP/IP, UDP/IP provides very few error recovery services, offering instead a direct way to send and receive datagrams over an IP network. It is used primarily for broadcasting messages over a network. User Determined User Busy. Uplink Frame Error. Ultra High Frequency. The UHF range of the radio spectrum is the band extending from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. Unnumbered Information (Frame). Union International des Chemins de Fer. The UIC is the worldwide organisation for cooperation among railway companies. Its activities encompass all fields related to the development of rail transport. User ID. Unique number used by the system to identify the user. Upload (of software or database from an NE to a BSS). UpLink. UpLink Concatenator. The ULC concatenates RLC data blocks into LLC frames. Air interface. Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. The European implementation of the 3G wireless phone system. UMTS, which is part of IMT-2000, provides service in the 2GHz band and offers global roaming and personalized features. Designed as an evolutionary system for GSM network operators, multimedia data rates up to 2 Mbps are expected. A multiuser, multitasking operating system that is widely used as the master control program in workstations and especially servers. UNIX was developed by AT&T and freely distributed to government and academic institutions, causing it to be ported to a wider variety of machine families than any other operating system. As a result, UNIX became synonymous with open systems. Uniform PCM Interface (13 bit). The UPCMI is introduced for design purposes in order to separate the speech transcoder impairments from the basic audio impairments of the MS. Up to Date. Physical link from the MS towards the BTS (MS transmits, BTS receives).

UCS2 UDI UDP

UDUB UFE UHF UI UIC

UID UL UL ULC Um UMTS

UNIX

UPCMI

UPD Uplink

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UPS

Uninterruptable Power Supply. A device that is inserted between a primary power source, such as a commercial utility, and the primary power input of equipment to be protected, e.g., a computer system, for the purpose of eliminating the effects of transient anomalies or temporary outages. Backup power is used when the electrical power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level. User Part Unavailable. That part of the burst used by the demodulator; differs from the full burst because of the bit shift of the I and Q parts of the GMSK signal. Uplink State Flag. Unstructured Supplementary Service Data. The USSD mechanism allows the MS user and a PLMN operator defined application to communicate in a way which is transparent to the MS and to intermediate network entities. The mechanism allows development of PLMN specific supplementary services. UMTS Radio Access Network User-to-User Signalling supplementary service. The UUS supplementary service allows a mobile subscriber to send/receive a limited amount of information to/from another PLMN or ISDN subscriber over the signalling channel in association with a call to the other subscriber.

UPU Useful part of burst

USF USSD

UTRAN UUS

V - VTX host
V VA Value only. Viterbi Algorithm (used in channel equalizers). An algorithm to compute the optimal (most likely) state sequence in a model given a sequence of observed outputs. Voice Activity Detection. A process used to identify presence or absence of speech data bits. VAD is used with DTX. Videotex Access Point. Voice Broadcast Service. VBS allows the distribution of speech (or other signals which can be transmitted via the speech codec), generated by a service subscriber, into a predefined geographical area to all or a group of service subscribers located in this area. See Virtual Circuit. Voltage Controlled Oscillator. An oscillator whose clock frequency is determined by the magnitude of the voltage presented at its input. The frequency changes when the voltage changes. Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator. Visual Display Unit. A device used for the real-time temporary display of computer output data. Monitor. Voice Group Call Service.

VAD VAP VBS

VC VCO

VCXO VDU VGCS

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Videotex

The Videotex service is an interactive service, that by means of proper access points and standardized procedures, provides the access to data base information stored in host computers external to the PLMN, via public telecommunication networks. A connection between two devices, that functions as though it is a direct connection, even though it may physically be circuitous. The term is used most frequently to describe connections between two hosts in a packet-switching network. Visitor Location Register. A GSM network element which provides a temporary register for subscriber information for a visiting subscriber. Often a part of the MSC. Very Large Scale Integration (in ICs). The process of placing between 100,000 and one million electronic components on a single chip. Visited MSC. (Recommendation not to be used). Abbreviation for voice-coder. A device that usually consists of a speech analyzer, which converts analog speech waveforms into narrowband digital signals, and a speech synthesizer, which converts the digital signals into artificial speech sounds. Voice Operated Transmission. An acoustoelectric transducer and a keying relay connected so that the keying relay is actuated when sound, or voice energy above a certain threshold is sensed by the transducer. A vox is used to eliminate the need for push-to-talk operation of a transmitter by using voice energy to turn on the transmitter Visited PLMN. Videotex Service Centre. Send state variable. Vehicular Speaker Phone. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. In a transmission line, the ratio of maximum to minimum voltage in a standing wave pattern. Note: The VSWR is a measure of impedance mismatch between the transmission line and its load. The higher the VSWR, the greater the mismatch. The minimum VSWR, i.e., that which corresponds to a perfect impedance match, is unity. The components dedicated to Videotex service.

Virtual Circuit

VLR

VLSI

VMSC vocoder

VOX

VPLMN VSC V(SD) VSP VSWR

VTX host

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W - WWW
WAN Wide Area Network. A physical or logical network that provides data communications to a larger number of independent users than are usually served by a LAN and is usually spread over a larger geographic area than that of a LAN. WANs may include physical networks, such as ISDN networks, X.25 networks, and T1 networks. Wrong Password Attempts (counter). Some supplementary services have the option of the subscriber using a password. If a password check is done with an incorrect password, the WPA is incremented by one. If a password check is passed, the WPA is set to zero. If the WPA exceeds the value three, the subscriber will have to register a new password with the service provider. Work Station. The remote device via which O&M personnel execute input and output transactions for network management purposes. Work Station Function block. World Wide Web. An international, virtual-network-based information service composed of Internet host computers that provide on-line information in a specific hypertext format. WWW servers provide hypertext metalanguage (HTML) formatted documents using the hypertext transfer protocol, HTTP. Information on the WWW is accessed with a hypertext browser.

WPA

WS

WSF WWW

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X - X Window
X.25 X.25, adopted as a standard by the CCITT, is a commonly used protocol for public packet-switched networks (PSPDNS). The X.25 protocol allows computers on different public networks to communicate through an intermediary computer at the network layer level. The protocol corresponds closely to the data-link and physical-layer protocols defined in the OSI communication model. A communications link which conforms to X.25 specifications and uses X.25 protocol (NE to OMC links). Transcoder to BSS Link. The carrier communications link between the Transcoder (XCDR) and the BSS. Transceiver Control Board. Part of the Transceiver. Full-rate Transcoder. The XCDR is the digital signal processing equipment required to perform GSM-defined speech encoding and decoding. In terms of data transmission, the speech transcoder interfaces the 64 kbit/s PCM in the land network to the 13 kbit/s vocoder format used on the Air Interface. See also RXCDR. The circuit board required to perform speech transcoding at the BSS or (R)XCDR). Also known as the MSI (XCDR) board. Interchangeable with the GDP board. Transfer. eXchange IDentifier. X terminal window. A terminal emulator program for the X Window System. A user can have many different invocations of xterm running at once on the same display, each of which provides independent input and output for the process running in it (normally a shell). A specification for device-independent windowing operations on bitmap display devices.

X.25 link XBL XCB XCDR

XCDR board

XFER XID xterm

X Window

ZC
ZC Zone Code. Part of the RSZI. The ZC identifies a regional subscription zone as a pattern of allowed and not allowed location areas uniquely within a PLMN.

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