Academica, by Marcus Tullius Cicero

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Part II. of Varro's Exposition: Antiochus' <em>Ethics</em>. Summary. Part III of Varro's Exposition. Antiochus' <em>Physics</em>.

Academica, by Marcus Tullius Cicero
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Academica, by Marcus Tullius Cicero This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Academica Author: Marcus Tullius Cicero Release Date: February 8, 2005 [EBook #14970] Language: Latin with English and Greek (ancient) Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ACADEMICA *** Produced by Ted Garvin, Keith Edkins and the PG Online Distributed Proofreading Team THE ACADEMICA OF CICERO. THE TEXT REVISED AND EXPLAINED

Academica, by Marcus Tullius Cicero BY JAMES S. REID, M.L. CAMB. M.A. (LOND.) ASSISTANT TUTOR AND LATE FELLOW, CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE; ASSISTANT EXAMINER IN CLASSICS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. LONDON: MACMILLAN AND CO. 1874 [All Rights reserved.] ***** TO THOSE OF HIS PUPILS WHO HAVE READ WITH HIM THE ACADEMICA, THIS EDITION IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED BY THE EDITOR. ***** PREFACE.

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Since the work of Davies appeared in 1725, no English scholar has edited the Academica. In Germany the last edition with explanatory notes is that of Goerenz, published in 1810. To the poverty and untrustworthiness of Goerenz's learning Madvig's pages bear strong evidence; while the work of Davies, though in every way far superior to that of Goerenz, is very deficient when judged by the criticism of the present time. This edition has grown out of a course of Intercollegiate lectures given by me at Christ's College several years ago. I trust that the work in its present shape will be of use to undergraduate students of the Universities, and also to pupils and teachers alike in all schools where the philosophical works of Cicero are studied, but especially in those where an attempt is made to impart such instruction in the Ancient Philosophy as will prepare the way for the completer knowledge now required in the final Classical Examinations for Honours both at Oxford and Cambridge. My notes have been written throughout with a practical reference to the needs of junior students. During the last three or four years I have read the Academica with a large number of intelligent pupils, and there is scarcely a note of mine which has not been suggested by some difficulty or want of theirs. My plan has been, first, to embody in an Introduction such information concerning Cicero's philosophical views and the literary history of the Academica as could not be readily got from existing books; next, to provide a good text; then to aid the student in obtaining a higher knowledge of Ciceronian Latinity, and lastly, to put it in his power to learn thoroughly the philosophy with which Cicero deals. My text may be said to be founded on that of Halm which appeared in the edition of Cicero's philosophical works published in 1861 under the editorship of Baiter and Halm as a continuation of Orelli's second edition of Cicero's works, which was interrupted by the death of that editor. I have never however allowed one of Halm's readings to pass without carefully weighing the evidence he presents; and I have also studied all original criticisms upon the text to which I could obtain access. The result is a text which lies considerably nearer the MSS. than that of Halm. My obligations other than those to Halm are sufficiently acknowledged in my notes; the chief are to Madvig's little book entitled Emendationes ad Ciceronis libros Philosophicos, published in 1825 at Copenhagen, but never, I believe, reprinted, and to Baiter's text in the edition of Cicero's works by himself and Kayser. In a very few passages I have introduced emendations of my own, and that only where the conjecttires of other Editors seemed to me to depart too widely from the MSS. If any apology be needed for discussing, even sparingly, in the notes, questions of textual criticism, I may say that I have done so from a conviction that the very excellence of the texts now in use is depriving a Classical training of a great deal of its old educational value. The judgment was better cultivated when the student had to fight his way through bad texts to the author's meaning and to a mastery of the Latin tongue. The acceptance of results

Academica, by Marcus Tullius Cicero without a knowledge of the processes by which they are obtained is worthless for the purposes of education, which is thus made to rest on memory alone. I have therefore done my best to place before the reader the arguments for and against different readings in the most important places where the text is doubtful.

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My experience as a teacher and examiner has proved to me that the students for whom this edition is intended have a far smaller acquaintance than they ought to have with the peculiarities and niceties of language which the best Latin writers display. I have striven to guide them to the best teaching of Madvig, on whose foundation every succeeding editor of Cicero must build. His edition of the De Finibus contains more valuable material for illustrating, not merely the language, but also the subject-matter of the Academica, than all the professed editions of the latter work in existence. Yet, even after Madvig's labours, a great deal remains to be done in pointing out what is, and what is not, Ciceronian Latin. I have therefore added very many references from my own reading, and from other sources. Wherever a quotation would not have been given but for its appearance in some other work, I have pointed out the authority from whom it was taken. I need hardly say that I do not expect or intend readers to look out all the references given. It was necessary to provide material by means of which the student might illustrate for himself a Latin usage, if it were new to him, and might solve any linguistic difficulty that occurred. Want of space has compelled me often to substitute a mere reference for an actual quotation. As there is no important doctrine of Ancient Philosophy which is not touched upon somewhere in the Academica, it is evidently impossible for an editor to give information which would be complete for a reader who is studying that subject for the first time. I have therefore tried to enable readers to find easily for themselves the information they require, and have only dwelt in my own language upon such philosophical difficulties as were in some special way bound up with the Academica. The two books chiefly referred to in my notes are the English translation of Zeller's Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics (whenever Zeller is quoted without any further description this book is meant), and the Historia Philosophiae of Ritter and Preller. The pages, not the sections, of the fourth edition of this work are quoted. These books, with Madvig's De Finibus, all teachers ought to place in the hands of pupils who are studying a philosophical work of Cicero. Students at the Universities ought to have constantly at hand Diogenes Laertius, Stobaeus, and Sextus Empiricus, all of which have been published in cheap and convenient forms. Although this edition is primarily intended for junior students, it is hoped that it may not be without interest for maturer scholars, as bringing together much scattered information illustrative of the Academica, which was before difficult of access. The present work will, I hope, prepare the way for an exhaustive edition either from my own or some more competent hand. It must be regarded as an experiment, for no English scholar of recent times has treated any portion of Cicero's philosophical works with quite the purpose which I have kept in view and have explained above. Should this attempt meet with favour, I propose to edit after the same plan some others of the less known and less edited portions of Cicero's writings. In dealing with a subject so unusually difficult and so rarely edited I cannot hope to have escaped errors, but after submitting my views to repeated revision during four years, it seems better to publish them than to withhold from students help they so greatly need. Moreover, it is a great gain, even at the cost of some errors, to throw off that intellectual disease of over-fastidiousness which is so prevalent in this University, and causes more than anything else the unproductiveness of English scholarship as compared with that of Germany, I have only to add that I shall be thankful for notices of errors and omissions from any who are interested in the subject. JAMES S. REID. CHRIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, December, 1873. *****

Aug. Em. Em. = Forcellini. = Sextus Empiricus. Bentl. Theaet. = Epicurus. = Theaetetus. or P. = Somnium Scipionis. = Timaeus. Ac. = De Natura Deorum. In Cat. Brut. = Tusculan Disputations. = Physica. Eth. Luc. Phil. Liv. Bait. Corss. Dav. Gorg. Vokalismus und Betonung. = Academica Posteriora. Hortens. De Decr. Post. Dei = De Civitate Dei. Cic. Rep. et Plat. Galen. Acad. Ern. = Contra Academicos. Tim. = Paradoxa. = Pyrrhoneôn Hypotyposeôn Syntagmata. = Eusebius. = Nicomachean Ethics. Hyp. Goer. = De Inventione. Consol. Madv. Apol. or Manut. = Magna Moralia. Inscr. = Metaphysica. Ad Qu. = Plato: Rep. Mor. = De Legibus. Contra Ac. = Stobaeus. Mag. Seneca. = De Stoicis Repugnantiis. De Off. = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. = Goerenz. = De Republica. = Analytica Posteriora. Or. = Lucullus. = Ethica. = De Decretis Hippocratis et Platonis. Opusc. = Gorgias. Biogr. Cat. = Emendationes ad Ciceronis libros Philosophicos. = Baiter. = Cato Maior. = Laelius. = De Oratore. = Augustine. Gram. et Corr. = Divinatio in Quintum Caecilium. 4 . Ad Att. Wes. Post.F. = De Generatione Animalium. = Wesenberg. Plat. Plut. De Gen.D. = Praeparatio Evangelii. Verr. = Democritus. = Emendationes Livianae. De Rep. Hipp. = Madvig's edition of the De Finibus. De Inv. Emp. De Plac. Lamb. Pr. Sto. = Bentley. or Wesenb.Academica. or August. Nic. Parad. Qu. = Republic. = Epistles. Grundz. Curt. Dict. De Div. = Aussprache. = Turnebus.F. Eth. = De Generatione et Corruptione. Ad Fam. = Apologia Socratis.. Phys. = Ernesti. ad Helv. = In Verrem. Anal. Orat.. or Pyrrh. = In Catilinam. Inst. An. = Quintilian. = Corssen. Quintil. De Gen. Frat. T. = Manutius.M. Democr. = Ad Quintum Fratrem. Turn. = Curtius. Phys. Euseb. Ac. = Orator. Ac. Math. = Hermann. = Opuscula.D. or C. = Lambinus. = Consolatio ad Helvidium.. Herm. Hypotyp. = Sextus. = Hortensius. = Aristotle. = Institutiones Oratoriae. Mai. = Ad Familiares. = De Officiis. = De Divinatione. Caec. Forc. = Grundzüge der Griechischen Etymologie. M.D. Met. Corp. Somn. Stob. Div. Laert. in. De Civ. = Academica. = Dictionary of Classical Biography. In Verr. Diog. Arist. Tim. Sext. Pyrrh. = Adversus Mathematicos. by Marcus Tullius Cicero LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK. = De Placitis Philosophorum. = Davies. = Diogenes Laertius. D. Ausspr. Ev. Ep. = Plutarch. N. Man. = Madvig. Lael. = Physica. Adv. = Cicero. or Diog. = De Finibus. = Timaeus. Sext. = Brutus. Epic.H. Acad. or A. = Grammar. De Or. = Ad Atticum. De Leg. Scip.

INTRODUCTION. = fragment or fragments. = emendation.C. = 'conjecture' or 'conjectures'. edd. = Ritter and Preller's Historia Philosophiae ex fontium locis contexta.Academica. nn. received more lasting impressions from the teaching of Phaedrus.[4] Cicero soon abandoned Epicureanism. He too. fragm. It was probably at this period of their lives that Atticus and his friend became acquainted with Patro. with whom he studied chiefly. = except. then head of the Academic school. and Gk. who succeeded Zeno of Sidon as head of the Epicurean school. Gr. = subjunctive. = compare. and P. and he surrendered himself wholly. who represented the three most vigorous and . who speaks warmly in praise of his teacher's amiable disposition and refined style. he was a perfect master both of the theory and the practice of oratory. exx. = construction. R. as he tells us. lived constantly at Arpinum.[8] In the year 88 B. Cicero as a Student of Philosophy and Man of Letters: 90--45 B. by Marcus Tullius Cicero Cf.[5] At this time (i." was then the monopoly of the Stoic school. Introd.C. I. who. the exception of Lucretius. esteem. and that the great career once open to an orator was now barred. = examples. = Introduction. before 88 B. Lat. who. = quotes or quoted by. the friendship between the two lasted till the death of Diodotus. = preposition.C. = conjugation.[3] Phaedrus remained to the end of his life a friend of Cicero. we may conjecture. om. one of a number of eminent Greeks who fled from Athens on the approach of its siege during the Mithridatic war. constr. qu. and Cicero's feelings towards him were those of gratitude. led the young Cicero to feel the importance of a study of philosophy to serve as a corrective for the somewhat narrow rhetorical discipline of the time. but his schoolfellow. = editors. and spent the greater part of his time in study. prep. = Greek. 59. Philo. = notes. became an inmate of Cicero's house. to the brilliant Academic. which Cicero deems so important to the orator that he calls it "abbreviated eloquence. For some time Cicero spent all his days with Diodotus in the severest study. subj. was a man of versatile genius: unlike the Stoic philosopher.[2] Cicero's first systematic lessons in philosophy were given him by the Epicurean Phaedrus. = note. the celebrated Philo of Larissa. but he seems never to have been much attracted by the general Stoic teaching. The pupil seems to have been converted at once to the tenets of the master. He is the only Epicurean. ***** THE ACADEMICA OF CICERO. according to a fashion set by the Roman Stoic circle of the time of Scipio and Laelius. omits. 5 It would seem that Cicero's love for literature was inherited from his father. like Diodotus. ed. being of infirm health. perhaps. with. even before he had assumed the toga virilis. leaving his pupil heir to a not inconsiderable property. = Latin. then at Rome because of the unsettled state of Athens. = edition. esp. = example. n. whose lectures he attended at a very early age.e. though not exclusively.[10] We thus see that before Cicero was twenty years of age. or omission. exc. T. the art of dialectic. conj.[1] From him was probably derived that strong love for the old Latin dramatic and epic poetry which his son throughout his writings displays.[6] This art. where he died in B. ex.[9] Smitten with a marvellous enthusiasm he abandoned all other studies for philosophy. His zeal was quickened by the conviction that the old judicial system of Rome was overthrown for ever.) Cicero also heard the lectures of Diodotus the Stoic. Pomponius Atticus. conjug. = omit. = especially. Cicero had scarcely heard him before all inclination for Epicureanism was swept from his mind. and admiration.C. came to Rome.[7] He seems to have been one of the most accomplished men of his time. whom the orator ever allows to possess any literary power. em. Still. he had been brought into intimate connection with at least three of the most eminent philosophers of the age.

which rests on no better evidence than that of Plutarch. law. however. there were no eminent rhetorical teachers at that time resident in the city[14]. now the head of the Epicurean school. such as Piso. and belles lettres. hence in striking contrast to Patro and Phaedrus[17]. as Diogenes calls him[16]. During the years 88--81 B. though M. and spiteful in spirit. from a mention of him in the De Oratore. Only three notable Peripatetics were at this time living. It is usually supposed that he came into collision with Sulla through the freedman Chrysogonus. make it evident that he set a high value on the abilities and the learning of Antiochus. Cicero himself. leave no doubt about his diligence as a student. even when mentioning his speech in defence of Roscius. By the advice of Philo himself[15]. is frequently named by Cicero. The philosopher from whose lessons Cicero certainly learned most at this period was Antiochus of Ascalon. as the most cultivated and keenest of the philosophers of the age[26]. rhetoric. as he not unjustly boasts[12]. Cicero attended the lectures of that clear thinker and writer. Pupius Piso. with the exception of Demetrius Syrus. His later works. Cicero spent much time in listening to his instruction. On Sulla's return to the city after his conquest of the Marian party in Italy. since in the Academica[28] he is mentioned in such a way as to show that he was unknown to Cicero in B. and Cicero appeared as a pleader in the courts. judicial affairs once more took their regular course. Varro. was not then at Athens[22]. a professed Peripatetic. The silence of Cicero is enough to condemn this theory. more or less adhered to the views of Antiochus. since.[11] It would be unwise to lay too much stress on the intimate connection which subsisted between the rhetorical and the ethical teaching of the Greeks. In Cicero's later works there are several references to his teaching. but never as an acquaintance. Lucullus and Brutus. and then suddenly left Rome for a tour in Eastern Hellas. In his later works he often dwells on his youthful devotion to philosophy. however. I shall have to treat later. and along with Atticus who loved him beyond all other philosophers[19]. Diodorus. Patro was probably in Athens at the same time. which was strengthened by the fact that many friends of the latter. the pupil of Critolaus. It is fair to conclude that he must have become thoroughly acquainted with their spirit. His own statements. Cratippus was at this time unknown to him. in fine.C.C. 62.. but this is nowhere explicitly stated. both for talent and acquirement [23]. The first six months passed at Athens. was one of his companions in this sojourn at Athens[21]. now the representative of a Stoicised Academic school. and with the main tenets of each. after every deduction necessitated by his egotism has been made. It is sufficient here to say that on the main point which was in controversy between Philo and Antiochus. that Cicero knew himm through Piso. A considerable friendship sprang up between Antiochus and Cicero[27]. never assigns any other cause for his departure than his health. the one philosophic orator of Rome. especially in dialectic. He was biting and sarcastic in speech. . Of these Staseas of Naples. which was taught after Stoic principles. as possessed of a pointed style[25]. however.C. Many ambitious works in the last two departments mentioned were written by him at this period. then Rhodian ambassador at Rome. Cicero still continued to think with his earlier teacher. Nor is any mention made of a Peripatetic teacher whose lectures Cicero might have attended. Of this teacher. Cicero must at this time have attained an almost complete familiarity with the Epicurean doctrines. Cicero employed himself incessantly with the study of philosophy. For two years he was busily engaged. but there can be little doubt that from the great rhetorician Molo. It is improbable that Cicero at this time became acquainted with Aristus the brother of Antiochus. Cicero gained valuable information concerning the ethical part of Greek philosophy. Zeno of Sidon. which was eagerly discussed by the two pupils[20]. as a man of acute intellect[24]. when I shall attempt to estimate the influence he exercised over our author.Academica. There seem to have been no eminent representatives of the Stoic school then at Athens. and were almost entirely devoted to philosophy. It is curious to find that Zeno is numbered by Cicero among those pupils and admirers of Carneades whom he had known[18]. it is probable. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 6 important Greek schools. Phaedrus was now at Athens. Cicero speaks of him as eminent among the philosophers of the time. which was being undermined by his passionate style of oratory[13]. were spent in the society of Greek philosophers and rhetoricians. who lived some time in Piso's house. who was implicated in the case of Roscius. The whole two years 79--77 B.

He especially studied the political writings of the Greeks. the most famous Stoic of the age. and especially the philosophers. afford many proofs of the abiding strength of his passion for literary employment. and we know from his letters that it was his later practice to refresh his style by much study of the Greek writers. his heart was given to the adornment of his Tusculan villa in a way suited to his literary and philosophic tastes." At this period of his life Cicero spent much time in study at his estates near Tusculum. such as Theophrastus and Dicaearchus[39]. of Theopompus[40]. This may be taken as a specimen of his spirit throughout his life. may have been at Rhodes at this time. Antium.C. During the period then. That his oratory owed much to philosophy from the first he repeatedly insists. Soon after his return from exile. put himself to much trouble[31]. The years from 59--57 B.. His long lack of leisure seems to have caused an almost unquenchable thirst for reading at this time. Every day I find greater satisfaction in study. and his attainments in each department considerable. in Latin and Greek.. From the year 77 to the year 68 B. he says. The letters contained in the first book of those addressed to Atticus. In the midst of his busiest political occupations. I dwell with greater emphasis on these facts. and keeping up his acquaintance with living Greek philosophers[36]. the coryphaeus of the Rhodian school[29]. also hearers of Panaetius. he does not seem to have known either personally. formed while at Rhodes one friendship which largely influenced his views of philosophy... He was before all things a man of letters. acquaintances. and elsewhere. Posidonius was at a later time resident at Rome. and even slaves to prevent a single leaf from being lost. Cicero. in the year 56. clients. were years in which Cicero's private cares overwhelmed all thought of other occupation. when he was working his hardest for the consulship. his appetite for every kind of literature was insatiable. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 7 The main purpose of Cicero while at Athens had been to learn philosophy. in the midst of his eastern campaigns. as well as with the Greeks who from time to time came to Rome and frequented the houses of the Optimates. of which some fragments remain.C. to visit whom Pompey. the Greek version which he sent to Posidonius being modelled on Isocrates and Aristotle. because of the idea now spread abroad that Cicero was a mere dabbler in literature. with the maxims of philosophy[35]. as a minute inquirer[32]. Public business employed his intellect. when the series of letters begins. which were crowded. politics and oratory held quite a secondary place in his affections. we may believe that he kept up his old knowledge by converse with his many Roman friends who had a bent towards philosophy. His friend Paetus had inherited a valuable library. compared with literature. use all the endeavours of your friends. as a most notable philosopher. and stayed in Cicero's house.Academica. and Cicero thus writes to Atticus: "If you love me and feel sure of my love for you. He was certainly the most learned Roman of his age. about which we have little or no information.. and although Cicero was well acquainted with the works of the former. Cicero was doubtless too busily engaged with legal and political affairs to spend much time in systematic study. to which he looks as the support of his old age[34]. and his love for books. A year or two later we find him reading with enthusiasm the works of Dicaearchus. was his old friend Molo. expressing at the same time in the strongest language his loathing for public affairs. Hecato the Rhodian. It was in Greece at the time. He is scarcely ever mentioned without some expression of affection. with the single exception of Varro. chief of whom. In the earlier part of this time we find him entreating Atticus to let him have a library which was then for sale. which range over the years 68--62 B.C. Formiae. he describes himself as "devouring literature" with a marvellous man named Dionysius[41]. belonged to an earlier time. and the poem on his consulship. under the guidance of the most noted Greek teachers. To this year belong the publication of his speeches. In truth. He speaks of him as the greatest of the Stoics[30]. that with Posidonius the pupil of Panaetius. He also wrote historical memoirs after the fashion. another pupil of Panaetius. but never his heart. and Cicero tells us that he read his works more than those of any other author[33]. which he presented to Cicero. to this he added such reading as his leisure would allow. Mnesarchus and Dardanus. To him Cicero makes reference in his works oftener than to any other instructor. and laughingly pronouncing that nothing is sweeter than universal . freedmen. in Asia and at Rhodes he devoted himself chiefly to rhetoric. One of his letters to Atticus[38] will give a fair picture of his life at this time. the history of his consulship. so far as my forensic labours permit[37]. The year 62 released him from the consulship and enabled him to indulge his literary tastes. and that his works were extempore paraphrases of Greek books half understood. however.

however. or employing his days in arguing with himself a string of abstract philosophical propositions about tyranny[63]. On the journey from Athens to his province. he says "I assure you I had no sooner returned to Rome than I renewed my intimacy with my old friends. he naturally recals the example of Socrates. In the year 52 B. who was then with Patro at Athens. and his studies seemed to bear richer fruit than in his days of prosperity[66]. His acquaintance with this philosopher was lasting. who accompanied him. From thence they went to Athens. beneath a bust of Aristotle. Plato's description of the tyrant is present to his mind[60]. books. a work to which I may appeal for evidence that his old philosophical studies had by no means been allowed to drop[45]. to the two boys Marcus and Quintus. the brother of Antiochus and teacher of Brutus. letters. The tenor of all his letters at this . In the following year (54) he writes that politics must cease for him. and that he therefore returns unreservedly to the life most in accordance with nature. of all the Peripatetics he had himself heard. On Cicero's return to Italy public affairs were in a very critical condition. from destroying the house in which Epicurus had lived[48]. and left little room for thoughts about literature. his solace and support. Literature formed then. much to his own pleasure and that of the Athenians. At this time he was resident at Mitylene. my books. In a letter written to Varro in that year[65]." These gave him real comfort. by nothing but accident a politician. He stayed in the house of Aristus. then on his way to Cilicia. his predecessor.Academica. study. an Epicurean friend of Atticus. he tells us. The letters which belong to this time are very pathetic. Aristotle is especially mentioned as one of the authors read at this time[46]. who afterwards taught at Athens as head of the Peripatetic school[50]. the son of the Dictator[42]. had done at Eleusis[53]. Yet he yearned for Athens and philosophy. At this time was written the De Republica. revisited Athens. Cicero seems to have been somewhat disappointed with the state of philosophy at Athens. as Appius. Nothing could more clearly show that he was really a man of books. he made the acquaintance of Cratippus. poring over the book of Demetrius the Magnesian concerning concord[62]. all in their turn became unpleasant[64].C. and he would rather sit in a garden seat which Atticus had. with its school of eloquence. It is curious to find Cicero. During this year he was again for the most part at those of his country villas where his best collections of books were. and on his way home from Cilicia he spoke of conferring on the city some signal favour[55]. when. among them Xeno the friend of Atticus[58]. that of the student[44]. In one letter of this date he carefully discusses the errors Atticus had pointed out in the books De Republica[54]. Towards the end of the year. and indeed equal in merit to the most eminent of that school[52]. and renewed his friendship with other philosophers. He wished to leave some memorial of himself at the beautiful city. a work professedly modelled on Plato and the older philosophers of the Socratic schools. the pupil of the great Roman Epicurean Lucretius. who refused to leave Athens amid the misrule of the thirty tyrants[61]. he was busily engaged on the De Oratore. In these evil days. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 8 knowledge. Cicero also speaks in kindly terms of Xeno. He spent great part of the year 55 at Cumae or Naples "feeding upon" the library of Faustus Sulla. It was at this time that Cicero interfered to prevent Memmius. written amid many distracting occupations. a work which clearly proves his continued familiarity with Greek philosophy[43]. Cicero said. came the De Legibus. Cicero several times contrasts the statesmen of the time with the Scipio he had himself drawn in the De Republica[59]. when he thinks of Caesar. Cicero was anxious to show Rhodes. nothing was long to his taste. where Cicero again stayed with Aristus[57]. His wishes with regard to Athens still kept their hold upon his mind. It seems the Athenians of the time were in the habit of adapting their ancient statues to suit the noble Romans of the day. and of placing on them fulsome inscriptions. in the very midst of civil war. He was by far the greatest. As soon as Cicero had become fully reconciled to Caesar in the year 46 he returned with desperate energy to his old literary pursuits. than in the ivory chair of office. and anxiously asked Atticus whether it would look foolish to build a [Greek: propylon] at the Academia. Of this practice Cicero speaks with loathing. and they probably touched there for a few days[56]. if we may judge from the affectionate mention in the Brutus[47]. In the year 51 Cicero. The care of that disordered province Cilicia enough to employ Cicero's thoughts till the end of 50. he deliberates about the course he is himself to take. Aristus being the only man of merit then resident there[49]. where Cicero seems to have passed some time in his society[51].

These it would be necessary to know. Even the evidence I have produced. Epicurean and new Academic. but as they existed in Cicero's age. and the Laudatio Catonis. Stoicism not as Zeno understood it. Patro. the doctrines taught in the Lyceum by Cratippus. We have in the Academica Cicero's view of the first problem: that the attainment of any infallible criterion was impossible. is made to suffer for the shortcomings of Cicero the politician. II. and in opposition to all other schools. In order to define with clearness the position of Cicero as a student of philosophy. whereas. is sufficient to justify his boast that at no time had he been divorced from philosophy[68]. by the assertion that on the contrary nothing had more occupied his thoughts throughout the whole of a wonderfully energetic life[69]. Cicero's statements concerning any particular school are generally tested by comparing them with the assertions made by ancient authorities about the earlier representatives of the school. the Paradoxa. were all finished within the year. which does not include such indirect indications of philosophical study as might be obtained from the actual philosophical works of Cicero. and Xeno. Scholars who have learned to despise his political weakness. and a comparison of them with ancient authorities. Early in the following year the Academica. of the success of the defence I must leave the reader to judge. who speaks of the De Legibus as "an oasis in the desert of this dreary and voluminous writer. Phaedrus. and Stoicism put forward by Antiochus in the name of the Old Academy. vanity. Did the scope of this edition allow it. he is uttering opinions which would have been recognised as genuine by those who were at the head of the school in his day. that his knowledge of Greek philosophy was nearly as accurate as it was extensive. To go more into detail here would be to anticipate the text of the Lucullus as well as my notes. So far as the Academica is concerned. As my space forbids me to attempt the thorough inquiry I have indicated as desirable. He was entitled to repel the charge made by some people on the publication of his first book of the later period--the Hortensius--that he was a mere tiro in philosophy. Peripatetic. but there is one piece of unfairness which I shall have no better opportunity of mentioning than the present. the Orator. not merely the Epicureanism of Epicurus. The Philosophical Opinions of Cicero. but that of Zeno. I have now finished the first portion of my task. was written. I have shown Cicero as the man of letters and the student of philosophy during that portion of his life which preceded the writing of the Academica. As he himself says. Should any discrepancy appear. Peripateticism. in all probability. but as Posidonius and the other pupils of Panaetius propounded it. the history of which I shall trace elsewhere. it would be indispensable to enter into a detailed historical examination of the later Greek schools--the Stoic. as will be seen from my notes on several passages of the Academica[70]. not merely as they came from the hands of their founders. Before the end of the year the Hortensius and the De Finibus had probably both been planned and commenced. The two main tasks of the later Greek philosophy were. Cicero. and the determination of an ethical standard[71].Academica. and irresolution. and prejudices based on facts irrelevant to the matter in hand. to which Caesar replied by his Anticato. it is at once concluded that Cicero is in gross error. the establishment of a criterion such as would suffice to distinguish the true from the false. During the progress of this work I shall have to expose the groundlessness of many feelings and judgments now current which have contributed to produce a low estimate of Cicero's philosophical attainments. the new Academicism of Philo as well as that of Arcesilas and Carneades. A systematic attempt to distinguish between the earlier and later forms of doctrine held by these schools is still a great desideratum. Without further refinements. I may say that Cicero in this respect was in substantial agreement with the New Academic school. I should have little difficulty in showing from a minute survey of his works. The Partitiones Oratoriae. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 9 time is the same: see especially the remaining letters to Varro and also to Sulpicius[67]. as Cicero often insists. The criticism of Madvig even is not free from this error. I can but describe in rough outline the relation in which Cicero stands to the chief schools." From political partizanship. I have had in my notes an opportunity of defending Cicero's substantial accuracy. I beg all students to free themselves in reading the Academica. without troubling themselves to inquire too closely into their intrinsic value. the doctrine that absolute . It is this. I am sorry to be obliged to instance the illustrious Mommsen. the medley of Academicism. make haste to depreciate his achievements in philosophy. the philosopher.

refuses to be bound by his former statements. "Modo hoc. The Stoics and Epicureans cared nothing for power of expression. modo illud probabilius videtur[84]. In looking at the second great problem.Academica. In that which was most distinctively New Academic. the child of the Academy[90]. and when the discrepancy is pointed out. It seemed to him arrogant to make any proposition with a conviction of its absolute. says Cicero. though claiming to seek for the truth. Cicero followed the New Academy. The Academic is only anxious that people should combat his opinions. This spirit is even found in Lucullus the Antiochean[88]. This is equally true of the Pyrrhonian scepticism and of the dogmatism of Zeno and Epicurus. Again. indestructible and irrefragable truth. They are not compelled to defend an opinion whether they will or no. Orators. To withhold absolute assent from all doctrines. and repelled him from the fury of dogmatism. after the example of the Old Academy and Aristotle[80]. Wherever authority has loudly raised its voice. Philosophy was emphatically defined as the art of conduct (ars vivendi). It is a positive duty to discuss all aspects of every question. to rid himself and others of the mists of error[87]. and that man was Carneades[94]. Cicero indignantly repels the charge that the Academy. Their logical and physical doctrines were mere outworks or ramparts within which the ordinary life of the school was carried on. politicians. These were useful chiefly in case of attack by the enemy. ought to lead men to teach one another with all gentleness and meekness[75]. and admits the charge. to show that the free conflict of opinion is necessary to the progress of philosophy. In this fact we shall find a key to unlock many difficulties in Cicero's philosophical writings. with Socrates. merely because one of their predecessors has laid it down[82]. In positiveness of assertion there seemed to be something reckless and disgraceful. As an orator. we must never forget that it was considered by nearly all the later philosophers as of overwhelming importance compared with the first." The Academic sips the best of every school[85]. all other philosophies were plebeian[93]. and stylists had ever found their best nourishment in the teaching of the Academic and Peripatetic masters[91]. While professing. apart from his experience as an orator. All speculative and non-ethical doctrines were merely estimable as supplying a basis on which this practical art could be reared. inclined him to charity and toleration. for he makes it his sole aim. Philosophers of the highest respectability had held the most opposite opinions on the same subjects. has no truth to follow[89]. that of the ethical standard. the Academic tenets were those with which the common sense of the world could have most sympathy[92]. as he puts it. and the baneful effects of authority are often depicted[79]. which was by that very freedom brought rapidly to maturity in Greece[77]. on the score that he is an Academic and a freeman[83]. ceteris paribus. One requisite of a philosophy with him was that it should avoid this arrogance[73]. The true philosophic spirit requires us to find out what can be said for every view. while the Stoic dares not stir a foot's breadth away from Chrysippus[86]. Another consideration which attracted Cicero to these tenets was their evident adaptability to the purposes of oratory. and the fact that eloquence was. unworthy of a self-controlled character[76]. Here we have a touch of feeling thoroughly Roman. that in the fifth book of the Tusculan Disputations. I may instance one passage in the beginning of the Academica Posteriora[95]. Cicero further urges arguments similar to some put forward by a long series of English thinkers from Milton to Mill. So far does Cicero carry this freedom. in time of peace ethics held the supremacy. Cicero is there charged by Varro with having deserted the Old Academy for the New. which has given much trouble to editors. he was accustomed to hear arguments put forward with equal persuasiveness on both sides of a case. It is easy to see what there was in such a tenet to attract Cicero. while giving a qualified assent to those which seemed most probable. The Academy also was the school which had the most respectable pedigree. Nothing was more repulsive to his mind than dogmatism. The philosopher who best preserved the Socratic tradition was most estimable. Those who demand a dogmatic statement of belief are mere busybodies[81]. He roams in the wide field of philosophy. The probable is for it the true. however. there philosophy has pined. The Academics glory in their freedom of judgment. Compared with its system. He repeatedly insists that the diversities of opinion which the most famous intellects display. he maintains a view entirely at variance with the whole of the fourth book of the De Finibus. was the only prudent course[74]. How is . Pythagoras[78] is quoted as a warning example. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 10 knowledge is impossible was the one Academic tenet against which all the other schools were combined[72]. this philosophic bohemianism. Cicero's temperament also.

Arcesilas. which allured Cicero more than the barrenness of the Stoic dialectic repelled him[101]. in stealing the doctrines of Zeno. Antiochus. He begs the Academic and Peripatetic schools to cease from giving an uncertain sound (balbutire) and to allow that the happiness of the wise man would remain unimpaired even if he were thrust into the bull of Phalaris[103]. Its chief importance lay in the fact that ancient theology was. Again. All ethical systems which seemed to afford stability to moral principles had an attraction for Cicero. to be silent[97]. that a life enriched by virtue. sanctity. in the Tusculan Disputations he held it to be real. He was fascinated by the Stoics almost beyond the power of resistance. which has introduced confusion into these subjects." General readers. might be happy. were direct imitations of early Academic and Peripatetic writers. more suited to a superhuman than a human world. Again. however. an appendage of physical science. who. when he brought dialectic to the front. The works themselves. while the latter treated it as un-Socratic. I may remark at the outset that a comparatively small importance was in Cicero's time attached to this branch of philosophy. who is merely an ignoble craftsman of words. In another place he admits the purely Stoic doctrine that virtue is one and indivisible[104]. in the rough popular view which regarded ethics mainly or solely. and moral good. This is Cicero's general feeling with regard to Zeno. To the former Zeno's dialectic was true and Socratic. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 11 this to be reconciled with his own oft-repeated statements that he never recanted the doctrines Philo had taught him? Simply thus. they would naturally regard him as a deserter from the Old Academy to the New. In respect of their ethical and religious ideas he calls them "great and famous philosophers[99]. So much was this the case. but unattended by other advantages. who in the dialectical dialogue is rejected. although he conceded that they were Socratic[107]. denoted by the phrase "Vetus Academia. as all natural theology must be. in the works which Cicero had written and published before the Academica. who was very human in his joys and sorrows. but appeals to Socrates as his authority for them[105]. however. The religious element in Cicero's nature inclined him very strongly to sympathize with the Stoic views about the grand universal operation of divine power. and pronounced boldly for Carneades. we often find him going farther in the direction of Stoicism than even his teacher Antiochus. and there can be no doubt that he caught it from Antiochus who. if the divine government of the . that when Cicero wrote the Academica he was charged with constituting himself the champion of an exploded and discredited school[96]." and he frequently speaks with something like shame of the treatment they had received at the hands of Arcesilas and Carneades. Piety. Antiochus subscribed to the Stoic theory that all emotion was sinful. he will not allow to be distinctively Stoic. moreover. therefore. In the sphere of morals he felt the danger of the principle of doubt. is in the De Legibus spoken of with considerable favour[98]. the Academic dialectic had found no eminent expositor. it had been on its ethical side. Cicero. refused it with horror[108]. he thought. Cicero. really composed a single school. Cicero's ethics. In the De Finibus he argued that the difference between the Peripatetic and Stoic ethics was merely one of terms. therefore. ever stoutly maintained that Zeno had stolen them before. On the whole Cicero was more in accord with Stoic ethics than Antiochus. wherever he had touched philosophy. Not in all points. On the other hand. maintained on logical grounds. One great question which divided the philosophers of the time was. With regard to physics. whether happiness was capable of degrees. explicitly rejecting the position of Antiochus. It is just in this that the difference between Antiochus and Cicero lies. Carneades. It must be admitted that on some points Cicero was inconsistent. however: for while Antiochus accepted without reserve the Stoic paradoxes. On moral questions. would naturally look upon Cicero as a supporter of their "Vetus Academia. There was a kind of magnificence about the Stoic utterances on morality. looking upon Socrates as the apostle of doubt[106]. The Stoics maintained that it was not. The most Stoic in tone of all his works are the Tusculan Disputations and the De Officiis. who considered ethical resemblance as of far greater moment than dialectical difference. stand quite apart from his dialectic. Zeno. stole them from the Old Academy. then. This view is confirmed by the fact that for many years before Cicero wrote. and in a remarkable passage Cicero agrees with them. to deal much with ethics. Cicero hesitatingly followed them. were impossible in any form. while Antiochus so regarded chiefly the dialectic. Once he gives expression to a fear lest they should be the only true philosophers after all[100]." so long as he kept clear of dialectic. Even in the De Legibus when the dialogue turns on a moral question. but could not be the happiest possible[102]. These opinions. he begs the New Academy. and Philo had been too busy with their polemic against Zeno and his followers. regarded chiefly the ethics of Zeno with this feeling.Academica.

The doctrines of Epicurus had alone appeared in Latin in a shape suited to catch the popular taste. It would be hasty to conclude that the writers of these two centuries are therefore undeserving of our study. Cicero generally treats it tenderly for the sake of its great past. which he does not freely confess to be taken wholly from Greek sources. and they crowned all their errors by a sin which the orator could never pardon. Still. they took possession of the whole of Italy[115]. now so common. of any clear exposition of the variations in doctrine which the late Greek schools exhibited during the last two centuries before the Christian era. originality would have been looked upon as a fault rather than an excellence. owing to the strange oblivion into which the most important works of Aristotle had fallen[111]. but of the whole spirit of the later Greek speculation. was the first to write. In physics they stood absolutely alone. for it rests on a misconception. It is usual to charge Cicero with a want of originality as a philosopher. in Cicero's strong language. Sextus Empiricus. that the Stoic physics were in the main Aristotelian. For two centuries. With the Epicureans the case was different. the Latin language may be said to have been destitute of a philosophical literature. It went to Cicero's heart that Carneades should have found it necessary to oppose the beautiful Stoic theology. and his books seem to have had an enormous circulation[114]. Plutarch and other authorities. the Timaeus of Plato. is due largely to the want. There seems to have been a very large Epicurean literature in Latin. For a thorough understanding of his notions about physics. Diogenes Laertius. Cicero contrives to correct many of the extravagances of the Stoic physics by a study of Aristotle and Plato. deeming it a worthy branch of the true Socratic family. He wished at the same time to strike a blow at the ascendency of Epicureanism throughout Italy. Indeed at the time when he wrote. which they gave out as Aristotelian. no one had propounded anything substantially novel in philosophy: there had been simply one eclectic combination after another of pre-existing tenets. and in ethics had approximated considerably to the Stoic teaching. Cicero's works are of equal value. Cicero often believed himself to be following Aristotle. It must not be forgotten. Rabirius and Catius the Insubrian. The charge is true. When Cicero began to write. This is a virtue which Cicero never claims. and they discarded mathematics. of which all but a few scanty traces is now lost. The conclusion drawn from the charge is also quite unwarranted. and on that score to depreciate his works. which ultimately exercised no unimportant influence on society and on the Christian religion itself.Academica. which he knew well and translated. by putting the best Greek speculation into the most elegant Latin form. He had a large number of imitators. Very few words are necessary in order to characterize Cicero's estimate of the Peripatetic and Epicurean schools. and to enrich their literature. the fact that . also. Philosophy was a sealed study to those who did not know Greek. possibly the epicure and friend of Horace. Any one who attempts to reconcile the contradictions of Stobaeus. If the later philosophy of the Greeks is of any value. that. The aim of Cicero in writing his philosophical works. for they were completely indifferent to every adornment and beauty of language. While not much influenced by the school. if not the substance of the doctrines had undergone a momentous change. and he defends the great sceptic by the plea that his one aim was to arouse men to the investigation of the truth[110]. but still absurd. while really following the Stoics in physics. who obtained such a favourable reception. were two of the most noted of these writers. Their ethical doctrines excited in Cicero nothing but loathing. their system was grossly unintellectual. is especially important. dialectic they did not use. for the spirit. It was his aim. The philosophical descendants of the author of the Organon were notorious for their ignorance of logic[112]. III. mentioned in the Academica[113]. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 12 universe were denied[109]. if we omit Carneades. and that Cicero was well aware of the fact. C. will perhaps feel little inclination to cry out against the confusion of Ciceros ideas. for it is only from them that we get any full or clear view of it. which I have already noticed. The discrepancy between the spurious and the genuine Aristotelian views passed undetected. The former was not very powerfully represented during his lifetime. not merely of Cicero's purpose in writing. This partly arose from the actual adoption by the late Peripatetics of many Stoic doctrines. to extend the education of his countrymen. At the same time. There is scarcely one of his works (if we except the third book of the De Officiis). But to return to the charge of want of originality. Such outcry. Amafinius. Cicero assigns various reasons for their extreme popularity: the easy nature of the Epicurean physics.

It is exceedingly remarkable that the whole of the Roman Epicurean literature dealt in an overwhelmingly greater degree with the physics than with the ethics of Epicurus. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 13 there was no other philosophy for Latin readers. and to regard any fresh importation from Greece much in the spirit with which things French were received by English patriots immediately after the great war. it was the one service he could render[123]. while the general decay among the educated classes of a belief in the supernatural. Individual questions in philosophy could not be thoroughly understood till the . To those who objected that philosophy was best left to the Greek language. so as to bring within its scope every topic which Greek philosophers were accustomed to treat[131]. But it must never be forgotten that at Rome such studies were merely the amusement of the wealthy. This last cause. I can treat no farther. As for the alleged incapacity of the Roman intellect to deal with philosophical enquiries. These Roman Epicureans are continually reproached by Cicero for their uncouth style of writing[116]. he replies with indignation. The most probable elucidation is. amid much depreciation. A curious question arises. Some few preferred that Cicero should write on other subjects[129]. and in those evil times he was spurred on to exertion by the deepest sorrow[125]. accompanied as it was by an increase of superstition among the masses. unpractical and unstatesmanlike[127]. For Cicero idleness was misery. The history of Roman oratory is referred to in support of this opinion[121]. But of this subject. and neglected though it has been. the total devotion of a life to them seemed well enough for Greeks. Philosophy took the place of forensic oratory. interesting and important as it is in itself. There were plenty of Romans who were ready to condemn such pursuits altogether. and the voluptuous blandishments of pleasure. as indeed he in one passage seems to allow. as to the reasons Cicero had for omitting all mention of Lucretius when speaking of these Roman Epicureans. and politics[126]. like the Neoptolemus of Ennius. and a careless reader might set them down to egotism. thought a little learning in philosophy was good. public harangues. Still. Cicero now extended his design. accusing them of being untrue to their country[118]. if Romans were no longer absolutely compelled to resort to Greeks[119]. The explanation is to be found in the fact that the Italian races had as yet a strong practical basis for morality in the legal and social constitution of the family. Cicero thought it would flourish and take the place of oratory. He often tries by the most far-fetched arguments to show that philosophy had left its mark on the early Italian peoples[117]. The elder generation. because the energy of the nation has been diverted into other channels that so little progress has been made. which nothing compelled him to break. There can be no doubt that Cicero was penetrated by the belief that he could thus do his country a real service. he says. It would be a glorious thing. He is within his right when he claims praise for not abandoning himself to idleness or worse. He will not even concede that the Greek is a richer tongue than the Latin[120]. but his estimate of them was probably correct. Others. It is strange to find Cicero making such elaborate apologies as he does for devoting himself to philosophy. He indeed confesses that he had not read them. In his enforced political inaction. and many were incited both to read and to write philosophy[130]. but for Romans unmanly. he will not hear of it. If only an impulse were given at Rome to the pursuit of philosophy. preferred to keep silence. and being unwilling to allow that anything good could come from the school of Epicurus. as did so many of the most prominent men of the time[124]. must have been of little real importance. that he found it impossible to include the great poet in his sweeping condemnation. prepared the way for the acceptance of a purely mechanical explanation of the universe. since Lucretius was an obscure man and only slowly won his way to favour with the public. which seems to have been at first indefinite. sufficient interest and sympathy were roused by his first philosophical works to encourage Cicero to proceed. praised the books. which he believed to be expiring amid the din of civil war[122]. Cicero had a patriotic wish to remove from the literature of his country the reproach that it was completely destitute where Greek was richest.Academica. In addition to his desire to undermine Epicureanism in Italy. but a great deal was a dangerous thing[128]. It is only. he thinks. and amid the disorganisation of the law-courts. already on the wane in Greece. and did not much feel the need of any speculative system. for whose approbation he most cared. which I cannot here discuss. To these he replies by urging the pressing necessity there was for works on philosophy in Latin.

. where he wrote a treatise addressed to Caesar. Cicero claims to have his oratorical and political writings. the student must be referred to the Dict. He found the mechanic exercise of composition the best solace for his pain. The meaning of the last question is made clear by a passage in the De Oratore[140]. would crush him. and the dates of their composition. a delay of even ten years would make the effort no less painful[147]. in the busy city[137]. all or nearly all published before the Hortensius. the Academica and the De Finibus. [Greek: peri penthous]. yet he repelled the entreaties of Atticus that he would return to the forum and the senate. From the same place he wrote to Atticus of his intention to proceed to Tusculum or Rome by way of Lanuvium about the middle of June[146]. Looked at in this. Cicero took refuge in the solitude of his villa at Astura. which seems to belong to the first few weeks of his bereavement[138]. which he afterwards suppressed[145]. required the composition of a sort of philosophical encyclopaedia. his work cannot be judged a failure. who were then the most noted [Greek: politikoi] at Athens. which preceded the Academica. Cicero. The words with which he introduces his request imply that he had determined on some new work to which our Academica would correspond[139]. He asks what reason brought to Rome the embassy which Carneades accompanied. It may be with reference to the progress of the Academica that in a later letter he expresses himself satisfied with the advance he has made in his literary undertakings[141]. Before setting out for Antium Cicero wrote to Atticus that he had finished while at Astura duo magna [Greek: syntagmata]. 45 B. First the book De Consolatione was written. which happened at Tusculum in February. For a list of the philosophical works of Cicero. It was his wont to depend on Atticus very much for historical and biographical details. During the whole of the remainder of his sojourn at Astura he continued to be actively employed. and remain there absorbed in study till nightfall[136]. but although he speaks of various other literary projects. he felt. as it was then called. It was amid such surroundings that the Academica was written. The only two works strictly philosophical. Here he sought to soften his deep grief by incessant toil. He declares that however much his detractors at Rome may reproach him with inaction. if he returned at all. and wrote for whole days together[135]. which was pleasantly situated on the Latin coast between Antium and Circeii[134]. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 14 whole subject had been mastered[132]. of Biography. This design then. Those who contrive to pronounce this judgment must either insist upon trying the work by a standard to which it does not appeal. or even original criticisms on its history. He had in the time immediately following Tullia's death entertained an aversion for Tusculum. He never pretended to present new views of philosophy. or perhaps make Cicero suffer for the supposed worthlessness of the philosophy of his age. which is not explicitly stated in the two earliest works which we possess. and in the letter in question he asks for just the kind of information which would be needed in writing the Academica. which was introductory to philosophy. or. or fail to understand the Greek philosophy it copies. included in his philosophical encyclopaedia[133]. words which have . we find no express mention in his letters to Atticus of the Academica[142]. History of the Academica. where Cicero speaks of the combined Academic and Peripatetic schools under that name. were the De Consolatione. The first trace of an intention to write the treatise is found in a letter of Cicero to Atticus. otherwise he must either abandon Tusculum altogether. which books and solitude could scarcely enable him to endure. The only thing he proclaims to be his own is his style.C.Academica. Cicero never claimed to be more than an interpreter of Greek philosophy to the Romans. who was at that time the leader of the Epicurean school. where she died. At other times he would plunge at early morning into the dense woods near his villa. A grief. protreptic. IV. Art. the true light. they could not read the numerous difficult works on which he has been engaged within the same space of time that he has taken to write them[143]. Often exertion failed to bring relief. This he felt now compelled to conquer. On the death of Tullia. In accordance with Greek precedent. In the beginning of June Cicero spent a few days at his villa near Antium[144]. even in the ancient view. founded on Crantor's book. or. and the Hortensius.

and to avoid the embarrassing attentions of Brutus[167]. and prefers to hold that the Hortensius (or de Philosophia) and the Priora Academica are the compositions in question. The final arrangement of the characters in the De Finibus is announced later still[152]. the fact that among the unpleasant visits received by Cicero at Tusculum was one from Varro[166]. This would be clear from the mention in the Academica Posteriora alone[159]. Many scholars. in order. along with the De Finibus. as he calls the first book of the De Finibus[164]. then. On the 23rd July. soon after the middle of June. decides that this view is unsatisfactory. On all these grounds I hold that these two works cannot be those which Cicero describes as having been finished simultaneously at Astura. except the doubt I have expressed as to the use of the word [Greek: syntagma]. Cicero sent Atticus the Torquatus. without giving reasons. It is not uncharacteristic of Cicero that his first plan for healing the incongruity should be a deliberate attempt to impose upon his readers a set of statements concerning the ability and culture of these two noble Romans which he knew. While at his Tusculan villa. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 15 given rise to much controversy[148]. The De Finibus was indeed begun at Astura[150]. It is clear from the letters to Atticus that the De Finibus was being worked out book by book long after the first edition of the Academica had been placed in the hands of Atticus. entitled Catulus and Lucullus. We have a mention that new prooemia had been added to the Catulus and Lucullus. had doubtless pointed out the incongruity between the known attainments of Catulus and Lucullus. Cicero left Home for Arpinum. A passage in the De Divinatione[154] affords almost direct evidence that the Academica was published before the De Finibus. Nothing therefore stands in the way of Krische's conjecture. to arrange some business matters. 45. however. Against this view the reasons adduced by Krische are convincing[149].C. for the introduction of Balbus into some editions of the fragments of the Hortensius is an error[162]. which equally affects the old view maintained by Madvig. Another view of the [Greek: syntagmata] in question is that they are simply the two books. The discussion in the Academica Priora is carried on at Hortensius' villa near Bauli. Krische. excepting perhaps the Academica and the De Finibus. while [Greek: syntagma][157]. in style and tone. of the Priora Academica. but it was still in an unfinished state when Cicero began to revise the Academica[151]. have understood that the first edition of the Academica.Academica. and even at a later date Cicero complains that Balbus had managed to obtain surreptitiously a copy of the fifth book before it was properly corrected. In my opinion the word [Greek: syntagma]. I should be quite content. to have become known to a tolerably large circle of readers. it cannot be disputed that the Hortensius and the Academica must have been more closely connected. but the words of Cicero in the De Finibus[160] place it beyond all doubt. Further. than any two works of Cicero. as of some interest in connection with the Academica. B. in the Tusculan Disputations and the De Divinatione[161] the Hortensius and the Academica are mentioned together in such a way as to show that the former was finished and given to the world before the latter. the irrepressible Caerellia having copied the whole five books while in that state[153]. to refer the words of Cicero to the Catulus and Lucullus. as he says. to be false. We are quite certain that the book was written at Astura. In all probability the extant prooemium of the Lucullus is the one which was then affixed. in the Hortensius at the villa of Lucullus near Cumae. He had already sent the first edition of the Academica to Rome[165]. Atticus. showing as they do that the Hortensius had been published a sufficiently long time before the De Finibus. and in his own letters to Atticus admitted. it had been his intention to . If this conjecture is correct. Whatever be the truth on this point. is intended. including Madvig. thus obtains its natural meaning. and [Greek: syngramma][158]. and published before the Academica. I may note. The interlocutors in the Hortensius were exactly the same as in the Academica Priora. It is rather surprising that under these circumstances there should be but one direct reference to the Hortensius in the Lucullus[163]. the use of which to denote a portion of a work Madvig suspects[155]. Cicero uses the word [Greek: syntaxis] of the whole work[156]. and the parts they were made to take in difficult philosophical discussions. in which the public characters from whom the books took their names were extolled. however. we have in the disputed passage the only reference to the Hortensius which is to be found in the letters of Cicero. who visited Cicero at Tusculum. Before leaving Astura. designate definite portions or divisions of a work.

Cicero declared himself very much dissatisfied with Varro's failure to fulfil his promise. and the remark was made that the Academica would just suit Varro. but for whose importunities he would probably again have changed his plans." Since the De Finibus was already "betrothed" to Brutus. Varro had promised on his side. as he grumbles. but you know he is [Greek: deinos anêr. and the fittest person to expound the opinions of that philosopher[177]. Atticus would seem to have repeatedly communicated with Varro.] So there often flits before me a vision of his face. so he employed his whole time in editing once more his Academica. however. This notion Cicero assured him to be wrong. strongly urging that the whole work should be dedicated to Varro. Cicero had constant doubts about the expediency of dedicating the work to Varro. The position occupied by Atticus in the dialogue was quite an inferior one. full two years before the Academica was written. Varro and Atticus[178]. the De Finibus[170]. a charge which you will perceive to be untrue[183]. This plan was speedily cast aside on the receipt of a letter from Atticus. Atticus affirmed that Varro was jealous of some to whom Cicero had shown more favour[186]. but employed Atticus to ascertain his feeling about the dedication[187]. making the interlocutors himself. and anxiously asked for a detailed account of the reasons from which it proceeded[185]. He seems to have been still unsatisfied with his choice of interlocutors for the Academica. In answer to the later entreaty of Atticus. We find Cicero eagerly asking for more information. then. that my part in the treatise is more liberally sustained than his. Cicero had never been very intimate with Varro: their acquaintance seems to have been chiefly maintained through Atticus. Apart from these causes for grumbling. or if not the Academica. In one Cicero said: "I am in favour of Varro. and Cicero was obliged to assure him that there were reasons.Academica. it may be. and perhaps his knowledge and real critical fastidiousness. which he now divided into four books instead of two. His complaint that Varro had been writing for two years without making any progress[173]. As no reasons had been given for these solicitations. He frequently throws the whole responsibility for the decision upon Atticus. Cicero thought the suggestion of Atticus a "godsend[174]. The nature of the works on which our author was then engaged had made it difficult to comply with the request[172]. allowing that Catulus and Lucullus. Atticus naturally grew impatient. The true reasons. the only cause for his vacillation was his doubt as to how Varro would receive the dedication[184]. had no claim to learning[175]. A suggestion of Atticus that Cotta should also be introduced was found impracticable[180]. and the more so because he wishes it. to dedicate to Cicero his great work De Lingua Latino. did appear in some later letters. For them another place was to be found. but he was so pleased with it that Cicero determined to confer upon him often in the future such minor parts[179]. though of noble birth. he promised to transfer to Varro the Academica. he apparently did not speak to him about the De Finibus. shows that there could have been little of anything like friendship between the two. Thus although Cicero saw Brutus frequently while at Tusculum. feared Varro's temper." Cicero. on this point: was it Brutus of whom Varro was jealous? It seems strange that Cicero should not have entered into correspondence with Varro himself. Nearly every letter written to Atticus during the progress of the work contains entreaties that he would consider the matter over and over again before he finally decided[181]. but the latter refused to take a general assurance. So little of it did they possess that they could never even have dreamed of the doctrines they had been made in the first edition of the Academica to maintain[176]. Nine years before he had pressed Cicero to find room in his works for some mention of Varro[171]. Although the work of re-editing was vigorously pushed on. which he could not disclose in a letter[182]. tacha ken kai anaition aitioôito. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 16 go on to Arpinum[168]. . From this it is evident that Cicero knew nothing of the scope or magnitude of that work. and to have assured Cicero that there was no cause for fear. Before these explanations Atticus had concluded that Cicero was afraid of the effect the work might produce on the public. for the first thing he did on his arrival was to transfer the parts of Catulus and Lucullus to Cato and Brutus[169]. who was a follower of Antiochus. who was at all times anxious to draw them more closely together. Etiquette seems to have required that the recipient of a dedication should be assumed ignorant of the intentions of the donor till they were on the point of being actually carried out. In order to stimulate his friend. It happened that continual rain fell during the first few days of Cicero's stay at Arpinum.

at a time when the fate of the second edition was still undecided[199]. breviora. but the second edition is the one which is most frequently quoted. The title Academicae Quaestiones." says Cicero. A copy of the first edition had already got into Varro's hands. to greater length than the first. on every occasion which offered. Antium. Augustine speaks of them only as Academici libri." The binding and adornment of the presentation copy for Varro received great attention. for Cicero of course assumes that Atticus. but we are certain from the letters to Atticus that the work was written entirely at Astura. a little later: "You have been bold enough. although you had not read it when you wrote. because Balbus and Caerellia had just managed to get access to the De Finibus[194]. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 17 Cicero's own judgment about the completed second edition of the Academica is often given in the letters. found as early as Pliny[205]." Again: "The Antiochean portion has all the point of Antiochus combined with any polish my style may possess[189]. but Cicero left the four books in Atticus' power. From this fact we may conclude that Cicero had given up all hope of suppressing the first edition.. I have thought it advisable to set forth in plain terms the history of the genesis of the book. Quintilian seems to have known the first edition very well[206]. Cicero was still uneasy as to the reception it would meet with from Varro. now thither!" Atticus on his part "shuddered" at the idea of taking the responsibility[192]. A fair summary of them may be seen in the preface of Goerenz.C. He did so in a passage written immediately after the Academica Posteriora was completed[200]. and altogether better than the last[188]. when he most markedly mentioned the number of the books as four[201]. flitting now hither." Still. that Cicero had a villa called Academia. I now proceed to examine into the constitution and arrangement of the two editions. That he wished the work to bear the title Academica is clear[202]. then. it does not contradict my supposition.Academica. He wrote thus to Atticus: "I tell you again and again that the presentation will be at your own risk. the author sought to point out as his authorised edition the one in four books.. This edition will be more brilliant. after a consultation[195]. meliora. when he gets the letter. when Cicero was hard at work on the Tusculan Disputations[198]. he adds.. Yet after everything had been done and the book had been sent to Atticus at Rome. This warning was necessary. at which the book was written. If he consoles Atticus for the uselessness of his copies of the first edition. to give Varro the books? I await his judgment upon them. and Lactantius. 0 Academy. let us desert to Brutus. in which Cicero begs Atticus to ask Varro to make some alterations in his copy of the Academica. who is also a follower of Antiochus. "you have taken the fatal step. whatever may be the feeling of other people. then. . but when will he read them?" Varro probably received the books in the first fortnight of August. The four books are expressly referred to by Nonius." Also: "I have finished the book with I know not what success. Cicero begged him to take all precautions to prevent it from getting into circulation until they could meet one another in Rome[193]. though he generally speaks of the Academica. Diomedes. I long to hear how the matter stands[197]. Atticus wrote to say that as soon as Varro came to Rome the books would be sent to him. which was supported by the false notion. should it be judged advisable to do so. under the title Academica. on the whole. found in many editions. After the work had passed into his hands. Cicero declared his intention to meet Atticus at Rome and send the work to Varro. So if you begin to hesitate. Lactantius also uses this name occasionally. In a letter. and often subsequently. He tells us that it extended. The expressions Academica quaestio. which he called his Academia. promising to approve any course that might be taken[196]. He had indeed a Gymnasium at his Tusculan villa. are merely descriptive[203]. "By this time. and Arpinum. is merely an imitation of the Tusculanae Quaestiones. The meeting ultimately did not take place. That it was not unnecessary to do so may be seen from the astounding theories which old scholars of great repute put forward concerning the two editions. as gathered from Cicero's letters to Atticus. more terse. dated apparently a day or two later. and his references show that he knew the second edition only. but with a care which nothing could surpass[190]. oh dear! if you only knew at what peril to yourself! Perhaps my letter stopped you.. so also is the frequent appellation Academici libri[204]. on the wing as thou wert ever wont. [Greek: Akadêmikê syntaxis]. though much had been omitted. and the letter accompanying it was carefully elaborated[191]. as we learn from a letter. "Unless human self love deceives me. 45 B. Plutarch shows only a knowledge of the first edition[207]." Again. and Academia. the books have been so finished that the Greeks themselves have nothing in the same department of literature to approach them. wishes to have the "Splendidiora.

and deserves to be classed with the ancient worthies of Rome[216]. doubtless. Cicero cries. Though Cicero sometimes classes the father and son together as men of literary culture and perfect masters of Latin style. who wrote in honour of Cicero's consulship. but in that case. and 63. as well as those of his son. Then the occasion of the dialogue. But however slight were the claims of Catulus the younger to be considered a philosopher. Catulus was one of the viri consulares who had given their unreserved approval to the measures taken for the suppression of the Catilinarian conspiracy. He was not only glorious in his life. The feigned date must fall between the year 60 B.Academica. that no very high value was placed on the learning of the son[213]. The place was the Cuman villa of Catulus[226]. though he be dead.C. in which Catulus died. life. and great stress was laid upon the patronage it received from so famous a man as the younger Catulus. For the arrangement in the case of both a reason is to be found in their [Greek: atripsia] with respect to philosophy[211]. During all the most brilliant period of Cicero's life. of the mob. does nothing but render literally a speech of Antiochus. and the nature of their connection with Cicero. He is one of the pillars of the state[215]. its supposed date. and to the poem he had written in Cicero's honour. have preferred to introduce the elder man as speaking for himself. there were special causes for his enthusiasm. With the political career of father and son we shall have little to do. he was closely linked to Cicero by other ties. the title "Father of his country[222]. or else Cicero could not have made Catulus the younger the advocate of philosophy in the Hortensius[212]. in the dialogue which bears his name." He alone was bold enough to rebuke the follies. but fortunate in his death[221]. whose praises were sung in the fervid language which Cicero lavishes on the same theme elsewhere. and from our knowledge of Cicero's habit in such matters. and was the first to confer on Cicero the greatest glory of his life. Some allusion most likely was made to the connection of Archias with the Catuli. the people answer with one voice "On you[217]. From the passages above quoted. I merely inquire what was their position with respect to the philosophy of the time. Catulus the younger need not detain us long. is merely the mouthpiece of the father. Catulus was one of the foremost Optimates of Rome. it is very evident on a comparison of all the passages where the two are mentioned. could ever inspire either fear or hope. The Catulus from whom the lost dialogue was named was son of the illustrious colleague of Marius. on the one hand. as in the De Oratore. of the senate[218]. His influence. the author would have been compelled to exclude himself from the conversation[209]. therefore. by Marcus Tullius Cicero a. Apart from Cicero's general agreement with Catulus in politics. or cause to swerve from his own course[219]. Cicero's glorious consulship was once more lauded. The achievements of the elder Catulus were probably extolled. except when Cinna held the office. he affixed a prooemium to each book. The son. the year of Cicero's consulship. Cicero would. and influence are often depicted in even extravagant language by the orator[214]. We have seen that when Cicero found it too late to withdraw the first edition of the Academica from circulation. The philosophical knowledge of the elder man was made to cast its lustre on the younger. on the other. we can have no difficulty in conjecturing at least a portion of the contents of the lost prooemium to the Catulus. which is alluded to in the ." So closely did Cicero suppose himself to be allied to Catulus. This [Greek: atripsia] did not amount to [Greek: apaideusia]. just as Lucullus. which he professes to have heard[210]. When he opposes the Manilian law. with such gigantic power concentrated in his hands. Lucullus in the second. In him no storm of danger. by bidding him remember "Catulus and the olden times[223]. and asks the people on whom they would rely if Pompey. The lost dialogue "Catulus. that a friend tried to console him for the death of Tullia. It is clear from the Lucullus[208] that he did little more than put forward opinions he had received from his father. and the place where it was held. may have been intended to point a contrast between the zeal of Cicero and the lukewarmness of his colleague Antonius[224]. Catulus being lauded in the first. no favouring breeze of fortune. will ever live among his countrymen[220]. and his character. that Rome had never been so unfortunate as to have two bad consuls in the same year. lived in the house of the two Catuli[225]." The statement of Catulus. often referred to by Cicero." 18 The whole of the characters in this dialogue and the Lucullus are among those genuine Optimates and adherents of the senatorial party whom Cicero so loves to honour. were indicated. Archias. were to die.

par excellence. Although so much is said of his general culture. He defends the Greeks from the attacks of Crassus[232]. and was well known as a wit and writer of epigrams[239]. although one passage in the Lucullus seems to imply it[245]. it is necessary to speak of the character and philosophical opinions of Catulus the elder. and his style of speaking it. The only Greek especially mentioned as a friend of his. in which he appears as an interlocutor. No follower of Carneades and Clitomachus. Some considerable portion of the speech must have been directed against the innovations made by Philo upon the genuine Carneadean doctrine. Allusion was undoubtedly made to the Hortensius. in the style of Xenophon. and the whole tone of the De Oratore shows that Catulus could have had no leaning towards the Stoics or Epicureans[242]. Cicero repeatedly asserts that from no other schools can the orator spring. connect Catulus with any particular teacher. the most upright. in which the same speakers had been engaged. It is scarcely possible that any direct intercourse between Philo and Catulus can have taken place. The most important part of the speech. The famous books of Philo were probably not known to Catulus[248]. while he bestows high commendation on the early sophists[234].Academica. which implies a certain knowledge of philosophy. Catulus offered to give his father's views. the dialogue commenced. Cicero would not have failed to tell us. says Cicero. and no one at all conversant with Greek literature or society could fail to be well acquainted with his opinions[246]. is the poet Antipater of Sidon[241]. We are especially told that even with Greeks his acquaintance with Greek. I now proceed to draw out from the references in the Lucullus the chief features of the speech of Catulus the younger. he seldom omits to mention his sapientia. but had rather gained his information from books and especially from the writings of Clitomachus. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 19 Lucullus[227]. The systematic rhetoric of Aristotle and Theophrastus is most to his mind[235]. He was a man of universal merit. when he speaks of the visit of Carneades to Rome[240]. These the elder Catulus had repudiated with great warmth. It is easy to gather from the De Oratore. The probability is that he had never placed himself under the instruction of Greek teachers for any length of time. could view with indifference the latest development of Academic doctrine. as he does in the case of Antonius[243]. of surpassing worth. such as Catulus undoubtedly was[247]. An account is given by him of the history of Greek speculation in Italy[236]. nor does Crassus. must have consisted of a defence of Carneades and Arcesilas against the dogmatic schools[251]. of the company[230]. most of which would fall to Cicero's share. The undefiled purity of his Latin style made him seem to many the only speaker of the language[237]. even charging Philo with wilful misrepresentation of the older Academics[250]. while he developed fully that positive . Throughout the second and third books he is treated as the lettered man. he does not declare himself a follower of that philosopher. it is only from the Academica that we learn definitely his philosophical opinions. He was. however. Appeal is made to him when any question is started which touches on Greek literature and philosophy. In the many passages where Cicero speaks of him. a proposal was made to discuss the great difference between the dogmatic and sceptic schools. In the De Oratore. in his long speech about Greek philosophy. The prooemium ended. He contemptuously contrasts the Latin historians with the Greek[233]. It was probably introduced by a mention of Philo's books[249]. the kindest. Still Philo had a brilliant reputation during the later years of Catulus. Catulus evidently concerned himself more with the system of the later than with that of the earlier sceptic. won admiration[231]. He had written a history of his own deeds. If he had ever been in actual communication with any of the prominent Academics. the wisest. He depreciates the later Greek rhetorical teaching. It is well known that in the arrangement of his dialogues Cicero took every precaution against anachronisms. at the same time commending his father's knowledge of philosophy. the holiest of men[228]. Still it might have been concluded that he was an adherent either of the Academic or Peripatetic Schools. and after more compliments had been bandied about. and Crassus[244]. Before we proceed to construct in outline the speech of Catulus from indications offered by the Lucullus. a second Laelius[229]. a more detailed view of his accomplishments. which Cicero had imitated[238]. It is also exceedingly probable that he touched only very lightly on the negative Academic arguments.

seems another indication of the generally constructive character of his exposition. There is actual warrant for stating that his exposition of Antiochus was merely superficial[260]. according to Lucullus. therefore. though in the lost dialogue which bore his name he had argued against philosophy altogether[258]. but to what extent is uncertain[256].Academica. who must have represented it in the discourse of the day before[252]. also his character and attainments. reproves him as a rebel in philosophy. These conjectures have the advantage of establishing an intimate connection between the prooemium. those parts of Lucullus' speech which deal with the constructive part of Academicism[253] seem to be intended for Catulus. Anaxagoras. and Socrates[264]. One main reason in favour of this view is the difficulty of understanding to whom. Catulus was followed by Hortensius. The relation in which Hortensius stood to Cicero. On the view I have taken. that such a basis was provided by the older philosophy. With this arrangement none of the indications in the Lucullus clash. Everything points to the conclusion that this part of the dialogue was mainly drawn by Cicero from the writings of Clitomachus. after the principles of Antiochus. and would only be put forward to show that the New Academic revolt against the supposed old Academico-Peripatetic school was unjustifiable. If my view of the preceding speech is correct. Thus Philo becomes the central point or pivot of the discussion. if not to Hortensius. All the counter arguments of Lucullus which concern the destructive side of Academic teaching appear to be distinctly aimed at Cicero. Parmenides. corresponding to the speech of Varro in the beginning of the Academica Posteriora. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 20 teaching about the [Greek: pithanon] which was so distinctive of Carneades. entitled Hortensius. part of which is preserved in the Academica Posteriora[262]. the speech of Catulus. In the prooemium the innovations of Philo were mentioned. which both Carneades and Philo had wrongly abandoned. of Empedocles. there would be little difficulty in the fact that Hortensius now advocates a dogmatic philosophy. doubtless. it follows that Cicero in his reply pursued the same course which he takes in his answer to Varro. He must have dealt with the theory of [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia] and [Greek: ennoiai] (which though really . One important opinion maintained by Catulus after Carneades. this accounts for the disappearance in the second edition of the polemical argument of Hortensius[257]. Even the demand made by Hortensius upon Catulus[254] need only imply such a bare statement on the part of the latter of the negative Arcesilaean doctrines as would clear the ground for the Carneadean [Greek: pithanon]. and the succeeding one of Hortensius. Unfair use had been made. Catulus then showed that the only object aimed at by them. drawn from the published works and oral teaching of Antiochus. To any such conversion we have nowhere else any allusion. was already attained by the Carneadean theory of the [Greek: pithanon]. had ended in a conversion to philosophy of the orator from whom it was named. On the other hand. Cicero's materials for the speech of Hortensius were. We are thus relieved from the necessity of forcing the meaning of the word commoveris[261]. He justified the New Academy by showing that it was in essential harmony with the Old. Plato. from which Krische infers that the dialogue. Such a historical résumé as I have supposed Hortensius to give would be within the reach of any cultivated man of the time. Thus the commendation bestowed by Lucullus on the way in which the probabile had been handled appertains to Catulus. But Cicero did not merely give a historical summary. Xenophanes. He seems to have been as nearly innocent of any acquaintance with philosophy as it was possible for an educated man to be. to whom the maintenance of the genuine Carneadean distinction between [Greek: adêla] and [Greek: akatalêpta] would be a peculiarly congenial task. Lucullus. whereupon Hortensius showed. In the Academica Posteriora it was necessary to make Varro speak first and not second as Hortensius did. The exposition of the sceptical criticism would naturally be reserved for the most brilliant and incisive orator of the party--Cicero himself. that the wise man would opine[255] ([Greek: ton sophon doxasein]). The speech of Hortensius was answered by Cicero himself. I think it extremely probable that he gave a résumé of the history of philosophy. the substance of the speech could have been assigned in the first edition. and denied that philosophy and wisdom were at all the same thing[259]. who in some way spoke in favour of Antiochean opinions. Democritus. who appeals to great and ancient names like a seditious tribune[263]. are too well known to need mention here. a satisfactory basis for [Greek: epistêmê]. which would be appropriate only in the mouth of one who was answering a speech already made. and also with those ancient philosophers who preceded Plato.

Cicero for his at Pompeii[278]. round which so many legends lingered[279]. Cato is not closely enough connected with the Academica to render it necessary to treat of him farther. and came to that of Hortensius at Bauli[277]. The more the matter is examined the more clearly does it appear that the main purpose of Cicero in this speech was to justify from the history of philosophy the position of the New Academy. close to Cimmerium. The whole constitution and tenor of the elaborate speech of Cicero in the Lucullus proves that no general or minute demonstration of the impossibility of [Greek: epistêmê] in the dogmatic sense had been attempted in his statement of the day before. adêla." The day after the discussion narrated in the Catulus. he expressly tells us that such sceptical paradoxes as were advanced by him in the first day's discourse were really out of place. b. apodeixis. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 21 Stoic had been adopted by Antiochus). epochê]. Consequently Cato must have taken the comparatively inferior part of Hortensius. The three speeches of Catulus. It follows that when Cicero. So eminent an Antiochean as Brutus cannot have been reduced to the comparatively secondary position assigned to Hortensius in the Academica Priora. The rôle given to Hortensius. although foreign to its main intention[269]. dogma. The scenery in view was magnificent[280]. and not to advance sceptical arguments against experience. there can be no doubt that Brutus occupied a more prominent position than Cato. doubtless. thirty stadia distant[281]. Philo himself and Clitomachus. and Cicero had gone over nearly the whole ground marked out for the discussion[272]. he merely attaches Philo's name to those general New Academic doctrines which had been so brilliantly supported by the pupil of Clitomachus in his earlier days. the whole party left the Cuman villa of Catulus early in the morning. in his letter of dedication to Varro. The two chief sources for Cicero's speech in the Catulus were. He probably also commented on the headlong rashness with which the dogmatists gave their assent to the truth of phenomena. If this be true. which were reserved for his answer to Lucullus. all of which Lucullus is obliged to translate for himself[267]. the waves rippled at their feet. The expressions of Lucullus seem to imply that this part of his teaching had been dismissed by all the disputants[274]. where Cato and Brutus appeared in the place of Hortensius and Lucullus. Lucullus was to leave for his villa at Neapolis. That Cicero's criticism of the dogmatic schools was incomplete may be seen by the fact that he had not had occasion to Latinize the terms [Greek: katalêpsis] (i. in the abstract. In his later speech.e. so that there was plenty of room for a more minute examination in the Lucullus. Cicero's argument in the Catulus was allowed by Lucullus to have considerably damaged the cause of Antiochus[271]. Bauli was a little place on the gulf of Baiae. As the party were seated in the xystus with its polished floor and lines of statues. Cicero never appears elsewhere as the defender of Philo's reactionary doctrines[273]. To this a retort is made by Lucullus[266]. He probably gave a summary classification of the sensations. and the sea away to the horizon glistened and quivered under the bright sun. Brutus would not speak at length in the first half of the work. was in my view such as any cultivated man might sustain who had not definitely committed himself to sceptical principles. Within sight lay the Cuman shore and Puteoli. Yet these arguments must have occupied some considerable space in Cicero's speech. . oikeion. nearly all important terms in the Stoic. The "Lucullus. who was to speak next[268]. Hortensius.Academica. He would naturally occupy the place given to Varro in the second edition[276]. [Greek: enargeia. It may perhaps seem strange that a Stoic of the Stoics like Cato should be chosen to represent Antiochus. while Brutus took that of Lucullus. and were merely introduced in order to disarm Lucullus. In the evening. however much that philosopher may have borrowed from Zeno. with the reasons for refusing to assent to the truth of each class[270]. and changed colour under the freshening breeze. since he found it necessary to "manufacture" (fabricari) Latin terms to represent the Greek[265]. describes his own part as that of Philo (partes mihi sumpsi Philonis[275]). In that intermediate form of the Academica. In this opinion I cannot concur. however. as opposed to the individual [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia]). hormê. during which Lucullus had been merely a looker-on. and to some extent in the Antiochean system. One question remains: how far did Cicero defend Philo against the attack of Catulus? Krische believes that the argument of Catulus was answered point by point. but only cursorily. if the wind favoured.

whose pupil Brutus was[290]. is very dramatic[283]. He seems at least to have dallied with culture. and Cicero anticipates his wonder in the letter of dedication[296]. and the passages already quoted from the letters. The surprise of Hortensius. at which the scene was now laid. Cato was tutor to Lucullus' son. All his arguments are explicitly stated to be derived from a discussion in which he had heard Antiochus engage. with Cicero for a sort of adviser: while Hortensius had married a divorced wife of Cato. The same may be said of Cicero's answer. The first mention we have of Varro in any of Cicero's writings is in itself sufficient to show his character and the impossibility of anything like friendship between the two. In another passage the design of the Tusculan Disputations. He was nephew of Cato. He is several times mentioned by Pliny in the Natural History as the patron of Greek artists. Yet. Nearly all that is known of the learning of Lucullus is told in Cicero's dialogue. which is resumed by Lucullus. although when the words were written he had been dead for many years[282]. are alone needed here. I may. the De Natura Deorum and other works are shadowed forth[284]. as a private citizen. Any closer examination of its contents must be postponed till I come to annotate its actual text. all men of philosophic tastes[288]. whose half-sister Servilia was wife of Lucullus[289]. and in the letter to which I refer he begs Atticus to send Varro the eulogy to read. All of them were of the Senatorial party. while in the last but one the De Finibus. Heraclitus Tyrius. at the wisdom of Lucullus. For the main facts of Varro's life the student must be referred to the ordinary sources of information. by the authority of another person. however. Brutus and Cicero were both friends of Antiochus and Aristus. Many allusions are made to recent events. and Cato and Brutus lived to be present. the death of Tullia[294]. Tetrilius Rogus and the Selii. Varro had done the orator some service in the trying time which came before the exile. the speech of Lucullus was no doubt transferred to Brutus. but as he has only such a slight connection with the work. such as the utter overthrow of the Pompeian party. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 22 Cicero strove to give vividness to the dialogue and to keep it perfectly free from anachronisms. When Cicero dedicated the Academica to Varro. it can be shown that Varro.Academica. as I have said. we may observe that at the very outset of the work it is shown to be not far distant from the actual time of composition[293]. Cicero had a villa close to the Cuman villa of Catulus and almost within sight of Hortensius' villa at Bauli[291]. was close to the Lucrine lake[292]. who is but a learner in philosophy. The Second Edition. notice the close relationship in which Brutus stood to the other persons with whom we have had to deal. His intention to visit Tusculum has left its mark on the last section of the book. A short account of the points of contact between his life and that of Cicero. In writing to Atticus Cicero had eulogised Varro. Cicero acknowledged in his letters to Atticus that Lucullus was no philosopher. with a few words about his philosophical opinions. This impossibility would at once occur to Varro. with Cicero. adding . and during the whole of his residence in the East he sought to attach learned men to his person. very slight alterations were necessary in the scenery and other accessories of the piece. Hortensius and Catulus now sink to a secondary position in the conversation. mainly a reply to that of Cicero in the Catulus. although his chief energy. like Catulus. during the war between Pompey and Caesar. Varro's villa. With regard to the feigned date of the discourse. as we have already seen. He has to be propped up. c. Cicero therefore for once admits into his works an impossibility in fact. was directed to the care of his fish-ponds[287]. The speech of Lucullus was. and the publication of the Hortensius[295]. Diodotus is spoken of as still living. In the intermediate form of the Academica. At Alexandria he was found in the company of Antiochus. Between the date of Tullia's death and the writing of the Academica. I do not think it necessary to do much more than call attention to the fact. His speech is especially acknowledged by Cicero to be drawn from the works of Antiochus[286]. which was carried out immediately after the publication of the Academica and De Finibus. Aristus. In his train when he went to Sicily was the poet Archias. is clearly to be seen[285]. The many political and private troubles which were pressing upon Cicero when he wrote the work are kept carefully out of sight. Cicero and Atticus could not have met together at Cumae. Still we can catch here and there traces of thoughts and plans which were actively employing the author's mind at Astura.

1. closely corresponding to that of Lucullus in ed. as detailed already. and Trebatius. Paetus. who quotes considerably from. who. forced and artificial.: an exposition by Cicero of Carneades' positive teaching. In Cumano nuper cum mecum Atticus noster esset. This supposition owes its currency to Müller.. testify to this approximation[300]. which Cicero had given in the first edition as an answer to Hortensius[304].C. Book IV. that foretaste of the negative arguments against dogmatism. concluded that Varro had passed over to the Stoics before that work was written. he and Varro remained in the same semi-friendly state. to this was appended. as we have already seen. Varrone. The exact specification of the changes in the arrangement of the subject-matter. show sufficiently that this slight increase in cordiality did not lead to friendship[301]. Cicero had to be pressed to write Varro a letter of thanks for supposed exertions in his behalf. Book I. Roughly speaking. formerly given by Hortensius.: a speech of Varro in reply to Cicero.: the historico-philosophical exposition of Antiochus' views. the following were the contents of the four books. They all show a fear of giving offence to the harsh temper of Varro. written mostly in the year before the Academica was published. The negotiations between Atticus and Cicero with respect to the dedication of the second edition. This seems to me an unnatural arrangement. and a humility in presence of his vast learning which is by no means natural to Cicero. had formed part of the answer made by Cicero to Hortensius. by an elaborate and pedantic process of exhaustion. which arose from a wrong view of Nonius' quotations. nuntiatum est nobis a M. Beyond doubt he was a follower of Antiochus and the so-called Old Academy. such for instance as Sulpicius. TULLII CICERONIS ACADEMICORUM POSTERIORUM LIBER PRIMUS. probably. The philosophical views of Varro can be gathered with tolerable accuracy from Augustine. 1. as reported by Atticus[299]. About the year 54 B. may be read by the curious in Augustine. 1. necessitated by the dedication to Varro. One other thing is worth remark. Book II. On Cicero's return from exile. In some old editions the Lucullus is marked throughout as Academicorum liber IV. from Stoic phrases in the De Lingua Latina. logically. now by Varro. during his exile[298]. [Greek: elikta kai ouden][297]. substantially the same as in ed. then the historical justification of the Philonian position. ***** M. 1.Academica. which are always from the second edition. Several passages show that Cicero refused to believe in Varro's zeal. Still they are all cold. I. Book III. My notes on the Academica Posteriora will show that there is no reason for accusing Cicero of having mistaken Varro's philosophical views. ***** I. to that of the Lucullus. I may here notice a fact which might puzzle the student. the work of Varro De Philosophia[302]. All that was Stoic in Varro came from Antiochus[303]. the subject-matter of the Varro is certainly prior. venisse eum Roma . Eight letters." All the references to Varro in the letters to Atticus are in the same strain.: Cicero's answer. will be more conveniently deferred till we come to the fragments of the second edition preserved by Nonius and others. among the 288 philosophies which he considered possible. Atticus in vain urged his friend to dedicate some work to the great polymath. which in ed. This is an entire mistake. practically the same as that given by Catulus in ed. How he selected this school from. After the fall of the Pompeian cause. Atticus must have been almost a [Greek: kôphon prosôpon]. Cicero and Varro do seem to have been drawn a little closer together. very different from the letters Cicero addressed to his real intimates. Halm (as many before him had done) places the Academica Priora before the Posteriora. Caelius. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 23 "Mirabiliter moratus est.. and can tell us nothing about the constitution of the first. Plancus. sicut nosti.

quae Menippum imitati. ut ea a fontibus potius hauriant quam rivulos consectentur. Iam vero physica. quae docti. praesertim cum et ipse in eo excellas et id studium totaque ea res longe ceteris et studiis et artibus antecedat. quas tecum simul didici. quae sine eruditione Graeca intellegi non possunt: itaque ea nolui scribere.Academica. tu domesticam. Tum. quam fingit et format effectio. Quae autem nemo adhuc docuerat nec erat unde studiosi scire possent. continuo ad nos venturum fuisse. 3. cuius nosti studium--nihil enim eius modi celare possumus--non te ea intermittere. existimavi. et quaere potius ecquid ipse novi. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 24 pridie vesperi et. 8. in his ipsis antiquitatum prooemiis +philosophe scribere voluimus. nullam moram interponendam putavimus quin videremus hominem nobiscum et studiis isdem et vetustate amicitiae coniunctum. maius aut melius a dis datum munus homini. Itaque confestim ad eum ire perreximus. cum multa scribas. . 7. 4. Varro. iam diu exspectans. nec tamen istum cessare. ea. ego. ut apud Platonem est. ut possemus aliquando qui et ubi essemus agnoscere. Aelii nostri occasum ne a Latinis quidem. quaeso. tu descriptiones temporum. quae cum contineantur ex effectione et ex materia ea. 9. quantum potui--nihil enim magno opere meorum miror--feci ut essent nota nostris. nihil definiunt. satis eum longo intervallo ad suam villam reduximus. probamus. de corpusculorum--ita enim appellat atomos--concursione fortuita loqui? Nostra tu physica nosti. Si vero Academiam veterem persequamur. quam erit illa acute explicanda nobis! quam argute. postea quam sum ingressus res eas. II. nisi de via fessus esset. quaero quid sit cur. magnum est efficere ut quis intelligat quid sit illud verum et simplex bonum. ad Graecos ire iubeo. multa admixta ex intima philosophia. haec ipsa de vita et moribus. Itaque non haesitans respondebo. quam quibusnam quisquam enuntiare verbis aut quem ad intellegendum poterit adducere? Quid. possem scribere ita plane. Atticus: Omitte ista. si Democritum probarem. Hic pauca primo. tu bellicam disciplinam. qui nulla arte adhibita de rebus ante oculos positis volgari sermone disputant. Vides autem--eadem enim ipse didicisti--non posse nos Amafinii aut Rabirii similis esse. nullam denique artem esse nec dicendi nec disserendi putant. Illud autem mihi ante hoc tempus numquam in mentem venit a te requirere: sed nunc. multa dicta dialectice +quae quo facilius minus docti intelligerent. paulumque cum ab eius villa abessemus. sed ea dicam. sed accuratius tractare nec de manibus umquam deponere. atque ea percontantibus nobis. tu sacerdotum. mandare monumentis philosophiamque veterem illam a Socrate ortam Latinis litteris illustrare. Et ego: Ista quidem. a Graecis petere malent. tu sacrorum iura. inquam. quae nec indocti intellegere possent nec docti legere curarent. ut Amafinius. nihil partiuntur. Sed meos amicos. cum causas rerum efficientium sustuleris. quae et sunt magna sane et limantur a me politius. et diu cogitavi. quod non possit ab honestate seiungi: quod bonum quale sit negat omnino Epicurus sine voluptatibus sensum moventibus ne suspicari quidem. quod ista ipsa de re multum. Silent enim diutius Musae Varronis quam solebant. adhibenda etiam geometria est. 5. quae nec percontari nec audire sine molestia possumus. inquit. si qui de nostris eius studio tenerentur. III. Quod cum audissemus. in quibus est studium. Tum ille: Rem a me saepe deliberatam et multum agitatam requiris. verbis quoque novis cogimur uti. Et tamen in illis veteribus nostris. nihil apta interrogatione concludunt. quadam hilaritate conspersimus. quam obscure etiam contra Stoicos disserendum! Totum igitur illud philosophiae studium mihi quidem ipse sumo et ad vitae constantiam quantum possum et ad delectationem animi. ut frustra omnis suscipiatur labor. quoniam utramque vim virtutem esse nostri putant. nec ullum arbitror. 6. ut dixi. ut mos amicorum est. indocti ne a nobis quidem accipient. ut legibus. ut scis. idque iam pridem: ad hunc enim ipsum--me autem dicebat--quaedam institui. Varro. ut dixi. Sive enim Zenonem sequare. non interpretati. genus hoc praetermittas. quae mihi sunt in promptu. Nos autem praeceptis dialecticorum et oratorum etiam. non audeo tamen flagitare: audivi enim e Libone nostro. ipsum ad nos venientem vidimus: atque ilium complexi. et de expetendis fugiendisque rebus? Illi enim simpliciter pecudis et hominis idem bonum esse censent: apud nostros autem non ignoras quae sit et quanta subtilitas. ista. Nam cum philosophiam viderem diligentissime Graecis litteris explicatam. id est. ecquid forte Roma novi. quam nos. Sunt. id est. Nam nos in nostra urbe peregrinantis errantisque tamquam hospites tui libri quasi domum deduxerunt. inquam. iucunditate quadam ad legendum invitati. sic parentes. in Graeciam mitto. in laudationibus. si essent Graecis doctrinis eruditi. Tu aetatem patriae. Quid est enim magnum. Graeca potius quam nostra lecturos: sin a Graecorum artibus et disciplinis abhorrerent. inquit ille: intemperantis enim arbitror esse scribere quod occultari velit: sed habeo opus magnum in manibus. sed celare quae scribat existimo. ne haec quidem curaturos. si modo consecuti sumus. Minime vero. A Graecis enim peti non poterant ac post L. 2. si Epicurum.

Quae cum diceret constanter et in ea sententia permaneret. velim. omnis eius oratio tamen in virtute laudanda et in hominibus ad virtutis studium cohortandis consumebatur. id unum sciat. ut res est--dum me ambitio. Quid enim causae est cur poetas Latinos Graecis litteris eruditi legant. si maxime cognita essent. remigrare in domum veterem e nova quam nobis in novam e vetere? certe enim recentissima quaeque sunt correcta et emendata maxime. sed vim Graecorum expresserunt poetarum? Quanto magis philosophi delectabunt. eoque praestare ceteris. Xenocratem Chalcedonium et Aristotelem Stagiritem. dum honores. a qua absum iam diu. qui erant cum Aristotele. de re? Relictam a te veterem illam. Attius. Est. IV. Ita facta est. illam autem Socraticam dubitationem de omnibus rebus et nulla adfirmatione adhibita consuetudinem disserendi reliquerunt. illi autem. 10. Istuc quidem considerabo. Aristotelem. ob eamque rem se arbitrari ab Apolline omnium sapientissimum esse dictum. inquit. Peripatetici dicti sunt. Sed videamus idemne Attico placeat fieri a me. una et consentiens duobus vocabulis philosophiae forma instituta est. Sophoclem. Aut enim huic aetati hoc maxime aptum est aut iis rebus. inquit. inquit: sum enim admodum infirmus. coarguit. qui Platonis instituto in Academia. Quam ob rem da. Antiocho id magis licuerit. causas aperuisti. inquam. haec inclusa habebam et. in quibus omnes ante eum philosophi occupati fuerunt. quaeso. quod minime Socrates probabat. ita disputat ut nihil adfirmet ipse. plurimumque poetis nostris omninoque Latinis et litteris luminis et verbis attulisti. Pacuvius. Hic in omnibus fere sermonibus. Nam Aristum Athenis audivit aliquam diu. nihil tamen ad bene vivendum valere. primus a rebus occultis et ab ipsa natura involutis. cum licebat. intellegi potest. renovari a te. Tum. 11. Sed de te ipso quid est. id quod constat inter omnis. ad edocendum parum. quod coram etiam ex ipso audiebamus. Quae quidem erat primo . avocavisse philosophiam et ad vitam communem adduxisse. Plato philosophiae quasi heredem reliquisset. ut de virtutibus et vitiis omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaereret. ad impellendum satis. qui ita putarunt. officia. Euripidem. 18. genera. dum rei publicae non solum cura. ut illi Aeschylum. 16. Sed utrique Platonis ubertate completi certam quandam disciplinae formulam composuerunt et eam quidem plenam ac refertam. Tum Varro ita exorsus est: Socrates mihi videtur. 13. te huic etiam generi litterarum. qui ab iis qui illum audierunt perscripti varie et copiose sunt. adsidamus. inquam. Platonis autem auctoritate. inquit. e loci vocabulo nomen habuerunt. dum causae. quod audio? Quanam. et simul. quod haec esset una omnis sapientia non arbitrari sese scire quod nesciat. quod illi quae nesciant scire se putent. philosophos non legant? an quia delectat Ennius. cuius tu fratrem Antiochum. maximeque Platonis. Academicorum et Peripateticorum: qui rebus congruentes nominibus differebant. magnus vir. atque ipse varium et elegans omni fere numero poema fecisti philosophiamque multis locis incohasti. Ego autem--dicam enim. quae contra ea Philonis Antiochus scripserit. si quas dignas laude gessimus. quod te velle video. ipse se nihil scire. nihil ut iisdem de rebus Graecia desideret. negat in libris. Quamquam Antiochi magister Philo. legendo.Academica. Mihi vero. in conspectu consedimus [omnes]. Brutus quidem noster. Causam autem probabilem tu quidem adfers. sororis filium. ars quaedam philosophiae et rerum ordo et descriptio disciplinae. 17. sic philosophiam Latinis litteris persequitur. Immo vero et ista et totam veterem Academiam. qui non verba. Theophrastum? Oratores quidem laudari video. caelestia autem vel procul esse a nostra cognitione censeret vel. 15. quod est alterum gymnasium. ille. Quid? ergo. 12. si haec ita non sunt. duos autem praestantissimo studio atque doctrina. Nam cum Speusippum. ille: quid est enim quod malim quam ex Antiocho iam pridem audita recordari? et simul videre satisne ea commode dici possit Latine? Quae cum essent dicta. tu omnium divinarum humanarumque rerum nomina. Nunc vero et fortunae gravissimo percussus volnere et administratione rei publicae liberatus. Sane istud quidem. ut dicis: sed ignorare te non arbitror. hoc in primis consentaneum aut etiam ad nostros civis erudiendos nihil utilius aut. refellat alios: nihil se scire dicat nisi id ipsum. si videtur. nec vero sine te. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 25 tu sedem regionum locorum. inquam. et eandem quidem sententiam sequitur quam tu. nihil aliud video quod agere possimus. si qui e nostris Hyperidem sint aut Demosthenem imitati. Sed da mihi nunc: satisne probas? Immo vero et haec qui illa non poterunt et qui Graeca poterunt non contemnent sua. excellens omni genere laudis. ut e Socraticorum libris. ne obsolescerent. 14. nisi molestum est. qui varius et multiplex et copiosus fuit. multi alii. si. tractari autem novam. doloris medicinam a philosophia peto et otii oblectationem hanc honestissimam iudico. renovabam. sed quaedam etiam procuratio multis officiis implicatum et constrictum tenebat. duas Academias esse erroremque eorum. sic hi Platonem imitentur. quia disputabant inambulantes in Lycio. aut enim Graeca legere malent qui erunt eruditi aut ne haec quidem qui illa nesciunt. coetus erant et sermones habere soliti. nostro familiari. ut tu existimas ipse.

Sed quod ex utroque. inquam. quoniam placet. vim esse censebant. 26 V. si te Latina forte deficient. Fuit ergo iam accepta a Platone philosophandi ratio triplex: una de vita et moribus. VI. Ex hac descriptione agendi quoque aliquid in vita et officii ipsius initium reperiebatur: quod erat in conservatione earum rerum. aut sumne sanus. nec tamen beatissimam. tamen inepte quisquis Minervam docet. cum Latine dicuntur. forma atque descriptio. quid repugnans iudicando. Naturae celeritatem ad discendum et memoriam dabant: quorum utrumque mentis esset proprium et ingeni. ut divitias. ut aiunt. aut omnia aut maxima. quod efficeretur. quod efficeret. 25. animi autem. ut dixi. ut philosophiam aut rhetoricam aut . Hominem esse censebant quasi partem quandam civitatis et universi generis humani. qui haec vos doceo? nam etsi non sus Minervam. Bene sane facis: sed enitar ut Latine loquar. Itaque omnis illa antiqua philosophia sensit in una virtute esse positam beatam vitam. nisi adiungerentur et corporis et cetera. eumque esse coniunctum cum hominibus humana quadam societate. ut altera esset efficiens. quid rectum in oratione pravumve. Tum Atticus: Tu vero. meque ista delectant. neque vim sine aliqua materia. unde et amicitia exsistebat et iustitia atque aequitas: eaeque voluptatibus et multis vitae commodis anteponebantur. quae essent ad comprehendendam ingeniis virtutem idonea. Aristoteles. ut opes. Id quidem non falso: est enim haec partitio illorum: illud imprudenter. utamur verbis interdum inauditis. 19. in partibus autem sensus integros et praestantiam aliquam partium singularum. quas in animis ponunt. una res optima. viris pulchritudinem in toto. In eo. ut gloriam. quae in ipso animo atque in ipsa virtute versantur. 24. 22. tertia de disserendo et quid verum sit. ut gratiam. ad virtutis usum idonea. Vitae autem--id enim erat tertium--adiuncta esse dicebant. alia in partibus: valetudinem. quas natura praescriberet.Academica. qui philosophiam iam professus sim populo nostro exhibiturum? Pergamus igitur. putas. 21. constituebantque extremum esse rerum expetendarum et finem bonorum adeptum esse omnia e natura et animo et corpore et vita. Ac primum partem illam bene vivendi a natura petebant eique parendum esse dicebant. inquit. Sed quid ago? inquit. VII. et isto modo. quasi perfectio naturae omniumque rerum. ut in rebus inusitatis. quid falsum. qui tum appellarentur. ut eam dividerent in res duas. si alios esse Academicos. in lingua etiam explanatam vocum impressionem: 20. neque ulla alia in re nisi in natura quaerendum esse illud summum bonum quo omnia referrentur. quod Graeci ipsi faciunt. by Marcus Tullius Cicero duobus. in quibus erat philosophia ipsa. sed idem fons erat utrisque et eadem rerum expetendarum fugiendarumque partitio. Communis haec ratio et utrisque hic bonorum finis videbatur. 23. Corporis autem alia ponebant esse in toto. progressio quaedam ad virtutem appellatur: quod autem absolutum. Ergo haec animorum. ut mihi quidem videtur. Ac de summo quidem atque naturali bono sic agunt: cetera autem pertinere ad id putant aut adaugendum aut tuendum. Nihil est enim quod non alicubi esse cogatur. vim in manibus. Nos vero. quid consentiens. Hinc gignebatur fuga desidiae voluptatumque contemptio: ex quo laborum dolorumque susceptio multorum magnorumque recti honestique causa et earum rerum. Atque haec illa sunt tria genera. claritatem in voce. Morum autem putabant studia esse et quasi consuetudinem: quam partim exercitationis adsiduitate. nominibus una: nihil enim inter Peripateticos et illam veterem Academiam differebat. in eo autem. si nulla vi contineretur. alios Peripateticos arbitrantur. ut in pedibus celeritatem. In qua quod incohatum est neque absolutum. Nam virtus animi bonis et corporis cernitur. altera de natura et rebus occultis. perge. inquit. adipisci quae essent prima natura quaeque ipsa per sese expetenda. id est virtus. materiam quandam: in utroque tamen utrumque: neque enim materiam ipsam cohaerere potuisse. quae ad virtutis usum valerent. inquit Atticus: quin etiam Graecis licebit utare. quam primam posui. Haec quidem fuit apud eos morum institutio et eius partis. Ea sunt autem maxima. cum voles. De natura autem--id enim sequebatur--ita dicebant. nisi in huiusce modi verbis. eaque ab iis in naturam et mores dividebantur. Quid me. a quibus haec iam diu tractantur. Ita tripartita ab iis inducitur ratio bonorum. altera autem quasi huic se praebens. ea quae efficeretur aliquid. id iam corpus et quasi qualitatem quandam nominabant: dabitis enim profecto. partim ratione formabant. Abundantia quadam ingeni praestabat. quae erant congruentes cum descriptione naturae. et in quibusdam quae non tam naturae quam beatae vitae adiuncta sunt. quae supra dicta sunt. quae putant plerique Peripateticos dicere. Varro: valde enim amo nostra atque nostros.

id est. ut sub sensum cadere non possent. Audebimus ergo. 30. Varro. ut nihil umquam unum esset constans. novis verbis uti te auctore. quae erat in ratione et in disserendo. ut e Graeco vertam. Aut enim nova sunt rerum novarum facienda nomina aut ex aliis transferenda. aquam dico et terram. Mentem volebant rerum esse iudicem: solam censebant idoneam cui crederetur. vehementius etiam fregit quodam modo auctoritatem veteris disciplinae: spoliavit enim virtutem suo decore imbecillamque reddidit. exponam. quae sunt ei subiectae. ut pro Attico etiam respondeam. uti fecisti. aliae ex his ortae. 27. quasi prudentiam quandam. quae sit eadem sempiterna: nihil enim valentius esse a quo intereat: 29. 33. Aristoteles primus species. quas paulo ante dixi. quem deum appellant. quod ipsum apud Graecos non est vulgi verbum. Et id quidem commune omnium fere est artium. Sed subiectam putant omnibus sine ulla specie atque carentem omni illa qualitate--faciamus enim tractando usitatius hoc verbum et tritius--materiam quandam. Hanc illi [Greek: idean] appellabant. quanto id magis nobis concedendum est. quae essent aut ita parvae. quae supra dixi. orationis ratione conclusae. vir et oratione suavis et ita moratus. e quibus in omni natura cohaerente et continuata cum omnibus suis partibus effectum esse mundum. inter quasi fatalem et immutabilem continuationem ordinis sempiterni: non numquam eandem fortunam. inquam. si eos non modo copia rerum auxeris. atque id in multis. inquam. Principes sunt unius modi et simplices: ex his autem ortae variae sunt et quasi multiformes. et cum sic ultro citroque versetur. Itaque aër--utimur enim pro Latino--et ignis et aqua et terra prima sunt: ex his autem ortae animantium formae earumque rerum. reliquae partes accipiendi et quasi patiendi. omniumque rerum. Quintum genus. Quamquam oriretur a sensibus. quibus. si voltis. quae pertinent ad homines: quam interdum eandem necessitatem appellant. Sensus autem omnis hebetes et tardos esse arbitrabantur. explicatrix orationis perpetuae ad persuadendum accommodatae. ex qua omnia expressa atque efficta sint: quae tota omnia accipere possit omnibusque modis mutari atque ex omni parte. quod negavit in ea sola positum esse beate vivere. 31. quam vim animum esse dicunt mundi eandemque esse mentem sapientiamque perfectam. e quo essent astra mentesque. Dialecticorum vero verba nulla sunt publica: suis utuntur. adhibebant. singulare eorumque quattuor. qui haec nunc primum tractare conamur? 26. sed in suas partis. Itaque hanc omnem partem rerum opinabilem appellabant. sed philosophorum. Scientiam autem nusquam esse censebant nisi in animi notionibus atque rationibus: qua de causa definitiones rerum probabant. eoque etiam interire non in nihilum. 28. Ergo illa initia et. Earum igitur qualitatum sunt aliae principes. respondes: praeclare enim explicatur Peripateticorum et Academiae veteris auctoritas. deinde in terris ea. Theophrastus autem. materiam ipsam totam penitus commutari putant et illa effici. partis autem esse mundi omnia. inquit. procurantem caelestia maxime. quae subiectae sensibus viderentur. . ut aliis multis. iam a Platone ita nominatam. si necesse erit. consuetudo iam utitur pro Latinis. sed etiam verborum. quia sola cerneret id. 32. quae insint in eo. nos recte speciem possumus dicere. quia continenter laberentur et fluerent omnia. quas [Greek: poiotêtas] Graeci vocant. et has ad omnia. Haec erat illis disciplina a Platone tradita: cuius quas acceperim mutationes. Qualitates igitur appellavi. extra quem nulla pars materiae sit nullumque corpus. Nos vero volumus. bene etiam meriturus mihi videris de tuis civibus. ne idem quidem. quam [Greek: etymologian] appellabant: post argumentis et quasi rerum notis ducibus utebantur ad probandum et ad concludendum id. quod explanari volebant: itaque tradebatur omnis dialecticae disciplina. sic tractabatur ab utrisque. elementa dicuntur: e quibus aër et ignis movendi vim habent et efficiendi. Huic quasi ex altera parte oratoria vis dicendi adhibebatur. labefactavit: quas mirifice Plato erat amplexatus. quae gignuntur e terra. Et cum ita moveatur illa vis. nec percipere ullo modo res eas. IX. quae natura sentiente teneantur. ut prae se probitatem quandam et ingenuitatem ferat. dissimile Aristoteles quoddam esse rebatur. quod efficiat multa improvisa ac necopinata nobis propter obscuritatem ignorationemque causarum.Academica. quia nihil aliter possit atque ab ea constitutum sit. ut in iis quiddam divinum esse diceret. id est. tamen non esse iudicium veritatis in sensibus. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 27 physicam aut dialecticam appellem. quod semper esset simplex et unius modi et tale quale esset. quam qualitatem esse diximus. VIII. quae infinite secari ac dividi possint. omnia intervallis moveri. cum sit nihil omnino in rerum natura minimum quod dividi nequeat: quae autem moveantur. aut ita mobiles et concitatae. Quod si Graeci faciunt. Tertia deinde philosophiae pars. inquit. Verborum etiam explicatio probabatur. quae intervalla item infinite dividi possint. de quibus disceptabatur. Tu vero. qui in his rebus tot iam saecula versantur. Et recte. in qua ratio perfecta insit. qua de causa quaeque essent ita nominata. quae appellant qualia.

sed eas contraherent in angustumque deducerent. nervos virtutis inciderit. 38. ex qua superiores sensus et mentem effici rebantur. quae a superioribus acceperant. sed soli credendum esse dicebat. quamquam fuit acri ingenio. in malis: officia autem servata praetermissaque media putabat. Sed quae essent sumenda. comprehensionem appellabat. Mihi vero. et post eos Polemo et Crates unaque Crantor. correctionem explicabo. Discrepabat etiam ab isdem quod nullo modo arbitrabatur quicquam effici posse ab ea. quae visa sunt et quasi accepta sensibus. 42. cum acceptum iam et approbatum esset. prave. quae esset imbecilla et cum falso incognitoque communis. 35. comprehendibile--feretis hoc? Nos vero. nos visum appellemus licet. unde postea notiones rerum in animis imprimerentur. tuebantur. comprehensio facta sensibus et vera esse illi et fidelis videbatur. ut superiores. si videtur. officium et contra officium media locabat quaedam: recte facta sola in bonis actionibus ponens. non adhiberet. E quo sensibus etiam fidem tribuebat. Sed inter scientiam et inscientiam comprehensionem illam. alia naturae esse contraria. Iam Polemonem audiverant adsidue Zeno et Arcesilas. 36. quam dixi. in ea ipsa plurimum dissedit a suis. ea sumenda et quadam aestimatione dignanda docebat. ex iis alia pluris esse aestimanda. Plurima autem in illa tertia philosophiae parte mutavit. scientiam: sin aliter. quae propriam quandam haberent declarationem earum rerum. quae essent in re. inscientiam nominabat: ex qua exsisteret etiam opinio. 40. cuius generis Xenocrates et superiores etiam animum esse dixerant. Nam et perturbationes voluntarias esse putabat opinionisque iudicio suscipi et omnium perturbationum arbitrabatur matrem esse immoderatam quamdam intemperantiam. reiecta autem quae minoris. et teneamus hoc verbum quidem: erit enim utendum in reliquo sermone saepius. inquam. comprehenderet. Cumque eas perturbationes antiqui naturalis esse dicerent et rationis expertis aliaque in parte animi cupiditatem. Quae autem secundum naturam essent. similem iis rebus. cum eo verbo antea nemo tali in re usus esset. alia minoris. non quod omnia. Zeno igitur nullo modo is erat. naturaque et condolescere et concupiscere et extimescere et efferri laetitia dicerent. His ipsis alia interiecta et media numerabat. tamen alia secundum naturam dicebat. et mentem atque sensus. Eam quoque. quae expers esset corporis. eamque neque in rectis neque in pravis numerabat. eius auditor. e quibus non principia solum. 39. qui. Sed ad haec. plurimisque idem novis verbis--nova enim dicebat--usus est. 37. Quae pluris. quae posita est in virtute et moribus. XI. ut Theophrastus. sicut solebat Antiochus. cum ipsum per se cerneretur. ut dixi. sed quia nihil quod cadere in eam posset relinqueret quodque natura quasi normam scientiae et principium sui dedisset. corrigere conatus est disciplinam. Sed Zeno cum Arcesilam anteiret aetate valdeque subtiliter dissereret et peracute moveretur. nec vero aut quod efficeret aliquid aut quod efficeretur posse esse non corpus. Cetera autem etsi nec bona nec mala essent. Cumque perturbationem animi illi ex homine non tollerent. Statuebat enim ignem esse ipsam naturam. alia rationem collocarent. cumque illi ea genera virtutum. quae quidque gigneret. hic omnis in ratione ponebat. idque appellaret honestum. adsensionem adiungit animorum. quos iunctos esse censuit e quadam quasi impulsione oblata extrinsecus. sed ipsum habitum per se esse praeclarum. in quibus ponebat nihil omnino esse momenti. sed iis solum. id est peccata. In qua primum de sensibus ipsis quaedam dixit nova. qui omnia quae ad beatam vitam pertinerent in una virtute poneret nec quicquam aliud numeraret in bonis. quam esse volt in nobis positam et voluntariam. hic nec id ullo modo fieri posse disserebat nec virtutis usum modo. 41. nec tamen virtutem cuiquam adesse quin ea semper uteretur. primum. Cumque superiores non omnem virtutem in ratione esse dicerent. diligenter ea.Academica. Haec fere de moribus. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 28 34. Atque ut haec non tam rebus quam vocabulis commutaverat. qui primi Platonis rationem auctoritatemque susceperant. Quonam enim modo [Greek: katalêpton] diceres?--Sed. quae supra dixi. reliquisset totumque se ad investigationem naturae contulisset. Speusippus autem et Xenocrates. quae viderentur: id autem visum. collocabat. Visis non omnibus adiungebat fidem. . quam ille [Greek: phantasian]. X. Nam Strato. quae manu prehenderentur: ex quo etiam nomen hoc duxerat. quod vides idem significare Pomponium. seiungi posse arbitrarentur. sed contra. in Academia congregati. ut quattuor initiis rerum illis quintam hanc naturam. quod esset simplex quoddam et solum et unum bonum. tamen ab ea disciplina omnino semovendus est: qui cum maxime necessariam partem philosophiae. Quod autem erat sensu comprehensum. ea praeposita appellabat. et si ita erat comprehensum. hic omnibus his quasi morbis voluit carere sapientem. id ipsum sensum appellabat. ne his quidem adsentiebatur. ut convelli ratione non posset. inquit. ut supra dixi. videtur. sed quasdam virtutes natura aut more perfectas. sic inter recte factum atque peccatum. contraque contraria: neutra autem in mediis relinquebat. quod. De naturis autem sic sentiebat.

probas. Errorem autem et temeritatem et ignorantiam et opinationem et suspicionem et uno nomine omnia. de omnibus quaeritur.: quid autem stomachatur Menesarchus? quid Antipater digladiatur cum Carneade tot voluminibus? 2. vocabulum accepisse confirmat: quid tam planum videtur quam mare? e quo etiam aequor illud poetae vocant. quae mihi vetus videtur. Cicero Academicis lib. 3. qui ab antiquorum ratione desciscis et ea. II.: qui cum similitudine verbi concinere maxime sibi videretur. Aequor ab aequo et plano Cicero Academicorum lib. quae tum esset insignis. cuius in libris nihil adfirmatur et in utramque partem multa disseruntur. sed earum rerum obscuritate. Hanc Academiam novam appellant.Academica. vetus. ut Democritus. inquam. qui illum audierant. scelera ponere. . nostro familiari. docere quod et qua de causa discidium factum sit. EX LIBRO II. Exponere pro exempla boni ostentare. Idem in Academicis lib. 46. Nonius s. Anaxagoram. cohibereque semper et ab omni lapsu continere temeritatem. opinionibus et institutis omnia teneri. I. Nonius p. haec nova nominetur: quae usque ad Carneadem perducta. Huic rationi quod erat consentaneum faciebat. Quae cum dixisset: Breviter sane minimeque obscure exposita est. quae essent aliena firmae et constantis adsensionis. 44.. Varro. 65 Merc. Atque in his fere commutatio constitit omnis dissensioque Zenonis a superioribus. Nonius p. qui quartus ab Arcesila fuit. neque hoc quicquam esse turpius quam cognitioni et perceptioni adsensionem approbationemque praecurrere. Itaque Arcesilas negabat esse quicquam quod sciri posset. Tunc Varro: Tuae sunt nunc partes. in eadem Arcesilae ratione permansit.: frangere avaritiam. 5. ut accepimus. si quidem Platonem ex illa vetere numeramus. facilius ab utraque parte adsensio sustineretur. a te. incredibili quadam fuit facultate. nihil percipi. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 29 sed latiores quaedam ad rationem inveniendam viae reperiuntur. quod Socrates sibi reliquisset: sic omnia latere censebat in occulto: neque esse quicquam quod cerni aut intellegi posset: quibus de causis nihil oportere neque profiteri neque adfirmare quemquam neque adsensione approbare. quae ad confessionem ignorationis adduxerant Socratem et iam ante Socratem Democritum. 45.. 65. imbecillos animos. unum tamen praeter ceteros mirabatur. nihil veritati relinqui. quam exposuisti. nihil certi dicitur: sed tamen illa. ne illud quidem ipsum. concinnare p. a virtute sapientiaque removebat. dictum a gladiis. brevia curricula vitae et. ut contra omnium sententias dicens in eam plerosque deduceret.: qui enim serius honores adamaverunt vix admittuntur ad eos nec satis commendati multitudini possunt esse.v. nihil sciri posse dixerunt: angustos sensus. ut cum in eadem re paria contrariis in partibus momenta rationum invenirentur. correctionem veteris Academiae potius quam aliquam novam disciplinam putandam. Adamare Cicero Academicorum lib. EX LIBRO I. Tum ego: Cum Zenone. Empedoclem. ut mihi quidem videtur. Nonius p. omnis paene veteres: qui nihil cognosci. vitam suam exponere ad imitandum iuventuti. maximeque ex Epicureo Zenone. deinceps omnia tenebris circumfusa esse dixerunt. inquam. Digladiari dictum est dissentire et dissidere. Nonius p. ut videamus satisne ista sit iusta defectio. quae ab Arcesila novata sunt. et veteris Academiae ratio et Stoicorum: verum esse [autem] arbitror. II. 69. 4. qui cum ab eo plurimum dissentiret. Carneades autem nullius philosophiae partis ignarus et. 43. 43. placebat. non pertinacia aut studio vincendi. ut cognovi ex iis. ut Antiocho. 1. XII. II. I. ***** ACADEMICORUM POSTERIORUM FRAGMENTA. inquit. cum aut falsa aut incognita res approbaretur. Cicero Academicorum lib.. 104. Arcesilas sibi omne certamen instituit. in profundo veritatem esse demersam.

homini ut soli cupiditas ingeneraretur cognitionis et scientiae.. non madidum . ut iis qui in itinere deerravissent. Hebes positum pro obscuro aut obtuso. 65. 69. 9. facilior esset emendatio temeritatis. quae gallina peperisset dicere solebant. 65. alius vinulentis .: p. 474. 15.: quid? mare nonne caeruleum? at eius unda. trahere..: falsum esse. Mordicibus et mordicus pro morsu. quod in Academico tertio. Cicero Academicorum lib. §4. non egeremus perpendiculis. ed. Academicorum lib. aut nihil superum aut obscure admodum cernimus. IIII.. III. 162. 8. III. = Lucullus §57. 14. De gloria librum ad te misi: at in eo prooemium id est. tum etiam stultissimum dixerit? 13.: quibus etiam alabaster plenus unguenti puter esse videtur. in Academicis lib. Nonius p. Gallinas. depugnare cum facinorosis et audacibus. 139. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 30 6. Academicorum lib.. = Lucullus §67. idem tertio: digladiari autem semper. Cic. Nonius p. Nonius p..: aliqua potestas sit. Digladiari .. Cic. vindicet se in libertatem. Cicero ad Att.: perspicuitatem. Siccum dicitur et sobrium. II. EX LIBRO III. Academicorum lib. Cic... Cic. Lactantius Inst. quis non cum miserrimum.. II. alius aegris. Vindicare. Cic.: alius (color) adultis.. quam mordicus tenere debemus..Academica. Cic. 394. non normis. Academicorum lib. Diomedes p. ut qui urinantur. III. Putsch. III.. Nonius p. 16. Nonius p. Cic. abesse dicemus.. II. non regulis.: et ut nos nunc sedemus ad Lucrinum pisciculosque exultantes videmus . Keil. 121. Nonius p. XVI. = Lucullus §51.. alius adulescentibus. Ingeneraretur ut innasceretur. liberare . Nonius p. Adstipulari positum est adsentiri. sic vitam deviam secutis corrigere errorem paenitendo. Urinantur. Nonius p. 162. Cicero Academicorum lib. III. II. EX LIBRO IIII. Nonius p.. alius siccis. Nonius p. 545. div. pro morsibus . 377.. 12. Purpurascit.. 10.: qui gallinas alere permultas quaestus causa solerent: ii cum ovum inspexerant.: si quando enim nos demersimus.: in tanta animantium varietate. 24.. 373.. Cic.: atqui si id crederemus. cum est pulsa remis. Perpendiculi et normae. 123. VI. alius sanis. Academicorum lib. in Academicis lib. 18. 20. 11. cuius haec in Academico tertio verba sunt: quod si liceret. 7. Nonius p. Siccum dicitur aridum et sine humore . Varro ad Ciceronem tertio fixum et Cicero Academicorum tertio (= Lucullus §27): +malcho in opera adfixa. Nonius p.. Academicorum lib. . 117. Antiochus. Nonius p. Alabaster. Cicero . 19.. 17. Exultare dictum est exilire. 6. 419. Cic. alias acutiora videntur cornua. Cicero Academicorum lib. II. purpurascit: et quidem aquae tinctum quodam modo et infectum.. II. ed.: quid? lunae quae liniamenta sint potesne dicere? cuius et nascentis et senescentis alias hebetiora. Academicorum lib.

in Academicis: latent ista omnia.: non enim est e saxo sculptus aut e robore dolatus. IIII. Nonius p. div. quod nos ad agendum sine adsensione potent invitare. mihi videntur omnia quae probabilia vel veri similia putavi nominanda: quae tu si alio nomine vis vocare. Cicero!): mihi autem non modo ad sapientiam caeci videmur. Dolitum. quibus rebus haec nomina imponam. Natrices dicuntur angues natantes Cic.. Pingue positum pro impedito et inepto. Academicorum lib. 65. ed. fecerit.. locus quidam.: sic enim voltis .: nec ego non ita . Academico sapienti ab omnibus ceterarum sectarum. Varro. Cic. Cic. Stoicus perpauca balbuttiens. 99. quod est percaesum vel abrasum vel effossum . IIII. Cic. contra Academicos II.. Cic. Lactantius Inst. sed rerum inquisitorem decet esse sapientem.. Academicorum) patrocinium scripsit. = Lucullus §123. 22. ut supra dictus. Ravum fulvum. [Proximis post hunc locum verbis perspicue asseverat Augustinus haec ipsius esse Ciceronis verba.. 189. IIII. Academicorum lib. IIII.. Martianus Capella V. 29. vos etiam dicitis e regione nobis in contraria parte terrae qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 31 21.. Acad. IIII. inquit Academicus. §26.: item ille cum aestuaret. Academicorum lib. 25. sic Academicorum viam secutus est. Nonius p. = Lucullus §105. Augustin. III. Kopp. 444.: plane. Nonius p. ex quo posse probabiliter confici eum recte primum esse iudicio suo. 14. IIII. secundas partes dari. = Lucullus §118. Talia. Academicorum lib. Nonius p. = Lucullus §109. IIII. hebetes et obtusi. Cic. = Lucullus §108. Maeniana ab inventore eorum Maenio dicta sunt. 32. qui omnium ceterorum judicio sit secundus. . Nonius p.: id probabile vel veri simile Academici vacant. quodque nunc a sole conlucet. non enim vocabulorum opificem. 30.. Cic.Academica.. 65. Nonius p. . 31. Uncinatum ab unco..: at hoc Anaximandro infinitatem. Balbuttire est cum quadam linguae haesitatione et confusione trepidare. Cic. Academicorum lib. §15. nihil repugno. E regione positum est ex adverso. Cicero dolatum Academicorum lib. 23. = Lucullus §135.. Infinitatem.: quia nobismet ipsis tum caeruleum..: credoque Clitomacho ita scribenti ut Herculi quendam laborem exanclatum.] 34. tum ravum videtur. Academicorum lib. cum primas sibi quemque vindicare necesse sit. 28. Cicero . 107. 24.. IIII. Academicorum lib. 26. Academicorum lib. 33. = Lucullus §100.. = Lucullus §120. veterum ut Maenianorum. Nonius p. August. = Lucullus §70. = Lucullus §122. quod dolatum usu dicitur. = Lucullus §121. IIII. unde et columna Maenia. p. §517. 163.. sed ad ea ipsa quae aliqua ex parte cerni videantur. III. Est in libris Ciceronis quae in huius causae (i. 164. 122. IIII. Academicorum lib.. contrarium. 102. 27. Ex LIBRIS INCERTIS. Exanclare est perpeti vel superare. qui sibi sapientes videntur.: quod ipsi . Satis enim mihi est te iam bene accepisse quid dicam. c.e. id est. Nonius p. Nonius p. Nonius p. 80.: nec ut ille qui asperis et hamatis uncinatisque corpusculis concreta haec esse dicat.. magnis obscurata et circumfusa tenebris. Cic. Haec tua verba sunt (sc..

Maiore enim studio Lucullus cum omni litterarum generi tum philosophiae deditus fuit quam qui illum ignorabant arbitrabantur. De Civit. 32 36. III. Ut enim admodum adolescens cum fratre pari pietate et industria praedito paternas inimicitias magna cum gloria est persecutus. in Asiam factus imperator venit. cumque esset ea memoria. credo. Academicis) morem fuisse occultandi sententiam suam nec eam cuiquam. quam ante dixi. fateretur. quaesturae diuturnum tempus Murena bellum in Ponto gerente in Asia pace consumpserat. Magnum ingenium Luci Luculli magnumque optimarum artium studium. Sed incredibilis quaedam ingeni magnitudo non desideravit indocilem usus disciplinam. ***** ACADEMICORUM PRIORUM LIBER II. Cum autem e philosophis ingenio scientiaque putaretur Antiochus. proeliis. excellere. I. In eodem tanta prudentia fuit in constituendis temperandisque civitatibus. tanta aequitas. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 35. cum esset Roma profectus rei militaris rudis. 2. Nos autem illa externa cum multis. inquit. sed etiam gloriam superiorum. . 3. Habuit enim divinam quandam memoriam rerum. inde ad consulatum. ea saepe audiendo facile cognovit. deinde absens factus aedilis. Post ad Mithridaticum bellum missus a senatu non modo opinionem vicit omnium. II. quae tum primum proferebatur. Quin etiam. quae de virtute eius erat. 1. de quibus audiebat. sic ille in animo res insculptas habebat. post in Africam. quam fuisse in Themistocle. sed quo plus in negotiis gerendis res quam verba prosunt. in Asiam quaestor profectus. Sed etsi magna cum utilitate rei publicae. Acad. continuo praetor--licebat enim celerius legis praemio--. quos legisset. Delectabatur autem mirifice lectione librorum. nec vero ineunte aetate solum. tum omnis liberalis et digna homine nobili ab eo percepta doctrina. Tali ingenio praeditus Lucullus adiunxerat etiam illam. quae vel semel audita meminisse potuisset. singularem ferunt: qui quidem etiam pollicenti cuidam se artem ei memoriae. 2. eum secum et quaestor habuit et post aliquot annos imperator. M. ingenium cognoscerent. Idque eo fuit mirabilius.e. disciplinam. sed et pro quaestore aliquot annos et in ipso bello. quod ab eo laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur. omnium facile acutissimo et sine ulla dubitatione doctissimo. nisi qui secum ad senectutem usque vixissent. caruit omnino rebus urbanis. Ait enim Cicero illis (i. Denique et ipse Tullius huic (i. ut ille rex post Alexandrum maximus hunc a se maiorem ducem cognitum quam quemquam eorum. cum victor a Mithridatico bello revertisset. ut hodie stet Asia Luculli institutis servandis et quasi vestigiis persequendis. navalibus pugnis totiusque belli instrumento et apparatu. quod haerebant in memoria quaecumque audierat et viderat. hoc erat memoria illa praestantior. verborum maiorem Hortensius. 4. tamen diutius quam vellem tanta vis virtutis atque ingeni peregrinata afuit ab oculis et fori et curiae. ibi permultos annos admirabili quadam laude provinciae praefuit. partim in rebus gestis legendis.Academica. ea fere sunt et Graecis litteris celebrata et Latinis. Itaque privabo illum potius debito testimonio quam id cum mea laude communicem. Itaque ut litteris consignamus quae monumentis mandare volumus. ut in libris Academicis eam quae ibi versatur disputationem se habuisse cum M. nisi de me ipso dicendum esset: quod hoc tempore non est necesse. Philonis auditor. Itaque cum totum iter et navigationem consumpsisset partim in percontando a peritis. Dei VI. quem facile Graeciae principem ponimus. oppugnationibus. inimicorum calumnia triennio tardius quam debuerat triumphavit. homine. in quo ita magna rei militaris esse occupatio solet. §43. c. ut non multum imperatori sub ipsis pellibus otii relinquatur. haec interiora cum paucis ex ipso saepe cognovimus.e. Nos enim consules introduximus paene in urbem currum clarissimi viri: cuius mihi consilium et auctoritas quid tum in maximis rebus profuisset dicerem. Tantus ergo imperator in omni genere belli fuit. Sed quae populari gloria decorari in Lucullo debuerunt. Varrone. quam Themistocles spreverat. qui adolescentiam in forensi opera. quibus temporibus florere in foro maxime potuit.T. Augustin. traditurum respondisse dicitur oblivisci se malle discere. Augustin. Varroni) tale testimonium perhibet. quem ita gessit ut diligentiam admirarentur omnes. aperire consuesse.

scientiam: qui mihi videntur non solum vivis. autem Africani historiae loquantur in legatione illa nobili. III. sed etiam mortuis invidere. nisi quod illi non dubitant quin ea vera sint. quae dico. Hic Catulus: Etsi heri. Etsi enim omnis cognitio multis est obstructa difficultatibus eaque est et in ipsis rebus obscuritas et in iudiciis nostris infirmitas. etsi nihil est iis. fuisse earum rerum. tamen nec illi defecerunt neque nos studium exquirendi defetigati relinquemus. quam ante censuram obiit. eadem de re etiam saepius. inquit. 9. sed quia non laboro quam valde ea. quorum ad popularis illustrisque laudes has etiam minus notas minusque pervolgatas adiungimus. conturbat me exspectatio tua. tam adversarium. non modo operam nostram numquam a populari coetu removimus. Hoc autem liberiores et solutiores sumus. nec litterarum Graecarum nec philosophiae iam ullum auctorem requiro. qui verum invenire sine ulla contentione volumus. Lucullo in Neapolitanum. Sed nescio quo modo plerique errare malunt eamque sententiam. Ac vereor interdum ne talium personarum cum amplificare velim. Agam igitur. defendamus necessitate ulla cogimur. quicquam interest. nisi ne quid privatis studiis de opera publica detrahamus. cognitis etiam reliquorum sententiis. Ego autem. mihi tamen videtur esse verissima. quod aut verum sit aut ad id quam proxime accedat. sed ne litteram quidem ullam fecimus nisi forensem. Tum ille: Non sane. Catonem in senectute didicisse acceperim. feci plus quam vellem: totam enim rem Lucullo integram servatam oportuit. P. Restat unum genus reprehensorum. ab Antiocho audita dicturum. nec ut omnia. ut non sine causa antiquissimi et doctissimi invenire se posse quod cuperent diffisi sint. qui placere volunt. Panaetium unum omnino comitem fuisse. Restat ut iis respondeam. quae te pollicitus es. dicta sunt. minuam etiam gloriam. id. paene explicatum est. Sed mehercule. inquit Hortensius. Cum ita esset exorsus. ad . Sunt etiam qui negent in iis. Hortensi. Quibus de rebus et alias saepe multa quaesita et disputata sunt et quondam in Hortensii villa. quae est ad Baulos. quam ipse sequeretur. quae praescripta et quasi imperata sint. Equidem. quem primum audierunt. 6. cum eo Catulus et Lucullus nosque ipsi postridie venissemus. sicut Antiochus agebat: nota enim mihi res est. quis reprehendet nostrum otium. sed etiam augeri arbitramur eorum. Nam. sed ut potuerint. IV. si quisquam ullam disciplinam philosophiae probaret praeter eam. 10. qui se scire arbitrantur. Quo quidem etiam maturius venimus. qui in nostris libris disputent. non vinci me malim quam vincere. quoniam contra omnis dicere quae videntur solemus. mihi in Pompeianum navigare. quem iudicent fuisse sapientem. Quod si. etsi hesterno sermone labefactata est. 8. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 33 5. adfirmare vix possumus. Nam et vacuo animo illum audiebam et magno studio. si quodam in libro vere est a nobis philosophia laudata. non possumus quin alii a nobis dissentiant recusare: quamquam nostra quidem causa facilis est. de quibus disputatur. cum fungi munere debebamus. reliqui. quod quaerebatur. Quod gravius ferremus. quod dicunt omnino se credere ei. profecto eius tractatio optimo atque amplissimo quoque dignissima est. Quasi vero clarorum virorum aut tacitos congressus esse oporteat aut ludicros sermones aut rerum colloquia leviorum! Etenim. plures qui philosophiam. Neque inter nos et eos. quod erat constitutum. potuerunt omnibus rebus auditis. Et tamen fortasse servata est: a me enim ea. ad quamcumque sunt disciplinam quasi tempestate delati. neque nostrae disputationes quicquam aliud agunt nisi ut in utramque partem dicendo eliciant et tamquam exprimant aliquid. idque summa cura studioque conquirimus. ad eam tamquam ad saxum adhaerescunt. cum Graecas litteras M. quod integra nobis est iudicandi potestas.Academica. quae sequi facile. probaturus sim. si non fuerint. a Lucullo autem reconditiora desidero. eo minus conturbor. sed etiam ut plurimis prosimus enitimur? Gloriam vero non modo non minui. tamen earum rerum disputationem principibus civitatis non ita decoram putant. Nam ceteri primum ante tenentur adstricti quam quid esset optimum iudicare potuerunt: deinde infirmissimo tempore aetatis aut obsecuti amico cuidam aut una alicuius. in quibus. qui sermonibus eius modi nolint personas tam gravis illigari. si id ipsum rudes et indocti iudicare potuissent--statuere enim qui sit sapiens vel maxime videtur esse sapientis--. ut etiam maiorem exspectationem mei faciam quam modo fecit Hortensius. tum eodem in spatio consedimus. quae in promptu erant. ut quidem nunc se causa habet. qui in eo non modo nosmet ipsos hebescere et languere nolumus. etiam si haec non improbent. quibus Academiae ratio non probatur. Sunt enim multi qui omnino Graecas non ament litteras. pugnacissime defendere quam sine pertinacia quid constantissime dicatur exquirere. tamen exspecto ea. Nos autem. 7. probarem. Luculle. Cum igitur pauca in xysto locuti essemus. iudicaverunt autem re semel audita atque ad unius se auctoritatem contulerunt. quam adamaverunt. quae defendunt: nos probabilia multa habemus. Dicam enim nec mea nec ea. ut tota fere quaestio tractata videatur. inquit. oratione capti de rebus incognitis iudicant et. quos populus Romanus hoc in gradu collocavit. nec quicquam aliud videndum est nobis. si ventus esset. quam apud Catulum fuissemus.

qui legem agrariam aliquot annis ante secundum Punicum bellum tribunus plebis tulerit invito senatu et postea bis consul factus sit. quibus ille secundum fratrem plurimum tribuebat. cum veteres physicos nominatis. aiunt Ti. Anaxagoram. ut nostrum inimicum potissimum nominem. 16. homo sane in ista philosophia. Similiter vos. qui negavissent quicquam sciri aut percipi posse? quorum e numero tollendus est et Plato et Socrates: alter. Ita. Et quidem isti libri duo Philonis. Graccho auctores legum fuisse. cum haerent aliquo loco. nec se tenuit quin contra suum doctorem librum etiam ederet. tum exortus est ut in optima re publica Ti. Itaque compluris dies adhibito Heraclito doctisque compluribus et in iis Antiochi fratre. At ille: Cum Alexandriae pro quaestore. sic rursus exorsus est: Primum mihi videmini--me autem nomine appellabat. ut eorum ipsi similes esse videantur. Et de hoc quidem nihil mentiuntur. Xenophanem. cum aliud agnosceret atque sentiret. quae sunt heri defensa. Repetunt ii a P. probatus et nobilis: cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam. Philonis tamen scriptum agnoscebat: nec id quidem dubitari poterat: nam aderant mei familiares. abstrusa esse omnia. Platonem etiam et Socratem profertis.Academica. dum huius definitiones labefactare volt. ut putatur. Mirabar: nec enim umquam ante videram. nihilne tot saeculis. 15. idque propterea vitiosum in illo non putandum. tamen est adversarius lenior. alterum quidem. praetermittenda est: minus enim acer est adversarius is. Quod si illi tum in novis rebus quasi modo nascentes haesitaverunt. Marium. 13. Flaminium. nihil nos sentire. sic vos philosophiam bene iam constitutam velitis. ut illi rem publicam. quamquam floruit cum acumine ingeni tum admirabili quodam lepore . Horum nominibus tot virorum atque tantorum expositis eorum se institutum sequi dicunt. re congruentis. Q. ut interdum mihi furere videatur. inquit. docti homines. P. Parmenidem. Aristo. simile quicquam habuit veterum illorum nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundia. C. 12. cum consules essent. quod idem fuerit in Socrate. ut suspicantur. et C. cum aliquos ex antiquis claros viros proferunt. multum temporis in ista una disputatione consumpsimus. nihil cernere. Addunt etiam C. quaerere ex eo viderenturne illa Philonis aut ea num vel e Philone vel ex ullo Academico audivisset aliquando? Negabat. et alia plura. exclamant quasi mente incitati. L. obtrectans nihil novi reperienti. V. Democritum. et praeterea Aristone et Dione. Empedoclem. maximis studiis explicatum putamus? nonne. 14. qui ista. qui se illa audivisse Romae de Philone et ab eo ipso illos duos libros dicerent descripsisse. libenter uti solitus est ea dissimulatione. nominibus differentis. facere idem. At ille. quos dicant fuisse popularis. Nihilne est igitur actum. sic Arcesilas qui constitutam philosophiam everteret et in eorum auctoritate delitisceret. Socrates autem de se ipse detrahens in disputatione plus tribuebat iis. Empedocles quidem. cum perturbare. Africanum referre in eundem numerum solent. si voltis. quae nunc prope dimissa revocatur. Duos vero sapientissimos et clarissimos fratres. dedi Antiocho operam diligentius. essem. 11. Etsi enim mentitur. quae contra Philonem erat. quia reliquit perfectissimam disciplinam. qui et Clitomachum multos annos et Philonem audierat. Ad Arcesilam Carneademque veniamus. fuit Antiochus mecum et erat iam antea Alexandriae familiaris Antiochi Heraclitus Tyrius. VI. alterum. nihil omnino quale sit posse reperire: maiorem autem partem mihi quidem omnes isti videntur nimis etiam quaedam adfirmare plusque profiteri se scire quam sciant. tum ad hos notiores. negat Academicos omnino dicere. conatus est clarissimis rebus tenebras obducere? Cuius primo non admodum probata ratio. ut videmus. sed emendanti superiores immutatione verborum. postea quam Arcesilas Zenoni. Sed fuerint illa veteribus. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 34 audiendum animos ereximus. Sed ea pars. ut causam ex eo totam cognoscerem. Tum et illa dixit Antiochus. Heracliti memoriam implorans. commemorant reliquos. summis ingeniis. Quae cum dixisset. qui Sosus inscribitur. Crassum et P. Tum igitur et cum Heraclitum studiose audirem contra Antiochum disserentem et item Antiochum contra Academicos. Peripateticos et Academicos. P. quod seditiosi cives solent. Pompeium: illi quidem etiam P. quod investigata sunt. quam Graeci [Greek: eirôneian] vocant: quam ait etiam in Africano fuisse Fannius. Sed neque Saturninus. palam. qui leges popularis de provocationibus tulerint. Scaevolam. quae heri Catulus commemoravit a patre suo dicta Philoni. cum iam philosophorum disciplinae gravissimae constitissent. obscurius. quos volebat refellere. incognita. Selii et Tetrilius Rogus. Cassium. Valerio. de quibus heri dictum a Catulo est. Et tamen isti physici raro admodum. qui exactis regibus primo anno consul fuit. a quibus Stoici ipsi verbis magis quam sententiis dissenserunt. Gracchus qui otium perturbaret. sed utrumque leniter. tum erant adlati Alexandriam tumque primum in Antiochi manus venerant: et homo natura lenissimus--nihil enim poterat fieri illo mitius--stomachari tamen coepit.

' Animo iam haec tenemus comprehensa. in sapore. qui multus in eo fuisset. sicut Zeno definiret. verba. 'Ille' deinceps 'equus est. quam [Greek: katalêpsin] illi vocant. quod nos facere nunc ingredimur. hoc dulce.' Cetera series deinde sequitur. et qui illum audierant. Alii autem negabant se pro hac evidentia quicquam priores fuisse dicturos. non videam quid quaerat amplius. multaque facimus usque eo. 22. Itaque et lumen mutari saepe volumus et situs earum rerum. definienda censebant. in id ipsum se induit. quae sensibus percipi dicimus. et homines dignos. et intervalla aut contrahimus aut diducimus. ut haec. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 35 dicendi. ut est reprehensus a patre Catulo. et. et ab ea deus aliqui requirat contentane sit suis integris incorruptisque sensibus an postulet melius aliquid. in Melanthio Rhodio suavitatis. hoc asperum. Nihil necesse est de gustatu et odoratu loqui. Quam nisi obtinemus. quod ea sustinere vix poterat. in Charmada eloquentiae. Ordiamur igitur a sensibus: quorum ita clara iudicia et certa sunt. Ita imprudens eo. sed ad ea. si illud esset. Antipatrumque Stoicum. revolvitur. talia secuntur ea. qui doleat. et inter eum. Meo autem iudicio ita est maxima in sensibus veritas. nec definiri aiebant necesse esse quid esset cognitio aut perceptio aut. esse aliquid quod comprehendi et percipi posset. ut docuit Antiochus. Sed ipse Carneades diu tenuit: nam nonaginta vixit annos. Nec vero hoc loco exspectandum est. iudicium tollit incogniti et cogniti: ex quo efficitur nihil posse comprehendi. Qua re omnis oratio contra Academiam suscipitur a nobis.' Quo e genere nobis notitiae rerum imprimuntur. in quibus intellegentia. et aperte mentitur. Atqui qualia sunt haec. Epicurus hoc viderit et alia multa. quod comprehendi posset--id enim volumus esse [Greek: akatalêpton]--. Quod si essent falsae notitiae--[Greek: ennoias] enim notitias appellare tu . id quidam e philosophis et ii quidem non mediocres faciendum omnino non putabant: nec vero esse ullam rationem disputare cum iis. cum Arcesilae Lacydes fuisset. si placet. comprehensio. quod timebat. dum de remo inflexo aut de collo columbae respondeam: non enim is sum. qui persuadere vellent. ut retineamus eam definitionem. etsi vitiosa. ut oculi pictura teneantur. Adhibita vero exercitatione et arte. quam Philo voluit evertere. Iam Clitomacho Philo vester operam multos annos dedit. quis est quin cernat quanta vis sit in sensibus? Quam multa vident pictores in umbris et in eminentia. Cum enim ita negaret. ut contra Academicos disseramus. qui quidquid videtur tale dicam esse quale videatur. unde non esset. reprehendebant. non sensibus. qui Euandrum audierat. quum id nos ne suspicemur quidem. qui nihil probarent. ex eo. tale visum--iam enim hoc pro [Greek: phantasiai] verbum satis hesterno sermone trivimus--visum igitur impressum effictumque ex eo. eosque. quae quasi expletam rerum comprehensionem amplectuntur: 'si homo est. qui est quartus ab Arcesila: audivit enim Hegesinum. nihil interesse? aut. de qua quaeratur. quem philosophi interiorem vocant. dum adspectus ipse fidem faciat sui iudicii. aures cantibus. Philo autem. quae non sensibus ipsis percipi dicuntur. ne hic sibi--me appellabat iocans--hoc licere putet soli: sed tamen orationem nullam putabant illustriorem ipsa evidentia reperiri posse nec ea. id nos a Zenone definitum rectissime dicimus: qui enim potest quicquam comprehendi. et eo quidem. ut plane confidas perceptum id cognitumque esse. 20. dum nova quaedam commovet. VII. ille canis. quae contra Academicorum pertinaciam dicebantur. putant. Bene autem nosse Carneadem Stratoniceus Metrodorus putabatur. animal est mortale. ita qui sentiet non apertissime insaniat? 21. aut doloris aut voluptatis? in quo Cyrenaici solo putant veri esse iudicium. quod est tale.Academica. quicquam esse. rationis particeps. quae tam clara essent. 19. Quid de tactu. Lacydi discipulum. ut haec: 'illud est album. ne qui fallerentur. 18. dici oportere putabant. sine quibus nec intellegi quicquam nec quaeri disputarive potest. unde esset. est quaedam tamen. si opus erit. quas intuemur. quae obstant et impediunt. si optio naturae nostrae detur. proxime a Lacyde solo retenta est: post autem confecta a Carneade. Quod idem fit in vocibus. inscienter facere dicebant. quae nos fugiunt in cantu. ut. si verbum e verbo volumus. quale esse non posset. 17. exaudiunt in eo genere exercitati! qui primo inflatu tibicinis Antiopam esse aiunt aut Andromacham. hoc bene olens. canorum illud. propterea quod nihil esset clarius [Greek: enargeiai]. in odore. quia sentiatur:--potestne igitur quisquam dicere inter eum. quae contra dicerentur. ut nemo sit nostrum qui in sensibus sui cuiusque generis iudicium requirat acrius. quale vel falsum esse possit? hoc cum infirmat tollitque Philo. ut Graeci: perspicuitatem aut evidentiam nos. Philone autem vivo patrocinium Academiae non defuit. Sed. admodum floruerunt: e quibus industriae plurimum in Clitomacho fuit--declarat multitudo librorum--ingeni non minus in [Aeschine]. nominemus fabricemurque. si et sani sunt ac valentes et omnia removentur. Plerique tamen et definitiones ipsarum etiam evidentium rerum non improbant et rem idoneam. quibuscum disseratur. maiora nectens. qui in voluptate sit. sed quodam modo sensibus. percipi nihil posse concedimus. quo minime volt. quae nos non videmus! quam multa.

ille vir bonus. qualia visa a falsis discerni non possent. nisi iis rebus adsensus sit. ut tantum modo animo rem cernat. quod non percipiebatur. e quibus omnia decreta sunt nata. nec ea. aut is. quae perfecit virtutem. quasi quaedam lux lumenque vitae. si id. qui statuit omnem cruciatum perferre. Cum enim decretum proditur. cum quam ob rem ita oporteret nihil haberet comprehensi.' IX. 23. nisi is. neque ea posset ulla notio discernere. aliud. ad nullam rem umquam impelletur. qui artem tractabit. Quaestio autem est appetitio cognitionis quaestionisque finis inventio. Itaque argumenti conclusio. quaero unde nata sit aut quo modo? Quaero etiam. In quibus solis inesse etiam scientiam dicimus. idque initium esse naturae accommodatum. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 36 videbare--. Quae potest enim esse memoria falsorum? aut quid quisquam meminit. Sic et initium quaerendi et exitus percipiendi et comprehendendi tenetur. cum certi nihil erit quod sequatur? cum vero dubitabit quid sit extremum et ultimum bonorum. Quod si aliquid aliquando acturus est. 27. itemque sapientiam. cogniti. consentaneum esse unum tamen illud dicere percipi posse. qui poterit esse sapientia? Atque etiam illud perspicuum est. Ea autem constantia si nihil habeat percepti et cogniti. quod est visum. si quid offici sui sit non occurrit animo. quod movet. 24. quae incerta permanent. inventa esse possunt. si se ignorabit sapientia sit necne. quae falsae esse non possint. si id. quod non animo comprehendit et tenet? Ars vero quae potest esse nisi quae non ex una aut duabus. quid repugnaret videremus? Memoriae quidem certe. Sed Antipatro hoc idem postulanti. non percipitur accommodatumne naturae sit an alienum? Itemque. ratio omnis tollitur. quo modo quemquam aut conclusisse aliquid aut invenisse diceremus aut quae esset conclusi argumenti fides? Ipsa autem philosophia. prius oportet videri eique credi: quod fieri non potest. quam nos non comprehensionem modo rerum. quae non modo philosophiam. ratum esse debeat. quae ipsa ex sese habeat constantiam. moveri non potest. tamenne in ista pravitate perstabitis? Nam quaerendi initium ratio attulit. quae rationibus progredi debet. si ista vera sunt. qualia isti dicunt.Academica. Quid quod. qui distingues artificem ab inscio? Non enim fortuito hunc artificem dicemus esse. fixum. At nemo invenit falsa. quae quasi involuta fuerunt. quorum nullum sine scelere prodi poterit. quo e vitio et amicitiarum proditiones et rerum publicarum nasci solent. Non potest igitur dubitari quin decretum nullum falsum possit esse sapientique satis non sit non esse falsum. Carneades acutius resistebat. multa perceperit? VIII. ut id consentaneum esset. negant quicquam a falsis interesse. nihil posse percipi. Nam aliter appetitio--eam enim volumus esse [Greek: hormên]--. explere numeros et conficere versus? Quod idem in similibus quoque artibus continget. alterum non item. quod movere nulla ratio queat. quod videtur. constitui necesse esse initium. cum quid agere incipiat. lex veri rectique proditur. cur has igitur sibi tam gravis leges imposuerit. Ex hoc illud est natum. quae est Graece [Greek: apodeixis]. ita definitur: 'ratio. ut eius conservandae causa nullum supplicium recuset. cum ea. Qui enim negaret quicquam esse quod perciperetur. ut moliatur aliquid et faciat. Talia autem neque esse neque videri possunt eorum ratione. aperta sunt. quo modo primum obtinebit nomen sapientiae? deinde quo modo suscipere aliquam rem aut agere fidenter audebit. quae ex rebus perceptis ad id. necesse est id ei verum. qui illa visa. et id appetimus. ut id ipsum saltem perceptum a sapiente diceretis. sed cum alterum percepta et comprehensa tenere videmus. ut maxime etiam repugnaret. Maxime vero virtutum cognitio confirmat percipi et comprehendi multa posse. artem vivendi. numquam movebitur. tum inventa dicuntur. quo tandem his modo uteremur? quo modo autem quid cuique rei consentaneum esset. quem habebit exitum? Sapientiae vero quid futurum est? quae neque de se ipsa dubitare debet neque de suis decretis. . quod postulabat Hortensius. sed ex multis animi perceptionibus constat? Quam si subtraxeris. sequatur. sed eam stabilem quoque et immutabilem esse censemus. discerni non poterit a falso. sed omnis vitae usus omnisque artis una maxime continet. qui adfirmaret nihil posse percipi. Quo modo autem moveri animus ad appetendum potest. quo modo aut geometres cernere ea potest. quarum omne opus est in faciendo atque agendo. quae philosophi vocant [Greek: dogmata]. percepti. Ipsa vero sapientia. 25. constituti? Nullo igitur modo fieri potest ut quisquam tanti aestimet aequitatem et fidem. ut alia non possent. Cumque artium aliud eius modi genus sit. videri. qua ad agendum impellimur. quod occurrit. ut ea vel falsa esse possent. sed. 26. intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem. ignorans quo omnia referantur. Quid enim est quod arte effici possit. si igitur essent hae falsae aut eius modi visis impressae. sed etiam stabile. cum esset ipsa ratio confirmata quaerendo. nihil omnino loci relinquitur. quae aut nulla sunt aut internosci a falsis non possunt. Quod si omnia visa eius modi essent. adducit. nihil umquam omnino aget. quod sapientia. qui fidibus utitur. illum negabimus. quod visum erit. Illud autem. cum diceret ei. Nam tantum abesse dicebat. 28.

nihil posse percipi. Antiochus ad istum locum pressius videbatur accedere. eaque se uti regula et in agenda vita et in quaerendo ac disserendo. ullum habere iudicium aut ullam omnino veritatis notam. Eo cum accessit ratio argumentique conclusio rerumque innumerabilium multitudo. nec sapientem posse esse. interesse oportet ut inter rectum et pravum. ex quibus efficiuntur notitiae rerum. propterea quod ea non possunt internosci. certe hoc ipsum. quae disputentur. comprehendi et percipi ullo modo posse. ut verear ne maiorem largiar ei. Si nihil interest. quod percipi non possit. 31. Sequitur disputatio copiosa illa quidem. haec ipsa eripiunt vel instrumenta vel ornamenta vitae vel potius etiam totam vitam evertunt funditus ipsumque animal orbant animo. ad visum illud. 34. 32. sit. faciunt pueriliter. qui negant quicquam posse comprehendi. quod eos insimulemus omnia incerta dicere. ut virtutem efficiat. nulla regula est nec potest is. quam. percipi nihil posse. Ad rerum igitur scientiam vitaeque constantiam aptissima cum sit mens hominis. dictum satis. Volunt enim--et hoc quidem vel maxime vos animadvertebam moveri--probabile aliquid esse et quasi veri simile. ut iis statim utatur. ut hoc unum saltem. de quo agimus. Itaque alia visa sic adripit. ut ait Democritus. ut difficile sit de temeritate eorum. qui contra dicturus est. Cetera autem similitudinibus construit. nullum erit iudicium. In eo autem. 29. ut non possit . tibi erit revertendum. Ergo ii. verbum e verbo exprimentes comprehensionem dicemus. ne id ipsum quidem. si ulla sententia cuiusquam esse potest nihil approbantis. ut quicquam possit ita videri. dicere. qui lucem eripere conetur? Sed disputari poterat subtiliter. sive tu probabilem visionem sive probabilem et quae non impediatur. cui est visio veri falsique communis. quod ita mihi videatur verum. quanto quasi artificio natura fabricata esset primum animal omne. quae sensuum fons est atque etiam ipsa sensus est. Nec vero satis constituere possum quod sit eorum consilium aut quid velint. iudicium veri et finem bonorum. qui aut cognoscendi esse initium ignoret aut extremum expetendi. ut dixi. vera sint. quasi sensus alteros. sive aliud quid proferes quod sequare. tum et perceptio eorum omnium apparet et eadem ratio perfecta his gradibus ad sapientiam pervenit. quae cerni possent. Cum his igitur agamus. quia proprium in communi signo notari non potest. quem ad modum primum visa nos pellerent. se ei non ademisse. 30. sicut in ceteris rebus. libertatem et licentiam. X. alia quasi recondit. Quo enim omnia iudicantur sublato reliqua se negant tollere: ut si quis quem oculis privaverit. et istam [Greek: katalêpsin]. dicat ea. sic reliqua visis. perceptum esse dicerent. ut moveri non possint. 33. Nam cum dicunt hoc se unum tollere. praesertim cum in eo summa consisteret: hanc enim esse regulam totius philosophiae. deinde appetitio ab his pulsa sequeretur. ex quo omne veri falsique iudicium esset. quas Graeci tum [Greek: ennoias]. Quae ista regula est veri et falsi. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 37 eum nihil excipere: ita necesse esse. Sed de inconstantia totius illorum sententiae. Mens enim ipsa. ut non eodem modo falsum etiam possit videri. constitutionem veri falsi. quae vis esset in sensibus. e quibus memoria oritur.Academica. sic inter verum et falsum. quae in profundo veritatem. percipere eos debuisse: etenim duo esse haec maxima in philosophia. quod exceptum non esset. abhorrere a sapientia plurimum. qui haec distinguunt: illos. XI. ut aut unde proficiscatur aut quo perveniendum sit nesciat: haec autem habere dubia neque iis ita confidere. cetera autem concedere. Quam ob rem. et usque eo philosophiam ipsam corroborat. tum ut sensus ad res percipiendas intenderemus.--sentitis enim iam hoc me [Greek: dogma] dicere--. non communi veri et falsi nota. qui etiam queruntur. sed paulo abstrusior--habet enim aliquantum a physicis--. ut opinor. quantumque intersit inter incertum et id. habeo quod volo: id enim quaero. amplectitur maxime cognitionem. quam intendit ad ea. cogniti incogniti: quam rationem quoniam susciperent docereque vellent quae visa accipi oporteret et quae repudiari. sed propria veri. ut Carneades volebat. deinde hominem maxime. cum ipsam per se amat--nihil est enim ei veritatis luce dulcius--tum etiam propter usum. ex qua re una vita omnis apta sit. Hoc igitur modo potius erat ab his postulandum. Sin autem commune nihil erit. perinde ut causa postulat. non debere eos in suo decreto. penitus abstruserit. Nam quid eum facturum putem de abditis rebus et obscuris. Quocirca et sensibus utitur et artis efficit. tum [Greek: prolêpseis] vocant. naturalem vim habet. fluctuare. tum omnia fore incerta. Interdum enim cum adhibemus ad eos orationem eius modi: 'Si ea. Quoniam enim id haberent Academici decretum. quasi desperatos aliquos relinquamus. Ut enim illa oculis modo agnoscuntur. qui omnia sic incerta dicunt.' Alii autem elegantius. quibus movetur. si erit communitas cum falso. nullam habemus? Nam si habemus.' respondent: 'Quid ergo istud ad nos? num nostra culpa est? naturam accusa. si notionem veri et falsi. ut stellarum numerus par an impar sit. docere conantur eaque distinguere.

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item falsum videri. Simili in errore versantur, cum convicio veritatis coacti perspicua a perceptis volunt distinguere et conantur ostendere esse aliquid perspicui, verum illud quidem impressum in animo atque mente, neque tamen id percipi atque comprehendi posse. Quo enim modo perspicue dixeris album esse aliquid, cum possit accidere ut id, quod nigrum sit, album esse videatur? aut quo modo ista aut perspicua dicemus aut impressa subtiliter, cum sit incertum vere inaniterne moveatur? Ita neque color neque corpus nec veritas nec argumentum nec sensus neque perspicuum ullum relinquitur. 35. Ex hoc illud iis usu venire solet, ut, quidquid dixerint, a quibusdam interrogentur: 'Ergo istuc quidem percipis?' Sed qui ita interrogant, ab iis irridentur. Non enim urguent, ut coarguant neminem ulla de re posse contendere neque adseverare sine aliqua eius rei, quam sibi quisque placere dicit, certa et propria nota. Quod est igitur istuc vestrum probabile? Nam si, quod cuique occurrit et primo quasi adspectu probabile videtur, id confirmatur, quid eo levius? 36. Sin ex circumspectione aliqua et accurata consideratione, quod visum sit, id se dicent sequi, tamen exitum non habebunt: primum quia iis visis, inter quae nihil interest, aequaliter omnibus abrogatur fides: deinde, cum dicant posse accidere sapienti ut, cum omnia fecerit diligentissimeque circumspexerit, exsistat aliquid quod et veri simile videatur et absit longissime a vero, ne si magnam partem quidem, ut solent dicere, ad verum ipsum aut quam proxime accedant, confidere sibi poterunt. Ut enim confidant, notum iis esse debebit insigne veri, quo obscurato et oppresso quod tandem verum sibi videbuntur attingere? Quid autem tam absurde dici potest quam cum ita locuntur: 'Est hoc quidem illius rei signum aut argumentum et ea re id sequor, sed fieri potest ut id, quod significatur, aut falsum sit aut nihil sit omnino.' Sed de perceptione hactenus. Si quis enim ea, quae dicta sunt, labefactare volet, facile etiam absentibus nobis veritas se ipsa defendet. XII. 37. His satis cognitis, quae iam explicata sunt, nunc de adsensione atque approbatione, quam Graeci [Greek: synkatathesin] vocant, pauca dicemus, non quo non latus locus sit, sed paulo ante iacta sunt fundamenta. Nam cum vim, quae esset in sensibus, explicabamus, simul illud aperiebatur, comprehendi multa et percipi sensibus, quod fieri sine adsensione non potest. Deinde cum inter inanimum et animal hoc maxime intersit, quod animal agit aliquid--nihil enim agens ne cogitari quidem potest quale sit--, aut ei sensus adimendus est aut ea, quae est in nostra potestate sita, reddenda adsensio. 38. At vero animus quodam modo eripitur iis, quos neque sentire neque adsentiri volunt. Ut enim necesse est lancem in libra ponderibus impositis deprimi, sic animum perspicuis cedere. Nam quo modo non potest animal ullum non appetere id, quod accommodatum ad naturam appareat--Graeci id [Greek: oikeion] appellant--, sic non potest obiectam rem perspicuam non approbare. Quamquam, si illa, de quibus disputatum est, vera sunt, nihil attinet de adsensione omnino loqui. Qui enim quid percipit, adsentitur statim. Sed haec etiam secuntur, nec memoriam sine adsensione posse constare nec notitias rerum nec artis, idque, quod maximum est, ut sit aliquid in nostra potestate, in eo, qui rei nulli adsentietur, non erit. 39. Ubi igitur virtus, si nihil situm est in ipsis nobis? Maxime autem absurdum vitia in ipsorum esse potestate neque peccare quemquam nisi adsensione: hoc idem in virtute non esse, cuius omnis constantia et firmitas ex iis rebus constat, quibus adsensa est et quas approbavit, omninoque ante videri aliquid quam agamus necesse est, eique, quod visum sit, adsentiatur. Qua re qui aut visum aut adsensum tollit, is omnem actionem tollit e vita. XIII. 40. Nunc ea videamus, quae contra ab his disputari solent. Sed prius potestis totius eorum rationis quasi fundamenta cognoscere. Componunt igitur primum artem quandam de iis, quae visa dicimus, eorumque et vim et genera definiunt, in his, quale sit id, quod percipi et comprehendi possit, totidem verbis quot Stoici. Deinde illa exponunt duo, quae quasi contineant omnem hanc quaestionem: quae ita videantur, ut etiam alia eodem modo videri possint nec in iis quicquam intersit, non posse eorum alia percipi, alia non percipi: nihil interesse autem, non modo si omni ex parte eiusdem modi sint, sed etiam si discerni non possint. Quibus positis unius argumenti conclusione tota ab his causa comprehenditur. Composita ea conclusio sic est: 'Eorum, quae videntur, alia vera sunt, alia falsa, et quod falsum est, id percipi non potest: quod autem verum visum est, id omne tale est, ut eiusdem modi etiam falsum possit videri.' Et, 'quae visa sint eius modi, ut in iis nihil intersit, non posse accidere ut eorum alia percipi possint, alia non possint. 41. Nullum igitur est visum quod percipi possit.' Quae autem sumunt, ut concludant id, quod volunt, ex his duo sibi putant concedi: neque enim quisquam repugnat. Ea sunt haec: 'Quae visa falsa sint, ea percipi non posse,' et alterum: 'Inter quae visa nihil intersit, ex iis non posse alia talia esse, ut percipi possint, alia ut non possint:' reliqua vero multa et varia oratione defendunt, quae sunt item duo, unum: 'quae videantur, eorum alia vera esse, alia falsa,' alterum:

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'omne visum, quod sit a vero, tale esse, quale etiam a falso possit esse.' 42. Haec duo proposita non praetervolant, sed ita dilatant, ut non mediocrem curam adhibeant et diligentiam. Dividunt enim in partis et eas quidem magnas: primum in sensus, deinde in ea, quae ducuntur a sensibus et ab omni consuetudine, quam obscurari volunt. Tum perveniunt ad eam partem, ut ne ratione quidem et coniectura ulla res percipi possit. Haec autem universa concidunt etiam minutius. Ut enim de sensibus hesterno sermone vidistis, item faciunt de reliquis, in singulisque rebus, quas in minima dispertiunt, volunt efficere iis omnibus, quae visa sint, veris adiuncta esse falsa, quae a veris nihil differant: ea cum talia sint, non posse comprehendi. XIV. 43. Hanc ego subtilitatem philosophia quidem dignissimam iudico, sed ab eorum causa, qui ita disserunt, remotissimam. Definitiones enim et partitiones et horum luminibus utens oratio, tum similitudines dissimilitudinesque et earum tenuis et acuta distinctio fidentium est hominum illa vera et firma et certa esse quae tutentur, non eorum qui clament nihilo magis vera illa esse quam falsa. Quid enim agant, si, cum aliquid definierint, roget eos quispiam, num illa definitio possit in aliam rem transferri quamlubet? Si posse dixerint, quid dicere habeant cur illa vera definitio sit? sin negaverint, fatendum sit, quoniam vel illa vera definitio transferri non possit in falsum, quod ea definitione explicetur, id percipi posse: quod minime illi volunt. Eadem dici poterunt in omnibus partibus. 44. Si enim dicent ea, de quibus disserent, se dilucide perspicere nec ulla communione visorum impediri, comprehendere ea se fatebuntur. Sin autem negabunt vera visa a falsis posse distingui, qui poterunt longius progredi? Occurretur enim, sicut occursum est. Nam concludi argumentum non potest nisi iis, quae ad concludendum sumpta erunt, ita probatis, ut falsa eiusdem modi nulla possint esse. Ergo si rebus comprehensis et perceptis nisa et progressa ratio hoc efficiet, nihil posse comprehendi, quid potest reperiri quod ipsum sibi repugnet magis? cumque ipsa natura accuratae orationis hoc profiteatur, se aliquid patefacturam quod non appareat et, quo id facilius adsequatur, adhibituram et sensus et ea, quae perspicua sint, qualis est istorum oratio, qui omnia non tam esse quam videri volunt? Maxime autem convincuntur, cum haec duo pro congruentibus sumunt tam vehementer repugnantia: primum esse quaedam falsa visa: quod cum volunt, declarant quaedam esse vera: deinde ibidem, inter falsa visa et vera nihil interesse. At primum sumpseras, tamquam interesset: ita priori posterius, posteriori superius non iungitur. 45. Sed progrediamur longius et ita agamus, ut nihil nobis adsentati esse videamur, quaeque ab iis dicuntur, sic persequamur, ut nihil in praeteritis relinquamus. Primum igitur perspicuitas illa, quam diximus, satis magnam habet vim, ut ipsa per sese ea, quae sint, nobis ita ut sint indicet. Sed tamen, ut maneamus in perspicuis firmius et constantius, maiore quadam opus est vel arte vel diligentia, ne ab iis, quae clara sint ipsa per sese, quasi praestigiis quibusdam et captionibus depellamur. Nam qui voluit subvenire erroribus Epicurus iis, qui videntur conturbare veri cognitionem, dixitque sapientis esse opinionem a perspicuitate seiungere, nihil profecit: ipsius enim opinionis errorem nullo modo sustulit. XV. 46. Quam ob rem cum duae causae perspicuis et evidentibus rebus adversentur, auxilia totidem sunt contra comparanda. Adversatur enim primum, quod parum defigunt animos et intendunt in ea, quae perspicua sunt, ut quanta luce ea circumfusa sint possint agnoscere; alterum est, quod fallacibus et captiosis interrogationibus circumscripti atque decepti quidam, cum eas dissolvere non possunt, desciscunt a veritate. Oportet igitur et ea, quae pro perspicuitate responderi possunt, in promptu habere, de quibus iam diximus, et esse armatos, ut occurrere possimus interrogationibus eorum captionesque discutere: quod deinceps facere constitui. 47. Exponam igitur generatim argumenta eorum, quoniam ipsi etiam illi solent non confuse loqui. Primum conantur ostendere multa posse videri esse, quae omnino nulla sint, cum animi inaniter moveantur eodem modo rebus iis, quae nullae sint, ut iis, quae sint. Nam cum dicatis, inquiunt, visa quaedam mitti a deo, velut ea, quae in somnis videantur quaeque oraculis, auspiciis, extis declarentur--haec enim aiunt probari Stoicis, quos contra disputant--, quaerunt quonam modo, falsa visa quae sint, ea deus efficere possit probabilia: quae autem plane proxime ad verum accedant, efficere non possit? aut, si ea quoque possit, cur illa non possit, quae perdifficiliter, internoscantur tamen? et, si haec, cur non inter quae nihil sit omnino? 48. Deinde, cum mens moveatur ipsa per sese, ut et ea declarant, quae cogitatione depingimus, et ea, quae vel dormientibus vel furiosis videntur non numquam, veri simile est sic etiam mentem moveri, ut non modo non internoscat vera visa illa sint anne falsa, sed ut in iis nihil intersit omnino: ut si qui tremerent et exalbescerent

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vel ipsi per se motu mentis aliquo vel obiecta terribili re extrinsecus, nihil ut esset, qui distingueretur tremor ille et pallor, neque ut quicquam interesset inter intestinum et oblatum. Postremo si nulla visa sunt probabilia, quae falsa sint, alia ratio est. Sin autem sunt, cur non etiam quae non facile internoscantur? cur non ut plane nihil intersit? praesertim cum ipsi dicatis sapientem in furore sustinere se ab omni adsensu, quia nulla in visis distinctio appareat. XVI. 49. Ad has omnis visiones inanis Antiochus quidem et permulta dicebat et erat de hac una re unius diei disputatio. Mihi autem non idem faciendum puto, sed ipsa capita dicenda. Et primum quidem hoc reprehendendum, quod captiosissimo genere interrogationis utuntur, quod genus minime in philosophia probari solet, cum aliquid minutatim et gradatim additur aut demitur. Soritas hoc vocant, quia acervum efficiunt uno addito grano. Vitiosum sane et captiosum genus! Sic enim adscenditis: Si tale visum obiectum est a deo dormienti, ut probabile sit, cur non etiam ut valde veri simile? cur deinde non ut difficiliter a vero internoscatur? deinde ut ne internoscatur quidem? postremo ut nihil inter hoc et illud intersit? Huc si perveneris, me tibi primum quidque concedente, meum vitium fuerit: sin ipse tua sponte processeris, tuum. 50. Quis enim tibi dederit aut omnia deum posse aut ita facturum esse, si possit? quo modo autem sumis, ut, si quid cui simile esse possit, sequatur ut etiam difficiliter internosci possit? deinde ut ne internosci quidem? postremo ut eadem sint? ut, si lupi canibus similes sunt, eosdem dices ad extremum. Et quidem honestis similia sunt quaedam non honesta et bonis non bona et artificiosis minime artificiosa: quid dubitamus igitur adfirmare nihil inter haec interesse? Ne repugnantia quidem videmus? Nihil est enim quod de suo genere in aliud genus transferri possit. At si efficeretur, ut inter visa differentium generum nihil interesset, reperirentur quae et in suo genere essent et in alieno. 51. Quod fieri qui potest? Omnium deinde inanium visorum una depulsio est, sive illa cogitatione informantur, quod fieri solere concedimus, sive in quiete sive per vinum sive per insaniam. Nam ab omnibus eiusdem modi visis perspicuitatem, quam mordicus tenere debemus, abesse dicemus. Quis enim, cum sibi fingit aliquid et cogitatione depingit, non simul ac se ipse commovit atque ad se revocavit, sentit quid intersit inter perspicua et inania? Eadem ratio est somniorum. Num censes Ennium, cum in hortis cum Ser. Galba vicino suo ambulavisset, dixisse: 'Visus sum mihi cum Galba ambulare?' At, cum somniavit, ita narravit: 'visus Homerus adesse poeta.' Idemque in Epicharmo: 'Nam videbar somniare med ego esse mortuum.' Itaque, simul ut experrecti sumus, visa illa contemnimus neque ita habemus, ut ea, quae in foro gessimus. XVII. 52. At enim dum videntur, eadem est in somnis species eorumque, quae vigilantes videmus! Primum interest: sed id omittamus. Illud enim dicimus, non eandem esse vim neque integritatem dormientium et vigilantium nec mente nec sensu. Ne vinolenti quidem quae faciunt, eadem approbatione faciunt qua sobrii: dubitant, haesitant, revocant se interdum iisque, quae videntur, imbecillius adsentiuntur, cumque edormiverunt, illa visa quam levia fuerint intellegunt. Quod idem contingit insanis, ut et incipientes furere sentiant et dicant aliquid, quod non sit, id videri sibi, et, cum relaxentur, sentiant atque illa dicant Alcmaeonis: 'Sed mihi ne utiquam cor consentit cum oculorum adspectu' ... 53. At enim ipse sapiens sustinet se in furore, ne approbet falsa pro veris. Et alias quidem saepe, si aut in sensibus ipsius est aliqua forte gravitas aut tarditas aut obscuriora sunt quae videntur aut a perspiciendo temporis brevitate excluditur. Quamquam totum hoc, sapientem aliquando sustinere adsensionem, contra vos est. Si enim inter visa nihil interesset, aut semper sustineret aut numquam. Sed ex hoc genere toto perspici potest levitas orationis eorum, qui omnia cupiunt confundere. Quaerimus gravitatis, constantiae, firmitatis, sapientiae iudicium: utimur exemplis somniantium, furiosorum, ebriosorum. Illud attendimus in hoc omni genere quam inconstanter loquamur? Non enim proferremus vino aut somno oppressos aut mente captos tam

Si enim percipi nihil potest. quod dicunt. 58. sed etiam natura tolletur. unde omnia Democritus gigni adfirmat. at domi: non ab alienis. 56. si utroque? num peius est? Unum tamen illud non celant. Veri enim et falsi non modo cognitio. tollendus adsensus est. et ad similitudines istas usus adhibendus est. quam sapientem nihil opinari. si satis est ad tollendam cognitionem similia esse multa multorum. quod dicitis. id est. ut insano. qui audient. non similis: quod fieri nullo modo potest. nihil intersit. An in eo auctoritas nihil obest? Mihi quidem videtur vel plurimum. Deinde postulas.Academica. in hoc tanto mundo Catulus alter non possit effici? XVIII. non repugnabo: quin etiam concedam illum ipsum sapientem. qualia falsa esse non possint: ab hac mihi non licet transversum. num censes etiam eosdem fuisse? Non cognoscebantur foris. quale falsum esse non possit. tum nihil interesse. Primum qui potestis non impediri. quod comprehendi possit. Quis enim nostrum similitudines negat esse. nisi quod tale fuerit. sententiam vestram? Ut. sed undique perfecte et absolute ita pares. ut. Quasi vero non specie visa iudicentur! quae fidem nullam habebunt sublata veri et falsi nota. Si enim res se ita habeant. utrum ita cui videatur. hoc illud esse. 54. de quo omnis hic sermo est. ut aiunt. An non videmus hoc usu venire. ut inter eos nihil prorsus intersit [et eos quidem innumerabiles]. ut inter eos ne minimum quidem intersit. 59. si re nulla impediamini. numquam adsentiri rei vel falsae vel incognitae. Sed et ad ceteras res habet quandam artem. Deli fuisse compluris salvis rebus illis. quod interdum soletis dicere. nisi tanta in Arcesila. probabilia vos sequi. inter ipsas impressiones nihil interesse. ne confundam omnia. quod nolunt. in qua melius sibi constitit Arcesilas. Quid enim est tam futile quam quicquam approbare non cognitum? Carneadem autem etiam heri audiebamus solitum esse eo delabi interdum. Lutatii Catuli non modo possint esse. Illud vero perabsurdum. inquit. uti ne minimum quidem similes viderentur? 57. Dein confugis ad physicos eos. Ne hoc quidem cernunt. Ut mater geminos internoscit consuetudine oculorum. quod utrique visum est. quasi turpe aliquid. quae [Greek: adêla] Graeci. 60. ea dico incerta. ut nihil differat. ut tum diceremus interesse inter vigilantium visa et sobriorum et sanorum et eorum. qui maxime in Academia irridentur. omnia se reddere incerta. inquit. ut diceret opinaturum. Cur enim. Primum quidem me ad Democritum vocas. Quis enim ista tam aperte perspicueque et perversa et falsa secutus esset. cur eo non estis contenti. praesertim concedentibus nobis? et cur id potius contenditis. ex illis individuis. in reliquis mundis et in iis quidem innumerabilibus innumerabiles Q. quod dilucide docetur a politioribus physicis singularum rerum singulas proprietates esse. id est peccaturum esse sapientem. id est adsensionis retentio. ut non suo quidque genere sit tale. Quae sunt tandem ista mysteria? aut cur celatis. pugnes licet. si mundus ita sit par alteri mundo. Neque id est contra nos: nam nobis satis est ova illa non internoscere: nihil enim magis adsentiri par est. quas non habeat dinotatas. cui possit exploratum esse de sua sanitate? quod velle efficere non mediocris insaniae est. qui gallinas alere permultas quaestus causa solerent: ii cum ovum inspexerant. quos numquam putassemus a nobis internosci posse. at a suis. Fac enim antiquos illos Servilios. cum sit commune falsi? Ex his illa necessario nata est [Greek: epochê]. Videsne ut in proverbio sit ovorum inter se similitudo? Tamen hoc accepimus. a quibus ne tu quidem iam te abstinebis. qui gemini fuerunt. itemque homines. tam similis quam dicuntur. nec sit in duobus aut pluribus nulla re differens ulla communitas? ut [sibi] sint et ova ovorum et apes apium simillimae: quid pugnas igitur? aut quid tibi vis in geminis? Conceditur enim similis esse. sic tu internosces. si vera sunt quae de Carneade non nulli existimant. cum visa in animos imprimantur. 55. ostendere. cum eae plurimis in rebus appareant? Sed. quo contentus esse potueras: tu autem vis eosdem plane esse. ut talia visa vera iudicem. qui essent aliter adfecti. ut nihil intersit. digitum discedere. retenturum adsensum nec umquam ulli viso adsensurum. Similitudines vero aut geminorum aut signorum anulis impressorum pueriliter consectantur. eos consuetudine adhibita tam facile internosceremus. Hic. si nihil erit quod intersit: ut etiam illud absurdum sit. Non solemus. quod rerum natura non patitur. Restat illud. sed etiam sint. cum a veris falsa non distent? deinde quod iudicium est veri. concedatur tibi ut in hoc quoque nostro mundo aliquid alicui sic sit par. quae id gallina peperisset dicere solebant. qua vera a falsis possit distinguere. veri inveniendi causa contra omnia dici oportere et pro omnibus. quasi inter illa omnino nihil interesset: habeo enim regulam. Volo igitur videre quid invenerint. de quo iam nimium etiam diu disputo. Quid. multo etiam maior in . quale est. Mihi porro non tam certum est esse aliquid. ut. si adsueveris. sed inter species et quasdam formas eorum. an sano. cum ei res similes occurrant. inquies. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 41 absurde. nihil esse quod percipi possit. ratione potius quam auctoritate ducantur. cui non adsentior potiusque refello propter id. et ais Democritum dicere innumerabilis esse mundos et quidem sic quosdam inter sese non solum similis. non vos id dicere.

qui numquam adsentiar. Luculli oratio flexit. Hoc. huius modi quadam oratione sum exorsus: Me. quae est habita memoriter. Quae cum dixisset ille. fieri interdum solet. Haec Antiochus fere et Alexandreae tum et multis annis post. simul ac visum sit. hominem amicissimum--me autem appellabat--et aliquot annis minorem natu. Catule. ut dixi. ut docti hominis et copiosi et parati et nihil praetereuntis eorum. quem incolebant. cum de re publica disceptatur. ut nos commovere nequeamus. ut caveres ne quis improbus tribunus plebis. oratio Luculli de ipsa re ita movit. ut hoc pulcherrimum esse iudico. brevi convertitur orbe. negabis esse rem ullam quae cognosci. quod mihi quoque licebat.' sed Helicen et clarissimos Septemtriones. si pauca ante quasi de fama mea dixero. inquit adridens.Academica. nisi tu opposuisses non minorem tuam. situs. si simile veri quid invenerim? Sed. percipi possit? Vide. Tum mihi Catulus: Si te. Illud vero non censuerim. Haec cum dixisset Catulus. quae pro illa causa dici possent. paulo ante quam est mortuus. Tum ego non minus commotus quam soleo in causis maioribus. multo etiam adseverantius. non ad illam parvulam Cynosuram. cum idem negares quicquam certi posse reperiri. in Syria cum esset mecum. non modo stultitiam meam. Ego vero ipse et magnus quidem sum opinator--non enim sum sapiens--et meas cogitationes sic dirigo. quod. comprehendi. cum gaudeam. cave ne te terreat. Eo fit ut errem et vager latius. ut sententia desisterem. ego de omni statu consilioque totius vitae aut certare cum aliis pugnaciter aut frustrari cum alios tum etiam me ipsum velim? Itaque. sic pro veris probare falsa turpissimum est. 63. eam philosophiam sequere quae confundit vera cum falsis. ignes tamen aderant. vera videre. rationes has latiore specie. isti autem. si tibi ita videatur. coepit hortari. si in minimis rebus pertinacia reprehenditur. De causa autem ipsa malim quidem te ab hoc dissentire. Auctoritas autem tanta plane me movebat. tantis offusis tenebris ne scintillam quidem ullam nobis ad dispiciendum reliquerunt: quos si sequamur. privat approbatione. Sed iam confirmata causa te. quaeso. qui nihil umquam falsi approbem. non magno opere mirabor. iocansne an ita sentiens--non enim satis intellegebam--. ut etiam manus saepe tolleret. calumnia etiam coercetur. copiose. quaeso. iurarem per Iovem deosque penates me et ardere studio veri reperiendi et ea sentire. quibus adspectum solis sive deus aliquis sive natura ademerat sive eius loci. XX. sed etiam mores et naturam condemnandam puto. qui ex te illa cognoveram. non tamen ut ei respondere posse diffiderem. 62. quos tu probas. eoque directius gubernant. An tu. 64. 61. sed quaerimus de sapiente. nisi ineptum putarem in tali disputatione id facere. nec mirum: nam numquam arbitror contra Academiam dictum esse subtilius. inquit. non dubitabo monere: Tune. ut eius auctoritate moveare. me omnes intueri. omnibus orbat sensibus? Et Cimmeriis quidem. Visa enim ista cum acriter mentem sensumve pepulerunt. Adgrediar igitur. nihil enim arbitror posse . quod quidem perpetuo Lucullo loquente fecerat. finem fecit. me quoque. by Marcus Tullius Cicero Carneade et copia rerum et dicendi vis fuisset? 42 XIX. 'Quae cursu interiore. quorum illis uti lumine licebat. quae dicerem. sed omnino fieri non potest. Nam.' ut ait Aratus. cum res occultissimas aperueris in lucemque protuleris iuratusque dixeris ea te comperisse. Sin cesseris. Sublata enim adsensione omnem et motum animorum et actionem rerum sustulerunt: quod non modo recte fieri. adriperet te et in contione quaereret qui tibi constares. sententia destitisse. sed de sapiente quaeritur. cum annos multos alia sensisset. idem te comperisse dixisses. 'Qua fidunt duce nocturna Phoenices in alto. iis vinculis simus adstricti. sententiam mutes deterrendum puto. Provide etiam ne uni tibi istam sententiam minime liceat defendere. qui nihil opiner. id est. spoliat nos iudicio. accurate. 65. taceo neque te quo minus. quorum vides quanta copia semper futura sit. Tantum enim non te modo monuit. Nec tamen ego is sum. Memini enim Antiochum ipsum. cum tantis laudibus philosophiam extuleris Hortensiumque nostrum dissentientem commoveris. Ego enim si aut ostentatione aliqua adductus aut studio certandi ad hanc potissimum philosophiam me applicavi. 66. nec percipio tamen. quod eam tenent. accipio iisque interdum etiam adsentior. Sed non de me. Hortensius autem vehementer admirans. etiam atque etiam ne illarum quoque rerum pulcherrimarum a te ipso minuatur auctoritas. Qui enim possum non cupere verum invenire. non ad tenue elimatas.

similes bonorum videri volunt. 72. idne malis an aliquid opinaturum esse sapientem. Mihi autem magis videtur non potuisse sustinere concursum omnium philosophorum. quam habemus de gravitate sapientis. ut constaret diutius didicisse neminem. Luculle. quae possint. Poenituit illa sensisse? Cur non se transtulit ad alios et maxime ad Stoicos? eorum enim erat propria ista dissensio. Sapientis autem hanc censet Arcesilas vim esse maximam. illudne. itaque visis cedo nec possum resistere. Carneades non numquam secundum illud dabat: adsentiri aliquando. levitate. et ut ii. quam multos annos esse negitavisset. Antiochii vocarentur. veri et falsi notam. qua adsentiri dicitis oportere. Quoque solebat uti argumento tum. mox referam me ad ordinem--haec primum conclusio quam habeat vim considera. Dionysius ille Heracleotes utrum comprehendisset certa illa nota. nunc ad ea. Quam ob rem cum tam vitiosum esse constet adsentiri quicquam aut falsum aut incognitum. ne praecipitet. Itaque cessit. id bonum solum esse. Unde autem subito vetus Academia revocata est? Nominis dignitatem videtur. quae vosmet ipsi nobilissimis philosophis placuisse conceditis. errore. ut fuit. temeritate diiunctius. Nobis autem primum. Quis enim iste dies illuxerit quaero. Sin autem omnino nihil esse quod percipi possit a me sumpsero et. Hanc conclusionem Arcesilas probabat: confirmabat enim et primum et secundum. sic Academicorum umbram secutus est.' Nihil excipit de quo non profiteatur. Quid igitur loquar de firmitate sapientis? quem quidem nihil opinari tu quoque. Quid loquar de Democrito? Quem cum eo conferre possumus non modo ingeni magnitudine. distinguere. sed etiam animi? qui ita sit ausus ordiri: 'Haec loquor de universis. 70. XXII. ut tam in praecipitem locum non debeat se sapiens committere. veterum. nisi postea quam ipse coepit qui se audirent habere. Excogitavit aliquid? Eadem dicit quae Stoici. si ego idem dicerem? Tu. Nos autem dicimus ea nobis videri. Ita sequebatur etiam opinari. Et primum quod initio dixisti videamus quale sit: similiter a nobis de antiquis philosophis commemorari atque seditiosi solerent claros viros. qui veri esse aliquid non negamus. tamen inconstantia levatur auctoritas. 71. 67. sapientem adsensus omnes cohibiturum. Chrysippo. inquies. quod tu non vis et recte. concedis.Academica. qui se sequerentur. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 43 percipi. effectum illud erit. falsum esse et Stoici dicunt et eorum adstipulator Antiochus: posse enim eum falsa a veris et quae non possint percipi ab iis. etiam opinaturum. quam reliquorum philosophorum nemo probet. dicta sunt. Quid? eum Mnesarchi poenitebat? quid? Dardani? qui erant Athenis tum principes Stoicorum. Sed prius pauca cum Antiocho. Neutrum. ut videndum tibi sit. ne fallatur videre. sapientem. illorum. Quamvis igitur fuerit acutus. cavere ne capiatur. quae a te. tamen ipsa consuetudo adsentiendi periculosa esse videtur et lubrica. eaque. aliquando etiam opinabitur: numquam autem opinabitur: nulli igitur rei adsentietur. is curavit ut quod argumentum ex Dionysio ipse sumpsisset. quod tu mihi das. cum ei placebat nihil posse percipi. ne si dubitarem quidem. cum a re ipsa descisceret. sapientem nihil opinari. Sed illud primum. Quod quoniam a te probatur--ut praepostere tecum agam. etiam si quid percipi possit. percipi posse negamus. ut mihi videris. Zenoni adsentiens. et scripsit de his rebus acutissime. retinere voluisse. Sed cum hoc alio loco plura. sed tenebricosos: sic . sperare etiam fore ut ii. qui illi ostenderit eam. ille verum plane negat esse: sensus quidem non obscuros dicit. Atque is non hoc dicit. ex eo ceteri sumerent. XXIII. item ille. qui sub Novis solem non ferunt. honestum quod esset. iis quae possunt--si modo ea sunt quaedam: iam enim videbimus--. Nihil est enim ab ea cogitatione. Illi cum res non bonas tractent. sed tamen popularis aliquos nominare. sustinenda est potius omnis adsensio. At quis est? num hic sophistes?--sic enim appellabantur ii. Luculle. 73. Ferres me. quae percipi non possunt. ut Maenianorum. quod non eodem modo possit a falso. XXI. quod nos. Quid enim esse potest extra universa? quis hunc philosophum non anteponit Cleanthi. voluptatem esse summum bonum: qui ex illius commutata sententia docere vellet nihil ita signari in animis nostris a vero posse. Ita enim finitima sunt falsa veris. quod multos annos tenuisset Zenonique magistro credidisset. Si ulli rei sapiens adsentietur umquam. et idem haec non acrius accusavit in senectute quam antea defensitaverat. Nitamur igitur. et didicit apud Philonem tam diu. Non sum sapiens. Etenim de ceteris sunt inter illos non nulla communia: haec Academicorum est una sententia. honesti inane nomen esse. 68. cum quaereret. Anaxagoras nivem nigram dixit esse. cum aestuaret. qui ostentationis aut quaestus causa philosophabantur--: maxima fuit et gravitatis et ingeni gloria. accepero. si adsensurus esset. 69. quod erant qui illum gloriae causa facere dicerent. qui haec ipsa. nihil posse percipi: etenim de eo omnis est controversia. quae a me defenduntur. reliquis inferioris aetatis? qui mihi cum illo collati quintae classis videntur. Numquam a Philone discessit. si temere processerit. an quod postea defensitavisset.

cum oculum torsisset. sed tantum sentire adfici se quodam modo. non ut Saturninus. perpetuam praesertim. Furere tibi Empedocles videtur: at mihi dignissimum rebus iis. 77. Quid Cyrenaici tibi videntur. Quale igitur visum? tum illum ita definisse. Xenophanes. Num ergo is excaecat nos aut orbat sensibus. omnium adsensionum retentio. nihil ad hanc controversiam pertinebat. quod non est. quale vel falsum. Recte consensit Arcesilas. nulli umquam esse credendum. et in columba pluris videri colores nec esse plus uno. qui magno suo periculo causam agat! Eo enim rem demittit Epicurus. nec solum posse. quaeso. XXV. communi loco defendis: quod ne [id] facere posses. Diodorum.' inquit. Cur? an de ullis certius possum dicere? Vixisse cum iis equidem videor: ita multi sermones perscripti sunt. sic enim appellantur fallaces conclusiunculae. qui est de natura: 'Nego. cum sciri nihil possit. ut. Sed hic quidem maiorum similis: tu vero. Ironiam enim alterius. si id tale esset ab eo. alia falsa. quam multa contra omnia. Hic Zenonem vidisse acute nullum esse visum quod percipi posset. si esset tale. Visa est Arcesilae cum vera sententia tum honesta et digna sapiente. sed tamen illi versibus increpant eorum adrogantiam quasi irati. nulla fuit ratio persequi. credo.' 74. superiorum non modo expresserat. Ille. nisi nobilem? Atqui habebam molestos vobis. non quid videatur. iacet ista causa: veracis suos esse sensus dicit. iudicanda? Parmenides. Nam illud. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 44 enim appellat [eos]. quod videatur. qui ea distinguis? Desine. Satis multa de auctoribus. Nemo. Licebat enim nihil percipere et tamen opinari. quae nos fallerent probabilitate magna. sed imitari numquam nisi clarum. Quid ergo est quod percipi possit.' nihil amplius. quod a Carneade dicitur probatum: equidem Clitomacho plus quam Philoni aut Metrodoro credens. e quibus dubitari non possit quin Socrati nihil sit visum sciri posse. Quid dicam de Platone? qui certe tam multis libris haec persecutus non esset. qui hunc maxime est admiratus. si unus sensus semel in vita mentitus sit. quod esset. Alexinum. deus te interroget: Sanis modo et . Videorne tibi. si parum magnam vim censet in iis esse ad ea. nisi videret iis resisti non facile posse. idcirco heri non necessario loco contra sensus tam multa dixeram. 75. si ne sensus quidem vera nuntiant? quos tu. inquam. scire nos. Quasi quaeratur quid sit. nescire aut scire. 76. ut voluptatem: neque se quo quid colore aut quo sono sit scire. Si. quoniam esset. Sed quid eos colligam. Excepit unum tantum. duas ex lucerna flammulas esse visas: opinionis enim esse mendacium. quod est. ut doceret nullum tale esse visum a vero. nihil opinaturum. Luculle. 'scire nos sciamusne aliquid an nihil sciamus. inquis. qui visa sensibus alia vera dicas esse. communibus locis: domi nobis ista nascuntur. Quaesivit de Zenone fortasse quid futurum esset. Hoc est verum esse. minime contempti philosophi? Qui negant esse quicquam quod percipi possit extrinsecus: ea se sola percipere. si ostendero nihil posse percipi. ut non eiusdem modi etiam a falso possit esse. hoc magis ab eo disputatum quam probatum puto. 78. impressum et signatum et effictum. quod percipi posset. Quid inventum sit paulo post videro. 'scire se nihil se scire. quae adhuc permanserit. quae in consuetudine probantur! At dissolvit idem. minus bonis quamquam versibus. Quid ergo id esset? Visum. Is. Arcesilam vero non obtrectandi causa cum Zenone pugnavisse. sed ne dixerat quidem posse hominem nihil opinari. ut eiusdem modi ab eo. sed minutos.--Igitur semper auctorem habes eum. Incubuit autem in eas disputationes. 80. 79. quae sub eos subiecta sunt. nec omnino sitne aliquid an nihil sit.Academica. tu concedas numquam adsensurum esse. ne id ipsum quidem. non oculorum. Post requisitum etiamne. XXIV. cum habeam Chrysippum. nulli rei adsensurum esse sapientem. quae tactu intimo sentiant. de quibus loquitur. quale vel falsum. Tu autem te negas infracto remo neque columbae collo commoveri. Certe tam multa non collegisset. Haec est una contentio. sed ita necesse esse sapienti. posset esse. Et ab iis aiebas removendum Socratem et Platonem. sicut esset. quorum sunt contorta et aculeata quaedam [Greek: sophismata]. Primum cur? Nam et in remo sentio non esse id. ad definitionem additum: neque enim falsum percipi posse neque verum. qui fulcire putatur porticum Stoicorum? Quam multa ille contra sensus. Deinde nihilne praeterea diximus?--Manent illa omnia. audeant se scire dicere. ex eo. confidere suis testibus et importune insistere! Itaque Timagoras Epicureus negat sibi umquam. Sed id omittamus. nominare modo illustris homines. Mihi quidem non videtur: sed dissolverit sane. Chius Metrodorus initio libri. si eiusdem modi esset visum verum. Illud certe opinatione et perceptione sublata sequitur. qui. te ipso quidem iudice. nisi probavisset. si nec percipere quicquam posset sapiens nec opinari sapientis esset. Quamquam ex me quaesieras nonne putarem post illos veteres tot saeculis inveniri verum potuisse tot ingeniis tantisque studiis quaerentibus. sonum fundere. Stilponem. ut dolorem. credo. sed verum invenire voluisse sic intellegitur.

qui bis cum Gemino consul fuit. eodem caelo atque ceteris omnibus. secundum non posse id percipi. Qui igitur P. nostri quidem generis admodum. Sed. quae concludant nihil esse quod nosci. esse aliquam vim.' Haec refelli possunt. Omnis pugna de quarto est. Geminus Quintus videri. qui idem me facturum paulo ante dixeris. quod percipi non posset. Servilium Geminum videbat. sed cum adversario facili. Quid? si in eiusdem modi cera centum sigilla hoc anulo impressero. percipi.Academica. quanto artificio esset sensus nostros mentemque et totam constructionem hominis fabricata natura! 87. Videsne navem illam? Stare nobis videtur: at iis. ut oculi aut nihil mentiantur aut non multum. videare mentitus. quo oportet agnosci. de . dubia omnia reddiderit. Sed. quem videris. 81. Sed adhibes artem advocatam etiam sensibus. vos. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 45 integris sensibus. quae fabricata sit hominem? Qualis ista fabrica est? ubi adhibita? quando? cur? quo modo? Tractantur ista ingeniose: disputantur etiam eleganter. 84. ne signorum quidem? Dic mihi. ne tu. quibuscum res est. non tu verum testem habere. Fallet igitur sensum. Quid ego de nave? Vidi enim a te remum contemni. Horum quattuor capitum secundum et tertium omnes concedunt. Quid? hoc nonne videtur contra te valere. ecquae poterit in agnoscendo esse distinctio? an tibi erit quaerendus anularius aliqui. nullum granum. quoniam gallinarium invenisti Deliacum illum. quod parum longe quam quod falsum viderem. etiam si ipse erit. XXVI. qui tibi videbitur. nec videre nec audire possimus? Iam illa praeclara. quia nulla nota verum distinguebatur a falso: qua distinctione sublata quam haberet in C. Quaere rationem cur ita videatur: quam ut maxime inveneris. quam in parvo lis sit. sic nobis aër crassus offunditur. ne adfirmentur modo. id quoque conceditis. quod agitur. res iam universas profundam. Denique videantur sane. Ne sit sane: videri certe potest. Epicurus autem posse putat etiam minorem esse eum quam videatur. qua dicis oportere. qui ova cognosceret? XXVII. Ergo ut illis aqua. neque quicquam interiectum est quod obstet. 85. ut non possit esse eiusdem modi falsa. tamen nobis stare videatur. de quo haec tota quaestio est. et si una fefellerit similitudo. qui tanta incitatione fertur. moveri haec villa. etiam si differat. Pugnas omnino. incidebat in eius modi visum. qui numquam sensus mentiri putat. Ad id enim. si Quintum se videre putabat. ut minuam controversiam. quae finxerit vel. cum prudentia et consilio scilicet. centum Alexandros eiusdem modi facere non posset? Qua igitur notione discerneres? 86. E quibus primum est esse aliquod visum falsum. ut tuo verbo utar. Avianium. Cur non extimescam opinandi temeritatem? Etiamne hoc adfirmare potes. 82. Lysippus eodem aere. qui in nave sunt. sed intendi acies longius non potest. Sublato enim iudicio illo. quod haud scio an non possis. quoniam aliquid videtur esse. Maiora fortasse quaeris. si sine magnis artificiis. tamen non ea nota iudicabis. ad quae pauci accedunt. quod ab eo nihil intersit quodque percipi non possit. sed eum non sine causa falsum testimonium dicere ostenderis. comprehendi possit. a perito carmen agnoscitur. Pompeianum non cerno. Stoicum est quidem nec admodum credibile 'nullum esse pilum omnibus rebus talem. sed non multo: ne maiorem quidem multo putat esse vel tantum esse. At ille nescio qui. quaeso. At amplius non desideramus. videte. discedamus: qui ne nunc quidem. fortasse in porticu Neptuni ambulantem. quantus videatur. quid habes explorati cur non possit tibi Cotta videri qui non sit. Luculle. mille et octingenta stadia quod abesset videbat: quaedam volucres longius. num amplius quid desideras? quid respondeas?--Utinam quidem roget? Audiret quam nobiscum male ageret. Dicet me acrius videre quam illos pisces fortasse qui neque videntur a nobis et nunc quidem sub oculis sunt neque ipsi nos suspicere possunt. quod non est? Omnia dicis sui generis esse. 83. Ut enim vera videamus. quae clariora sunt. cui non appositum sit visum aliud. Ubi igitur illud est semel? Sed ab hoc credulo. Sed de physicis mox et quidem ob eam causam. si hominum similitudo tanta esse non potest. nihil esse idem. non videmus. tertium. veniam. alia non possint. qui in scholis nominari solet. Quantulus nobis videtur! Mihi quidem quasi pedalis. sed pugnare nolo. qualis sit pilus alius. nihil interest omnibusne partibus visa res nihil differat an internosci non possit. Quid potest esse sole maius? quem mathematici amplius duodeviginti partibus confirmant maiorem esse quam terram. Sed ut ad ea. quae falsa esse non posset? Negas tantam similitudinem in rerum natura esse. Quid? talpam num desiderare lumen putas? Neque tam quererer cum deo. Responderem igitur audacter isti vestro deo me plane his oculis non esse contentum. O praeclarum prospectum! Puteolos videmus: at familiarem nostrum C. Pictor videt quae nos non videmus et. quam longe videmus? Ego Catuli Cumanum ex hoc loco video. cum ille sol. Quando igitur potest tibi P. inter quae visa nihil intersit. Cotta. simul inflavit tibicen. quartum nullum esse visum verum a sensu profectum. Primum Epicurus non dat. Quattuor sunt capita. agnoscendo eius modi notam. eadem temperatione. ut celeritas eius quanta sit ne cogitari quidem possit. quod sit aliud. fieri non posse ut eorum alia percipi possint.

ut veris moveretur? Quid? ipse Alcmaeo tuus. dum studiose omnia conquisierit contra sensus et perspicuitatem contraque omnem consuetudinem contraque rationem. audi: iterandum eadem istaec mihi!' num videtur minorem habere visis quam vigilantes fidem? XXVIII. Nisi vero Ennium non putamus ita totum illud audivisse. qui negat 'cor sibi cum oculis consentire. te appello .. Ea sunt eius modi. Catule. non diceret 'se vidisse Homerum. quo modo viderentur. Quo modo? quia. Sed non id agitur: tum. Quid? Iliona somno illo: 'Mater.' Alcmaeo autem: 'Sed mihi ne utiquam cor consentit .Academica.' nonne etiam bis exclamavit se videre.. putare non fuisse ea vera.'. ut si vigilans audiret. siccorum. cum videbantur. inter visa vera et .. ita suos configebat sagittis. quae me excruciat! Caerulea incinctae angui incedunt. Tuditanus? quisquam sanissimus tam certa putat quae videt quam is putabat quae videbantur? Quid ille.. si modo id somniavit. quae essent sibi visa in furore. flammiferam hanc vim. Ulixes..' nonne ibidem incitato furore: 'unde haec flamma oritur?' et illa deinceps: 'Incedunt. dum licet. circumstant cum ardentibus taedis.' nonne ita credit filium locutum. quam credebat. Vive.--88. cum experrectus esset Ennius.' Similia de vinolentis. Quid loquar de insanis? qualis tandem fuit adfinis tuus. cum. ut experrecta etiam crederet? Unde enim illa: 'Age adsta: mane. quo certius nihil potest esse.. Dormientium et vinolentorum et furiosorum visa imbecilliora esse dicebas quam vigilantium. qui: 'Video. ut Eurysthei filios. incedunt: adsunt. sanorum. cum omnino non videret? Quid? apud Euripidem Hercules. sed etiam a Chrysippo:--de quo queri solent Stoici. 89. eum somnia reri et cuius furor consederit.' Omnia autem haec proferuntur.' 90. cum conabatur etiam patrem. sed visum esse. somnia: dormienti vero aeque ac vigilanti probabantur. me expetunt:' Quid? cum virginis fidem implorat: 'Fer mi auxilium. ut erant. id quaeritur. ut illud efficiatur. Quasi quisquam neget et qui experrectus sit. ipsum sibi respondentem inferiorem fuisse. non perinde movebatur falsis. pestem abige a me.' Num dubitas quin sibi haec videre videatur? Itemque cetera: 'Intendit crinitus Apollo arcum auratum. cum uxorem interemebat. si essent. Experrectus enim potuit illa visa putare. adsunt. Qui magis haec crederet. quae a te diligentissime tractata sunt. 'O pietas animi . video te. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 46 quibus volumina impleta sunt non a nostris solum. itaque ab eo armatum esse Carneadem. quia videbantur? Apparet enim iam 'cor cum oculis consentire. luna innixus: Diana facem iacit a laeva.

Quid igitur? haec vera an falsa sunt? Si te mentiri dicis idque verum dicis. qui te ex somno excitet et eodem modo interroget. sine dubitatione respondes pauca esse. Quo in numero conticuisti. mentiris. Quid? quod eadem illa ars. ut ulla in re statuere possimus quatenus. ante sustineo nec diutius captiose interroganti respondeo. quid ambigue dictum sit. 92. Sed hoc omitto. quod tu modo dicebas esse vitiosum interrogandi genus. Vos autem nihil agitis. unde nomen est. quidquid enuntietur--id autem appellant [Greek: axiôma]. ut non videam quo non possit accedere. equos sustinebo. qualis recordatio fieri soleat eorum. ut agitator callidus. ne tu quidem percipis. Quid ergo haec ab illa conclusione differt? 'Si mentiris. ubi est illa definitio: 'effatum esse id. Illustribus igitur rebus insistis. ut respondere possitis verane an falsa sint. inquit. nec eorum ullum iudicium invenitur. lubricum sane et periculosum locum. Utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est? Nempe fundamentum dialecticae est. Sed negas te usque ad obscura progredi. Nihil igitur te contra soritas ars ista adiuvat. verbi gratia. tollit ad extremum superiora. cum illa falsa vel furiosorum vel somniantium recordatione ipsorum refellitis.' Qui potes hanc non probare. concedo. Quid ergo? istius vitii num nostra culpa est? Rerum natura nullam nobis dedit cognitionem finium. quae diiunctio vera sit. aut verum esse aut falsum. quia obscura. prius quam ad finem veniam. Quid est quod ratione percipi possit? Dialecticam inventam esse dicitis. Si.' Probatis certe genus et rectissime conclusum dicitis. lucet. Quid enim ad illum. Sed quoniam tantum in ea arte ponitis. de se ipsa iudicat. cum gradatim interrogetur. videte ne contra vos tota nata sit: quae primo progressu festive tradit elementa loquendi et ambiguorum intellegentiam concludendique rationem. quasi Penelope telam retexens. Plus autem pollicebatur. aut eorum. eoque magis. multane erunt? Progrediere rursus. Quid enim faceret huic conclusioni? 'Si lucet. Si habes quod liqueat neque respondes. id est. Sic me. dives pauper.' Cederet scilicet. tum paucis additis venit ad soritas. multa pauca. quae sunt in philosophia multae atque magnae. tria pauca sint anne multa. 94. sed qualis visio fuerit aut furentium aut somniantium tum cum movebantur. Nihil me laedit. Erunt enim. Nec hoc in acervo tritici solum. dicis autem te mentiri verumque dicis. verbi causa. Quo modo igitur hoc conclusum esse iudicas? 'Si dicis nunc lucere et verum dicis. Sol quantus sit quid ad illum? Quod sit summum bonum quid habet ut queat iudicare? Quid igitur iudicabit? quae coniunctio. Quid plura? hoc enim fateris. quoad videbitur. clarus obscurus sit. Quod est odiosius quam illa. Hoc idem me in obscuris facere non sinis. Si id tantum modo. superbus es: si non habes. quanto aut addito aut dempto certum respondeamus [non] habemus. nisi cavetis. aliquanto prius quam ad multa perveniat quiescere. quod est quasi effatum--. praeceps erit. ne molesti sint. magna parva. quid repugnet? Si haec et horum similia iudicat. cogit inferius concedere. inquit Carneades. Cuius veri et falsi? et in qua re? In geometriane quid sit verum aut falsum dialecticus iudicabit an in litteris an in musicis? At ea non novit. si ista explicari non possunt. quae nec augentis nec minuentis quid aut primum sit aut postremum docet. dicis autem nunc lucere et verum dicis: lucet igitur. quo ferentur equi. At vitiosi sunt soritae. XXX. longa brevia. Itaque in docendo eum primum concludendi modum traditis. non modo quiescas.--93. veri et falsi quasi disceptatricem et iudicem. non est satis.--Frangite igitur eos. Ipsa enim ratio conexi. Illud quaero. inquit. utrum tacentem irretiat te an loquentem? Sin autem usque ad novem. Nam haec quidem iudicare ad ceteras res. Sed quid proficit? Sequitur enim. quae nos non comprehensa et non percepta dicimus. quod aut verum aut falsum sit'? Rebus sumptis adiungam ex his sequendas esse alias. cum probaveris eiusdem generis superiorem? Haec Chrysippea sunt. qui furere destiterint. si ad eum numerum unum addidero. in decimo insistis: etiam a certis et illustrioribus cohibes adsensum. ne ab ipso quidem dissoluta. nihil adsequeris. inquit: ego enim. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 47 falsa ad animi adsensum nihil interesse. ut taceas. sed nulla omnino in re minutatim interrogati. Placet enim Chrysippo. Cuius generis error ita manat. 96. lucet. Vide ergo hanc conclusionem probaturusne sis: 'Si dicis te mentiri verumque dicis. lata angusta. cum concesseris superius.Academica. si potestis. Aut quidquid igitur eodem modo concluditur probabitis aut ars ista nulla est. Sed abeo a sensibus. XXIX. mentiris igitur. Per me vel stertas licet. mentiris: mentiris autem: mentiris . si locus is. Cautum est. lucet autem: lucet igitur. Non enim id quaeritur. 95. neque ultimum te paucorum neque primum multorum respondere posse. In philosophia igitur. qui te captare volt. qui experrecti sint. [Greek: hêsychazein]. quae sint in genere contrario. mentiris an verum dicis? Haec scilicet inexplicabilia esse dicitis. quid sequatur quamque rem. alias improbandas. quod ab his dicitur. 91.

non impetrent ut verum esse concedat quod ita effabimur. Quid enim? conscendens navem sapiens num comprehensum animo habet atque perceptum se ex sententia navigaturum? Qui potest? Sed si iam ex hoc loco proficiscatur Puteolos stadia triginta. sunt sumpta de primo. ab Antiocho quidem maxime. qui id non modo ita esse negabat. cum alterum aiat. omne. XXXII. quidquid acciderit specie probabile. sic ludere Carneades solebat: 'Si recte conclusi. iam explicata tota Carneadis sententia Antiochea ista corruent universa. ut omnes istos aculeos et totum tortuosum genus disputandi relinquamus ostendamusque qui simus. Sequor igitur eas vias.Academica. non iudicem 'si mentiris. quam tu. unde illa concreta esset. 97. utetur eo sapiens ac sic omnis ratio vitae gubernabitur. Sed. omnis vita tollatur. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 48 igitur. sed etiam necessarium: vide quam sit catus is. movetur sensibus. si nihil se offeret quod sit probabilitati illi contrarium. habet corpus. quod ita diiunctum sit. cui erant ea. 101. Ita nobis tacentibus ex uno Epicuri capite.' Non concedo. quae paulo ante dixi. teneo: sin vitiose. bono gubernatore.' Quid sequitur? ut taceam. qui hoc quidem certe. qui a te totus diversus est: noli mecum. certe levior reprehensio est: quod tamen dicimus esse quaedam probabilia. si probabile nihil esset. Mecum vero quid habent litium. conclusio ipsa loquitur: 'nihil posse percipi. sed similia veri: quae nisi probet. Epicuro. habet animum. quae iam dicam. movetur mente. alia non probabilia. longeque aliter se habere ac sensibus videantur. Tribunum aliquem censeo adeant: a me istam exceptionem numquam impetrabunt. ut ei multa vera videantur.' verum esse ob eam causam. quale non etiam falsum nihil ab eo differens esse possit. Itaque et sensibus probanda multa sunt. Nam si e contrariis diiunctio--contraria autem ea dico. Et sequitur omnis vitae ea. lucet. Licet enim haec quivis arbitratu suo reprehendat. ut Poenus. qui ipsorum disciplinam sequor? Cum aliquid huius modi inciderat. Et quattuor eius libri sunt de sustinendis adsensionibus. alia quae non possint. ut unum modo sensibus falsum videatur. id est. 102. eadem est in utroque. ne illud quidem iudicabo. faciliorque erit. neque tamen habere insignem illam et propriam percipiendi notam: eoque sapientem non adsentiri. sed sibi. tibi adsentior. 100. Huius modi igitur visis consilia capiet et agendi et non agendi. hac tranquillitate. cuius modi hoc verum. Neque nos contra sensus aliter dicimus ac Stoici. ut perceptio consequeretur.' non modo verum esse. ut albam esse nivem probet. probo navigio. quia possit eiusdem modi exsistere falsum aliquod. nisi hoc. Quod est caput Epicuri? 'Si ullum sensus visum falsum est. altero vestro perceptio et comprehensio tollitur. verum esse. Luculle. qui a vobis sapiens inducitur. si talis diiunctio falsa potest esse. Etenim is quoque. ne videri quidem. Nec vero quicquam ita dicam. necesse erit cras Hermarchum aut vivere aut non vivere. quae a te vel maxime agitata sunt: 'nihil . mentiris. homo et acutus. movebitur. Antiochus et Stoici: totam enim evertit dialecticam. 99. Duo placet esse Carneadi genera visorum. quia sciret aquam nigram esse. teneatur modo illud. inquit. ut quisquam id fingi suspicetur: a Clitomacho sumam. eversio. Quamquam nihil mihi tam mirum videtur quam ista dici. quasi 'aut etiam aut non. nec reperio quo modo iudicem 'si lucet. inquit. probabile videatur se illuc venturum esse salvum. Si enim.' eodem modo [esse] conexum. qui multa falsa esse dicunt. alterum neget. Hoc autem si ita sit.' Hoc negas te posse nec approbare nec improbare. quam erat Anaxagoras. ut sit visum illud probabile neque ulla re impeditum. si via.' in altero autem: 'alia visa esse probabilia. Qui igitur magis illud? Si ars. non videtur hoc satis esse vobis. Sic. et valde studiosus ac diligens. 'aut vivet cras Hermarchus aut non vivet' cum dialectici sic statuant. notissima. non comprehensa neque percepta neque adsensa. qui totam dialecticam et contemnit et irridet.' Quod vestrum? 'Sunt falsa sensus visa. ea pertinere ad superiorem divisionem: contra posteriorem nihil dici oportere: qua re ita placere: tale visum nullum esse. omne. ut autem probatio. 98. multa sequitur probabilia. minam Diogenes reddet. Ne sit: illa certe debemus effugere.' Ab eo enim Stoico dialecticam didicerat: haec autem merces erat dialecticorum. quod ipsum ex se conexum sit. praesto est qui neget rem ullam percipi posse sensibus. Non enim est e saxo sculptus aut e robore dolatus. nulla vera est. alterutrum concessero necessarium esse. Sed hoc extremum eorum est: postulant ut excipiantur haec inexplicabilia. quem isti tardum putant. Haec autem. non inesse in iis quicquam tale. nulla autem est in natura rerum talis necessitas. Aut igitur hoc et illud aut. qui usque ad senectutem cum Carneade fuit. albam ipsam esse. si ratio. in uno hanc divisionem: 'alia visa esse quae percipi possint. Et quaecumque res eum sic attinget. XXXI. quod ita didici. falsi esse aliquid in sensibus. Etenim cum ab Epicuro. quas didici ab Antiocho. quae contra sensus contraque perspicuitatem dicantur. commemorabas.' Itaque. si vis denique conclusionis valet. multa. Etenim contra naturam esset. quod negemus rem ullam percipi posse. Certa igitur cum illo. nihil percipi potest. Cum hoc igitur dialectici pugnent.

propterea quod earum ipsarum rerum. ubicumque haec aut occurrat aut deficiat. obsistere opinionibus. princeps prope meo quidem iudicio Stoicorum. Hac de re in utramque partem et dicta sunt et scripta multa. sustineat. et omnia meminit Siron Epicuri dogmata. quem ad C. quae maxime causam istam continent. videri dicimus. omnino eum rei nulli adsentiri: altero. habet ea comprehensa atque percepta. quod nunc Favonio nascente purpureum videtur. ut numquam adsentiatur. nulla re implicato. num illa etiam. Sic igitur inducto et constituto probabili. quae ipsae fatentur coniectura se plus uti quam scientia. qui nullam rem adsensu suo comprobet. terram. Cum Panaetius. alterum tenere. Manilio fuit. quod videtur. quae sub quemque sensum cadunt. Quae cum exposuisset. isdem sensibus reliqua. a quibus ipse didicit. cur id sapiens de reliquis rebus facere non possit? An est aliquid. is postea quam Epicuro adsentiens totam geometriam falsam esse credidit. mane ravum. moveri tamen et agere aliquid. sequentes tantum modo. dubitare non possit? an tu in soritis poteris hoc. quae quisque meminit. de quibus agimus. falsum quod est. quod ita visum sit. oracula. Primum enim negatis fieri posse ut quisquam nulli rei adsentiatur. quas illi. Mare illud. sed ea. alterum placere. et eo quidem expedito. oculis quibus iste vester caelum. ut aliae probabiles videantur. invidiosa certe non sunt. +Nec. vides profecto. Si igitur memoria perceptarum comprehensarumque rerum est. quae sciebat. mare intuebitur. Unde memoria. cum hoc intelligatur. cum voles: ille in reliquis rebus non poterit eodem modo insistere. Scripsit igitur his fere verbis--sunt enim mihi nota. Non enim lucem eripimus. propterea quod multa falsa probabilia sint. cum scripsisset isdem de rebus ad L.Academica. nihil autem falsi perceptum et cognitum possit esse. id percipi non potest. Luculle. ut. quos quoniam appetitio consequatur. quae tantum id. illud sit disputatum. sentiet. Alterum est. tamen non possis id verum esse. praesertim cum possit sine adsensione ipsam veri similitudinem non impeditam sequi? 108. ut neque neget aliquid neque aiat. quam omnes praeter eum Stoici certissimam putant. At id quidem perspicuum est. Lucilium scripsit poëtam. qua vera et falsa diiudicent? Sed illa sunt lumina duo. defendere. somnia. 105. Vera igitur illa sunt nunc omnia. 104. quod negatis actionem ullius rei posse in eo esse. Falsi autem comprehendi nihil potest. Haec si vobis non probamus. si nihil percipimus? Sic enim quaerebas. quae interrogati in utramque partem respondere possimus. qua a sole collucet. seque ab adsensu sustineat: quod is potest facere vel de iis rebus. non inesse in his propriam. etiam si possis rationem reddere cur id eveniat. ut vobismet ipsis placet. alia non posse. quae vos percipi comprehendique. reliquit eius modi visa. qui de omnibus rebus contineat se ab adsentiendo.' Itaque ait vehementer errare eos. adsensus lubricos sustinere. auspicia. iacere iam illud tuum perspicuitatis patrocinium. Censorinum. 106. quod videbatur oculis. qui magnus mathematicus fuisse dicitur. sed brevi res potest tota confici. eum. Quid? meminisse visa nisi comprehensa non possumus? Quid? Polyaenus. cum se a respondendo. Ego enim etsi maximam actionem puto repugnare visis. ut aut approbet quid aut improbet. XXXIII. ut sequens probabilitatem. Hoc per me licet: sed tibi aut concedendum est ita esse. quae nulla re impedirentur. albescit et vibrat dissimileque est proximo et continenti. sed scriptum est ita: 103. 'Academicis placere esse rerum eius modi dissimilitudines. . adiungit dupliciter dici adsensus sustinere sapientem: uno modo. a quibus numquam dictum sit aut colorem aut saporem aut sonum nullum esse. Dicunt enim Stoici sensus ipsos adsensus esse. vera esse haruspicum [responsa]. libero. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 49 igitur cernis? nihil audis? nihil tibi est perspicuum?' Explicavi paulo ante Clitomacho auctore quo modo ista Carneades diceret. 107. de quo loquor. dum sine adsensu: neque tamen omnia eius modi visa approbari. eum. XXXIV. Primum enim videri oportet in quo sit etiam adsensus. sed ea. aut memoriam mihi remittas oportet et fateare esse ei locum. ut placeat. idem huic nostro videbitur. secuntur nec habent istam artem vestram. etiam si comprehensio perceptioque nulla sit. Accipe quem ad modum eadem dicantur a Clitomacho in eo libro. si modo probabilia sint. ea de re dubitare se dicat. quia nobismet ipsis modo caeruleum videbatur. quibus ad actionem excitemur: item ea. vaticinationes. oblitus est? Atqui. veri et certi notam. Isdem enim hic sapiens. aut 'etiam' aut 'non' respondere possit. eadem nos. soluto. quod minime vis. si visa tollantur. omnia. qui consul cum M. quae nusquam alibi esset. aliae contra: id autem non esse satis cur alia posse percipi dicas. prima institutio et quasi disciplina illo libro continetur--. quodque nunc. actionem sequi: tolli autem omnia. certas habuerint. nec tamen adsentietur. quod positum vel improbare vel approbare possit. sint falsa sane. qui dicant ab Academia sensus eripi. Id cum ita sit. Quid fiet artibus? Quibus? Iisne. an iis.

Nam si in hoc haberet cognitionis notam. Respondet mihi non Aristoteles aut Theophrastus. A quo primum quaero quo tandem modo sit eius Academiae. de quibus agitur. ad quam me deducas. eadem uteretur in ceteris. qui id percipi posse diceret. Sed ut illa habet probabilia non percepta. nihil tam repugnare. alterum nihil ea differre a veris. quod probet. Hoc. Proinde quasi nullum sapiens aliud decretum habeat et sine decretis vitam agere possit! 110. qui probabilia sequitur. id est. finis bonorum malorumque constituas. quo neget visa a falsis vera differre. ut ea pars defensionis relinquatur. in iis non deerit sapienti nec quid faciat nec quid respondeat.' cum simplici homine simpliciter agerem nec magno opere contenderem atque etiam. id est. sicut ille me. cognitum. Herculi quendam laborem exanclatum a Carneade. non ut Antipater. perceptum. Antiochus in primis. nec dico temporis causa. sed ad suam quisque rapiet. quod statuet. Illud ferre non possum. perficies ut ego ista innumerabilia complectens nusquam labar. cuius esse se profiteatur? Ut omittam alia. si ab hac abstraxeris? Vereor ne subadroganter facias. Horum neutrum ante Zenonem magno opere defensum est. nihil posse percipi. Neque vero tu solus. quod videretur esse quaedam in vivis differentia. quem a puero audivi? qui . Cum sit enim campus in quo exsultare possit oratio. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 50 credoque Clitomacho ita scribenti. cur eam tantas in angustias et in Stoicorum dumeta compellimus? si enim mihi cum Peripatetico res esset. quod. Non enim. superius illud ea re a se esse concessum. sic ex animis nostris adsensionem. praesertim ne Carneade quidem huic loco valde repugnante: nunc quid facere possum? 113. Iam istuc te quoque impediet in navigando. quis umquam dixit aut veteris Academiae aut Peripateticorum. mores fingas. 112. Atqui ita dicas necesse est.' Nam Antipatrum reprehensum. tam bonos.' Nihil eius modo invenio. vel id solum percipi posse. vel sapientem nihil opinari? Certe nemo. si quicquam comprehendi posse dicatur. qui adfirmaret nihil posse comprehendi. ut exponas disciplinam sapientiae. item. opinationem et temeritatem extraxisset. Non enim potest convenienter dici nihil comprehendi posse. vel quod amavi hominem. in liberis procreandis plurimisque in rebus. quem ad modum. sustinuero Epicureos. fateretur esse perceptum. qui claros viros a se instructos dicant rem publicam saepe rexisse. ut hoc ipsum decretum. non adtendere. si de officio multisque aliis de rebus. In incertis enim nihil probabile est. eam tolli altero. Itaque incognito nimirum adsentiar. qui me valde movet. officia describas. qui sibi cum oratoribus cognationem esse. Sed probandi species est: percipiendi signum nullum habemus. in quibus autem est. in quibus nihil sequere praeter probabile. quid impediet actionem eius. cum ego nihil dicerem posse comprehendi. qua solebat dicere Antiochus Philonem maxime perturbatum.' neque adhiberet illam magnam accessionem. utitur probabilibus. reprehensionem Antiochi--nec mirum: in primis enim est nobilis--. ne id quidem. XXXVI. si dixeris tuam. quod esset verum tale. tamen. vel quod ita iudico. naturam rerum omnium evolvas. 'quod impressum esset e vero. diceret ille sapientem interdum opinari. sed qui his minor est: 'tale verum quale falsum esse non possit. Id ita esset. Ego tamen utrumque verum puto. posse percipi. politissimum et acutissimum omnium nostrae memoriae philosophorum. Quaero enim quid sit quod comprehendi possit. inquit. ipsum impediet. in quibus versatus exercitatusque sit. 111. ne Xenocrates quidem aut Polemo. 'pressius. quam vitam ingrediar definias. Luculle. opinabor. si nos verum omnino tolleremus. si quaesitum ex eo sit. Itaque non metuit ne confundere omnia videatur et incerta reddere. quale falsum esse non posset. idemque etiam disputandi et intellegendi iudicium dicas te et artificium traditurum. 114. haec duo. unum. nihil posse percipi. Et tamen illud usitatum et saepe repudiatum refers. Ac mihi videor nimis etiam nunc agere ieiune. Quam quoniam non habet. 115. Diodoto quid faciam Stoico. non repugnarem. quod diceret consentaneum esse ei. stellarum numerus par an impar sit. nescire se dicat. esse quaedam falsa visa. quod sapientis esset. si. 'quo modo imprimi non posset a falso. in conserendo. Non facimus.Academica. tam inter se amantis viros. nulla re impediente? 109. id ipsum saltem dicere posse comprehendi. Ne illam quidem praetermisisti. nihil opiner? Quae tandem ea est disciplina. restitero Peripateticis. Cum enim sumeretur. sed ita plane probo. tot meos familiaris. quod ipsi Antiocho pingue videbatur et sibi ipsum contrarium. ut feram et immanem beluam. Illo modo potius putat urguendum fuisse Carneadem: cum sapientis nullum decretum esse possit nisi comprehensum. sic hoc ipsum. Nam tam vera quam falsa cernimus. in uxore ducenda. Hoc mihi et Peripatetici et vetus Academia concedit: vos negatis. ut ais. Tu cum me incognito adsentiri vetes idque turpissimum esse dicas et plenissimum temeritatis. Age. XXXV. tantum tibi adroges. sed.

sed ea. populari et sodali suo. aut. quem sequatur: ceteri tot viri et tanti repudiati ab eo condemnatique discedent. quanti libertas ipsa aestimanda est non mihi necesse esse quod tibi est? Cur deus. Punctum esse quod magnitudinem nullam habeat: extremitatem et quasi libramentum in quo nulla omnino crassitudo sit: liniamentum sine ulla latitudine [carentem]. vos ipsi ut dicitis. sed sapientem dico scire. habere mentem. credo. nulla senectus diuturnitate temporum exsistere. Estne quisquam tanto inflatus errore. lunam. contempserit. sola vera sunt. Optime: nempe ista scire. eas primum confusas. iuraturum putas? Si fecerit. similis inter se. quod nulla fuerit novo consilio inito tam praeclari operis inceptio. quam. regat. Hoc primum quale est. quam potissimum sententiam eliget et disciplinam? Etsi quamcumque eliget. 117. et fuisse semper et fore. quae sensibus. quem deum censet esse. qui labi nolumus. ut sibi se illa scire persuaserit? Non quaero rationes eas. et ita esse eum undique aptum. e quibus omnia constant. Primum ergo. 116. 118. Ut omittam levitatem temere adsentientium. qui moveat terram. Geometrae provideant. stellas omnis. Utrum igitur nos impudentes. cui sex reliquos concessisse primas ferunt. Xenophanes. a non sapiente explicari sapientiam? Sed discedamus a nobismet ipsis. ut nulla vis tantos queat motus mutationemque moliri. paulo etiam antiquior. videamus: at illud ante. 119. omnia nostra causa cum faceret--sic enim voltis--.Academica. quae describunt. inquit. uberior in ceteris: Empedocles haec pervolgata et nota quattuor: Heraclitus ignem: Melissus hoc. qui illum desipere dicat: neque enim ortum esse umquam mundum. At hoc Anaximandro. videamus quem probet: est enim inter magnos homines summa dissensio. Pythagorei ex numeris et mathematicorum initiis proficisci volunt omnia. Princeps Thales. probant. quae ex eo orirentur. qui sibi persuaserint scire se solos omnia? Non me quidem. quae et se et ipsum fabricata sit et omnia moderetur. Non persequor quaestiones infinitas: tantum de principiis rerum. terram. si vera: plura enim vera discrepantia esse non possunt. Erit ei persuasum etiam solem. inquies. qui se profitentur non persuadere. quae de natura rerum sint quaesita. Ex his eliget vester sapiens unum aliquem. aquam. nullam adhibent persuadendi necessitatem. Tibi hoc repudiare. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 51 mecum vivit tot annos? qui habitat apud me? quem et admiror et diligo? qui ista Antiochea contemnit? Nostra. conglobata figura: Parmenides ignem. an illi adrogantes. sed cogere. Haec cum vera esse concessero. Sint ista vera--vides enim iam me fateri aliquid esse veri--. quae ex coniectura pendent. ut hic ornatus umquam dilapsus occidat. ex aqua dixit constare omnia. non persuasit: is enim infinitatem naturae dixit esse. Non quaero ex his illa initia mathematicorum. fore tamen aliquando ut omnis hic mundus ardore deflagret. moveat. e qua omnia gignerentur. mare deos esse. quem unum e physicis potissimum probabit? Nec plus uno poterit. si est crediturus. Plato ex materia in se omnia recipiente mundum factum esse censet a deo sempiternum. sed longum est: quaero tamen quem sequatur. nec magis approbabit nunc lucere. ne ille longe aberit ut argumentis credat philosophorum. Certe sola. ut saepe iam dixi. Quod si geometricis rationibus non est crediturus. de sapiente loquamur. veniet flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles. unus e septem. ut ea. sed ex ea particulas. quae ab eo formetur: Leucippus. quod quaedam animalis intellegentia per omnia ea permanet et transeat. In tres igitur partis et a plerisque et a vobismet ipsis distributa sapientia est. Quamcumque vero sententiam probaverit. quae disputationibus huc et illuc trahuntur. eam sic animo comprehensam habebit. illud autem superius sicut caput et famam tuam defendere necesse erit. hunc mundum esse sapientem. quoniam Stoicus est. Anaxagoras materiam infinitam. Cum enim tuus iste Stoicus sapiens syllabatim tibi ista dixerit. et qui omnia vobis. quae vim adferunt in docendo. comprehendi ea tamen et percipi nego. Sed sit ingenio divino. tantam vim natricum viperarumque fecerit? cur mortifera tam multa ac perniciosa terra marique . quibus non concessis digitum progredi non possunt. minutas. si placet. Finge aliquem nunc fieri sapientem. quae sunt in tua disciplina. omnis haec quaestio est. ignem. XXXVII. quibus efficitur multis partibus solem maiorem esse quam terram. insipiens eliget. Post eius auditor Anaximenes infinitum aëra. cum mihi ne ut dubitem quidem relinquatur. quod esset infinitum et immutabile. tum ex his omnia. quorum potissimum? Omnia enim physicorum licet explicare. 120. plenum et inane: Democritus huic in hoc similis. nec prius quam Archimedes eo inspectante rationes omnis descripserit eas. solem ipsum. nondum esse. definita: gigni autem terram. unum esse omnia neque id esse mutabile et id esse deum neque natum umquam et sempiternum. postea in ordinem adductas a mente divina. de quo. si adigam ius iurandum sapientem. XXXVIII.

cum existimet curari se a deo. Non ergo id agitur. Itaque medici ipsi. qui dixit. modo illud probabilius videtur. aperire. quae nervorum natura sit. vide ne impudenter etiam postules. stellas. qui adversis vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia. rationis. cupiditatis. alios dissimilis. an simplex unusque sit? si simplex. Ne exaedificatum quidem hunc mundum divino consilio existimo. iurare posset. Somnia censet haec esse Democriti non docentis. naturalibus fieri aut factum esse docet ponderibus et motibus. qui. quanto est aequius habere ipsos deos! Negat opera deorum se uti ad fabricandum mundum. non solum adroganter. non et dies et noctes divinum numen horrere et. Ecce tibi e transverso Lampsacenus Strato.Academica. studiosus nobilitatis fui. quia possit fieri ut patefacta et detecta mutentur. formis. tresne partis habeat. sed quod nullis. cum audiunt. ita se rem habere. quo omnia contineri dicitis. qui asperis et levibus et hamatis uncinatisque corporibus concreta haec esse dicat interiecto inani. nostro ne quid maxime quidem probabile sit occurrit: ita sunt in plerisque contrariarum rationum paria momenta. ut videamus terra penitusne defixa sit et quasi radicibus suis haereat an media pendeat? 123. Atque hoc etiam Platonem in Timaeo dicere quidam arbitrantur. aetatibus. ut et quod movebitur corporum cedat et qua quidque cesserit aliud ilico subsequatur? aut atomos ullas. imagines extrinsecus in animos nostros per corpus irrumpere? Tu vero ista ne asciveris neve fueris commenticiis rebus adsensus. ut etiam inter deos Myrmecides aliquis minutorum opusculorum fabricator fuisse videatur. quorum intererat ea nosse. quos [Greek: antipodas] vocatis: cur mihi magis suscensetis. qui det isti deo immunitatem magni quidem muneris: sed cum sacerdotes deorum vacationem habeant. vincam animum cuique adsentiar deligam . supera denique omnia stare censet neque praeter terram rem ullam in mundo moveri: quae cum circum axem se summa celeritate convertat et torqueat. caelum. 124. honoribus. Quid tu. eadem effici omnia. Quis enim potest. irae. quae penetrare in caelum. quam vim quaeque pars habeat ignoramus. cum ita completa et conferta sint omnia. nec vero tibi. si stante terra caelum moveretur. nec. quem potissimum? quem? Democritum: semper enim. sic innumerabilis paribus in locis isdem esse nominibus. Vos etiam dicitis esse e regione nobis. Epicure? loquere. utrum sit ignis an anima an sanguis an. Nec enim divinationem. qui nihil istorum sciri putat posse. ubi sit? denique sitne an. ut viderentur. quae. sed tamen neque ille. Tune aut inane quicquam putes esse. quam probatis. innumerabilis supra infra. docet omnia effecta esse natura. Sed ecquid nos eodem modo rerum naturas persecare. Luculle. ne sit quidem ullus? Si est. sed paulo obscurius. isdem de rebus disputantis? et. terram intrare possit: corpora nostra non novimus: qui sint situs partium. rebus gestis. si quid adversi acciderit--quod cui non accidit?--extimescere ne id iure evenerit? Nec Stratoni tamen adsentior. fatumque illud. Putas solem esse tantulum? Egone? ne bis quidem tantum! Et vos ab illo irridemini et ipsi illum vicissim eluditis. Urguebor iam omnium vestrum convicio. Negas sine deo posse quicquam. ut nulla acies humani ingeni tanta sit. ut nos nunc simus ad Baulos Puteolosque videamus. Liber igitur a tali irrisione Socrates. XXXIX. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 52 disperserit? Negatis haec tam polite tamque subtiliter effici potuisse sine divina aliqua sollertia. e quibus quidquid efficiatur. desipere vos arbitrantur? Hicetas Syracusius. quam iis.. ante post. solem. quidquid est. ut Dicaearcho visum est. Quaecumque sint. e contraria parte terrae. Ipse autem singulas mundi partis persequens. ut ait Theophrastus. non quod tuis rationibus non adsentiar. Latent ista omnia. lunam. Nihil sentire est melius quam tam prava sentire. Satisne tandem ea nota sunt nobis. ut ille. 126. 121. 125. illarum sit dissimillimum? aut sine aliqua mente rem ullam effici posse praeclaram? et cum in uno mundo ornatus hic tam sit mirabilis. Habitari ait Xenophanes in luna eamque esse terram multarum urbium et montium. crassis occultata et circumfusa tenebris. quae tu. XL. Sed redeo ad animum et corpus. dextra sinistra. alios eiusdem modi mundos esse? et. Ne ille et deum opere magno liberat et me timore. praesertim cum ista tua mihi ne probabilia quidem videantur. neque ego non ita. liber Aristo Chius.. Horum aliquid vestro sapienti certum videtur. aperuerunt. ut scitis. Cuius quidem vos maiestatem deducitis usque ad apium formicarumque perfectionem. Portenta videntur. dividere possumus. ingeniis. ut Xenocrates. contemno. quae venarum? tenemusne quid sit animus. ut Platoni placuit. qui ista non aspernor. Modo hoc. numerus nullo corpore--quod intellegi quale sit vix potest--et. sed optantis. si nunc aut si etiam dormientes aliquid animo videre videamur. Nec eo tamen aiunt empirici notiora esse illa. . 122. ut aliquid adsensu meo comprobem. Sin agis verecundius et me accusas. atque haud scio an ita sit. ullam esse arbitror. quidquid aut sit aut fiat. mortale sit an aeternum? nam utramque in partem multa dicuntur.

princeps Xenophanes. Nec enim possunt dicere aliud alio magis minusve comprehendi. unde Cyrenaici. cum his non licebit? Zenoni et reliquis fere Stoicis aether videtur summus deus. Aristonem. deinde eum secuti Parmenides et Zeno. humanissima completur animus voluptate. cogitantesque supera atque caelestia haec nostra ut exigua et minima contemnimus. quorum omne bonum in mente positum et mentis acie. solem dominari et rerum potiri putat. qua omnia regantur.Academica. Sed quod coeperam: Quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati? nempe fines constituendi sunt ad quos et bonorum et malorum summa referatur: qua de re est igitur inter summos viros maior dissensio? Omitto illa. vides quantum ab eo dissenserit et quam non multum a Platone. nihil esse bonum nisi virtutem. Non enim magis adsentiuntur neque approbant lucere nunc. Qui igitur id approbat. quem metiri non possunt. et Aristoteles eiusque amici nunc proxime videntur accedere. quod esset unum et simile et idem semper. qui cum Zenonis fuisset auditor. non quo probaret. re probavit ea quae ille verbis. qui id bonum solum esse dicebant. quae diu multumque defensa sunt. Ita cogimur dissensione sapientium dominum nostrum ignorare. si quae illustriores videantur. quod is Eretria fuit. sed vester. explicata uberius et ornatius. Magnitudo autem solis percipi non potest. 132. amittere. plus quam duodeviginti partibus maiorem esse quam terram. sed ut opponeret Stoicis. quae [Greek: adiaphoria] ab ipso dicitur. Zenonis auditor. Sed cur rapior in invidiam? licetne per vos nescire quod nescio? an Stoicis ipsis inter se disceptare. Huic summum bonum est in his rebus neutram in partem moveri. sex pedum esse quam solem. summum bonum esse frui rebus iis. Honeste autem vivere fruentem rebus iis. opinor. qui in cognitione et scientia summum bonum ponit: qui cum Zenonis auditor esset. tum aliquid eam aut iubere aut vetare. qui inventor et princeps Stoicorum fuit. illos certe minus despicere debemus. si erunt mensi. ut scriptum video. nulla esse censuit. adfirmet. haec nunc videamus. qua verum cerneretur. cum cornix cecinerit. Zeno statuit finem esse bonorum. Introducebat etiam Carneades. nec malum nisi quod virtuti esset contrarium: in mediis ea momenta. quas primas homini natura conciliet. Iam illud perspicuum est. 129. Ad vos nunc refero quem sequar: modo ne quis illud tam ineruditum absurdumque respondeat: . Hos si contemnimus et iam abiectos putamus. verecundior? 127. si in eius modi rebus veri simile quod sit invenerit. ut vereatur temere opinari praeclareque agi secum putet. humana despicimus. Ergo dubium est uter nostrum sit. quippe qui nesciamus soli an aetheri serviamus. quae Zeno voluit. neque tamen cum Cyrenaicis de ipsa voluptate consentiens. XLII. quae relicta iam videntur. Veniamus nunc ad bonorum malorumque notionem: at paulum ante dicendum est. Solis autem magnitudinem--ipse enim hic radiatus me intueri videtur ac monet ut crebro faciam mentionem sui--vos ergo huius magnitudinem quasi decempeda permensi refertis: huic me quasi malis architectis mensurae vestrae nego credere. dum modo eodem pacto cetera percipi comprehendique dicant. ut Herillum. ut indicant scripta Polemonis. mente praeditus. Responderint posse percipi quantus sol sit. is eas res non percipit. Voluptatem autem et honestatem finem esse Callipho censuit: vacare omni molestia Hieronymus: hoc idem cum honestate Diodorus: ambo hi Peripatetici. Indagatio ipsa rerum cum maximarum tum etiam occultissimarum habet oblectationem. 128. Quaeret igitur haec et vester sapiens et hic noster. leniter ut dicam. omnibus iis finibus bonorum. Non mihi videntur considerare. quoniam omnium rerum una est definitio comprehendendi. A Menedemo autem. Erigimur. Herilli similia. 131. Ex quo illa conclusio nascitur: si sol quantus sit percipi non potest. Has igitur tot sententias ut omittamus. et vetus Academia censuit. XLIII. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 53 XLI. quem Antiochus probat maxime. Megaricorum fuit nobilis disciplina. Cleanthes. quod ducatur a conciliatione naturae. a quo iidem illi Megarici dicti. qui ceteras res eodem modo quo magnitudinem solis approbat. cuius. Neque tamen istas quaestiones physicorum exterminandas puto. quasi percipiat. sed. Megareus. Post Euclides. quem modo nominavi. malorum finis esse contrarios. Non repugnabo. itaque ab his Eleatici philosophi nominabantur. Post Epicurus. noster. Hic quoque multa a Platone. quod veri simile videatur. earum etiam rerum auctoritatem. quos exposui. nec magis adfirmabunt signum illud. Eretriaci appellati. cum physica ista valde adfirmant. quam. 130. qui quasi maiorum est gentium Stoicus. ut adsentiatur. Est enim animorum ingeniorumque naturale quoddam quasi pabulum consideratio contemplatioque naturae. cuius est disciplina nunc notior. Alii voluptatem finem esse voluerunt: quorum princeps Aristippus. quas primas natura conciliavisset. credat. qui Socratem audierat. Si vero aliquid occurrit. elatiores fieri videmur. nullam rem percipit. Honeste autem vivere. Pyrrho autem ea ne sentire quidem sapientem. Socratis discipulus. quae [Greek: apatheia] nominatur.

ut Tuberoni Panaetius praecipit. exsules.' Aristoteles aut Xenocrates. solos divites. Haec tibi. Utrumque non potest. de omni vitae ratione dissident. nonne indicat non posse illa probanda esse sapienti? Placet Stoicis omnia peccata esse paria. eadem in veteres Academicos et Peripateticos dicenda. ad verbum ediscendus libellus. si patria deleatur? non doleat. Illi umquam dicerent sapientis solos reges. Quid Antiochus? Etiam. Non potest igitur uterque sapiens esse. 134. Nam omnis ratio vitae definitione summi boni continetur. Praecide. A. cui praeter honestum nihil est in bonis. sapientis esse? neminem consulem. ne incognito assentiar: quod mihi tecum est dogma commune. Solonis. qui nihil censuit deesse virtuti. et tamen. ubi Aristoteles ista tetigit? hos enim quasi eosdem esse voltis. non quo mihi displiceant: sunt enim Socratica pleraque mirabilia Stoicorum. Quid? cum ipse Antiochus dissentit quibusdam in rebus ab his. furiosos? denique scripta Lycurgi. quoniam tanto opere dissentiunt. sed de tota possessione contentio. nisi alterutrum sit. quae [Greek: paradoxa] nominantur. sed Zenoni necessarium. Nam aut Stoicus constituatur sapiens aut veteris Academiae. nescio an ne quinquevirum quidem quemquam nisi sapientem? postremo. Et hic metuo ne vix sibi constet. inquam. Sed ille noster est plane. minime. Luculle. rei falsae adsentiens--nam vos quidem nihil esse dicitis a sapiente tam alienum--: sin vera sunt Zenonis. Atque illi quidem etiam utiliter a natura dicebant permotiones istas animis nostris datas: metum cavendi causa. tum illud videtur. cui praeter honestatem multa bona. non dubitavisset quin et praetor ille esset et Roma urbs et eam civitas incoleret. Vos autem mihi veremini ne labar ad opinionem et aliquid asciscam et comprobem incognitum. misericordiam aegritudinemque clementiae. Cupio sequi Stoicos. quae et venientia metuat sapiens necesse est et venisse doleat. tamen eum. Age. sed ubi Xenocrates. partim etiam necessaria. Luculle. recte secusne alias viderimus. si sapiens sit. Liceat tandem mihi considerare utram sententiam sequar. consul fuit. beatum fore censeat. praetorem. Legi apud Clitomachum. Hic igitur neutri adsentietur? Sin. Verum in his discrepant. peccat Stoicus. duodecim tabulas nostras non esse leges? ne urbis quidem aut civitatis. Est enim inter eos non de terminis. Albinum. si deleta sit? Durum. quos amat. numquam dolere? Sapiensne non timeat. doctum sane hominem. inquit: statue aliquando quidlibet. Quid? illa. sed non beatissimam. si es adsensus Antiocho. Legimus omnes Crantoris veteris Academici de luctu. Deus ille. num pro veris probare possumus? Sapientis animum numquam nec cupiditate moveri nec laetitia efferri. quos Antiochus sequi volebat. Est enim non magnus. imperatorem. haec probabilia sane sint: num etiam illa. de qua qui dissident. iocantem dixisse Carneadi: 'Ego tibi. perpauca balbutiens. Scipione et M. praeter turpitudinem multa mala videntur. inquit. XLIV. Licetne--omitto per Aristotelem. Atrocitas quidem ista tua quo modo in veterem Academiam irruperit nescio: illa vero ferre non possum. qui cum avo tuo. in quibus consentiunt. ut supra dixi. 138. de finibus bonorum: circumcidit et amputat multitudinem: aut enim honestatem esse . Distrahor: tum hoc mihi probabilius. Sed ille vereor ne virtuti plus tribuat quam natura patiatur. qui tum P. numquam timere. nisi quae essent sapientium? 137. virtutem iacere plane puto. beatam. Si Polemoneus. Stoicus. ut animum sapientis commoveri et conturbari negarent? Mediocritates illi probabant et in omni permotione naturalem volebant esse quendam modum. Carneade. dogma prodere. praetor esse non videor. Quid consilii datis? Testatur saepe Chrysippus tres solas esse sententias. meo iudicio in philosophia prope singularem--per ipsum Antiochum? qui appellabatur Academicus. uter est prudentior? 133. ut indicat ipsius historia scripta Graece. XLV.Academica. praesertim Theophrasto multa diserte copioseque dicente. quae ubique essent. solum civem. quae defendi possint. homuncio hic. familiari tuo. verum aureolus et. tibi vero. modo aliquem. qui cum dicat esse quaedam et corporis et fortunae mala. erat quidem. servos. sed alter. 135. Stoicis. ipsam iracundiam fortitudinis quasi cotem esse dicebant. cum Carneades et Stoicus Diogenes ad senatum in Capitolio starent. Contineo igitur me. Sed quaero quando ista fuerint ab Academia vetere decreta. quod quae dicuntur et acuta mihi videntur in utramque partem et paria? nonne caveam ne scelus faciam? Scelus enim dicebas esse. qui multa putat praeter virtutem homini partim cara esse.' Nihil potest dici inconsideratius. Ecce multo maior etiam dissensio. eum. Antioche. Luculle. qui in his omnibus sit. At hoc Antiocho vehementissime displicet. quod minime voltis. praetor esset. Zeno in una virtute positam beatam vitam putat. Quid. tantum quantum videbitur. germanissimus Stoicus. quia sapiens non sum: nec haec urbs nec in ea civitas. Erit igitur res iam in discrimine. si perpauca mutavisset. tam sunt defendenda quam moenia: mihi autem bono modo. solos formosos? omnia. 136. solum liberum? insipientis omnis peregrinos.' Tum ille: 'Huic Stoico non videris. Marcello coss. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 54 'Quemlibet.

occludi tabernas iubes? quo enim spectat illud.' inquiebat. Plato autem omne iudicium veritatis veritatemque ipsam abductam ab opinionibus et a sensibus cogitationis ipsius et mentis esse voluit. Antipater et Archidemus. quod ante non fuerat. Quamquam Clitomachus adfirmabat numquam se intellegere potuisse quid Carneadi probaretur. sed fallax imitatio simulatioque virtutis. Nam quae voluptate quasi mercede aliqua ad officium impellitur. Num quid horum probat noster Antiochus? Ille vero ne maiorum quidem suorum. quod eos omnis. Et hoc quidem Zeno gestu conficiebat. cum honestas in voluptate contemnenda consistat. cuius libri sunt de ratione loquendi multi et multum probati. ut. Quid? cum Cleanthe doctore suo quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet! quid? duo vel principes dialecticorum. iustitia. insanos esse dicatis: deinde ad illa veniam. cuius quidem sententiam Carneades ita studiose defensitabat. qui in contione stabunt. Revocat virtus vel potius reprehendit manu: pecudum illos motus esse dicit. lucet. hanc normam. quoniam Aristippus. Sed. [Greek: katalêpsin] imposuit. Quo modo? inquies: nos enim defendimus etiam insipientem multa comprehendere. si istum finem velim sequi. 140. 'si dies est. Ubi enim aut Xenocratem sequitur. verum tamen video quam suaviter voluptas sensibus nostris blandiatur. non magna contentio. ut Calliphontem sequar. ut eam probare etiam videretur. ut hoc. deque eo nulla ratione neque pelli neque moveri potes: ego nihil eius modi esse arbitror. si vacemus omni molestia. hominem iungit deo. neque me minus hominem quam te putaveris. 'visum. Tantum interest. adsentiris. 139. caritas. At scire negatis quemquam rem ullam nisi sapientem. nisi erit gratuita. De quo Chrysippo fuit. Expromam primum illa invidiosa. ea non est virtus. opiniosissimi homines. cum paulum digitos contraxerat. Venio enim iam ad tertiam partem philosophiae. perceptum. sed ad vosmet ipsos. 145.' quanta contentio est! Aliter Diodoro. quo modo iudicare oporteat verum falsumne sit. qui illud idem cum honestate coniungerent. Nam. quasi corporis simus expertes. comprehensionem illam esse dicebat: qua ex similitudine etiam nomen ei rei. ut adsentiar Epicuro aut Aristippo. quod gloriosum sit in volgus. nonne ipsa veritas et gravis et recta ratio mihi obversetur? Tu. Labor eo. praesertim cum iudicia ista dialecticae nulla sint. approbas. Chrysippo aliter placet. a qua qui aberravisset. cum artificia tolli quereris a nobis. voluptas cum honestate. pertinent. 'huius modi est. hanc praescriptionem esse naturae. 143. quas putat probabiliter posse defendi. Negat enim vos Zeno. verum illud certum. quod in elementis dialectici docent. quae iam non ad multitudinem. Possum esse medius. quod facere eos etiam. quasi animum nullum habeamus. non adsentiar saepe falso. moveri? Tam moveor quam tu.Academica. animum solum complectitur. qui adestis. cum es commotus. servos. exsules. quantum ego sentio. quoniam vera a falsis nullo discrimine separantur. honestatem cum voluptate tamquam hominem cum belua copulabis? XLVI. quod cuique videatur: aliud Cyrenaicorum. quo profecto nihil est acutius. nihil politius? A Chrysippo pedem nusquam. sed in vicinitate versari. comprehensum. corpus solum tuetur. nec quicquam habeo adhuc probabilius--. eum numquam quid in vita sequeretur habiturum. amicitia. ut seditiosi tribuni solent. nisi ut opifices concitentur? qui si undique omnes convenerint. Audi contra illos. qui omne iudicium in sensibus et in rerum notitiis et in voluptate constituit.' Deinde. scientiam talem esse . Luculle. Cum autem laevam manum adverterat et illum pugnum arte vehementerque compresserat. quod tu. qui nomen honestatis a se ne intellegi quidem dicant. haec et alia innumerabilia cum audiam. 'adsensus huius modi. Quid me igitur. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 55 finem aut voluptatem aut utrumque: nam qui summum bonum dicant id esse. id honestum velimus dicere: fontem omnium bonorum in corpore esse. fixum esse vis. Luculle. eos invidiosum nomen voluptatis fugere. qui putet id cuique verum esse. Aliud iudicium Protagorae est. in invidiam et tamquam in contionem vocas? et quidem. XLVII. 141. qui inter se dissident? In hoc ipso. Sit sane ita--quamquam a Polemonis et Peripateticorum et Antiochi finibus non facile divellor. qui praeter permotiones intimas nihil putant esse iudicii: aliud Epicuri. hanc regulam. Quid ergo Academici appellamur? an abutimur gloria nominis? aut cur cogimur eos sequi. aliter Philoni. aut ipsum Aristotelem. negat Antiochus scire quicquam. facile contra vos incitabuntur. Alteram si sequare. ratum. nisi forte. qui ad honestatem prima naturae commoda adiungerent: ita tres relinquit sententias. cui si adsensus sim.' Tum cum plane compresserat pugnumque fecerat. nec multo secus eos. firmum. 142. adquiescis. Unum igitur par quod depugnet reliquum est. cum extensis digitis adversam manum ostenderat. si quid ita conexum est. Zeno. multa ruunt et maxime communitas cum hominum genere. Nihil igitur me putatis. nonne multis in rebus dissentiunt? 144. reliquae virtutes: quarum esse nulla potest.

nihil se scire. ut intellegat se opinari sciatque nihil esse quod comprehendi et percipi possit: qua re [Greek: epochên] illam omnium rerum non probans. illi alteri sententiae. in tua villa nos esse. inquam. Corssen. see Introd. artificia concidere dicebas neque mihi dabas id. but demurs to the theory that philosophy written in Latin is useless. Quam rationem maiorum etiam comprobat diligentia. sed etiam Favonius ipse insusurrat navigandi nobis. si nihil comprehendi posset. inquit.. quam quidem ille Carneadeam esse dicebat. Num minus haec invidiose dicuntur? nec tamen nimis eleganter: illa subtilius. Nuntiatum: the spelling nunciatum is a mistake. Ita sermone confecto Catulus remansit: nos ad naviculas nostras descendimus. et maxime in Tusculanis nostris. He greatly believes in philosophy. Cic. An pateretur hoc Zeuxis aut Phidias aut Polyclitus. inquam: nam ista Academiae est propria sententia. 3). quaeque iurati iudices cognovissent. satis magnam vim habere ad artis. uses the contracted forms of such subjunctives. Cic. p. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 56 dicebat. 51. ad patris revolvor sententiam. and promises an exposition of the principles of Antiochus (13. Latins may surely imitate Greek philosophers as well as Greek poets and orators. tum. Sed quo modo tu. requiremus. de obscuritate naturae deque errore tot philosophorum. 148. BOOK I.' quod inscientia multa versaretur in vita. with deserting the Old Academy for the New. A M. opinaturum sapientem existimem. ut 'arbitrari' se diceret etiam quod ipse vidisset. ***** NOTES. sententiam tuam nec eam admodum aspernor. qui testimonium diceret. si quae videbuntur. as well as the full forms. sed quid Catulus sentit? quid Hortensius? Tum Catulus: Egone? inquit. potius de dissensionibus tantis summorum virorum disseramus. 147. cuius compotem nisi sapientem esse neminem. nihil esse quod percipi possit. Saepius enim congredientes nos. cf.. but not intermediate forms like audiissemus. adsensurum autem non percepto. inquam. quod autem satis esset ipsis relinquere. Varro's house news came. lucere nescis nec tu. Varro refers to Antiochus as an authority on the other side. qui de bonis contrariisque rebus tanto opere discrepant. Sed tibi quid tandem videtur. §1. but prefers to send his friends to Greece for it. to discuss thoroughly the difference between Antiochus and Philo. Tum Lucullus: Non moleste. Sed qui sapientes sint aut fuerint ne ipsi quidem solent dicere.. quam de oculorum sensuumque reliquorum mendaciis et de sorite aut pseudomeno. Audissemus: Cic. quas plagas ipsi contra se Stoici texuerunt. Varro thinks philosophy written in Latin can serve no useful purpose. Hortensi? Tum ille ridens: Tollendum. tempus esse et quoniam satis multa dixi. quod nusquam esset. Ita tu nunc. This leads to a proposal on the part of Cic. Varro agrees. desinerent irasci: ne nobis quidem suscenserent. iacere necesse sit tot tam nobilis disciplinas. deinde ita teneri 'si sciens falleret. p. 8). quod probabile esset. Posthac tamen. Ausspr. cum in iis esset tanta sollertia? Quod si eos docuisset aliquis quam vim habere diceretur scientia. ut. vehementer adsentior. Habeo. 14). Varro and Atticus meet at Cumae (1). Summary. sed ita. again begs Varro to write on philosophy (9--12). Varro putting the request on one side charges Cic. cum haec quaeremus. ut percipi nihil putem posse. by asking Varro why he leaves this subject untouched (2. quoniam non solum nauta significat. and instancing the success of Brutus. §§1--14. est mihi perorandum. I. ea non ut esse facta. lauds this devotion. after adroitly reminding Varro that the promised dedication of the De Lingua Latina is too long delayed. defends himself. 146. Noster: our common friend. He gives reasons why he should himself make the attempt. Teneo te. Verum. Cic. Catule. uses the dramatic form of the . while he devotes himself to subjects which the Greeks have not treated (7. Hortensi. and points to the failures of the Roman Epicureans (4--6). fero nos haec contulisse. cum didicissent id tollere nos. Confestim: note how artfully Cic. qui primum iurare 'ex sui animi sententia' quemque voluerunt. turns the conversation towards philosophy. Varrone: from M. id est.Academica. 37. XLVIII. sic ego nunc tibi refero artem sine scientia esse non posse. and appeals to Philo for the statement that the New Academy is in harmony with the Old. Luculle. Optime. Varro was much more the friend of Atticus than of Cic. cum plus uno verum esse non possit. Cic. sed ut 'videri' pronuntiarentur.

often makes a speaker use iste of a person who is present. 71. M. si qui like [Greek: eitines] merely means "all who. For quod velit = quod quis velit. so Baiter. etc. p. also my note on 14. which was the vulgate reading down to Halm.Academica. ed Nobbe. ipsum. I. give antecellat.. 10. has vides autem ipse--didicisti enim eadem--non posse. De Div. on the other hand Bentley (if the amicus so often quoted in Davies' notes be really he) reads artibus for rebus below." The words satis longo intervallo simply = "after a tolerably long halt. Vides . cf. cf. cf. which only means "tolerably. loves. De Div. cf. III. Interrogatione: Faber saw this to be . I. III. si qui pertimuerunt. De Or.. 13. cf. 1. in deference to MSS. 105 §4. but cf." for a strong instance see Ad Fam. Quod ista ipsa . Amafinii aut Rabirii: cf. Atque ea: Halm brackets ea. T. the very similar passages in D. III. Cat. I. p. I." to mean "sufficiently. e. after Christ.D. 738--744. 26. (cf. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 57 dialogue in order to magnify his attachment for Varro. Similis: Halm. De Or. p. gave quia. after Davies. Cat.. quoting Ad Att. 38). and moreover nothing is more Ciceronian than the repetition of words and clauses in slightly altered forms. followed by Baiter has ars." Ea res: one of Halm's MSS. requirere: i. Ea nolui scribere.. 125. the question which follows. Such a combination of pronouns is vainly defended by Goer. cf. Christ conj. be far nearer Cicero's real writing. 9. 38. II. etc. D. Introd. bad Latin altered by Manutius. tecum. Mandare monumentis--letteris illustrare: common phrases in Cic. In manibus: so often. Though I do not presume to say that his usage did not vary. 228. however. I. 314. I.F. and M. cf. of i stems. 12. 30. of 1861. I shall write i everywhere. II. writes abesse Roma (Ad Fam. 1. requiris in 4. and not monimentis (Halm) or monementis. Ceteris: the spelling caeteris (Klotz) is absolutely wrong. Deliberatam--agitatam: Cic. Halm. Schutz. tum for eum (Baiter and Halm's ed. etc. III. is probably the right spelling.F. 4. p. who reads idque. II. 16. 5. V. Pompeius. Of course if quia be read above. §3. Definiunt .F.. Ortam a: Cic. De Or. qu. 1. II. V. for expressions like me illum ipsum (Ad Att. Quaedam institui: the De Lingua Latina. after ortus. here himself scented a miserable gloss. partiuntur: n. the repetition of pronouns (illum. 854). 325. In promptu: so II. while others wrongly press satis. T. Istum: some edd. I. always writes the prep.. Brut. Corss. V. 1.e. 8. have vides autem eadem ipse didicisti enim. Some editors stumble (Goerenz miserably) by taking intervallo of distance in space. Halm's G). Genus: regularly used by Cic.F. 22. The text is sound. 24. but Halm. Introd. have eum for enim. 11) are not in point. 69. 62) shows that it must be inserted.D. Antecedat: some MSS. The emphatic ille is often repeated by the unemphatic is.. is clearly wrong. Ecquid forte Roma novi: Roma is the ablative. makes Cic.. write i and e indiscriminately in the acc. we shall thus. Corss. understanding faciat.) To take it as nom. 4.. he must in the vast majority of instances have written i.. II. De Or. a frequent variant. but not abesse officio (De Off. qui. as usual exaggerates the knowledge possessed by the personae of the dialogue. 14. M.. 13.D. Monumentis: this. 106) etc.. II. quo. My reading is that of Dav. Dav. cf.D.. §5. I may note that the separation of satis from longo by the word eum is quite in Cicero's style (see my note on 25 quanta id magis). alters it) or the like. The reason here is partly the intense desire to flatter Varro. Goerenz's echo expels the words. on 32. 330. §2.. cf. (So Turnebus." For the clause ut mos. Ecquid ipse novi: cf. E Libone: the father-in-law of Sext. plur. I. instead of duration in time. eum must be ejected altogether. Mai. Madv. Illud . 13. enim eum.. 1. for its insertion is like Cic. followed by Baiter.T. si accusandi sunt. where Wes. Tecum simul: Halm's G om. have eum for enim (exc. I believe. after Christ. The slight variation..F. 38. and some verb like attulisset is omitted... 36). but Wesenberg (Em. Goer. Nihil enim eius modi again all MSS.D. II. didicisti: MSS. have et si quid. reads se visentum for satis eum. I. cf. si essent: the first si has really no conditional force. De Or. Idque: MSS. Mai.: very similar expressions occur in the prologue to D. eum) is quite Ciceronian. 4). except Halm's G.. Ad hunc enim ipsum: MSS. Percontari: the spelling percunctari rests on false derivation (Corss. Velit: Walker reads velis with St Jerome. see Corss. cf. Ab eius villa: the prep is absent from the MSS. Satis eum longo intervallo: so all the MSS. see Ad. cogitavi: Goer. I. but Cic. quae. 15. Yet they are thoroughly like Cic. Civ. De Off. Hic pauca primo: for the omission of locuti. 43. Cic. as opus by Quintilian to mean "department of literature.g. see Cæsar B. I. Si qui . Epistolarum. De Or. quite needlessly. I. Att XIII. II. from res to artibus is such as Cic. The MSS. who half a page back had made merry over the gloss hunters. have in the place of this quod with variants que. which should be compared with this prologue throughout.. patria (T. V. Cic.

in spite of the numerous passages produced from Cic. have quanquam which however is impossible in such a place in Cic. [Greek: aretê]. Madvig (Emendationes ad Ciceronis Libros Philosophicos. Goer. Id est often introduces in Cic. Paradoxa 2. Ad Fam. Quid. 451).. For the Epicurean ignorance of geometry see note on II.D. implies no more than the Germ.D. II.F. works. III. auch nicht. and verbs of the kind (cogitari II. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 58 right. will remove all suspicion from the text. also Gk. [Greek: poiêtikos]). and adhibenda etiam begins the apodosis. but Orelli (after Ernesti) thinking the phrase "arrogantius dictum" places quidem after accipient. Amafinius. and less accurately by Athenaeus. 39. (Em. om. om. for quoniam quibusnam of the MSS. Laert. II. Utramque vim virtutem: strange that Baiter (esp. unam for virtutem. e. ne . 123] Illi enim simpliciter: "frankly. 35.F. Adducere?: The note of interrogation is Halm's.. Cf.F. Rhetor. both which expressions will be nominatives to poterit. as Durand remarked. ne suspicari quidem without se. 72.F. 3. M. 1825. §7.. 1. is a .g. in that case there will be a strange change of subject in passing from quisquam to haec ipsa. Interrogatio is merely the conclusio or syllogism put as a series of questions. II.D. Epicurum. 140. further. 108) tacitly reads continentur without cum. I. however is not thus used in Cic. and especially. Hauniae. in M. For oratorum Pearce conj. 108) made a forced defence of quoniam. Two passages. so Orelli and Klotz. X. the same charge is brought by Aristotle against the Atomists. A. 13. scientia.e." cf. ne quidem. 68). rhetorum. Christ supposes some thing like sentire to have fallen out before nec suspicari.. I. [The technical philosophical terms contained in this section will be elucidated later. also In Pisonem 69).F. Magnum est: cf. all after quoniam will refer to ethics. thus the whole sentence. But the word as it stands has exactly the meaning these alterations are intended to secure.'s phil. 25. [Greek: dynamis]) may be called in Gk. De Fato. also the omission of sibi in Paradoxa 40. [Greek: oude]. only one parallel instance. But the genitive is merely one of definition.F. 1 Pecudis et hominis: note on II. who first so translated [Greek: atomos]. for which cf. III. V. §6. after verbs like negat. 24 and Topica. and other accusatives of pronouns are omitted before the infinitive. Bentl. Many editors from Lamb. proximus locus est rerum efficientium. So Faber.F.'s Latin agrees very closely with the Greek preserved by Diog. as Halm remarks. as marking a rapid transition from one subject to another (here from physics to ethics) like the Gk. and P. VIII. we have either ne suspicari quidem or ne intellegere quidem (cf. nos. at the end of sentences eg Verr. 46. following sive enim above.. exx. De Or. but a number of later scholars alter it. II. Verbis quoque novis: MSS. however. the noun. quid est magnum. N.. 82). I. 41. p.D. given by Halm and also Baiter. in Lat virtus.D. so far. 18. IX. Notice negat . Quam quibusnam: Durand's em.D. 73. D.. explains the difficulty of setting forth the true system of physics. id est si Democritum: for the charge see D. Ernesti ratione. needlessly. Quae cum contineantur: this reading has far the best MSS.. In Ad Fam. quidem is esp frequent with suspicari (D. cf. note on 32. was adduced (T. who supposes much more to have fallen out. 139. 58. On every ground the reading of Madv. (cf.D. Met. Ne suspicari quidem: for this MSS. (Em. quidem is post Augustan Latin. Lamb. 353).F. Further. Nec dicendi nec disserendi: Cic.Academica. a clause which intensifies and does not merely explain the first clause. which however Baiter inserts. haec ipsa: I have added quid to fill up the lacuna left by Halm. III. Quod bonum . 33. Appellat: i. the causae are the res efficientes. after Halm's note) should take Manutius' far-fetched conj. Cf.. ne suspicari quidem an opinion often denounced by Cic.. the two words even occur without any other word to separate them. give nec suspicari. Zeller. 6 (qu. also Gk. The text is quite right.. III. Si vero: this. Excursus III. without cum. 81. but it is added by a later hand in G. D. where the same opinion of Epicurus is dealt with. If quoniam is read and no break made at adducere.F. quae causae appellantur. 6. Suscipiatur labor: MSS. 14) and the usage probably is not Latin. but Madv.'s constant mode of denoting the Greek [Greek: rhêtorikê] and [Greek: dialektikê]. it must be kept. VII.D.D. argumentatione. Sive sequare . Et oratorum etiam: Man. authority. I. p. 6. 279 (qu. D. [Greek: epei]. which would then govern rerum (cf. is insupportable. T. absurdly tries to prop up the subj. IV. Ne a nobis quidem: so all the MSS. 111). R. 33. cf. or something of the kind after haec ipsa. 20).) has conclusively shown that nec for ne . but me. Cum causas rerum efficientium sustuleris: cf.. though less fully. there will be the almost impossible ellipse of ars.. V. N. Verum et simplex bonum: cf. see esp T. to Halm and Baiter read efficientis. Madv. etiam. 65. 20. 155. III. Any power or faculty (vis. 2. in which not only se. (D.F.. 111. II. 30. 17. I. that this is wrong is clear from the fact that in D.. magnum est: for the constr. I. with T. 42 which will show that interrogatiuncula and conclusiuncula are almost convertible terms. by Madv. See also M. where Cic.

120. 22. +Philosophe scribere: the MSS. and read erunt against the MSS. "to hunt the waterfalls".D. Apud Platonem: Timaeus. Ad Att. Goer. which Halm would also prefer. Mai. Brut. 2) quotes this with the reading reduxerunt for deduxerunt. See Quintil. Laelii. Sunt ista: = [Greek: esti tauta]. musicam etc. see 11.. Sueton. as did Turn.. making illa plural. Or. not as magnopere. see esp. 316. nor is [Greek: philosophos] used as an adjective much. 121.). and ex follow haurire indifferently in Cic. and is followed by Baiter. almost condemns it by his use of the Greek [Greek: philosophôs] (Ad Att. which would be written quo in the MSS. and anapaestus (T. 12. See some remarkable instances of slightly varied phrases connected by id est in D.'s rule which is to write sive--sive or si--sin. I am surprised that Halm and Baiter both follow Ernesti in his hypercritical objection to the phrase explicare Academiam. Brut. 1." which would agree with my emendation cum for quo above. and have often been edited--most recently by Riese (published by Teubner). Cat. volo.. quam obscure: at first sight an oxymoron. II. In Lael. 785.Academica. Considerable fragments of Varro's Menippean Satires remain. Quam nos . "deducimus honoris causa sed errantes reducimus humanitatis. have quantam. quanto opere. but argute need not only imply clearness. possum. 45). it means merely "acutely". There is no need therefore to read sive here. often quoted or imitated by Cic. I. which is scarcely Latin. If erunt is read. philosophice occur till very late Latin times. scribere. Nos in nostra: Augustine (De Civ. 121. but not physicam. Biogr. and such verbs when an infinitive can be readily supplied to govern it. III. and clearness of mind are bound up in this word. Mai. III. Imitati non interpretati: Cic. 17. 58.. his explanation is.) The general sense would then be "Having introduced philosophy into that kind of literature which the unlearned read.D. Menippum: a Cynic satirist. Inst. For velle see a good instance in D. I therefore hold Halm and Baiter to be wrong in bracketing the words. Erit explicanda: for the separation of these words by other words interposed. 48 where Varro's are mentioned. which is unlikely to be right. where consult Madv. 64. reads philosophiae scribere. §8. scribere may be said. +Quae quo: these words are evidently wrong. 21. would read e for a. De. Aelius Stilo or Praeconinus. malo. I." Laudationibus: [Greek: logois epitaphiois]. Quam argute. III. 62. see Dict. Halm after Faber ejects quae. (p. see Cat.F. To my mind the fault lies in the word quo. physica. L. Gramm. reading? The meaning would then be "to write for philosophers. 6. 68. all give philosophie. on the other hand cf. erit must be supplied from it to go with disserendum. musica etc. N. and others. however. Dei VI. objecting to the sound (which is indeed not like Cic. who quotes with approval Durand's remark. he is fond of placing slight variations in phrase side by side. Lamb.D. XIII. just as he uses tyrannus (De Rep. Philosophice would be a tempting alteration. 47 B. . §9. gives his opinion as to the right use to be made of Greek models. In older Greek the adverb does not appear. Laelius 20. Varro is thus made to say that he stated many things dialectically. 23. Ad Herennium IV. The one passage formerly quoted to justify the phrase philosophiam scribere is now altered in the best texts (T. which is demonstrably wrong. V.. have sint. cf. but that the word [Greek: philosophikos] is not Greek. cf. since in Cic. "vix Latina. a sarcastic passage about Epicurus in N. X. 6. I. are almost convertible. and Cic. which is harsh. to philosophy. Aelii: MSS. Klotz has philosophiam. which is taken by Baiter and by Halm. nimio opere. in order that the populace might be enticed to read. 2).g. XIII. 90. The person meant is L. Rivulos consectentur: so Wordsworth. which only requires the alteration of a single letter from the MSS. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 59 departure from Cic. ab. Constantiam: the notions of firmness. consistency. cf. 7. as Orelli gently says. but not si--sive or sive--si. nor do philosophicus.D. Some edd.F. 72. Introd. 63. I. T.D.. the phrases maximo opere. 99. The metaphor involved in fontibus--rivulos is often applied by Cic. ed. 20). the same holds good of tanto opere. where Durand's rule requires deducere. which is characteristic of Cic." I can scarcely think Halm's philosophe to be right. II. are explained as anacolutha by Madv.F. in the dative. probamus: cf. Quantum possum: some MSS.. the word occurs nowhere else. V. and the earliest systematic grammarian of Rome. uses philosophus adjectivally in T. the master of Varro. an accusative only follows nequeo. yet Cic. Lael." The words. 3. we have reducere. 86. I. D. III. I proceeded to introduce it into that which the learned read. jubeo: these words have been naturally supposed a gloss. and are connected with other instances of broken sequence. e. Dav. Si modo id consecuti sumus: cf. 57) Might we not read philosophis. for which I should prefer to read cum (=quom.. so often. De Leg.D. This and two or three other similar passages in Cic. But Cicero is nothing if not tautological. in a most important and exhaustive excursus to his D. cf. Occasum: an unusual metaphor. p. 47.F. Gellius X. Id est . Nihil enim magno opere: magno opere should be written in two words. 53. where see Tischer). Ea a: Lamb.

which has the evident conj. 20. p. Nesciunt: Halm with his one MS. 5. I. Goer. of Turnebus. or such like passages. Bentl. II. so [Greek: chronoi] is technically used for dates. causas. in which most of the subjects here mentioned were treated of.D.F. Omnium divinarum humanarumque rerum: from the frequent references of Aug. 16. T. Descriptiones temporum: lists of dates. T. of Aug. Causa: = [Greek: prophasis]. II. cf. G. I just note the em. officia. Pro Cluentio. inserts munera to keep the balance of the clauses. 171. however is quite as fond of variety as of formal accuracy. this formally accurate sequence of tenses..D. Ad Fam.. reading. II. sed ea (eam) mihi non sane probas.. p. 6. Augustine's reading publicam shows him to have been quoting from memory. some edd. I. III. I. 56. (De Civ. VI. 9. p. D. for Cicero's supposed conversion see Introd. illa antiqua (22).Academica. 27. 30.'s love for small diversities of expression. locus. 1. see note on II. give the frequent variant perculsus. cf. one treating of res humanae. Veterem illam: MSS. Relictam: Cic. 29. August. 5.. sedium. very rarely omits esse. 49. I. I. p. Si qui . De Consolatione. V. as usual. and similar uses. 3) describes Varro's "Libri Antiquitatum" (referred to in 8). and is supported by illam veterem (18). by Marcus Tullius Cicero 60 64. finds so mysterious. cf. cf. Introd. 74.. The same elaborate apologies often recur. Et verbis: Manut. nomina. Brut. to please me. Classen and Baiter now om. used of individual memory. Graeca desideres. aut: This casting about for an excuse shows how low philosophy stood in public estimation at Rome. regionum. Dei VI. Probabilem: = specious. Sine te: = [Greek: sou dicha]. This last Baiter gives. gives nescient to suit malent above. Multis locis incohasti: Varro's book "De Philosophia" had apparently not yet been written. 20. satisne probas?: So all MSS.. cf. I. locorum. genera. fragment 7. Aristum: cf. 8. Aetatem patriae etc. §13. Domesticam--bellicam: opposed like domi bellique. V. Et litteris luminis: for luminis. while Halm after Durand reads sed eam mihi non satis probas. and is followed by Baiter. Ad Att. §11. (followed by Halm and Bait. see Pro Murena. istius veteris (D. §12.) thinks iam comprises the last two syllables of Academiam. 20.F. The words often occur together and illustrate Cic. 11. if she is satisfied the philosophic world is tranquil. Implacatum et constrictum: the conjunction introduces the intenser word. 77. I. for Greece with Cicero is the supreme arbiter of performance in philosophy. reads rebus from 26.D.. is noteworthy. Fr. and that of Dav. is fond of using sedes. imitati: note the collocation.. The position of iam would be strange. 3). which Halm himself allows to be broken in two similar passages. 8). Sed da mihi nunc. Halm needlessly writes sint for MSS. but rather to render it unnecessary for Romans to have recourse to Greece for philosophy. N. the word. dependent on the accusatives. 85. though da mihi for dic mihi is certainly poetic. 483. Tu sacerdotum: after this Lamb. Aut .D. 105. sunt. Brut. IV.. here give sedium. and cf. vetus and nova can scarcely be so barely used to denote the Old and the New Academy. of Aldus the younger. .F. Attius: the old spelling Accius is wrong. which has Graeca. so [Greek: kai] in Greek. Ad Qu. except G. §10. 1. 20. quoted by Goer. The reading illam is from Madv. aut . It is not necessary to force on Cic.D.D. and II. The text as it stands is not intolerable. Thuc.. and M. Cic.. V. Further. I. in the passage which used to be compared. Nobbe. aut . Obsolescerent. Inclusa habebam: cf. in Schneidewin's Philologus XXIV. a Graecia desideres. I. Brutus: the same praise often recurs in D. the prologues to D.F. Cic. The argument for sedem is the awkwardness of making the three genitives. II. (Em. the other of res divinae (De Civ.F. Cf. and Introd. II. 115).. regio together. Eandem sententiam: cf. Dei. which Goer. Orelli) is far too strong for the passage. 8. De Leg. except G.. 17 plenam ac refertam. and the Brutus Graecia desideret so all Halm's MSS. Procuratio: for the proper meaning of procurator and procuratio see Jordan on Pro Caecina 55. Sedem: so the best MSS. approves the reading on the curious ground that Brutus was not anxious to satisfy Greek requirements. Varro's researches into the Latin tongue are meant. T. 17. cf. Halm (and after him Baiter) adopts the conj. have iam for illam. For this section throughout cf. I keep the MSS. etc. 127 exigua et minima. which is too far from the MSS. and cannot be supported by 12. Da te mihi (Manut. which is the work of a clever emendator.. hospites domum deducere. ed. is the death of Tullia. Pro Cluentio 16. which he reads. 8. De Off. it appears that the "Libri Antiquitatum" were divided into two parts. esp the exordium of N. A reviewer of Halm. Graecia desideretur. Correcta et emendata: a fine sentiment to come from a conservative like Cic. Percussus volnere: many edd. 306. The volnus. 32. See Introd.

There is an odd ellipse of laudasti in D. c. Brut.F. I. XIII. (1471). 11. Orelli quotes Ad Att. 3. than the substitution of the imp. 10. also Varro in Aug. revocari is a curious instance of oversight.F. have strangely aqua absumtam diu. Negat: MSS. I. Dicaearchi [Greek: peri psychês] utrosque. 18.D. I.. Orelli--who speaks of Goerenz's "praestantissima recensio.. and construe Philonis Antiochus together. and Zeller's Socrates and the Socratic Schools. (1471). 18. To form an opinion on this difficult question the student should read Schleiermacher's Essay on the Worth of Socrates as a Philosopher (trans. would occur elsewhere in Cic. which is strange to Goer.F. of the ed. and vice versa. 16 (cf. 19. 10.. its use in 21 makes it more probable than conferre.F. To make contra an adv. Inquit: for the late position of this word.. I.F. took it. Socrates rejected physics and made ethics supreme in philosophy (15). 404. IV. III. Summary. 1. however occurred to Cic. Renovari: the vulg. §15. Possibly the MSS. T. most MSS. so far as it relates to Socrates and Plato. have negaret. Dei. cf. The strangest ellipse with nihil ad elsewhere in Cic.D.. Plato added to and enriched the teaching of his master. VIII. while the companion adjective Antiochius is frequent. 2. as Tac. a heroic remedy. by Thirlwall). as is done by some unknown commentators who probably only exist in Goerenz's note. Klotz. Halm's V. subj. M. Antiochus' view of the history of Philosophy. a similar ellipse of bona in 19. Eng. 2. Mihi vero: the omission of inquit.g. 15--18. the imitator of Cic. involucrum.'s dialogues cf. if not familiar. . I. V. Rom. may be right. De Civ. would not be given without the name of its author. Adsidamus: some MSS. if familiar. for in his note he gave renovari. 11. by Marcus Tullius Cicero 61 D. does. I. 13.D. since Gulielmus print this without essent as a hexameter. Duas Academias: for the various modes of dividing the Academy refer to R. 37. Objections to it. etc. have sint or essent before dicta. Contra Academicos. Timaeus c. is well illustrated in M. 87.F. from him sprang two schools which abandoned the negative position of Socrates and adopted definite tenets. and were curiously answered in De Rep. involutis: physical phenomena are often spoken of in these words by Cic. Nisi molestum est: like nisi alienum putas. si videtur. I. see the passages quoted by R. 18). Madvig's Philonia is improbable from its non-appearance elsewhere. changed by Manut. this will be clear. supplying auditor. 32. It is more probable therefore that omnes was added from an involuntary desire to make up the hexameter rhythm. and cannot be justified by D. In libris: see II.. The same view is supposed to be found in Aristotle. 64. so in Ad Att. a variation on the common si placet. also Schwegler's Handbook. III. Renovare in Cic. cf. Halm inserts sententiam. Trans.D. XII. A qua absum iam diu: MSS. V. V. IV. Involutis = veiled. Ursinus rejected ab here. ex Apollodori. VIII. also Varro in Aug. quidem. 26. but the insertion or omission of ab after the passive verb depends on the degree to which natura is personified. as does the ed. cf. Dei. Sane istud: Halm istuc from G. which gives Philonem. Cic. and is inserted by Halm. It crept into the text of Goer. also Tac. 70. cf. Moral exhortation was his task (16). 23. Victoriana of 1536. Gronovius vainly tries to justify the MSS. after quamquam in oratio recta. II. N. V. and libros may be supplied from libris above. §§15--42. Rom. exc. have adsideamus. 20 Quae cum essent dicta. Nihil tamen ad bene vivendum valere: valere is absent from MSS. III. ind. the Xenophontic view of Socrates. 150. but quotes renovari as an em. which would be wrong here.Academica.F. Avocavisse philosophiam: this. and P." e. the word libros has to be supplied from the preceding letter. in conspectu consedimus (omnes): most edd." and founds his own text upon it two years after Madvig's crushing exposure in his Em. shows his feeling of the metaphor by adding quasi in II. 123. if 28 be compared with Tim. by mistake.F.. 1. 4).F. I. Hist.. cf. often means "to refresh the memory. and P. which is often caused by its affinity for quoniam. of verbs of the first conjug. 112--116 [I dissent from his view of Aristotle's evidence]. §14. for the pres.. never writes the subj. I have added ea. 25. De Div. but Cic. 81. First part of Varro's Exposition. see M. 22. 21. D. T. 39. a verse so commonplace. is wild. whose text has no independent value. 49. and often. and considitur in De Or. Secondly. which is in ed. De Civ. Nothing is commoner in the MSS.D. reading by such passages as D.D. also consedimus at the end of a clause in Brut. 88. yet remained in essential agreement with one another--the Peripatetic and the Academic (17. V. He had no fixed tenets. and Augustine. his one doctrine being that wisdom consists in a consciousness of ignorance. have contra Philonis merely. Phrases like quae cum essent dicta consedimus often occur in similar places in Cic. unless there is some conditional or potential force in the sentence. pp. From Orelli. 9. 141. as others do. II. 70. often quoted by me--not only reads revocari. But firstly. D. was the popular one in Cicero's time. and suppose it a quotation. 315. 24. A rebus .. Contra ea Philonis: MSS.

. 74.I.D. Day read philosophia in the nom. Polemo (cf. Five ancient philosophers are generally included in this supposed harmonious Academico-Peripatetic school. Omnis eius oratio tamen: notwithstanding his negative dialectic he gave positive teaching in morals. I. XIII.. Halm has tantum. In Veri (Act II. tum and tamen are often confused in MSS. I. Antiochus doubtless rested his theory almost entirely on the ethical resemblances of the two schools... in a few nouns like Persa. Quidem. but often discriptio. exc G. 1. 13) he uses the verb iudicare. tum . IX. His proofs of this new Latin may be sampled by Ac. probably from the line above. while Lamb.. reprinted in Baiter and Halm's edition. exc. tum. did not make Greek nouns in [Greek: -ês] into Latin nouns in -a." Plenum ac refertam: n. Inscr.F. conj. Plato Apol. 112.. De Civ. Nominibus: the same as vocabulis above. Ad Att. 21. as to the proper understanding of which see note on II. this appears. see Zeller's Socrates 88. (C. Cf. Duos: it is difficult to decide whether this or duo is right in Cic. Baiter dubitanter. in the Corpus vol. Lipsius keeps it and ejects philosophiae. Una et consentiens: this is an opinion of Antiochus often adopted by Cic. II. pirata. vol.. Antiochus probably made light of such dialectical controversies between the two schools as that about [Greek: ideai]. as in the passages quoted here by Manut.). V. Baiter and Halm's ed. For multiplex "many sided. 6. 55. 13 with De Div. III. has thrice discriptos or discriptum. Krische Uber Cicero's Akademika p.. V.F. 28. 3. Aristotle. as in 44.. See M.g.. II. however. would never say that philosophy became entirely dialectical in the hands of the old Academics and Peripatetics.. §18.. cf. Ad virtutis studium cohortandis: this broad assertion is distinctly untrue. transpose quidem and videtur. probably wrote. 5 De Leg. I..D. 20).. 51. the other spelling never. on T. Ab Apolline. et. II.F. Stagiritem: not Stagiritam as Lamb. two near the time of Cic. of Cic. III. Ut mihi quidem videtur: MSS. so Varro says (from Antiochus) in Aug... 21. 10. 198 and 200. does. on 11. cum. 6. Cic. tum . has some good remarks. Dei XIX. Perscripti: Cic. 43. 2). 3. for Cic. sometimes Crantor is added. 78. II. 1. duos autem: the conj. which had long ceased. 63). so Varro in Aug. which is taken direct from Antiochus. followed by Schutz. et copiosus: these characteristics are named to account for the branching off from Plato of the later schools.. Hic . 63. IV. Theophrastus. V. vocabulum to common nouns. II. tam or tum is due to Gruter. 6). Descriptio: so Halm here. the omission of que in 23. vol. Platonis ubertate: cf. secundos autem" is as acute as it is absurd." cf. Chalcedonium: not Calchedonium as Klotz.. Ad Fam.D.F. I. 1) which confines nomen to proper nouns. would let two adverbs stand together without et.. cf. also the learned note of Wesenberg. etc. gives dubitantem. Varie et copiose is also in De Or. does not observe Varro's distinction (De L. and though with pairs of nouns and adjectives. I. 11..D. omit et. [Greek: Chalkêdonion]. Gk.. hominis. as in D. IV. Omnium: Dav. like tum . nos. and edd.) I. XIII. also II. 94. which Cic. for not knowing that tum . 9. though he would not use vocabulum as Tac. Duo is in old Latin poets and Virgil. Varro. 66. "Eoque praestare ceteris" this is evidently from Plato Apol. De Or. e. tum. II. que. Varius et multiplex. Quasi heredem . 7. Why alter? Ars quaedam philosophiae: before these words all Halm's MSS. D. 62 §16. 43.. The harmony was supposed to have been first broken by Polemo's pupils. nos. Brut. Ars = [Greek: technê]. though three may (cf. hominum needlessly. L. (as above) speaks of the certa dogmata of this old school as opposed to the incertitude of the New Academy. where see Zumpt. Ac.. 3. et . p. 240. The Corp. I. soliti: cf. III. like Aristotle often speaks of Plato's dialogues as though they were authentic reports of Socratic conversations.Academica. abuses edd. in his own person. also 34. 21 A. 78. et often is left out. Tamen: for MSS. but it may be doubted whether Cic. also De Off. 571 and 1007) give duos. viz.. 125. Praestantissimos: Halm wrongly. II. with footnote. Quintilian's "illa Livii lactea ubertas. of Ciaconus "ex asse heredem. a set of definite rules. 67. The older inscr.D. for the name of a person (Annals XII. Coetus . cf. correspond in Cic. cf. which came down from antiquity. he can scarcely have been so inconsistent as the MSS. illum: for this repetition of pronouns see M. 38. 99. §17. cf.. Una omnis: Lamb. have duo. etc. Varie et copiose: MSS.'s philosophical works (1861). 65. as also in Varro (in Aug. 11. insert disserendi. G. Baiter also. Nihil adfirmet: so T. IV. IV. 24. Lael. however nearly always . Dictum: Lamb. Speusippus. speaks of this very oracle (Cato Mai. In D. make him (cf. T. I. by Marcus Tullius Cicero is in De Leg. Dubitationem: Halm with one MS. 74.. it is remarkable that in four passages where Cic. Tam. Goer.F. as above) who often spoke as though ethics were the whole of philosophy (cf. but only in duoviros. Xenocrates. reads iudicatum..

cf. and is capable in itself of producing happiness.. from whom it passed into Stoic hands and then into those of Antiochus. and speaks as though he were one of them. mental. III. also D. The [Greek: trias] in this distinct shape is foreign both to Plato and Arist. M. Summary. which form with the bodily advantages a kind of exercise-ground for virtue (21). Ponebant esse: n. 3. The bodily are described (19). on 36. The root of Plato's system is the [Greek: idea] of the Good. etc. cf. Exhibiturum: Halm inserts me before this from his one MS.D. it is possible to give an intelligent account of action and duty (23). bodily. p. happiness the acquisition of natural advantages.. also Aug. Math. IV. which is found once . that he scarcely appeals even incidentally to [Greek: physis] in his ethical works. De Civ. Pulchritudinem: Cic. cf.. as we shall see later.. II. 24. 56 (see R. II. II. however. the third division is a development from the [Greek: bios teleios] of Aristotle. 28. Quid verum . Quid me putas: i. 33. Dei XIX 3. V. 24--27. Et animo et corpore et vita: this is the [Greek: trias] or [Greek: trilogia tôn agathôn]. §19. physikê. 16. about which more in n. it often appears in inscr. 18. comparing Orator 115. 131. II. 22. Atticus affects everything Athenian. and external. was practically defunct in the time of Antiochus." meaning the Athenians.F. also quotes Plutarch Præc.F. 233. The threefold division of philosophy into [Greek: êthikê. though it was generally attributed to him in Cicero's time. is indubitable. V. esp. of the Republic. velle. tries hard to point it out in Plato. of Varro's Exposition: Antiochus' Ethics. 43. either consciously or unconsciously. pulchre. 7. in Cic. Inepte .Part II. Non sus Minervam: a Greek proverb. 8. sit in order to obviate the awkwardness of repugnet which MSS. Goodness means obedience to nature. in which virtue has chief part. Ac primum: many MSS. dialektikê]. 4. Id.. Ethica II. 35. De Or. in his German translation of the Academica. M. Laert.F.F. With this ethical standard. though Stobaeus. see D. For the omission of me. whence Klotz conj.F. though not the greatest happiness possible. and P. pulcrum. The ideal theory. Aristotle did away with what Plato would have considered most valuable in his system. Ad Fam. III. A natura petebant: how Antiochus could have found this in Plato and Aristotle is difficult to see. however. then the external. In rejecting the Idea of the Good. 26. Ac. Ratio triplex: Plato has not this division. It was probably first brought into strong prominence by the Stoics. repugnans iudicando: MSS. 7. Eth..D. have for repugnans. that he did so. 91. and Varro in Aug. congenital and acquired. Adv. The ethical standard is then succinctly stated. Dei VIII.D. On the Antiochean finis see more in note on 22. IX. Part II. which fall into two classes. 43). whom it enabled more sharply and decisively to subordinate to Ethics all else in philosophy. evidently emended here by its copyist. on 36. on 13. 63 comes closely after the pronoun. V. 34. Cf. These are of three kinds. 21 On the other hand cf. Adeptum esse omnia: put rather differently in D. 23. Notice the double translations of the Greek terms. cf. also D.F.D. In toto in partibus: the same distinction is in Stob. see M. De Civ. cf. T. Binder. G have et before quid falsum. De Div. docet: elliptic for inepte docet. The division itself cannot be traced farther back than Xenocrates and the post-Aristotelian Peripatetics. virtue being the chief of the acquired (20). also I. which belongs in this form to late Peripateticism (cf. IV. de vita et moribus for [Greek: êthikê]. occur in inscr.e. VIII. Theocr. exc. note on 7. which requires the possession of all three classes of advantages (22). and edd. to which add T. Emp. 406. Summary. but the ultimate bases of the two are quite different. On the other hand only pulcrai. 3. This is very characteristic of Cic. III.. V. then the mental. II. V. and by Diog. to whom it is assigned by Sext. Expetendarum fugiendarumque: [Greek: hairetôn kai pheuktôn]. exc. cf. 150. V. I. This agrees better with D.'s letters to him the words "tui cives. 195).F. 34--36. Polit. cf.. 6. 68. so by Varro himself (from Antiochus) in Aug. while so far is Aristotle from founding his system on the abstract [Greek: physis]. The abstract conception of nature in relation to ethics is first strongly apparent in Polemo.F. so that the similarity between the two schools seemed much greater than it was. Orator 160. XIX. often occur. II. primam. Nostra atque nostros: few of the editors have understood this. etc. G. puts the spelling pulcher beyond a doubt. 3. 4. The Platonic and Aristotelian ethics have indeed an external resemblance. Opusc. 30. which should be closely compared with our passage. §§19--23. see n. 6. of Varro's Exposition: Antiochus' Ethics. quisquis docet. 71. Varro seems to merge the two last divisions into one in Aug. 23.D. VII. Krische wishes to read consequens for consentiens. Corporis alia: for ellipse of bona. V.

8) For valetudinem viris pulchritudinem. Faber quotes Galen De Decr.F.Part II. which has appellantur. non exprimit. cf.F.D. Of the things enumerated in Stob. c. as frequently. Pliny. II. et Plat. 38 the [Greek: dianoêtikai] are called non voluntariae. Magna Mor. 13. I. V. De Or. R. In naturam et mores: for in ea quae natura et moribus fiunt. omit et between cernitur and in. for the Stoics. hominibus.F. 3. and P." See also De Off. Stob. The repetitions hominem.F. p. 66. 35. the [Greek: telos] of the Peripatetics is stated to be [Greek: to kat' aretên zên en tois peri sôma kai tois exôthen agathois]. 25..D. 58. I. 13. VIII. De Leg. D. (who adds [Greek: anchinoia sophia phronêsis]). III. I. and Madvig's note on D. the opposite change in II. they must belong only to the late Stoicised Peripateticism of which we find so much in Stobaeus. however. tenendum. VI. Eth. 38. but tuendum corresponds best with the division of [Greek: agatha] into [Greek: poiêtika] and [Greek: phylaktika]. which is out of place here.D. 2. and Orelli stumble . 40. which. the subj. has pressionem. Davies' anonymous friend) proposed mundana from T. V. One old ed. These last insertions are not necessary. memoria of D. 64 (Corp. who severs [Greek: aretai] into [Greek: dianoêtikai] and [Greek: êthikai] (Nic. esp.. c. For Cic. De Off. and T. I. III. II. The phrases are sometimes said to be Peripatetic. the [Greek: êthikai] voluntariae. 276. [Greek: philia. 8.D. he and Quintilian often so use exprimere. [Greek: hê aretê teleiotês esti tês hekastou physeos]. II. mnêmê] of Arist. is intensely Stoic. Una res optima: the supremacy of virtue is also asserted by Varro in Aug. and N.. while [Greek: ploutos archê eutychia eugeneia dynasteia] would be included in cetera. the third class in 19. 392. 5). Zeller. is frequent at an early time. 36.F. 3. T. cf. Partim ratione formabant: the relation which reason bears to virtue is set forth in Nic. IV. V. Panegyric. Progressio: this. 41.F. 88. sq. 185. as may be seen from Topica 80. no 1019). 3. expressionem. 3. and the docilitas. III. I. which will show the meaning to be the distinct marking of each sound. Nam virtus: most MSS. 2. Zeller 293--296. The same distinction is drawn in Aug. like the whole of the sentence in which it stands. humani. cf. is strange. §21. cf.C. prokoptein eis aretên]. Virtutis usum: so the Stoics speak of their [Greek: adiaphora] as the practising ground for virtue (D. though not itself Ciceronian. §22. Hipp.. 133. c. The division is practically Aristotle's.D. Qui tum appellarentur: MSS. Tuendum: most MSS. 38.F. V. In the case of pulcher the false derivation from [Greek: polychroos] may have aided the corruption. In quibus: i. c. and although not strictly contained within the summum bonum are necessary to enrich it and preserve it. recalls presse loqui. 6. also D. 6. III. bene currere in Aug. denote the [Greek: exôthen] or [Greek: ektos agatha]. 133. societate: all this is strongly Stoic. which will disprove Klotz's remark "imprimit lingua voces. XIX. §20. p. Summary.e. Quasi consuetudinem: the quasi marks a translation from the Greek. 1). For the former cf. 6. For the last. 7 ([Greek: koinê philanthrôpia]).D. For the word pertinere see M. Celeritatem ad discendum et memoriam: cf. A similar inaccuracy of expression is found in II. On the tendency to aspirate even native Latin words see Boscher in Curtius' Studien II. De Leg. c. in moribus. For the Stoic [Greek: prokorê. 64. here probably of [Greek: ethismos] (Nic. cf. Ingeniis: rejected by many (so Halm). Inscr. II. II. though also attributed to the Peripatetics by Stob. Perfectio naturae: cf. for the latter De Or. and was felt to be so by the writer of Halm's G. virtutis usum in Aug.F. V. 42. I. Erat: note the change from oratio obliqua to recta. D. 8. II. V. V. II. In Stob. XIX.. 36 (in sensibus est sua cuiusque virtus). II.F. Stoics 258. the [Greek: hygieia ischys kallos] of Stob. Celeritatem: so [Greek: podôkeia] in Stob. 13. Similarly in modern times J. cf.D. if so. III. has humana societas in Aug.F. humana are striking. dum..D. and cf. also D. 6. Plerique: Antiochus believes it also Academic. but cf. 36. Varro. 23. Scaliger derived it from [Greek: poly cheir] (Curtius' Grundz ed. 145. Claritatem in voce: cf. M. All the late schools held that ethics formed the sole ultimate aim of philosophy. Hominem . Sensus integros [Greek: euaisthêsia] in Stob. 1. 22. of Varro's Exposition: Antiochus' Ethics. Bentley (i. cf. More Stoic still is the definition of virtue as the perfection of the reason. doubtless the humanitarianism of the Stoics readily united with the [Greek: physei anthrôpos politikon zôon] theory of Aristotle. 64. Halm's G which has in before animi and also before corporis. c. philoi] would belong to the quaedam of Cicero. II. Eth. here quibusdam quae etc. have iam. II. In D. 5. 50). 22. 1. 8. also T.e. 6. III. causa certis personis locis temporibus actionibus negotiis cernitur aut in omnibus aut in plerisque.. and animis below and in N. I. Sepulchrum. Eth. IV. etc. Videbatur: Goer. has expressit explanavitque verba. Animi bonis et corporis cernitur et in quibusdam: MSS. 66. the [Greek: eumatheia. 108. 54. 7. Eth. 149. however. 26. Cetera autem: what are these cetera? They form portion of the [Greek: ektos agatha]. Impressionem: al. XIX. V. exc. XIX.

which the student of Cic. 7. water. 3. (cf. complains (p. II. cut away the ground from action and duty. At all events. 27. it is important to observe. is of course Aristotelian and . whose scepticism. III. fire. the usual translation. like hicque.. sicque. [Greek: ta pleista kai kyriôtata]. When force impresses form on the formless matter. Antiochus' Physics. II. prima constitutio naturae in D. 65 over this. 1. IV. as will be seen from Augustine XIX. 15. 6. would be un-Ciceronian.. see Madv. §24. De Civ.F. The ablative is always conditioned by some verb. Here it is [Greek: ousia] in the broadest sense.F. Dei XIX. II. according to the dogmatists. adeptum esse. Reperiebatur: for change of constr. Even the inexplicabilis perversitas of which Madv. Voluptatibus: a side blow at the Epicureans. their [Greek: prôta kata physin] were not [Greek: haireta].F. earth are primary. Wisdom. This Reason has various names--Soul of the Universe. This sentence is covertly aimed at the New Academics. Earum rerum: Halm thinks something like appetitio has fallen out. IV. 21). D. is quite enough for both clauses. demonstrates each branch of the [Greek: trilogia] to be [Greek: kath' hauto haireton]. Reason permeates the universe and makes it eternal. As the Stoic finis was [Greek: aretê] only. Varro's report (Aug. V. which is in II. for [Greek: ta prôta tê physei] is one of Goerenz's numerous forgeries. the two first having an active. Part III of Varro's Exposition. [Greek: haireta]. prima illa naturae propter se ipsa existimat expetenda so Stob.'s philosophy ought to know by heart.. 6. Aug. "it was their dogma. Sensit: much misunderstood by edd.) could not stand alone. For the various modes of denoting the [Greek: prôta kata physin] in Latin see Madvig's Fourth Excursus to the D. IV.D. Officii ipsius initium: [Greek: tou kathêkontos archên]. which are never actually found apart. 26 Nec tamen beatissimam: the question whether [Greek: aretê] was [Greek: autarkes pros eudaimonian] was one of the most important to the late Greek philosophy. chap XI. 37.F. have in natura. here = iudicavit not animadvertit cf." so often. 3. though they are thought of as separate. 7. The phrase is Antiochean. also praescriberet above.g. Fortune are only different titles for the same thing (28. cf. Recti honestique: these words are redolent of the Stoa. that alone to them was [Greek: haireton]. passim. Of course haecque. II. but as a translation of [Greek: epieikeia]. Ea sunt maxima: so Stob. D. included even virtus among the prima naturae. cf. Summary. see II. it becomes a formed entity ([Greek: poion ti] or quale)--(24). Antiochus' prima naturae were [Greek: haireta] to him. Mind. the active and passive agencies in the universe. outside which no matter exists. 140.. §§24--29. 3) coincides with Cic. Antiochus' Physics. on 33. a similar use of it is found in D. For the Stoic [Greek: prôta kata physin] see Zeller. As to Antiochus. all that exists. cf. 32. will show that Cic. A little reflection will show that in no other way could Antiochus have maintained the practical identity of the Stoic and Peripatetic views of the finis. Quae essent prima natura: MSS.F. XIX. 29). 19.F. which is applied to all things contained within the summum bonum. 6. 24. but he does not sufficiently recognise the fact that Cicero has perfectly correctly reported Antiochus. [Greek: praxeôs]. The phrase prima natura (abl. haecque. the two last a passive function. cf. Aut omnia aut maxima: so frequently in Cic. matter and space are infinitely subdivisible (27). D. Aequitas: not in the Roman legal sense. so Stob. 24. That this is historically absurd Madvig shows in his Excursus. These formed entities are either primary or secondary. above. who. II. [Greek: edokei]. Ipsa per sese expetenda: Gk. cf. Underlying all formed entities is the formless matter. A comparison of this statement of the ethical finis with that in 19 and the passages quoted in my note there. III. 67. Fate. Varro in Aug. drew little distinction between the Stoic [Greek: ta prôta kata physin] and the Peripatetic [Greek: trilogia]. not perceiving that it has the strong meaning of the Gr. In res duas: the distinction between Force and Matter. has to serve as a translation both of [Greek: physis] and [Greek: ousia]. 8. Natura: this word. §23.D. All that is consists of force and matter.'s in every particular. Providence. Aristotle added a fifth (26). Stob. Forma see n. Agendi aliquid: Gk.. consult M. 821) is traceable to Antiochus. (G) gives praescriptione. Force or form acts on the formless matter and so produces the ordered universe. I regret that my space does not allow me to pursue this difficult subject farther.F. e. 6. susceptio however. Air.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Eaeque: so Halm for MSS. Descriptione naturae: Halm with one MS. M. Adipisci: cf.F. haeque.

Nova . cf. The meaning is this. Plato Tim. a Gk. Igitur picks up the broken thread of the exposition. R. II. The [Greek: ideai] for instance. III. 125 tam sit mirabilis. often give. Lucretius I. For the duae res. Lael. it ought to be used of Force only. De Coelo. passing into actual [Greek: tode ti]. and P. the MSS.Part III of Varro's Exposition. and P. it is more difficult to see why it should be introduced here.. §26. pp 99--105.) could have so stumbled over quandam and quasi used in this fashion. now naturalised. Acad. R. cf. Corss. Principes . with the footnotes. III. cf. also D. touto]. Quanto id magis: Cic. 273 sq. It was both . The diphthong bars the old derivations from secare. which compels him to render simple Greek terms by laboured periphrases. ethicam. Suis utuntur: so D. Cic. that nothing can exist except in space (alicubi). A figurative description of the process is given in Timaeus. 66 Platonic. D. Handbook. The clearest view of Aristotle's doctrine is to be got from Schwegler. however. which may either denote the [Greek: tode ti] as [Greek: poion]. Nihil enim est quod non alicubi esse cogatur: the meaning of this is clear. huic se praebens: an attempt to translate [Greek: to poioun] and [Greek: to paschon] of the Theaetetus. 5 (qu. 28. where necessitas is assigned as one cause of it (159) just as here. the meaning is clearly given by the next clause.F. Qualitas is here wrongly used for quale. §25. and P.. or the Force which makes it [Greek: poion].. D. Both words (which are joined below) simply mark the unfamiliarity of the Latin word in its philosophical use. 53 quam id recte. IV.F. is hampered by the patrii sermonis egestas. 96--103. though to Plato in the highest sense existent.F. III. on metaphor. 1. 5 is very similar. a [Greek: tode ti] as Aristotle calls it. and P. takes it. 325.g. D. 16. Antiochus' Physics. The distinction puzzled Plutarch (quoted in R. Phys. Passive matter [Greek: hylê] is only potentially [Greek: tode ti]. but are simply specimens of words once foreign. [Greek: peri kenou kai topou kai chôras]. I. Aristotle also recognised much as existent which did not exist in space. which doctrine is quite Aristotelian. and frequently. cf. ch. 377. (Cf.. III.. that Force and Matter cannot actually exist apart.F. etc. eaque. [Greek: phamen anankaion einai pou to hon hapan en tini topô]. where it is called [Greek: allokoton onoma]. a passage in other respects exceedingly like this. Cic. and of Matter ([Greek: hylê]) with logical differentia ([Greek: diaphora]). 270--274).F. see Zeller. given above. The words have no philosophical significance here. In utroque: for in eo quod ex utroque (sc. also Arist. 5. Id quod efficit is not distinct from. I. III. by just one small word. 289). 50 A. has efficere and pati. and P. Bene facis: passim in comedy. II. Phys. (Aristotle explicitly says this.'s words make it clear that these nouns ought to be treated as Latin first declension nouns. Efficiens . For ancient theories about space the student must be referred to the histories of philosophy. and sequi. not of the product of Force and Matter. but only in the compound of the two...F. as contrasted with materia. in the Greek [Greek: hylê] the strangeness had had time to wear off. ex his ortae: the Greek terms are [Greek: hapla] and [Greek: syntheta]. for this read carefully Zeller. 153 sq. passive matter when worked upon by an active generative form results in an aliquid. which is technically used as early as Isocrates. as in Phys. III. XVIII. Cic. Materiam quandam: it is extraordinary how edd. id quod efficitur to materia. The Greeks themselves sometimes confuse [Greek: poiotês] and [Greek: poion]. the formed entity. accus. but equivalent to vis. 2 (R. (esp Goer.. unformed matter. 49 E. Corpus et quasi qualitatem: note that corpus is formed. when affected by the form. from the words with which they are syntactically connected. the confusion is aided by the ambiguity of the phrase [Greek: to poion] in Greek. in Tim. 9. Non est vulgi verbum: it first appears in Theaet. also De Or.. 182 A. Metaph H. 4. De Or. 4). perhaps translates here from Tim. should be consulted for the important coincidence of Force with logical genus ([Greek: eidos]). do not exist in space. hence Arist. whence Cic. 135 sq. 18. Halm for MSS. facienda: = imponenda in D. 149. R. 5 quanto id nobis magis est concedendum qui ea nunc primum audemus attingere. so 35. Rhetoricam: Hülsemann conj. materiam quandam: Cic.. III. see Arist. I. [Greek: tode. the sentence does not represent the belief of Aristotle and Plato. 382). Antiochus however probably apprehended the distinction as modified by the Stoics. Ea quae: so Gruter. 294). See the reff. A fair summary is given by Stob. 440 facere and fungi. calls one of his categories [Greek: to poion] and [Greek: poiotês] indifferently For the Stoic view of [Greek: poiotês]. [Greek: to othen] and [Greek: to dechomenon] of the Timaeus (50 D). Unless est be taken of merely phenomenal existence (the only existence the Stoics and Antiochus would allow). Saecula: the spelling secula is wrong. In eo quod efficeret . 50 D.. Transferenda: transferre = [Greek: metapherein]. III. is exceedingly fond of separating tam quam ita tantus quantus. 1. 68 tam in praecipitem. with footnotes. which however is not Latin. vi et materia) fit. viz. Non modo rerum sed verborum: cf. See Cic. 52 B. e. in en.

II. Accipiendi . 20 ne illud quidem physici credere esse minimum. Plato uses also [Greek: monoeidês] for unius modi..D.F. of Walker. also quintum genus below. and elsewhere. Sine ulla specie: species here = forma above. 26. 51 A ([Greek: eidos pandeches]). The ambiguity is sometimes avoided by the immediate succession of a neuter relative pronoun. with footnotes. Halm after Dav. quoddam: so MSS. and often. N. Expressa: chiselled as by a sculptor (cf. The Greeks would call the four elements [Greek: stoicheia] but not [Greek: archai]. VII. 153. . It is notable that Xenocrates. is wrong in making initia and elementa here and in 39 ([Greek: archai] and [Greek: stoicheia]) convertible terms. 1 [Greek: ouk estin elachiston megethos]. each therefore is to him both active and passive. 378). moisture to water. but does not lie close enough to our author for comment. cold. well and imitated it here.. The student should at least learn Plato's opinions from Tim. one active and one passive. denied [Greek: pan megethos diaireton einai kai meros echein] (R. I.. a transl. The student should read Grote's comments on the passages referred to. Rebatur: an old poetical word revived by Cic. Cf. the two latter as passive.--"alles und jedes. of [Greek: polyeideis]. viz. Quae intervalla . The Stoics assign only one property to each element. Math. ch. and Topica. I. §27. Tim. 377. The word is applied to the four elements themselves. 3. I. disproves. Tim. 19. 297. materiam: the [Greek: hypokeimenê hylê] of Aristotle.. 26). from which our word subject-matter is descended. cf. 245). 35 A sq. just as there is no matter atom... D. Emp. I. Bentl. dryness. referred to in Introd. 77). heat. which term would be reserved for the primary Matter and Force. Cf. patiendi: [Greek: dechesthai] often comes in Plat. 16.D. See Lucr. Zeller. qualitates) is the needless em. quae. p. moulded as by a potter (see II. N. and P.. 118. Cic. Physica.. the Stoics and Antiochus closely followed Aristotle. Dissimile ." For the word omnia cf. The word [Greek: pandeches] is also quoted from Okellus in Stob. to each of the four elements. Tim.. which Orelli gives. Quae tota omnia: these words have given rise to needless doubts. of Plat. Tim. Omnibus without rebus is rare. Saint Hilaire's explanation of the Physica. starting with the four necessary properties of matter. 11--13. 187 sq. possint: there is no ultimate space atom. 288. 214. and P. Tim. Tim. Aristotle denied the existence of void either within or without the universe. followed by Halm. and Plat. Infinite secari: through the authority of Aristotle. cf. is imperishable (cf. 238 A. the word was given by Turnebus for MSS. Eoque interire: so MSS. Inst. Aër et ignis: this is Stoic but not Aristotelian. Aristot. R. Arist. and P. II. 52 A.. which is opposed to [Greek: haplous] in Plat. Prima sunt: primae (sc.. I cannot here point out the difference between Plato's [Greek: hylê] and that of Aristotle. whose ideas may be gathered from R.. efficta. and cast aside many refinements of Aristotle which will be found in R. Formae = genera. and especially from M. It will be there seen that Cic. 370 sq.. Tota is feminine sing. 18. is postponed to 39. VIII. Dav. De Or. the [Greek: eidos] or [Greek: morphê] of Arist.Part III of Varro's Exposition.. where see Munro. Quasi multiformes: evidently a trans. 67 Aristotelian and Stoic. entitled [Greek: peri archôn kai stoicheiôn kai tou pantos]. I... 187 sq. the Stoics did the exact opposite affirming its existence without. expressa effigies De Off. cf. 215--264. Halm suspect them. Phys. The history of ancient opinion on this subject is important. The Stoics (Zeller. has said loosely of the materia what he ought to have said of the qualia. Binder is certainly wrong in taking tota and omnia both as neut. 35 A. and P. "which matter throughout its whole extent can suffer all changes. [Greek: phthoran ou prosdechomenon]). 3. and P. whether Platonic or Aristotelian. Non in nihilum: this is aimed at the Atomists. The doctrine of the text follows at once. Antiochus' Physics. Phaedr. Faber was right in supposing that Cic. Intervallis moveri: this is the theory of motion without void which Lucr. heat to fire. A good view of the history of the doctrine of the four elements may be gained from the section of Stob. 69). 20. I. 1). [Greek: eidê]. the doctrine of the infinite subdivisibility of matter had become so thoroughly the orthodox one that the Atom was scouted as a silly absurdity. Subiectam . one would expect quiddam." Cic. Cf. while denying its existence without (Stob. III. eaque. as in 21 in quibusdam. also Sext. cf. who maintained that infinite subdivision logically led to the passing of things into nothing and their reparation out of nothing again. 9. Quintil. 50 B ([Greek: dechetai gar êi ta panta]). effecta. 297 sq. dryness to earth. with footnotes). 155.. pp. and denying it within the universe (Zeller 186. Chrysippus followed Aristotle very closely (R. Or. tripping over the old [Greek: antiphasis] of the One and the Many. moisture. marks the two former as active. III. Adv. I. As regards space. materiam totam ipsam in 28. He then assigns two of these properties. So Matter is called an [Greek: ekmageion] in Plat. Of course the [Greek: prote hylê]. Quintum genus: the note on this.) followed partly Heraclitus. Strato allowed its possibility within. VII. cold to air (cf. knew the Tim.

D. that to the Stoics the universe was itself sentient. Universe. 31 In qua ratio perfecta insit: this is thorough going Stoicism. 20. II." Ultro citroque is an odd expression to apply to universal Force. Stob. 9. (1471) has ultro in utroque. Nihil aliter possit: on posse for posse fieri see M. I. of [Greek: aisthêtê ousia] = substance which can affect the senses. are interchangeable terms with the Stoics. fragm. 75. I. This identification of Fate with Fortune (which sadly puzzles Faber and excites his wrath) seems to have first been brought prominently forward by Heraclitus. 125. 127. Laert. 115. according to his different attributes. 68 §28. ch. 58. Antiochus' Physics. I. Reason. totam commutari above). Soul.D. Ultro citroque: this is the common reading.D. in which latter passage the Stoic opinion is severely criticised. which is coherent and continuous.D. N. Laert..D. (Halm included) eject in.F. N. have ultro introque.D. This is merely the World God apprehended as regulating the orderly sequence of cause upon cause." For the in cf. also in N. II. VII. Sempiterna: Aristotle held this: see II. 28. whence ed. 30. Cic. and P.D. and Zeller as before). 55. passim. Stob. cf. II. is kept. 5. I. Laert. 6.D. II. N. Pope "lives through all life. I. 149. See Zeller 145--150 By an inevitable inconsistency. Ignorationemque causarum: the same . ekpiptein hypo tinos]. Nihil enim valentius: this is an argument often urged. II.D. as here (cf. Zeller 137. 87. It should not be forgotten. All pervading Air-Current. which is [Greek: eirmos aitiôn]. simply. 118.) all come ultimately from Stoic sources. all that is expressed is human inability to see this orderly sequence. II.D. A quo intereat: interire here replaces the passive of perdere cf. Nearly all these names occur in N. R. 121. 23. Teneantur: for contineantur. N. I. and P. 378. Sapientiam: cf. 22.D. and that ultro is a dittographia from utro. (at the end of Bait. II. II. De Div. VII. all from Stoic sources. I. Universal Substance. translate "since force has this motion and is ever thus on the move. It is perfectly sound if natura be taken as [Greek: ousia] = existence substance. I see no reason for suspecting inter. The use of versetur is also strange. II. as Halm does. since he is beyond the reach of harm (Diog. in omni natura necesse est absolvi aliquid. I. if we may trust Stob. since Dav. Zeller 159) Some Stoics however denied the [Greek: ekpyrôsis]. II.e. and Ac. R. Fate. God. For the Pantheistic idea cf. Effectum esse mundum: Halm adds unum from his favourite MS. II. II. also a similar use ib. 36 with III. 116. Reason.D. Necessitatem: [Greek: anankên]. Cohaerente et continuata: the Stoics made the universe much more of a unity than any other school.D. When the World God is called Fortune. 31 (quid potest esse mundo valentius?). in omni natura will form an exact contrast. (G). 33). VII. If in utroque be read above. 386. Procurantem . E quibus in omni natura: most edd. The partes mundi are spoken of in most of the passages just quoted. cf. as some edd. Boethus quoted in Zeller 159. however. 1. II.D. 21. Natura sentiente: a clumsy trans. Quam vim animum: there is no need to read animam. I. 77--80.Part III of Varro's Exposition. The meaning would be "since force plays this part in the compound. the names God. Fire. quae pertinent ad homines: the World God is perfectly beneficent. 1) regarded the destruction as merely an absorption into the Universal World God. [Greek: katênankasmenon]. 22. 3. §29. Diog. charges Aristotle with the same inconsistency. 48. [Greek: anastênai. would have qualified it with a quasi. II. Stob. etc. where the same definition is ascribed to Anaxagoras--see also Topica. VII. even if they be got at second hand through Antiochus. as in N. N. who will recreate the world out of himself.. 80. 147. Zeller 167 sq. 58--66). was the reading. Quasi prudentium quandam: the Greek [Greek: pronoia] is translated both by prudentia and providentia in the same passage. 29 with II. Cic. I think that in utroque. Inter quasi fatalem: a trans. causarum series sempiterna (De Fato 20.D. 7. II. and Halm's ed. N. De Leg. 141. See Zeller. II. do. 86. 30 remarks that Plato in his Timaeus had already made the mundus a God. 47. The same expression is in N. also in N. For the sense of Cleanthes' hymn to Zeus (i. The meaning is "out of which qualia. Fortune. 32.D. N. I. the world was formed. 23. MSS. substance as a whole being opposed to the individual quale. the Stoic World-God). see Ac. 42. 35. cf. 33. extends through all extent". Indeed if it is kept I suggest quasi for cum sic. 119 and N. 120. II. IV. The whole of this section is undilutedly Stoic." utroque being as in 24 for eo quod ex utroque fit. 22. the expressions here and the striking parallels in N. N. 138. The Stoics while believing that our world would be destroyed by fire (Diog. 15. Deum: Cic. 160 (where there is a quaint jest on the subject). themselves existing in (being co-extensive with) universal substance (cf. 119. Rom.D. also Ac. while believing that Reason is the Universe. [Greek: oude ti gignetai ergon epi chthoni sou dicha daimon]. [Greek: Tuchê] therefore is defined as [Greek: aitia adêlos anthrôpinôi logismôi] (Stob. Diog. in N. Providence. Matter. If the vulg. Ether. 34) In a curious passage (N. of the Gk. II. 75. they sometimes speak of it as being in the Universe. 84. Cf. 19. VI. II. one can only marvel how Antiochus contrived to fit it all in with the known opinions of old Academics and Peripatetics. De Div. The Stoics give their World God.D. but I doubt its correctness.

II. of Varro's Exposition: Antiochus' Ethics. given above. and next. In addition to studying the reff. Aut ita mobiles. Knowledge based only on sense was therefore mere opinion (31). they did not make the senses the criterion of truth. 9. also August. which Halm seems to approve.. III. etc. for Antiochus in reconciling his own dialectics with Plato's must have been driven to desperate shifts. Contra Academicos I. Both theories were practically as dead in his time as those of Thales or Anaxagoras. cf. cf.: Antiochus would probably defend his agreement with Plato by asserting that though sense is naturally dull. I believe that we have a mixture here of Antiochus' real view with Cicero's reminiscences of the Theaetetus and of Xenocrates. Saint Hilaire's explanation. 49. reason may sift out the certain from the uncertain. writes esse rerum. so that there is no possibility of avoiding it in reading. Part iv. as we shall see in the Lucullus. 8--9 for [Greek: anankê]. which so often occurs there and in the Sophistes. Cicero's very knowledge of Plato has. De Or. quod aut ita essent. [Greek: estêkos]..: there is more than one difficulty here. cf. so 21. 41 sensu comprehensum. §30. In the Theaetetus. and also used verbal explanations. §31. is a wanton corruption of the text. it stands in glaring contradiction to his own rules about admitting metre in prose.: this strongly reminds one of the Theaetetus. Real knowledge only came through the reasonings of the mind. but to say first that the school (illi. the student might with advantage read Aristotle's Physica II. cf. etc. 160 D sq. in 33. Math. cf. thus giving an almost perfect iambic. Emp. 7 ex ea materia quae individua est et unius modi ([Greek: aei kata tauta echousês] cf. cf.. c. Ne idem: Manut. cf.. percipi. also T. seeing that all parts were in a continuous flux. or so changing and fleeting that no part of their being remained constant or even the same. Illi [Greek: idean]. he really divided sensations into true and false. quod perceptio sit mentis non sensuum. In these two processes consisted their dialectic. as we said. I. but the mind. and Ac. quae essent aut ita: Halm by following his pet MS. Quae erat: the Platonic [Greek: ên]. Christ's conj.. see below. We may reflect. Quamquam oriretur: the sentence is inexact. eidem. sic tractabatur ab utrisque) which included Aristotle held the doctrine of [Greek: ideai]. Iudicium: the constant translation of [Greek: kritêrion]. 22 quaerendi ac disserendi. Sensus omnis hebetes: this stands in contradiction to the whole Antiochean view as given in II. esp. Antiochus' Physics. that Aristotle crushed the same doctrine. which is diametrically opposed to that of the Stoics. probably led him to intensify what inconsistency there was in Antiochus. 28 A. I. II. is to be found in Timaeus p.D. however. 35 A thus translated by Cic. 47. [Greek: ta hypopiptonta tê aisthêsei]. for the views of Aristotle about [Greek: tychê] and [Greek: to automaton]. etc. with M. to which they added persuasive rhetoric (32). 249--59. from which they drew proofs. that the difference between Plato's [Greek: ideai] and Aristotle's [Greek: ta kathalou] would naturally seem microscopic to Antiochus. Heraclitus' theory of flux is carried to such an extent as to ..Part III of Varro's Exposition. For constans cf. The senses they thought heavy and clogged and unable to gain knowledge of such things as were either too small to come into the domain of sense. 48. Adv. 4--6. without regard to the meaning of Cic. [Greek: to kata tauta echon]) et sui simile. 129. Grote's Plato. Subiectae sensibus: cf.F. ch. §§30--32. however II. a word foreign to the older philosophy. 19 sensibus quorum ita clara et certa iudicia sunt. D. = was. not the criterion of truth. Orator 194 sq. Summary. 12--64.. 58 id solum esse quod semper tale sit quale sit. esp.. also ch. because it alone saw the permanently real and true (30). 74 and Sext. Plato's doctrine of [Greek: anankê]. Although the old Academics and Peripatetics based knowledge on the senses. I venture to say that no real parallel can be found to this in Cic. The words iam a Platone ita nom seem to exclude Plato from the supposed old Academico-Peripatetic school. Res eas . II. II. thus making Antiochus assert that no true information can be got from sensation.. which is the mind itself. Tim. 69 words in De Div. The confusion must not be laid at Cicero's door. it is knowledge which takes its rise in the senses. 182 sq. Mentem volebant rerum esse iudicem: Halm with his pet MS. 1. who would have glided over Plato's opinions with a much more cautious step. quam [Greek: idean] appellat ille. VIII. nos speciem. for MSS. 101 neget rem ullam percipi posse sensibus. Solam censebant . however. 30 and n. tale quale esset: probably from Plato's Tim. whereas. Nec percipere: for this see Lucullus passim. In ratione et disserendo: an instance of Cicero's fondness for tautology. also I. He reads res ullas . has greatly increased the difficulty of the passage. appears very absurd. 119 (just like ratione percipi 91). hence they defined everything about which they argued. strongly stopped off before and after. III. This may be an oversight.

264). III. 35. oratoria being put for oratoris. though each would put a separate meaning on the word notio. 28).g. the title of their books on the subject preserved by Diog. Specimens of Stoic etymology are given in N. cf. Laberentur et fluerent: cf. since it implies a permanent subject. 62 in enodandis nominibus quod miserandum sit laboratis). R. when it became distinctive of the Stoic school. and I conclude this wearisome note. in numerous passages (e. 265.'s favourite double genitive (T. II. For this cf. the word notatio is used for the whole science of etymology. 74) describes verba or nomina as rerum notae. and not for particular derivations. 35). I. Itaque tradebatur: so Halm improves on Madvig's ita for in qua of the MSS. [Greek: legô noun archên epistêmês]. V. 264). 27. [Greek: Epistêmê] in Plato is of the [Greek: ideai] only. and P.F. pronoun. 33 (R. of which [Greek: dialektikê] is really one subdivision with the Stoics and Antiochus. (cf. with moderns too). Varro translated [Greek: etymologia] by originatio (Quintil. Definitiones rerum: these must be carefully distinguished fiom definitiones nominum. as in Orator 3. while Goerenz's resort to partem rerum opinabilem is simply silly. §32. Oratoria: Halm brackets this word.. and P. is generally "[Greek: peri tôn etymologikôn]" The systematic pursuit of etymology was not earlier than Chrysippus. and P. VII. 265. Post. Cic. Davies therefore ought not to have placed it before ducibus. III. too distinguishes between the [Greek: doxaston] and the [Greek: epistêton]. notationibus for notas ducibus. and Plato also incidentally adopts it. though Zeno and Cleanthes had given the first impulse (N. pp. Quasi ex altera parte: a trans. does often use the neut. so it may speciously be said to belong to the old Academico-Peripatetic school. Notionibus: so one MS. Opinabilem: [Greek: doxastên]. note b. and the ancient texts about Heraclitus. esp. Aristotle had already laid down rules for this rhetorical use of etymology. of Aristotle's [Greek: antistrophos] in the beginning of the Rhetoric. Its importance to Plato may be seen from the Politicus and Sophistes. which does not necessitate definition. requires no qualification. while Cic. 37. Antiochus' Physics. wrote haec. see the distinction drawn after Aristotle in R. about Heraclitus. whose notes will make the subject as clear as it can be made to any one who has not a knowledge of the whole of Aristotle's philosophy. e. Laert. D. ([Greek: Etymôs] means "etymologically" in the De Mundo. and P. 271. Orelli's reference to 30 pars for an antecedent to qua (in ea parte in qua) is violent. of [Greek: symbolon]. Berkley's nodis for notis has no support. 39). hoion rheumata kineisthai ta panta]. Post. The word is foreign to the Classic Greek Prose. III. II. for motionibus which the rest have. whereas the subject is changing from moment to moment. which are scattered thickly over the Theaet. in quo. as are [Greek: etymos] and all its derivatives. [Greek: rhêtorikê] which is mentioned in the next sentence being the other. The construction is simply a variation of Cic. see a good instance in T. 6. the phrases [Greek: rhoê. A closer examination of authorities would have led Halm to retract his bad em. the rerum nota (Greek [Greek: symbolon]) being the name so explained (Top. so opinabile = [Greek: doxaston] in Cic.D. Continenter: [Greek: ounechôs]. I. to Aristotle from the passages quoted in R. The term was largely used by Xenocrates (R. 70. 33 (qu. The definitio rei really involves the whole of philosophy with Plato and Aristotle (one might almost add. I. which is Stoic. I. strong as the metaphor is.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Post argumentis et quasi rerum notis ducibus: the use of etymology in rhetoric in order to prove something about the thing denoted by the word is well illustrated in Topica 10. III.D. Ad persuadendum: [Greek: to . cf. see Zeller 69. Verborum explicatio: this is quite a different thing from those definitiones nominum just referred to. I. Orationis ratione conclusae: speech drawn up in a syllogistic form which becomes oratio perpetua under the influence of [Greek: rhêtorikê]. also a very similar passage in Orator 10. and ridiculed in N.g Analyt. the expression therefore ought to be [Greek: tous eme]. The quasi marks rerum nota as an unfamiliar trans. IV. conj. etc. Manut.D. however a close parallel in Brut. Simplicius quoted in Grote's Plato. Notio is Cicero's regular translation for [Greek: ennoia]. while in Aristotle it is [Greek: ton katholou]. 70 destroy the self-identity of things. Arist. which word. which cannot be defended. panta rhei. The word [Greek: etymologia] is itself not frequent in the older Stoics.D. 63). [Greek: etymologian]: this is almost entirely Stoic. (enodatio nominum in N. who use rather [Greek: onomatôn orthotês] (Diog. Tim ch. even the word [Greek: eme] is stated to be an absurdity. cf. This statement might have been made both by Aristotle and Plato. I have sometimes thought that Cic. 62 is quite different).D. [Greek: en metabolê gar synechei ta onta]. huic below).F. In this rhetorical sense Cic. 243--247). inquam (cf. Cic. D. Dialecticae: as [Greek: logikê] had not been Latinised. Anal. p. One more remark. rejects the translation veriloquium of [Greek: etymologia] and adopts notatio. but not quite thus. 8--10. 261 oratorio ornamenta dicendi. which however is not Aristotle's). 83). and P..D. it is derivation. is obliged to use this word to denote [Greek: logikê].

II. Suavis: his constant epithet. Rashness in giving assent to phenomena. and considered not the practice but the mere possession of virtue to be the important thing. §33. All emotion he regarded as unnatural and immoral (38. which begins one of Propertius' elegies. on account of the omission of igitur after Aristoteles. XIX.F. Speusippus. the strong statement of Varro in Aug. he was called so from his style (cf. Orat. 58. The em. 161. 210 for a full examination of the relation in which Plato's [Greek: ideai] stand to his notion of the deity. Ignorance (41). commutatio in 42. and P. Atticus of course. some were in accordance with nature. pithanon] is with Arist.D. 12 sq. if otherwise. 25. 9. dissupationes. 1. 37). Goer. 32 and here. thus defined. III. reading and supply pars. needs support. T. feebly replies that the eulogy is meant for Antiochus. Polemo. Inquit: sc. prima. inserts igitur. Antiochus' Physics. 23. and all other defects in the application to them of the reason he thought could not coexist with virtue and perfect wisdom (42). 6. Quint.D. 118 for MSS. some at discord with nature. comparing formulam in 17. 38. and would allow the name good to nothing else (35). All other things he divided into three classes. Theophrastus weakened the power of virtue (33). Zeno maintained that nothing but virtue could influence happiness. Labefactavit. 38. in Halm. He made all virtue reside in the reason. Diligenter . Immutationes: so Dav. adopts. see Gellius qu. Em. Aristoteles: after this the copyist of Halm's G. 95 suggests beatitas and beatitudo but does not elsewhere employ them. ought to begin here. Summary. 4 quotes his definition of the [Greek: agathon]. for disputationes. N. to the third no value whatever--mere verbal alterations on the old scheme (36. 134 Cic. readings in 6. V. X. pupils of Polemo. Brut. in passing which the will was entirely free (40). The statement in the text is not quite true for Diog. See other em. There is no reason to suppose that he departed very widely from the Aristotelian ethics. approved by Madv. For suavis of style cf. while he would not allow the existence of anything incorporeal (39). an impulse from without. and all ancient authorities the one aim of [Greek: rhêtorikê]. and a succeeding judgment of the mind. although the possession could not but lead to the practice (38). but if chapter IX.D. In II. and some were neutral. while Stob... 121. 19. loquendi nitor ille divinus. so much admired by his reviewer in Schneidewin's Philologus. as usual. which it certainly does not receive from the one passage Halm quotes. and evidently on his own conjecture. he regarded as morally neither right nor wrong but as the sole ultimate basis of truth. as Halm supposes. Arist. supposes Varro's speech to begin here. 83). IV. which H. To the first class he assigned a positive value. 71 §§33--42. Goer. Sensations (visa) he divided into the true and the untrue. Crantor faithfully kept the old tradition. is rendered almost certain by mutavit in 40. cf. 1 nulla est causa philosophandi nisi finis boni. Et recte: for the et cf. Strato: see II. To the objection that Varro (who in 8 says nihil enim meorum magno opere miror) would not eulogise himself quite so unblushingly. In physics he discarded the fifth element. Part v. 39). Em. and called them preferred to the second a negative value and called them rejected. His power of supplying is unlimited. . In dialectic he analysed sensation into two parts. Haec erat illis forma: so Madv. whom Varro is copying. V. and De Leg. Auctoritas: "system". I. to which Zeno and Arcesilas. and believed fire to be the universal substance. Divinum: see R. V. we have here a Stoic view of him transmitted through Antiochus. His real name was not Theophrastus. R. if the examination gone through by the mind proved irrefragably the truth of a sensation he called it Knowledge. T. I.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Halm's odd em. et merito. he thought there was an appropriate action (officium) and an inappropriate. Perception. There is a curious similarity between the difficulties involved in the MSS. were both disloyal (34). 59 preserves the titles of at least seven ethical works. 207. to which add Ac. speaks very differently of him. 119 who remarks that the phrase disputationes philosophiae would not be Latin. that Antiochus still continued to include Aristotle in the supposed old Academico-Peripatetic school can only be explained by the fact that he considered ethical resemblances as of supreme importance. crushed the [Greek: ideai] of Plato. 85. alone. Crates.F. and P. De Or. Cic. which concerned things preferred and things rejected (37). of Varro's exposition: the departures from the old Academico-Peripatetic school. Negavit: for his various offences see D. Strato abandoned ethics for physics. Though the terms right action and sin belong only to virtue and vice. Xenocrates.. 327. also D. Varro's resumption of his exposition is certainly abrupt. proposes to keep the MSS. I. a reader would not be much incommoded. 15. Beate vivere: the only translation of [Greek: eudaimonian]. §34. 120. Between the particular tenet here mentioned and that of Antiochus in 22 the difference is merely verbal. V. Goer. III..

72 tuebantur: far from true as it stands. §37. and Zeller for himself. Secundum naturam .. 52. 27 nervos virtutis elidere. para physin]. Diog. for Polemo was merely one of Zeno's many teachers (Diog. III. §36. appears at first sight to have made the [Greek: apoproêgmena] a subdivision of the [Greek: lêpta] (sumenda).F. [Greek: symphoitôntes para Polemôni ephilo timêthêsan].D. 33. Dissereret: was a deep reasoner. 50 feels the need of a word to express [Greek: apaxia] (negative value). e. cf. began with the intention to speak of the sumenda only and then rapidly extended his thought so as to embrace the whole class of [Greek: adiaphora]. 3). grege.. must be rejected. The word media is the Gk. XV. nor is there anywhere in the numerous passages where he touches on the theory any trace of the same error. This view of Madvig's is strongly opposed to the fact that Cic. which edd. Halm ought not to have doubted the soundness of the text. Polemonem . Aestimatione: [Greek: axia]. III. at all among the teachers of Arcesilas. Cetera: Stoic [Greek: adiaphora]. The very expression occurs Ad Fam. 135 reads elegere for elidere.g.F. the words refer not to the emotional. the heroic remedy of Dav. numerabat: I see no reason for placing this sentence after the words quae minoris below (with Christ) or for suspecting its genuineness (with Halm). Bentl. also T. quae vel ita appellemus. II. Praep. [Greek: proêgmena] id est producta nominentur. 73. Lamb. with Madv. 19. I admit. I do not believe that Cic. II. Laert. Peracute moveretur: Bentl. Lael. [Greek: kata physin. and P. [Greek: mesa]. Dates are against the theory. that there is no reason for suspecting the text to be corrupt.) for the sequence is not uncommon in Cic. cf.) Ponebat esse: cf. (The remainder has its own difficulties. IV. (In both these passages Madv. 2. Nor can anything be said for Goerenz's plan. Cf. to have had that intention. Anteiret aetate: Arcesilas was born about 315.. On the other hand. 4.Part III of Varro's Exposition. M. quae: MSS. Polemo was an inchoate Stoic. Em. who reads media in the place of sumenda. which it would be absurd to attempt to convey in these notes. which he accordingly dealt with in the latter part of the same sentence and in the succeeding sentence. V. and P.F. I can only treat such points as are involved in the special difficulties of the Academica. I set out the difficulties thus: Cic.. see Zeller 500. definiret. in 36 had explained with perfect correctness the Stoic theory of the [Greek: adiaphora]. while he is not mentioned by Diog. as to think even for a moment that the [Greek: apoproêgmena] formed a branch of the [Greek: lêpta]. 50). Liv. The Stoics loudly protested against their being called either bona or mala. and this question was one of the great battle grounds of the later Greek philosophy. but to actions.. 8. Congregati: "all in the Academic fold. Dav.F. 37.. 34. Zeno about 350. 131. 90 be pressed. inciderit: same metaphor in Philipp.F. and R. Assuming a general acquaintance with Stoic ethics. XII. 69." cf. vel promota et remota. the two being utterly different. [Greek: lêpta]. Notice inciderit but poneret. contraria: Gr.) Cic. II. 18. ut ita dicam. §35. the sumenda are made to . 21. could so utterly misunderstand one of the cardinal and best known doctrines of Stoicism. 83 stirpis aegritudinis elidere. quae secundum locum obtinent. My explanation is that Cic. missing the meaning conj. therefore is chargeable not with ignorance of Stoicism but with careless writing. though the dates are uncertain. here as in D. There is no royal road to the knowledge. D. To cope thoroughly with the extraordinary difficulties of this section the student must read the whole of the chapters on Stoic ethics in Zeller and Ritter and Preller. which I defer for the present... Ev. quaeque. used to take for quaecunque. partiretur. So if his words in D. Plato uses [Greek: neura ektemnein] metaphorically. (D.. which word however is not usually applied to things. If this language be closely pressed. Ac. but to the intellectual side of Zeno's nature. (Madv. on II. A striking parallel occurs in D.F. see other close parallels in n.F. The fact is that we have a mere theory. Sumenda: Gk. Solum et unum bonum: for the Stoic ethics the student must in general consult R. III. Contraque contraria: Cic. Omnia. III. 5.. D. the [Greek: apoproêgmena] are made of a subdivision of the [Greek: proêgmena]. There is no need to alter (as Manut. Numenius in Euseb. Of Crates and Crantor little is known. in his note on that passage coins the word inaestimatio. V. VII. the presence or absence of which cannot affect happiness. in nostro. III. this with definiret above well illustrates his licence in emendations. Nervos . which accounts for the split of Stoicism from Academicism by the rivalry of two fellow pupils. Antiochus' Physics. His ipsis . though no sensible reader would suppose Cic. Zeno et Arcesilas: scarcely true.D... Goerenz's statement "negari omnino nequit hac vi saepius pronomen illud reperiri" with Madvig's utter refutation in the sixth Excursus to his D. I cannot believe that he is right). who distorts the Stoic philosophy in order to save Cicero's consistency. Cf. therefore. positive value. XIV.F.

having stolen the clothes of the Stoics. 6). who.D. yet Diog." Even the Greeks fall victims to the task of expressing [Greek: apaxia]. eject. II. Now I contend that Cicero's words minoris aestimanda bear quite as strong a negative meaning as the phrase of Sextus. passim). Stobaeus. the description of Aristotle's finis in D. 16 appeterent includes fugerent. and P. V. D. not different degrees of [Greek: axia] (positive value). 43 and M. adjectives. ibid. He may fairly claim to have applied to his words the rule "re intellecta in verborum usu faciles esse debemus" (D. since only the virtutes natura perfectae. [Greek: ta mê hikanên axian echonta]. There is quite as good ground for accusing Sextus and Stobaeus of misunderstanding the Stoics as there is for accusing Cicero. Virtutis usum: cf. III. to de epipeithes logôi]). proceeded to prove that they had never properly belonged to the Stoics at all. the former being made to govern. or (as the case might be) by habit. In this sense virtue is not a [Greek: hexis]. Math. Supposing that by ex iis Cic. 47. a difficulty I have already observed on 36. "but spoke of certain excellences as perfected by the reason. when it became disordered there was vice or emotion. of the [Greek: adiaphora]. So Plato. [Greek: aretês de kai kakias ouden metaxy]. the writer's thoughts having drifted on rapidly to the vices which are opposite to these virtues. frequently repeats this assertion of Antiochus. the latter to obey (cf. §38. Zeno however asserted the nature of man to be one and indivisible and to consist solely of Reason. II. there was virtue. while the virtutes more perfectae are Aristotle's [Greek: êthikai aretai]. 19. Antiochus' Physics.. Inter recte factum atque peccatum: Stob. Virtue also became for him one and indivisible (Zeller 248. 197 B.F. II. 73 include both producta and reducta. since Lamb. or participles. Diog. about which he had intended to talk when he began the sentence. which have regard to divisions of men. 5. 6. speaks II. 388--394. in D. added in oblivion of the et. 86 the opposite of beata vita is abruptly introduced. 6. So D. T. With two nouns.F. Hypot. the intellectual and the emotional. so far as the Latin language allowed. II. as in Plato and Aristotle.. however. the [Greek: dianoêtikai aretai] of Arist. not of actions. a use which must be clearly distinguished from the later sense found in the Ethics of Arist. Emp. and P. This passage requires careful construing: after quasdam virtutes not the whole phrase in ratione esse dicerent must be repeated but dicerent merely. 6. 64. VII. I regret that my space forbids me to attempt the elucidation of them. 62--64) again speaks of them as [Greek: ta mê hikanên echonta axian] (Pyrrhon. Theaetet. some have [Greek: axia] while others have [Greek: apaxia]. after rightly defining [Greek: apoproêgmena] as [Greek: ta hikanên apaxian echonta] (Adv.F. Cf. to express the Stoic doctrine that. 393. in a passage closely resembling ours makes [Greek: elattôn axia] equivalent to [Greek: pollê apaxia] (II. II. uses the word [Greek: hexis]. Laert. distinctly contradicts Cic. II.F. III. sometimes speaks of virtue loosely as a [Greek: .F. this oblivion is barely possible. Sed quasdam virtutes: see 20.. Trans. and ibid. have et before servata. II. to which he gave the name [Greek: hêgemonikon] (Zeller 203 sq.. Non tam rebus quam vocabulis: Cic. 88 frui dolore must be construed together. 52). on the passages of the D. according to the Stoics. [Greek: to men hôs logon echon. 268--272). but when the conjunctions go with separate clauses it is possible. quoted in this note. I believe that pluris aestimanda and minoris aestimanda simply indicate the [Greek: axia] and [Greek: apaxia] of the Greek.F. and not sumendis.). which all edd. Ipsum habitum: the mere possession. and Stob. the que is always an afterthought. peccatum = [Greek: hamartêma]. 5. 73 pudor modestia pudicitia are said coerceri. III. When the [Greek: hêgemonikon] was in a perfect state. but a civil war carried on in one and the same country. Diog. see R. but a [Greek: diathesis] (Stob. 6. 127. I now pass on to a second class of difficulties. adverbs. 191) words which usually have an opposite meaning. Where et and que correspond in Cic. means mediis. e.F. while Sext." Ea genera virtutum: both Plato and Arist. officium = [Greek: kathêkon] (cf. There are difficulties connected with the terms [Greek: hikanê axia] and [Greek: hikanê apaxia] which are not satisfactorily treated in the ordinary sources of information. The student will find valuable aid in the notes of Madv. 89. 6 of [Greek: ta metaxy aretês kai kakias].g. VII. R. and Arist. (2) on the strong negative meaning which minor bears in Latin.D.) Recte factum = [Greek: katorthôma]. means "but if not. (This does not contradict his words a little earlier. sin minus in Cic. Servata praetermissaque: MSS. That minor aestimatio should mean [Greek: apaxia] need not surprise us when we reflect (1) on the excessive difficulty there was in expressing this [Greek: apaxia] or negative value in Latin. The battle between virtue and vice therefore did not resemble a war between two separate powers. XI. III. roughly divided the nature of man into two parts. Zeller 238--248.Part III of Varro's Exposition. I therefore conclude that Cicero has striven. could be said to belong to the reason.

no one could correct it. of Stoic [Greek: pathesi]. in the absence of Aristotle's works. How natural then. 22. Arist. it follows that the Stoic sapiens must be emotionless (Zeller 228 sq. while perturbatio is used. Rep. 11. D. Intemperantiam: the same in T.D. 22. to the T. T. T. 18. 82. in the same sense as here. De Anima II. [Greek: akolasia]. 53 sq. Somn. 436. 324 of the same volume in which Halm's text of the Acad. treat largely of the Stoic view of emotions. 2. in at least five other passages of the T. I. 3. 33..D. to de tôn phaulôn. Tim. He had spoken of the soul as [Greek: aeikinêtos] in passages which were well known to Cic. III. Now the only thing with Aristotle which is [Greek: aeikinêtos] in eternal perfect circular motion (for to the ancients circular motion is alone perfect and eternal). 8. which is clear from Stob. Perturbationem: I am surprised that Halm after the fine note of Wesenberg. that the Peripatetics of the time were in the habit of deriving the mind from [Greek: aithêr]. VII. 74 hexis]. and IV. V. Cic. while the works of Aristotle had fallen into a strange oblivion. It had destroyed the belief in immaterial existence The notion that [Greek: nous] or [Greek: psychê] came from [Greek: aithêr] was also fostered by the language of Plato. 93. Further. between [Greek: aithêr] and [Greek: pyr]. III. IV. Cic. i. There is exactly the same transition in T. I. has an important note. He always guards himself from assigning a material origin to mind. 65. 299). IV. IV. see Zeller 189. Em. as though to their natural home. R. I. 59. but he fails to recognise the essential fact. The error once made. Plato had often spoken of souls at death flying away to the outer circle of the universe.D. is certainly wrong in stating that Arist.. Ipsam naturam: [Greek: pyr] is [Greek: kat' exochên stoicheion] (Stob. 61. from it comes air. II. just where Arist. a conj. 41. in Somnium Scipionis (De Rep.e. printed on p. nor Antiochus. IV. looked on as divine (cf. derived mind from this fifth element. 15.D. and it placed [Greek: nous en aitheri] (see Plutarch. to de tôn phaulôn tais kakiais]. 57. 43. R. between animal heat and other heat. Nec virtutem cuiquam adesse . [Greek: hêdonê] or laetitia for instance is [Greek: alogos eparsis].Part III of Varro's Exposition. and T. and P. the former being [Greek: analogon tô tôn astrôn stoicheiô] (De Gen.D. 12. Perturbationem means emotion in the abstract. 43 with the Somn. Opinionisque iudicio suscipi: all emotion arose. rejects in D. 41. 14. repeats the error in T. which is the very name that Aristotle gives to the fifth element ([Greek: sôma aitherion] in the De Coelo). qu. always uses efferri laetitia but ferri libidine. of Walker. 24. Diog. 16). For iudicio cf. from . cf. III. Aliaque in parte: so Plato. and perfect reason being virtue (20). III. though the finest and highest of material substances. IV. 441. 35. Quintam naturam: the [Greek: pemptê ousia] or [Greek: pempton sôma] of Aristotle. 35. 23. placed his [Greek: pempton sôma] Any one who will compare T. and is the first thing generated from the [Greek: apoios hylê]. except one of degree. kai to men tôn spoudaiôn dia pantos tou biou chrêsthai tais aretais.) Wesenberg. would naturally link the mind in its origin with the stars which both Plato and Arist. and P. cf. III. 111. Instances of each in Zeller 233. Zeller 249. and had taken great hold on his mind One from the Phaedrus 245 C is translated twice. in a curious and recondite fashion. I.F. Books III. which did not happen till too late. for there were a hundred influences at work to confirm it. Cic. 8. particular emotions. Voluit carere sapientem: emotion being a disturbance of equilibrium in the reason. should read the plural perturbationes. Stoicism had at the time succeeded in powerfully influencing every other sect. but will mention a few. 375). §39. qu.. 36). etc. whom Madv. to conclude that the [Greek: aeikinêtos psychê] of Plato came from the [Greek: aeikinêtos aithêr] of Aristotle! Arist. 92. All emotions are reasonless. is the [Greek: aithêr] or [Greek: pempton sôma]. from a false judgment about some external object. Scip. 6. had guarded himself by saying that the soul as an [Greek: archê kinêseôs] must be [Greek: akinêtos]. p.). from air water. 15) These considerations will be enough to show that neither Cic. Again. [Greek: ta pathê kriseis einai]. 41.D. How the moral freedom of the will was reconciled with the general Stoic fatalism we are not told. considers responsible for the error.D. but Cic. and with which they revolve. Stob. Scipionis will see what power this had over Cicero. Ignem: the Stoics made no difference. 20.F. had no means of knowing this (see Stob. uteretur: cf. 190. 10. which Cic. 65. I cannot here give an exhaustive account of these influences. I. 6 [Greek: duo genê tôn anthrôpôn einai to men tôn spoudaiôn. 3.D. Gk. 69 C.). An. cf. said the Stoics. that fiery external rim of the universe of which the stars are mere nodes. see Zeller 232. D. I. VII.D. Voluntarias: the whole aim of the Stoic theory of the emotions was to bring them under the predominance of the will. perturbationes below.F. and of giving this out to be Aristotle's opinion. Antiochus' Physics. VI. says Cic. II. (T. I. Sensus: we seem here to have a remnant of the distinction drawn by Arist. 24.D. could have escaped it in any way not superhuman except by the recovery of Aristotle's lost works. with footnotes). appears. who proves its existence in De Coelo I. Quasi mortis: a trans. On this last passage Madv..

etc. Iunctos: how can anything be a compound of one thing? The notion that iunctos could mean aptos (R. punctos. n. ch. Nova enim dicebat: an admission not often made by Cic. 366) is untenable. For the expression cf. its whole truth lies in its own [Greek: enargeia]. 21. (Sextus Adv. Sensum: so Stob. [Greek: Phantasian]: a full and clear account of Stoic theories of sensation is given by Zeller. agrees with Madv. 43 (a very important passage). The Stoics probably misunderstood him. Declarationem: [Greek: enargeian]. pp. 25 applies the term [Greek: aisthêsis] to the [Greek: phantasia]. Schuppe.. which comprises within it all powers of sensation and thought. Expers corporis: for Stoic materialism see Zeller. The Greeks. D. 43). Tironum causa I note that the Stoics sometimes speak of the assent of the mind as involuntary. De Gen. Superiores: merely the supposed old Academico-Peripatetic school. and P. pessime I should say. Adv. Math. however. as we shall see in the Lucullus. Hoc verbum quidem hoc quidem probably ought to be read. 145.. Epicurean.Part III of Varro's Exposition. 38).e. Xenocrates: see II. and Academic. Comprehendibile: this form has better MSS. §41. 34 sq. Math. §40. 120 sq. Visis non omnibus: while Epicurus defended the truth of all sensations. Scientiam: the word [Greek: epistêmê] is used in two ways by the Stoics. which requires no corroboration from without. 44 e duplici genere voluptatis coniunctus Ernesti em. 9. qu. 75 water earth (Diog. that Zeno merely renamed old doctrines (cf. VIII. and P. Laert. see Zeller. Zeller 88. 43). The explanation of a Greek term causes a very similar anacoluthon in De Off. These notions came from Heraclitus who was a great hero of the Stoics (Zeller ch. II. 188 [Greek: technên de einai systêma ek katalêpseôn syngegymnasmenôn]). but. De Fato. De Anacoluthis Ciceronianis p. VII.F. 127--129. I. R. qu. I. Math. Thus every [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia]. Hyp. 37. not the individual perception. while the [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia] compels assent (see II. on II. Cic. Adsensionem = [Greek: synkatathesin]. The Stoics simply followed out boldly that line of thought. who usually contends. instead of carrying with it its own evidence. by R. The actual sensation is involuntary ([Greek: akousion] Sext. the sensation and the thing from which it proceeds are often confused. (1) to denote a number of coordinated or systematised perceptions ([Greek: katalêpseis] or [Greek: katalêptikai phantasiai]) sometimes also called [Greek: technê] (cf. and P. however. 17. I. ametaptôtoi hypo logou]. with Antiochus. 21. I entirely agree with Madv. II. 253. Dav.. Pyrrh. R. Comprehensionem: this word properly denotes the process of perception in the abstract. writes inquam.F. however. see Sext. 365 sq. 397). 134. equivalent to giving up all that was valuable in the Stoic theory." and Grote's Plato I. with notes) For his view of sensation and thought see Sextus Adv. Antiochus' Physics. Sext. 42. a term alike Stoic. 153. VII. Quae manu prehenderentur: see II. . Ut convelli ratione non posset: here is a trace of later Stoicism. (first Excursus to his D. Later Stoics. authority than the vulg comprehensibile. see 18. IV. III. Emp. Goerenz's note on these words is worth reading as a philological curiosity Nos vero. cf. themselves use [Greek: katalêpsis] for [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia] very often. and P. cf. VIII. V. 135. 41. This was. In nobis positam: the usual expression for freedom of the will. 7. [Greek: Katalêpton]: strictly the thing which emits the visum is said to be [Greek: katalêpton]. 124. the unhealthy may refuse assent. Plato in the Timaeus fosters the same notion. inquit: Halm with Manut. et Corr. and may be seen in several passages quoted by Zeller 80. 33. Nos appellemus licet: the same turn of expression occurs D. from it comes the [Greek: hêgemonikon] of man. "Heraclitus. had to pass through the fire of sceptical criticism before it could be believed. from Arist. which use is copied by Cic. ingeniose ille quidem says Halm. 136. Posse esse non corpus: there is no ultimate difference between Force and Matter in the Stoic scheme. VII. by R. 25. VII. meant to say iunctos e quadam impulsione et ex assensu animorum. as Zeller remarks. and P. see n. allowed that some of them were not impervious to logical tests. The necessity of a connection between the perceiving mind and the things perceived followed from old physical principles such as that of Democritus ([Greek: ou gar enchôrein ta hetera kai diapheronta paschein hyp' allêlôn]. Ipsum per se: i. though in a different way. Adv. Math. Zeno abandoned the weak positions to the sceptic and retired to the inner citadel of the [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia]. pp. 137) The fire is [Greek: logikon]. Why change? Atticus answers as in 14. but having to explain [Greek: phantasia] was obliged to break off and resume at sed ad haec. only true of the healthy reason.) that we have here an anacoluthon. 74. III. cunctos.F. To Zeno all [Greek: katalêptikai phantasiai] were [Greek: asphaleis. Earum rerum: only this class of sensations gives correct information of the things lying behind. This is. the same is affirmed loosely of all the old [Greek: physikoi]. qu. (2) to denote a single perception. and by Empedocles in his lines [Greek: gaiai men gaian opôpamen]. 116).

reading defensible. 18. III. I know not why. Verum esse [autem] arbitror: in deference to Halm I bracket autem. and P. Non quod omnia: the meaning is that the reason must generalize on separate sensations and combine them before we can know thoroughly any one thing. Tunc: rare before a consonant. putandam.? In profundo: Dem. and maintained that since arguments of equal strength could be urged in favour of the truth or falsehood of phenomena. the proper course to take was to suspend judgment entirely (45). parts of the verb dicere are however often thus . R. §43. which however has repeatedly taken place during Varro's exposition. 32. 368. Quasi: this points out normam as a trans.. VII. III. and not as meaning but. 73. (1) the change from oratio obliqua to recta. 74. idem pluribus verbis exponere. I. II. More information on the subject-matter of this section will be found in my notes on the first part of the Lucullus. There is no MSS.F. is thinking of the famous lines of Empedocles [Greek: steinopoi men gar palamai k. Obscuritate: a side-blow at declaratio 41. veluti amantes Socratem. a hundred other passages might be quoted from Cic. Democritus (460--357 B. for Empedocles on II. entetypômenê] occur constantly. This will appear if the whole sentence be read uno haustu. 151 speaks of [Greek: epistêmên kai doxan kai tên en methopiai toutôn katalêpsin]. Institutis: [Greek: nomô] of Democritus. (See Grote's Essay on the Origin of Knowledge. In his constitit: cf. for Anaxagoras on II.. are the bases of all proof. Faber supplies it. Aliena: cf. Notiones rerum: Stoic [Greek: ennoiai].F. which seems to me sound enough. Nihil cognosci. T. to those [Greek: archai tês apodeixeôs] of Arist. but I still think the MSS. et breviter. [Greek: amathia] is very seldom talked of there. 14. §§43--END. variant. which.. 26. cf. None of these were sceptics. 15 equidem soleo etiam quod uno Graeci . Halm give aperirentur. Opinio: [Greek: doxa]. if verum be taken as the neut. or [Greek: gnômôn] or [Greek: kanôn]. [Greek: en bythô]. nihil sciri: the verbs are all equivalent. not to [Greek: ennoiai]. II. and P. but generally in relation to [Greek: phantasiai]. seem to have thought that esse was needed to go with putandam. see Munro on Lucr. but to the obscurity of phenomena. 367.F. Halm. 134.D.. 15. see 37. now re-published in Grote's Aristotle. II. Et iam ante Socratem: MSS. His views were really in harmony with those of Plato. enapomemagmenê.. Antiochus' Physics. 59. III.] R.. Omnis paene veteres: the statement is audaciously inexact. see R." etc. Dav. 74. 49.C. Breviter: MSS. Deinceps omnia: [Greek: panta ephexês] there is no need to read denique for deinceps as Bentl. see note on II. 15. Soli: Halm. The common trans. 130. The firma adsensia is opposed to imbecilla 41.. (2) the phrase reperire viam.t.F. Non pertinacia aut studio vincendi: for these words see n. induced from experience and incapable of proof. see II. Dixerunt: Halm brackets this because of dixerunt above. 52. Is there an allusion in curricula to Lucretius' lampada vitai tradunt. Ac. Translate: "Yet I think the truth to be . Circumfusa tenebris: an allusion to the [Greek: skotiê gnôsis] of Democr. This is a total mistake. nihil penipi. of some Gk. I. cf. "well" is weak. [Greek: kritêrion] perhaps. Empedocles' [Greek: pauron de zôês abiou meros]. 78 seems to take the same view. II. D. 74. The edd. 107. that it is to be thought. as Cic. §44. 30. without esse II. and for which see M. cf.) Zeno's [Greek: ennoiai] were all this and more. first printed in Bain's Mental and Moral Science. 76. which had led the ancients to despair of knowledge (44). Inter scientiam: so Sextus Adv.l. for Democritus see my note on II. A virtute sapientiaque removebat: cf. but I have not come across anything exactly like this in the Greek. and is criticised II. 50.) was really very little older than Socrates (468--399) who died nearly sixty years before him.D. Math. and were carried on by Carneades (46). alienatos D. Non principia solum: there seems to be a ref. Brevia curricula vitae: cf. Arcesilas' philosophy was due to no mere passion for victory in argument. 76 §42. Angustos sensus: Cic. Zeller 81--84. 14. sapiens numquam fallitur in iudicando D. Goerenz's note here is an extraordinary display of ignorance. Imprimerentur: the terms [Greek: enapesphragismenê. Summary. word. 52. "abyss" would suit better. see Zeller and cf. adj. Inscientiam: ex qua exsisteret: I know nothing like this in the Stoic texts. aiebas removendum II. Reperiuntur: two things vex the edd. on II. Confessionem ignorationis: see 16.. Cicero's historical justification of the New Academy. Zeller p. 73. Socrates was far from being a sceptic. etc. suspects this and Christ gives solum ei. The sincerity of Arcesilas is defended also in II. and P. III. For the adsensio of the sapiens see Zeller 87. ait .Part III of Varro's Exposition. IV. 72. He even abandoned the one tenet held by Socrates to be certain.. supposes. Quodque natura: the omission of eam is strange.

5. 50. Hyp. norma a mason's square. N. Platonem: to his works both dogmatists and sceptics appealed. turpius: for these expressions. had already mentioned 43. verbis discrepare with the other schools. I. and probably repeated in this fragment. 60. and excludes even the possibility of the probabile which Carneades put forward. p. The word concinere occurs D. This fragm. De Off.Part III of Varro's Exposition. seems to have imitated that part of Cicero's exposition to which this fragment belongs. Stobaeus II. IV. for MSS. ouch hôs tines oiontai polydoxos]. 15.. Temeritatem . Hyp. for the expression Euseb. and Dict. On this I have nothing to remark. Acad. 3. Antiochus' Physics. hoi de apo êtikon. This passage has the same aim as the last and closely resembles Lucullus 105. 45. 77 §45. repeated by Cic. [Greek: epechein]. 55. 69.F. III. the word being probably . Evidently this fragment belongs to that historical justification of the New Academy with which I suppose Cicero to have concluded the first book. Krische remarks that Augustine. Sextus Adv. Paria momenta: this is undiluted scepticism.D. note. Sextus Pyrrhon. 221 [Greek: ton Platôna oin hoi men dogmatikon ephasan einai. see Introd. For the sense II. rationis momenta) §46. 122. The argument probably ran thus: What seems so level as the sea? Yet it is easy to prove that it is really not level. c. BOOK II. 10. A similar argument occurs in Luc. 7. 1. 8 (add N. 5. 16.. De Or. Zenone: see Introd. in the latter writer the word [Greek: isostheneia] very frequently occurs in the same sense. who are said re concinere. Perpendiculum is a plumb line. Praep. BOOK I. XIV. omitted censebat though in most MSS. 58). I. Exposuisti: Durand's necessary em. [Greek: Platôn polyphônos ôn. Math. 8. Orelli and Klotz followed as usual. p. II. The fact that the eye and hand need such guides shows how untrustworthy the senses are. II. Halm. Latere censebat Goer. ***** NOTES ON THE FRAGMENTS. Cont. II. 4 (from Numenius) of Arcesilas. 14. e g Pyrrhon. approved by Krische. 6. 143. The changing aspects of the same thing are pointed to here as invalidating the evidence of the senses. Evan. kata de ti dogmatikon]. [Greek: einai gar panta akatalêpta kai tous eis ekatera logous isokrateis allêlois]. 124. Probably Zeno is the person who serius adamavit honores. in the first edition had included in his answer to Hortensius. exposui. IX. see II. Praecurrere: as was the case with the dogmatists. 207 [Greek: isostheneis logoi]. 16. 86. If so Cic. in both which places it is used of the Stoics. 'Antipater'.D. Cohibereque: Gk. Mnesarchus: see II. For the doctrine cf. There is nothing distinctive about this which might enable us to determine its connection with the dialogue. 6. Biogr. p. must have condemned the unwarrantable verbal innovations of Zeno in order to excuse the extreme scepticism of Arcesilas (Krische. hoi de kata men ti aporêtikon. clearly forms part of those anticipatory sceptical arguments which Cic. I. 4 neatly slips out of the difficulty.. I. I. cf. This opinion of Antiochus Cic. 4. etc. Ne illud quidem: cf. which we shall have to explain in the Lucullus. 2. 66.

14. other difficulties of the kind. This forms part of Varro's answer to Cicero. and that Cic. when young and when old. so after a certain point we must cease to fight against perverse sceptics and let them take their own way. which had been brought forward in the Catulus. such as those connected with the bent oar. XXXIV. The student will observe that the above extracts formed part of an argument intended to show the deceptive character of the senses. The passion for knowledge in the human heart was doubtless used by Varro as an argument in favour of assuming absolute knowledge to be attainable. drew an argument hostile to the senses from the consideration of the fish. The talk about freedom suits a sceptic better than a dogmatist (see Luc. 17.Part III of Varro's Exposition. p. 62. 42. the pigeon's neck. 13. Fr. The result of these assaults on the senses must have been summed up in the phrase cuncta dubitanda esse which Augustine quotes from the Academica Posteriora (see fragm. (In Luc. in the course of which the clearness with which the fishes were seen leaping from the water was brought up as evidence. 19. 169. was allowed to stand in the second edition.v. and Cic. Different people pass different judgments on one and the same odour. 31. 78 10. BOOK III. The same line is taken in Luc. malleolus. and not Book III. 125 (ut nos nunc simus ad Baulos Puteolosque videmus. when sick and when healthy.) The explanation seems to me very improbable. To these should probably be added fragm. temeritas being as much deprecated by the Antiocheans and Stoics as by the Academics cf. when he changed the scene from Bauli to the Lucrine lake. Grundz p. 11. and think that in the second ed. p. 17. 36). some comparison from building operations to illustrate the fixity of knowledge gained through the [Greek: katalêpseis] was added to a passage which would correspond in substance with 27 of the Lucullus. III. for the derivation see Curt. which are unable to see that which lies immediately above them and so illustrate the narrow limits of the power of vision. quoted by Forc. 19 shows that the impossibility of distinguishing eggs one from another. when sober and when drunken. a similar expression (naves malleolis confixae) and in Pliny Nat. 81.. 54). Hist. If my conjecture is right this fragment belongs to Book IV. would also appear in both editions. 105. 326. regula. a corruption of the Greek [Greek: gnômôn] (Curt. 120. the impressions of seals (Luc. A diver would be in exactly the position of the fish noticed in Luc. I. are brought forward to prove how little of permanence there is even in the least fleeting of the objects of sense. sic innumerabilis paribus in locis esse isdem de rebus disputantis) that I am inclined to think that the reference in Nonius ought to be to Book IV. 81. 63. 9. The different colours which the same persons show in different conditions. The words bear such a striking resemblance to those in Luc. s.F. See another view in Krische. ed. 16. I note in Vitruvius. and elsewhere. . Cic. D. a rule.'s words in 8 of the same).. It is so much easier to find parallels to this in Cicero's speech than in that of Lucullus in the Academica Priora that I think the reference in Nonius must be wrong. 12. Urinari is to dive. on the other hand. 3). Krische gives a different opinion. This may well have formed part of Varro's explanation of the [Greek: katalêpsis]. Krische believes that this fragment formed part of an attempt to show that the senses were trustworthy. which corresponded in substance to Lucullus' speech in the Academica Priora The drift of this extract was most likely this: just as there is a limit beyond which the battle against criminals cannot be maintained. Grundz p. Adfixa therefore in this passage must have agreed with some lost noun either in the neut. the twins. I conjecture malleo (a hammer) for the corrupt malcho. 32. also changed Puteolosque into pisciculosque exultantes for the sufficient reason that Puteoli was not visible from Varro's villa on the Lucrine. but very hesitatingly. 14 navis fixa malleo. 15. Antiochus' Physics. Evidently an attempt to prove the sense of smell untrustworthy.

Ac. 17. 137 has dixi for dictus. 57.. p. With this opinion I find it quite impossible to agree. 35. The best MS. Krische's opinion that this latter word was in the second edition changed into the former may be supported from I.'s exposition of the positive side of Academic doctrine in the second book. 32. 55 I have given my opinion that the substance of Catulus' speech which unfolded the doctrine of the probabile was incorporated with Cicero's speech in the second book of this edition. Cic. Krische assigns this to the end of Varro's speech in the third Book. I may here add that Krische seems to me wrong in holding that the . Luc. does not often leave out est with the passive verb. It will be noted that the fragments of Book III. The conj. 28. In the Introd. Magnis obscurata: in Luc. 4. correspond to the first half of the Luc.D. To that part this fragment must probably be referred. Further information on all these passages will be found in my notes on the parallel passages of the Lucullus. 29. p.. Att. See on Luc. XVI. Also Aug. A passage in the Lucullus (60) proves to demonstration that in the first edition this allusion to the esoteric teaching of the Academy could only have occurred either in the speech of Catulus or in that of Cicero. 6. As Cic. for in c. the Stoic [Greek: enargeia] had evidently been translated earlier in the book by perspicuitas as in Luc. see Krische. contraria. It is difficult to see where this passage could have been included if not in that prooemium to the third book which is mentioned Ad.Part III of Varro's Exposition. viz. 64. III. Most likely an alteration was made in the second edition. Viam evidently a mistake for the umbram of Luc. 23. of the Luc. p. also 66 and N. Nonius has probably quoted wrongly. 64. 19. Cic. II. 123. I. those of Book IV. 29. into two portions at or about 63. 34. plur. 121 has corporibus. Contra. 79 18. or fem. to the second half. BOOK IV. 19 evidently hang very closely together. UNCERTAIN BOOKS. ad vestigia for contra v. as Krische supposes. in the second book. 122 it is crassis occultata. 12. Only slight differences appear in the MSS. see Luc. 6. which he does not notice. 21. Contr. This important fragment clearly belongs to Book II. therefore divided the Luc. is confirmed by Aug. 33. sing. repeatedly insists that the Academic school must not be supposed to have no truths to maintain. of Nonius points to flavum for ravum (Luc. I have already said that this most likely belonged to the preliminary assault on the senses made by Cic. Ac. Antiochus' Physics. As Krische notes. 119. 70. 105).. 30. 23. As no reason whatever appears to account for its transference to Varro I prefer to regard it as belonging to Cic. and is a jocular application of the Carneadean probabile. 31. This and fragm. Corpusculis: Luc. as may be seen from the words probabiliter posse confici. so that we have another alteration. 36.

but they must know that Academicism puts no stop to inquiry (7). 1) that New Academicism was excusable from the necessities of the age in which it appeared. although I ought to say that Krische. Some critics do not approve the particular philosophy which I follow--the Academic. p. Indications of Book II. Are they then. nor do I think the fame of illustrious citizens diminished. in Aug. involves a much smaller departure from the first edition. partly from Krische. have neglected no public duty. Ad Att. Those who hold that the interlocutors in these dialogues had no such knowledge show that they can make their envy reach beyond the grave.). These I refer to Cicero's development of the probabile in Book II. also ibid. to be silent or to talk about trifles? I.. The New Academy must not be regarded as having revolted against the Old. was absent from Rome on public service too long during his earlier years to attain to glory in the forum (1). derived his opinion (Contra. when they meet. but to it I refer Contra. Ac. 15. No writings of the Classical period had so great an influence on the culture and opinions of Augustine as the Academica and the lost Hortensius. having learned much from Antiochus and read much for himself (4). and IV. I may remark. 80 whole four books formed one discussion. I give. Priora transferred to Book IV. which will find a better place in my notes on the latter. 75 (Seneca Ep. mine. as they apply equally well to the later attack in Book IV. and was allowed no triumph till just before my consulship. Aug.) ***** Besides the actual fragments of the second edition. of the Ac. must be referred to the examples of Cato and Africanus (5). III. are scarce. which. but enriched. As this would leave very meagre material for Book II. I. in Book II. II.. §§1--12. made it appear that there was a strife between it and the New. This is natural. maintains that the substance of Catulus' exposition in the Ac. the points of agreement between them and the Lucullus. to the following effect. From this portion of the first book. I do not think it necessary here to prove from Aug. As to Books III. and the insertion in 118 of essentia as a translation of [Greek: ousia]. The doctrine of [Greek: akatalêpsia] though present to the minds of the ancients had never taken distinct shape. must have ended. Posteriora. 7 placuit Ciceroni nostro beatum esse qui verum investigat etiam si ad eius inventionem non valeat pervenire. but merely give the divergences which appear from other sources. though written in support of dogmatic opinions. all that it did was to discuss that new doctrine of [Greek: katalêpsis] advanced by Zeno. He had to wait long for the reward of his merits as a commander and civil administrator. he was also a philosopher. He unexpectedly proved a great general. et tamen in hominem scientiam cadere non posse. Allusions in Aug. though an able and cultivated man. BOOK II. 65. How can they find out the wise man without . to the attack on the senses by Cic. Others think that famous men should not be introduced into dialogues of the kind. Why interrupt the discussion by the insertion of a prologue of so general a nature as to be taken from a stock which Cic. as above. With Antiochus the historical exposition of Cic. finished within the limits of a single day. The Old Academy was rather enriched than attacked by the New. the scattered indications of the contents of the former which are to be gathered from the bishop's works. He was not merely a general. Antiochus. by a reputation for philosophical knowledge (6). many indications of its contents are preserved in the work of Augustine entitled Contra Academicos. we have what appears to be a summary of the lost part of Book I. Those enemies of Greek culture who think a Roman noble ought not to know philosophy. ENTITLED LUCULLUS. 14. in applying myself to philosophy. Summary. are difficult to fix. other schools are enslaved to authority (8). Contr. III. The dogmatists say they bow to the authority of the wise man. What I owed to him in those troublous times I cannot now tell (3). In Aug. II. 10 illis (Academicis) placuit esse posse hominem sapientem. Ac. kept on hand ready made? (Cf. nothing indeed excepting the provisional proof of the deceptiveness of the senses. because it had met with no opposition.Part III of Varro's Exposition.. imitated throughout the second edition of the Academica of Cic. These are the translation of [Greek: sophismata] by cavillationes in Luc. Ac. My school is free from the fetters of dogma. Antiochus' Physics. in adopting Stoicism under the name of the Old Academy. This was due to his untiring study and his marvellous memory (2). Lucullus. I cannot accede to his arrangement.

Magna cum gloria: a ref. Factus: = perfectus. which however. 359. Consumere followed by an ablative without in is excessively rare in Cic. II. Mai. 16." passed of course by Sulla." cf. though he prints Asiae). Laus: "merit.F. I. Consulatum: he seems to have been absent during the years 84--74. and that quos legisset = quorum commentarios legisset I think improbable. 12. but the conditional dicerem changes it. The same holds of quamquam. the use of the passive verb so common in Ovid. If the common reading dissensit in De Or.D. Mandare monum. Baiter ejects Asia. who employed him chiefly in the civil administration of Asia. Profuisset: this ought properly to be profuerit. "to reap. Potius . 213 A. The ancient art of memory was begun by Simonides (who is the person denoted here by cuidam) and completed by Metrodorus of Scepsis. 5. . 57. Cic. cf.g. and yet excepted his own officers from its operation. For the three nouns with a singular verb see Madv. This Lucullus believed himself able to do. 2. although the doctrines had suffered in the discussion of the day before (10). In passages like De Or. which has been proposed. the que connects clauses and does not modify hodie. on I.D. Guilelmus read in Asia in pace (which Davies conjectures. the day after the discussion reported in the Catulus (9). Quaestor: to Sulla. Legis praemio: this seems to mean "by the favour of a special law. 58. Sat. verborum: same distinction in De Or. I." as in Prop. IV. Calumnia: properly a fraudulent use of litigation. the restriction does not hold. omitting the remarks made by the latter against Philo (12). Indocilem: this is simply passive. 4. At that very time the books mentioned by Catulus yesterday came into the hands of Antiochus. IV. percipere fruges.D. Lucullus. would not be Latin.. 30. I. Rebus gestis: military history. N. see n. Antiochus' Physics. In Verr. will show that the whole affair was discreditable to the father. Forc. Percepta: "gained. quam . Pace here perhaps ought to be taken adverbially. see Dict. Divinam quandam memoriam: the same phrase in De Or. Gram. p. have Asiae. by Dav. Insculptas: rare in the metaphorical use. XII. Digna homini nobili: a good deal of learning would have been considered unworthy of a man like Lucullus. and was a man of distinction also. De Or." as often. 53 denies the use altogether. 81 hearing all opinions? This subject was discussed by myself.D.).. II.v. Hor. 299. like tranqullo. means a deed worthy of reward. Oblivisci se malle: the same story is told D. I. 3. III. Instrumento et adparatu: [Greek: kataskeuê kai paraskeuê]. communicem: n. cf. Terentius Varro. 68 is right. forgets that Luc. cf. I. IV. I. III.F. 3. II. 64. for whom see De Or.. on 23. 360. §3. Catulus called on Lucullus to defend the doctrines of Antiochus. so praemium. 5. In addition. §2.F. however. I. II. consignatae in animis notiones in T. [Greek: sykophantia]. Fast. Continuo: without any interval. and Hortensius. so often. I note hoc loco consumitur in T. a rule not observed by the silver writers. 103 and Verr. to our notions. Caruit: "was cut off from. I will now give the substance of the disputes between Heraclitus and Antiochus. 23." "won. and Antiochus. In Asia pace: three good MSS. who confines the usage to nouns denoting things and impersonal ideas. So effectus in silver Latin. 68. to legisset. = "untaught. Genere: "department" cf. Quos legisset: = de quibus l. the sons would have gained greater glory by letting it drop." carere comes from a root skar meaning to divide. Luculli: see Introd. 27 wants to read hodieque. Hodie: Drakenborch on Livy V. is wrong in making it active. 24. He spoke thus: At Alexandria I heard discussions between Heraclitus Tyrius the pupil of Clitomachus and Philo. Trist. 360. shows that in Cic. 33 homo factus ad unguem. 184. Admodum: "to a degree. s. Superiorum: scarcely that of Sulla. would remain outside the city. 403. 437.Part III of Varro's Exposition.. De Or. Madv. and Dict. Biog. 390. Rex: Mithridates." Fratre: this brother was adopted by a M. the suggestion of a friend that Lucullus is nom.: cf. 126. see De Leg. V. a parenthetic clause with etsi always has a common verb with its principal clause. who was so angry that he wrote a book against his old teacher (11 and 12). V. 104. Virg. Biog. Aen. p." Cat. In urbem: until his triumph Luc. §1. II. III. Prooemio. Non admodum exspectabatur: Cic. is not Ciceronian. see Introd. to Dict. I take of course rex to be nom. Rerum. Ov. 14. see Corss. who had restored the old lex annalis in all its rigour. Etsi: M. 119 (the last qu. Biog. II. to our passage. Consignamus: cf. D. Opuscula I. litteris must be an ablative of the instrument. e. On this subject see Madv. Catulus. V. 45. had served with distinction in the Social War and the first Mithridatic war. in the East. Navalibus pugnis: [Greek: naumachiais]. where Baiter's two texts (1861 and 1863) give no variants. I. The chief enemy was the infamous Memmius who prosecuted him..

De Div. after nihil. now as a matter of fact they did decide on a . so personas 6. For this use Forc. while another has the marginal reading qui scire sibi videntur. 38. retains it. 12. gives admirable sense. on I. which reminds one of the spelling divisssiones. Lucullus about 57. and illustrate his love for petty variations. 17 for the collocation of the words.D. Introd. I. actually apologises for making Cato more learned than he really was. I. On the retention or omission of this qui will depend the choice of putant or putent below. Bentl. 45.F. one of the best however has dicere quae aliis as a correction. Sequi: "act upon. vir. 6. Antiochus' Physics. In . interiora: cf. Quodam in libro: the Hortensius. 121 makes this equivalent to de eis rebus de quibus. I. 83. XXXIII. plures: cf. 29. though approved by Halm. the gen. Liberiores et solutiores: these two words frequently occur together in Cic. asserted to be Ciceronian in Quint. not the dat. rather "memoirs" than "history. qu. the Lowland Scottish "no just sae". I fail to see. Inst. has diffissi. 30. Em. 4. reading which was simply ut potuerunt. reip.. The omission of qui. after operae. Verum invenire: cf. 44 rerum obscuritate. Halm. Cat. I. §7. means in Cic.. as well as Bait. Auctorem: one would think this simple and sound enough. N. (Pal. the De Republica or the De Leg." which is better expressed by res gestae.. 11. after detrahens. also T.. corrected the MSS. §3 Cic. however. Non modo non minui. Nisi forensem: the early oratorical works may fairly be said to have this character. De Div. p. I. II.g. Cogimur: for this Academic freedom see Introd. De opera publica detrahamus: the dative often follows this verb.. Halm refers to Bentl. a passage often wrongly taken. cf. Introd. 44 imbecillos animos. Ut potuerint. Liv. Sat. both of which fall within the period spoken of." cf. p. on Hor. Note that the verb loqui not dicere is used. 4. Tac.. Illigari: "entangled" as though in something bad. XIII. 'Panactius'. n. as in D. I. 15. 19. Hortensius 50. Pro quaestore: for this Faber wrote quaestor. I. Contentione: = [Greek: philoneikia] as usual. insert qui by dittographia. Historiae loquantur: hist. which I conjectured. qui negent: and truly. sed thrice over in two sentences. Legatione: to the kings in Egypt and the East in alliance with Rome. Amico cuidam: Orelli after Lamb. "granting that they had the ability. §6.. celebrata: cf. The form of expression is very common in Cic. 29. Gram. Integra: "untrammelled. c.. §8. scarcely. p. reads quaestor here and 11. quam ostendis." cf.. Personarum: public characters. XV." Et quasi: MSS. I. 18. In utramque partem: [Greek: ep' amphotera]. 82 §4.. Gradu: so the word "degree" was once used. auditorem. as I think. Earum rerum disputationem: for disp. About the embassy see Dict. Read Madvig's lucid note there. I. 17. p. De quibus audiebat: Madv. Reliqui: many MSS. on 101. "a squire of low degree" in the ballad.. Ann. sed: notice non modo . 2). mostly insert qui between dicere and quae. Fam. e. Sunt . 20. art.. 124 sed haec quoque in promptu. 2) referred to by Halm. Mai.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Mai.. n. Rerum leviorum: a similar argument in D. V. though Halm. Ea memoria . Baiter give qua. I take quibus as simply = libris. I. serm. Non ita decoram: for this feeling see Introd. as often. De Rep. Or. see 105. §9. 60. 30. nunc interiora videamus. see Introd. Sunt . have et quibus et quasi.. ista sis aequitate. Orat. Infirmitas: cf. quam: Bentl. Biogr. [Greek: prosôpôn poleôs] (Ad. 7 nihil operae reipublicae detrahens.D. = [Greek: kai mên]. Multi . cf. was Sulla's quaestor and Sulla sent him to Egypt. Diffisi: one of the best MSS. Ut plurimis prosimus: cf. Ac: strong. cuipiam. Contra omnis dicere quae videntur: MSS. 33. 493 b. 40. Operae is the dat. 64. Externa . Dav.F. 13. followed by genitive see n. The censorship was in 199 B. Exprimant: "embody. Probabilia: [Greek: pithana]. Mortuis: Catulus died in 60. for which see 33. rebus obscuritas: cf. they gained it by hearing all things. saying "veterem lectionem iugulavit Faber". for the difference see Madv. Dav. esse oporteat. p. but now see occurs in a MS. the phrase "non mihi integrum est"--"I have committed my self. III. 21. has qua. after the verb. 99-101. and cf. not the gen. like opera publica here. and the relative always refers to an actually expressed antecedent. arguing that as Luc. But surely after the first year he would be pro quaestor. 43. 56.. potuerunt: thus Lamb." cf. however read fautorem. he could not be pro quaestor. Aut ludicros sermones: = aut clar. A passage like ours is D. e. In Cat. the necessity of which explanation. Antiquissimi et doctissimi: on the other hand recentissima quaeque sunt correcta et emendata maxime I. IV. on I. §5.. 7.g. where one MS.. ludic.C.F. For non ita cf.

issem. however. Two." the true meaning being "to appeal to with tears. to learn thoroughly. N. p. Libri duo: cf. while ab is rather rarer. is exceedingly troubled by the pres. with the exception of Empedocles. 21. reconditiora: cf. Those very philosophers. seem to me. 50. conj. see Introd. Pro quaestore: cf.e. C. For the perfect labefactavit cf. In promptu . but the last of these two passages is doubtful. p. and for describere ab aliquo cf. 164 mentions an Aristo of Alexandria. Goerenz indeed. reading with the insertion of aut between sed and ut at the beginning. of this Madv. Antiochus' Physics. I." I think it probable that Philoni is a marginal explanation foisted on the text. be read? Petrilius and Pompilius would then agree like Petronius and Pomponius. Tetrilius: some MSS. 20. in Cic.. has Tretilius. 361. Si non fuerint: so all Halm's best MSS. Orelli's statement (note to his separate text of the Academica 1827) that Cic. a te in Ad Att.D. Cic. VII. as Ursinus pointed out. which means "to learn on and on. found. the latter in De Haruspicum Responsis 60. Negat: see n.. are said to have Tetrinius. 33. Even if they were often in doubt. calls an "arguta hariolatio. Lenior: some MSS... Muretus.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Rocus. 83 single hearing. 130 with Mayor's copious note. Introd. sed sanae menti repugnat. "to learn beforehand. Quae est ad Baulos: cf. kept the MSS. I. 11. Mai. labefactus is quite wrong. p. but rarely. Philo's only notable pupils had combined to form the so called "Old Academy. Academicos: i. In support of the text. after audire." De and ex are common in Cic. they are made clear by 18. 9 (sunt ista) and note. I. 124.. 39. Agam igitur: Cic. deprecates.e. of Davies' have si vera etc. One good MS. i. a Peripatetic. who are here treated as the true Academics. Heraclitus Tyrius: scarcely known except from this passage. Aristone: Diog." read an for aut and put a note of interrogation at contulerunt. commonly uses the perfect labefeci and the part. also Ac. As to the statements of Catulus the elder. Implorans: "appealing to. 116. 4. esse. IV. should Petrilius. a sad confusion into the text. interiora in De Div. 466) introduces by conj. aut. Cicero seems to me to have acted like a seditious tribune. a Cicerone. on 18. reading in Pro Sestio 101. not. says "non solum Latina non est. XIII. 22. though Antiochus himself claimed the title. which may be a mistake for Tertilius. for the future is common enough in all languages cf. whence Goer. makes it mean. but no other good critic since Madvig's remarks in Em. "coram Philone. to learn by degrees" (cf. as is usual with these two words. rather overdoes the attempt to force on his readers a belief in the learning of Lucullus." Constantissime: "most consistently". Iudicaverunt autem: so Lamb. Summary." and when Cic. p. Quae dico: Goer. §11." "from his copy." the ad has the same force as [Greek: pro] in [Greek: promanthanein].. §12.D. Quintilius. For the formation of these names see Corss. tense and wishes to read dixero. too dogmatic (14). Rom. [Greek: proumathon stergein kakois]). §§13--18. Cf. 50. Iuv. I. Quae nunc prope dimissa revocatur: sc. 4. Servatam oportuit: a construction very characteristic of Terence. Petreius and Pompeius. a derivative from the word for four. In spatio: this xystus was a colonnade with one side open to the sea. 13. in promptu . by what Dav. In 11 one of the earliest editions has leviter for leniter. who may be the same. De Leg. see I. Introd. novos. for MSS. as the lexica absurdly say. It cannot mean what Goer. (1471). in appealing to famous old philosophers as supporters of scepticism (13). Consedimus: n. De Philone . occurs on denarii of the gens Creperia. the others have labefacta. followed by the faithful Schutz. and in Ed.F. I. called [Greek: xystos] from its polished floor and pillars. and Livy." see Corss. 36." etc. 57. wrote the Academica the New Academic dialectic had been without a representative for many years. 125 has impugned Lambinus' reading. I. The former is indeed the vulg. I. Heri for this indication of the contents of the lost Catulus. Aristo: see Introd. II. it was an actual work of Ph. See M. Dio seems unknown. a name formed like Pompilius. But the substitution of the pres. on I.F. Sextilius. Rogus: an ill omened and unknown name. Labefactata: this is only found as an alteration in the best MSS. Alexandriam issem. 3. if anything. Hermann (Schneidewin's Philologus VII. Dicta Philoni: for this see Introd. §10. 14. 10. Qy. levior. Clitomachum: for this philosopher see Zeller 532. as a rule prefers long forms like sustentatus. Scriptum agnoscebat: i. do you suppose that no advance has been made during so many centuries by the investigations of so many men of ability? Arcesilas was a . Essem: MSS. ab eo ipso: note the change of prep. I. "from Philo's lips. and the name Tertinius is found on Inscr. which occurs with labefactatus in Cat. Quam adamaverunt: "which they have learned to love." For the proceeding which Cic.e. p. Philonis: sc. cf.

not essential existence. Popularis: [Greek: dêmotikous]. that the doctrines of the .. consul in the year Tib. Delitisceret: this is the right spelling. 3).. 487 b). comparing De Or.. Ut videmus . 270. I. but cf. Arcesilae calumnia: this was a common charge. see Corssen II. A glance. 7 and Madv. Cic. T. though they do occasionally use the ablative to express duration (cf. II. Flaminium: the general at lake Trasimene. and indeed it may be doubted whether the best writers ever use any accusative in that sense. too great. 30 where Democr. Gracchus was a rebel against a good government (15). Brut. but seems to have done nothing else for the democrats. 84 rebel against a good philosophy. always has a kind of tenderness for Democritus. Antiochus' Physics. 5 ut oratorum laus . for sake of argument. Rom. at the exx. Xenophanem: so Victorius for the MSS.. cf. The exordium of his poem is meant. Gracchus was killed. Brutus had written an epitome of this work of Fannius (Ad Att. So August. however. just as Ti. Hermann (Schneid Philol. I. which would point to Zenonem. 5. Saturninus was the persistent enemy of Metellus Numidicus. The only connection these brothers had with the schemes of Gracchus seems to be that they were consulted by him as lawyers. vetera: C. Most however do allow of discussion with sceptics. and P.D. his rejection of Zeno's definition of the [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia] really led him back to that utter scepticism from which he was fleeing. (1471) has Cenonem. the sceptic regards only phenomenal. 285. P.. 108. cf. so that incognita is far better. reading needs alteration. 457). Madv. Nominibus differentis . has here. dissenserunt: genuine Antiochean opinions. 173. and incurred all the evils he wished to avoid. has annos. III. I. Goer. which one good MS. see the Academica Posteriora 17. senescat . §15. will show that the word always means merely "disordered. (cf. may be allowed the inconsistency. Tum ad hos: so MSS. Those words need not imply so much. for MSS. Has nothing really been learned since the time of Arcesilas? His opinions have had scanty. The ablative is always used to express point of time. thinking the departure from the MSS. Fratres: Lamb. but between knowledge and no knowledge. 197. cf. who was the uncle of Lucullus by marriage. P. cf. see R. 98. and if they did. Brutus 299. Prop. does not often name Zeno of Elea. though there is nothing in it so strong as the words of the text." Tollendus est: a statement which is criticised in 74. of Halm have simile. who supported the ballot bill of Cassius. 43. Negavissent: "had denied. viros. Ed. in Forc. he was the author of the cui bono principle and so severe a judge as to be called scopulus reorum. 6. Now many dogmatists think that no argument ought to be held with a sceptic. Ii a: so Dav. II. says frustra quaeritur. a man of good family. Saturninus: of the question why he was an enemy of Lucullus.D. L. 40. Scaevolam: the pontifex. De se ipse: very frequent in Cic. De Div. The omission of the verb venire is very common in Cic. the younger. Diceret: this is omitted by the MSS." The same statement is quoted in De Or. Constitutam: so in 14. Quasi modo nascentes: Ciacconus thought this spurious. aut hos. Veteribus: Bentley's em. 20 remarks. philosophia nascatur. Democriti verecundia: Cic. Pompeium: apparently the man who made the disgraceful treaty with Numantia repudiated by home in 139 B. however T..e. keeps vetera and changes incognita into incondita. 35). C. Rursus exorsus est: cf. 1 speaks of Academicorum vel calumnia vel pertinacia vel pericacia. on 88. Cassium: this is L.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Africanum: i.. III. though brilliant support (16). De Or. If kept the sense would be: "but let us suppose. as Madv. 74. but one has agnosceret on the margin.D. confused" in Cic. see n. . Xenoplatonem. II. Gram. exorsus in 10.F. I. §14. who carried a ballot bill (De Leg.. of MSS. since argument can add nothing to the innate clearness of true sensations (17). Dav.. haesitaverunt: Goer. not delitesceret. when he refused to use violence against the tribunes.. The difference here is not one between order and no order. Philo in his innovations was induced to state falsehoods. I. Quale sit: the emphasis is on sit.F.'s letters. as they said.. where all the best MSS.C. Aliquot annis: one good MS. 2). have annos. videatur: cf. iam. Cassius Longinus Ravilla. Gram. Fannius: in his "Annals. §13. §16. XII. Empedocles quidem . about the legal effect the bills would have. ut suspicantur: Halm with Gruter brackets these words on the ground that the statement about Marius implies that the demagogues lie about all but him. VII. on D. We then must either maintain Zeno's definition or give in to the sceptics (18). Contra Acad. 20 and calumnia in 18 and 65 of this book.. II. 235. cf. 4. Similiter: it is noticeable that five MSS. Academicorum calumnia in N. I am not at all certain that the MSS. is made an exception to the general arrogantia of the physici. II. but Cic.

27. 1. 15." The conj. 85 ancients were not knowledge. of Kayser veri nota for vetera (cf. V. in the last of which passages the Academy is called procax.F. says it is no more use arguing with a sceptic than with a corpse. T. Gram. 121. Verr. 290 of Orelli's reprint of his Academica) that Cic. fragm. Contra Ac. Hypotyp. Ex eo unde esset . V. Quod investigata sunt: "in that an investigation was made. For the meaning cf. As two MSS. asserts to be the usual form. where the New Academy is mentioned. on 18. 13." Herm. I. on I. I. 15. on the progress of philosophy as there quoted. 6. 1 of Book I. 15) quietly suppresses a sceptic by saying [Greek: ouk agô scholên pros tauta]" (Zeller 85. It must not be forgotten that the Stoics held a sensation to be a real alteration ([Greek: heteroiôsis]) of the material substance of the soul through the action of some external thing. I.). Antiochus' Physics. There is not the slightest reason for this. Sustinere: cf. 87.D. Faciendum omnino non putabant: "Epictetus (Arrian. Em. have hac nonne Christ conj.D. obtrectans: see n. Ipsa evidentia: note that the verb evidere is not Latin. n. 119. I. I.D. 24. is fanciful and improbable. 76) and investigatum below. 17. §18. Math. 107. cf. 6 (noctem obfundere) Aug. on account of the negative contained in negaret. not verbum de verbo. Definitiones: n. where an ex. Comprehensio: cf. The scepticism of Arcesilas was often excused by the provocation Zeno gave. I. 15). Tenuit: cf. 41. 34. 12. D. 16) had been settled. Non defuit: such patronage was wanting in the time of Arcesilas (16).F. Verbum e verbo: so 31. Zeller 76 and 77 with footnotes. reading. It is worth remarking (as Petrus Valentia did. 2 and 35 of the Academica Posteriora. I.. 15. Laert. Ullam rationem disputare: the same constr. I. VIII. and in Diog.D.F. the passage of Polybius qu. Antipatrum: cf. the definition is clipt). it translates the Greek [Greek: tropoi] (Brut. see Madv. is given. 29 tenebrae quae patronae Academicorum solent esse. which impresses its image on the soul as a seal does on wax. III. again disturbs the text which since Madv. 44 ut Democritus. [Greek: Akatalêpton]: the conj. 242.Part III of Varro's Exposition. but mere opinion. occurs in 74 and Pro Caecina 15. by Zeller 533. as well as Baiter takes. Patrocinium: for the word cf. 44 and D. Immutatione verborum: n. Hagnone which Halm.. Holding that illa in the former sentence cannot be the subj. 2. I. for the confused MSS. 19. VII. Sed tamen: this often resumes the interrupted narrative. II. For the application of the term to the Academics. II. 14. he rashly ejects nihilne est igitur actum as a dittographia (!) from 15 nihilne explicatum. and reads quot for quod with Bentl. III. 70.. 45. Fabricemur: cf. 127 supported it (quoting T. were illustratio (Quint. I. n. Me appellabat: Cic.D.. of the verb. Mentitur: cf. unde non esset: this translation corresponds closely to the definition given by Sextus in four out of the six passages referred to by Zeller (in Adv. 33.D. III. and the charge is at once joyfully accepted by Plut. In Aeschine: so Dav. III. the use of obtinere in De Or. 32) and perspicientia (De Off. Liv. For this philosopher see Zeller 533. N. In Plutarch Adv. Pertinaciam: the exact meaning of this may be seen from D. 30 (lucem eripere). Zeller 533 seems to adopt this and at once confuses the supposed philosopher with one Agnon just mentioned in Quint. It denotes the character which cannot recognise a defeat in argument and refuses to see the force of an opponent's reasoning. omits to represent the words [Greek: kat' auto to hyparchon]. 249 considers them essential to the definition and instances Orestes who looking at Electra. VII. 15). 261. Diss. 15 and notes on fragm. The [Greek: phantasia] therefore which he had although [Greek: apo hyparchontos] (proceeding from an actually existent thing) was not [Greek: kata to . was the great advocate for the Latinisation of Greek terms (D. II. Ita negaret: this ita corresponds to si below. Contra Acad. Evidentiam: other translations proposed by Cic. also the joke of Aug. Agnon and Hagnon being known. 86 Pyrrh. cf. 69 and Arist. of Turnebus [Greek: katalêpton] is unnecessary. Colotem p. Visum igitur: the Greek of this definition will be found in Zeller 86. VI. p. 50 (in 46 he gives a clipt form like that of Sextus in the two passages just referred to). I. These charges were brought by each school against the other. III. cf. Visum: cf. III. 7. Arcesilas Zenoni . T. Sextus Adv. cf. mistook her for an Erinys. 480. The words impressum effictumque are equivalent to [Greek: enapesphragismenê kai enapomemagmenê] in the Gk. Non admodum probata: cf. III.F. 5) Epict. 1121 F. 66. 40. In another passage (Arrian. which Goer. if known at all. 69) and [Greek: allêgoria] in De Or. 14 (quasdam nebulas obfundere). from these two passages only. Math. It is important to note that Arcesilas left no writings so that Lacydes became the source of information about his teacher's doctrines. Trivimus: cf. Act.--a common sequence of particles in Cic. on I. Ut Graeci: for the ellipse of the verb cf. XXXV. 94. Tenebras obducere: such expressions abound in Cic. §17. also I. N. on 14. II. N. Lacyde: the most important passages in ancient authorities concerning him are quoted by Zeller 506. II. I.. 27. see Aug. want of novelty is charged against Arcesilas. This phrase has also technical meanings.

therefore its possibility depends on the truth of the individual perception of sense. Eo. which he pronounced impossible. Hyp.Part III of Varro's Exposition. (2) that he based the possibility of knowledge on a ground quite different from the [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia]. if then Philo did away with the [Greek: katal. Sextus Pyrr. would pronounce definite judgments on phenomena. XIV. (See 78 of this book. What is important for us is. What power the cultivated senses of painters and musicians have! How keen is the sense of touch! (20). (2) is evident from the Academica and from Sextus as quoted above.) The scarcity of references to Philo in ancient authorities does not allow of a more exact view of his doctrine. refusing to add "quo modo imprimi non posset a falso ([Greek: hoia ouk an genoito apo mê hyparchontos]). these rise in complexity till we arrive at definitions and ideas (21). Eam definitionem: it is noteworthy that the whole war between the sceptics and the dogmatists was waged over the definition of the single sensation. that Cic. 8. phant. there was nothing new to him about such a doctrine. 11. . on all hands it was allowed that all knowledge ultimately rests on sense. 86 hyparchon]. Sextus indeed tells us that he held things to be in their own nature [Greek: katalêpta (hoson de epi tê physei tôn pragmatôn autôn katal. phant. p. to be correct (12). With regard to (3). to be expressing the views of Philo. it was thought. otherwise action is impossible (25). §§19--29. but that human faculties do not avail to give information about them. hence he eagerly pressed the doubtful statement of the latter that the wise man would "opine. he was fairly open to the retort of Antiochus given in the text. Thus defined. II. If these ideas may possibly be false. on the passage. and not those of Clitomachus as he usually does. his signis verum posse comprehendi quae signa non potest habere quod falsum est. By him the dialectic of Carneades is treated as genuinely Academic.] and substituted no other mode of curing the defects alleged by Arcesilas and Carneades to reside in sense. if the things on which he takes action might prove to be false? (23) How can wisdom be wisdom if she has nothing certain to guide her? There must he some ground on which action can proceed (24). De Div. Syllogisms are rendered useless. once veiled. cf. II. 11 quotes Cicero's definition and condenses it thus. Revolvitur: cf. The fleeting and uncertain can never be discovered. that they were apostles of doubt. Not that I maintain the truth of every sensation. He denied the popular view of Arcesilas and Carneades. Modern inquiry has been able to add little or nothing to the elucidation given in 1596 by Petrus Valentia in his book entitled Academica (pp. he most likely tried to show that the cognisable was equivalent to the [Greek: dêlon] or [Greek: pithanon] of Carneades. which are in a certain way perceptions of sense. should be brought to light (26). in practice we always do remove them where we can (19). cf. since they come through sense. Aug. he would appear to have afterwards left dialectic and devoted himself to ethics. Credence must be given to the thing which impels us to action. I. A glimpse of his position is afforded in 112 of this book. in its real being. i. Cont. also 148 of this book.e. did not truly represent that existent thing. Numenius treats his polemic against the [Greek: katal. never seems to have made himself the defender of the new Philonian dialectic. and all kinds of arts are at once rendered impossible (22). Rational proof requires that something. Things which impede the action of the senses must always be removed. I may add that from the mention of Philo's ethical works at the outset of Stobaeus' Ethica. Epicurus must see to that. and Numenius in Euseb. Knowledge. quo minime volt: several things are clear. 13. who treats him throughout his notice as a renegade. they give perfectly true information about external things. they never tried to show that things in themselves were incognisable. where we may suppose Cic. (1) that Philo headed a reaction towards dogmatism. The Stoics by their [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia] professed to be able to get at the thing in itself.] as a mere feint intended to cover his retreat towards dogmatism." that is. if I may so call them. is seen from moral action. Iudicium: [Greek: kritêrion]. If the senses are healthy and unimpaired. was a homogeneous compound of these sense atoms. logic memory. my n. As to (1) all ancient testimony is clear. It would seem from that passage that he defined the cognisable to be "quod impressum esset e vero" ([Greek: phantasia apo hyparchontos enapomemagmenê]). Antiochus' Physics. 313--316 of the reprint by Orelli). Ev. 235. Summary. 739. The doctrines of the New Academy would put an end to all processes of reasoning. That true perception is possible. After the perceptions of sense come the equally clear perceptions of the mind. who tells us that while the Carneadeans believed all things to be [Greek: akatalêpta]. Unless therefore Philo deluded himself with words. Who would act. The foundation for knowledge which he substituted is more difficult to comprehend. (3) that he distorted the views of Carneades to suit his own. Acad.)]. But Arcesilas and Carneades would not have attempted to disprove this. it it not difficult to see wherein Philo's "lie" consisted. Philo held them to be [Greek: katalêpta]. Praep. a test to distinguish between the unknown and the known.

Brut. as a study of the passages referred to in R. 165 and Zeller's Socrates and the Socratic Schools. 244. 261. Expletam comprehensionem: full knowledge. 258 [Greek: panta poiei mechris an tranên kai plêktikên spasê phantasian]. are amusingly ridiculed. Deus: for the supposed god cf. II.. II. 1328. Ille deinceps: deinceps is really out of place.. see Zeller 107 sq.. 86 (where an answer is given) and [Greek: anabolê]. physei gar eisin alogoi . held all sensation. to be a certain perception of their minds. 8. Non videam: this strong statement is ridiculed in 80. . per se. for which see Zeller 79. and vice versa. T. Math. cui adsentiatur. e.. thus the distinction between pleasure and pain would be obscured. Ac. and P. V. Quis est quin cernat: read Madvig's strong remarks on Goerenz's note here (D. 89. Sui cuiusque: for this use of suus quisque as a single word see M. 102. Epic. Madv.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Math. Hyp. 42. 58. also 76. IV. I. VII.g. Ut oculi . cf. e.) often uses umbra and lumen. Nihil interesse: if the doctrine of the Academics were true. in which alone truth and falsehood reside. Ille equus est: Cic. Math." tôi de toioutôi pragmati ouketi tês aisthêseôs ergon estin epiballein . 344. Pyrrh. the 5th sceptic [Greek: tropos] for showing sense to be untrustworthy) [Greek: ho para tas theseis] (situs) [Greek: kai ta diastêmata] (intervalla) [Greek: kai tous topous]. 23.D. often applies metaphorically to oratory the two words here used. This one often appears in Sextus: e.. (without necessity. Intervalla . This. The [Greek: kôpê enalos keklasmenê] and [Greek: peristeras trachêlos] are frequently mentioned. Zeller 403. judgments of the mind. The chief authorities for this are given in R. VII. and P. is prior to that which affirms the existence of a concrete individual. 118 [Greek: pemptos esti logos] (i. I. uses as a translation both of [Greek: prolêpsis] and [Greek: ennoia].D. so in Gk.g. There is a passage in Sext. 46. T. cf. and Zeller will show) conj. dei de eis phantasian achthênai tou toioutou pragmatos "touto leukon esti kai touto glyky estin. 296. had probably added other examples. 343. Notitiae: this Cic. quoted by Goer. diducimus: for this cf. e.. D. to denote background and foreground. since the very dogma excludes the supposition that there can be any true perception (28). Antiochus' Physics.. 32 and Madv.. cf. I can quote no parallel to this from the Greek texts. Gram. Igitur: for the anacoluthia cf. V.D. II. Adv. 2. 67. 414. Adv. VII. Math. in his speech of the day before. 21. VII.. it is too long to quote entire: [Greek: aisthêsesi men oun monais labein talêthes] (which resides only in the [Greek: axiôma]) [Greek: ou dynatai anthrôpos. The Stoic [Greek: horoi]. Hypot. Inflatu: cf. et inter: for the repetition of inter cf. VII. 87 philosophy too cannot exist unless her dogmas have a sure basis (27). 17. Multaque facimus usque eo: Sext.D..D. often quoted by Cic. Lumen mutari: cf. adumbrare. Hence the Academics have been urged to allow their dogma that perception is impossible. I. 80. 27.. which affirms the existence of an abstract quality. De Or. and after him Quintilian. Antiopam: of Pacuvius. II.F. M. syneseôs te dei kai mnêmês]. 119-121. as De Div. Andromacham: of Ennius. Adv. Persa V. [Greek: skia] and [Greek: skiasma] are opposed to [Greek: lampra]. §21. would be inconsistent. 24 quomodo primum for pr. Illud est album: these are [Greek: axiômata]. 345 which closely resembles ours. §19. (1) one of the five senses. Sentiet .. Carneades said. footnote. 40 notiones rerum is given. Agam. also [Greek: skiagraphein]. quom. and P. treats this as a gloss: on the other hand I think it appropriate and almost necessary.g. 79. 480. Cic. Pyrrh. Inter eum . II. I. Consentaneum: so Sextus constantly uses [Greek: . Sensibus: it is important to observe that the word sensus like [Greek: aisthêsis] means two things. a man might really be in pain when he fancied himself in pleasure. Cicero.F.. 344.. there is an extraordinary instance in Plaut. cantibus: Halm after Dav.F. Sui iudicii: see for the gen. [Greek: anthrôpos esti zôon logikon thnêton. Emp. Umbris . III.g. Sine quibus: [Greek: dia gar tôn ennoiôn ta pragmata lambanetai] Diog. insaniat: For the sequence cf.F. Cont.. (2) an individual act of sensation. eminentia: Pliny (see Forc. De remo inflexo et de collo columbae: cf. §20. seems to consider that the [Greek: axiôma]. 82. Here we rise to a definition.. In I. nou kai epistêmês dektikon]. Epicurus hoc viderit: see 79. and Aesch. 62 and Wesenberg's fine note on T. 101. III. by Sext. Antiochus declared that the Academics could not be held to be philosophers if they had not even confidence in their one dogma (29). §22. 470. cf.. Adv.e. Aug. 27). 27. Madv. Pyrrhon. along with numerous other instances of the deceptiveness of sense. and this among them. Interiorem: see R. to be infallible. comparing 39. Quia sentiatur: [Greek: aisthêsis] being their only [Greek: kritêrion].. 208--211. Gram. Sext.

42. potest esse and the like. Math. Sextus often comments on similar complaints of the Stoics.. Lux is properly natural light. see on 21. Antiochus' Physics. Artem vivendi: "tralaticium hoc apud omnes philosophos" M. but gives no exx. 29. II. In quibus: the antecedent is not virtutum. Memoriae certe: n. Adv. if consistent. V. 11. III. but I think C. on 106. Potius quam aut: Lamb." and cf. Impellimur: [Greek: kinoumetha].. Madv. Ad Att. Aliud eiusmodi genus sit: this distinction is as old as Plato and Arist. 42. and is of constant occurrence in the late philosophy. 188 [Greek: technên einai systêma ek katalêpseon syngegymnasmenôn] ib. cf. I. 4. §26. D. 368.D. Adv. Cf. II. p. Cum quid agere: cf. Zeller 88. Cf. III. not esse putat etc." The notion that the verb contingit denotes necessarily good fortune is quite unfounded. Non poterit: as the Academics allege. VII. I doubt whether the phrase maiestate alienum (without the preposition) can be right in De Div. 1) but not often vice versa. Hyp.F. Quam: for the change from plural to singular (perceptio in universum) cf.F. cf. esp. R. Cont.D. Tollitur: the verb tollere occurs as frequently in this sense as [Greek: anairein] does in Sextus.D. 52. Adv. dux The expression dux vitae is of course frequent (cf. 73. possint: nearly all edd.. I. D. XI. Primum: out of place. 23 for the phrase Naturae accommodatum. and P. aget: occurrit is probably the perfect. also M. Hyp. Sextus constantly talks about [Greek: hê oneiropoloumenê peri ton bion technê] (Pyrrh. Em. 23). I. 139. Liv. "the luminary and the lamp of life. 262 with I. II. 1. never inserts ut after potius quam with the subj. 390. 367. a purely Stoic expression.F. 19 and n.). §23. 1 and 2. 270. D. 238--239.Part III of Varro's Exposition. III. on I. 280 [Greek: ou dioisei tês atechnias hê technê]. 75. 39. XI. Trans.. on 127. Sext. lehre. R.F. 16. Ille vir bonus: in all ancient systems. De Off. V. Oportet videri: "ought to be seen. Repugnaret: cf. I. n. Quid quod si: Goer. the famous abiit. Cf.D. 197 who adds a third class of [Greek: technai] called [Greek: apotelesmatikai] to the usual [Greek: theôrêtikai] and [Greek: praktikai]. constituti: cf. Sext. where [Greek: poiêtikê] corresponds to the [Greek: apot. 168 sq).. also III. 5 and Lucretius). Naturae . contineant in 40. V. and P. 29. 17. 102. and Munro's n. 17. I. but the subj. Ex multis animi perceptionibus: the same definition of an art occurs in N. 41. III.F. 52 affirms that ut is frequently found. 38. lumina dimiseramus. Continget: "will be the natural consequence. Adv. 269 where . Hyp. 12 who says the sapiens of the Academy must be desertor officiorum omnium. 250) the existence of which he disproves to his own satisfaction (Adv. Memoria falsorum: this difficulty is discussed in Plato Sophist. 40. 13... which form is especially rare at the end of a clause. 391. Comprehensi . Zeller 450. Math. Qui distingues: Sext. n. Orelli) supposes and gets into difficulty thereby. si. 26. 45 solis luce . N. Sext. Stabilem: [Greek: bebaion kai ametaptôtou]. lumen lucernae. Iis rebus: note the assumption that the sensation corresponds to the thing which causes it. 61. 38 and D. with notes. I. uses this adjective with the dat.F. T. lumen artificial. 250.. nec satis lucebat. XVI.D. Cognitio: like Germ.D. even the Epicurean. 88 akolouthon]. also Quint. where the best texts still keep it. but there is no need to alter. cf. of [Greek: katalêpsis] here. and also with the ablative preceded by ab. 18 (see Madv. Pyrrh. [Greek: hômoiômenon tê physei]. ut. D. I. and the similar description of the [Greek: sophos] in Plato's Gorgias. not merely the virtues but also all [Greek: epistêmê] depends on [Greek: katalêpseis].D.F." Lucretius often passes rapidly from the one use to the other. II. 40.. Pyrrh.D. cf. footnote. 86. outrageously reads quid quod si.F. Quint. excessit. before Halm read possunt. II. Ac. Goer. For the meaning cf... II. Adsensus sit ." For this use cf. 18. but multa. Sext.F. 41. the happiness of the sapiens must be proof against the rack. alienum: Cic. Em. III. VII. Tischer on T. Videri at the end of this section has the weak sense.] of Sext. crupit.. Math. I. Math. 81 and 122 of this book. 292 ed. as often. II.. expresses the possibility as present to the mind of the supposed vir bonus. III. cf. V. Extremum: similar attempts to translate [Greek: telos] are made in D. Non occurrit . §24. Tractabit: [Greek: mellei metacheirizesthai]. Zeller 227. There is the same difference between [Greek: phôs] and [Greek: phengos]. be [Greek: anenergêtos en biôi] (Sext.. Lux lumenque: Bentl. VIII. evasit. Hermann is right in asserting after Wopkens that Cic. the branch of learning which concerns the virtues. nearly always writes putat esse. VII. is quite wrong in taking it to be a trans. Agere: the dogmatist always held that the sceptic must. as Petrus Valentia (p. T. the latter is used for the former ([Greek: phengos hêliou]) just as lumen is for lux (si te secundo lumine his offendere--Ad Att. §25. This is shown by etiam. Quae potest esse: Cic. Madv. Aug. Math. Continet: cf. see Tischer on T. Gram. 148. 17. I. III. II. "to seem.

14. Math. as the sceptic says. II. 3. 109. Antiochus' Physics. Pressius: cf. VII. Sapientique satis non sit: so Manut. Madv. 33. De Leg. 45. His mind is naturally formed for the attainment of knowledge (30). T.F. Similar arguments are very frequent in Sextus. 96 of this book. sentis in D. Initium . [Greek: logon dia tôn mallon katalambanomenôn to hêtton katalambanomenon perainonta] (if the reading be right). 79. and D.F. I think it very likely that the MSS. Opusc. 17. had changed to quae a quovis.g. which terms are of frequent occurrence. 21. cf. 109 of this book. It is more likely to be a trans. [Greek: phasei men phasis epischethêsetai] (ib. for the sapientisque sit of the MSS. D.. [Greek: ouk estin anankaion tas ekeinon] (the dogmatists) [Greek: dogmatologias probainein. the former meant by them "the undestructibly true and false. Now they on the one hand profess . which edd. II. I. Lex veri rectique: cf. "in my probabile. IV. Consentaneum esse: [Greek: akolouthon einai]. 46 ed. Sapientiae . 367)." Others distinguish between the absolute absence of certainty.D. Fluctuare: "to be at sea. 143 [Greek: logos di' homologoumenôn lêmmatôn] (premisses) [Greek: kata synagôgên epiphoran] (conclusion) [Greek: ekkalyptôn adêlon]. is supported by D. Gram. I. Ut alia: although others.F.. 14. obs. 89 the [Greek: phantasia] is called [Greek: phengos]. the sceptic doctrine must be provable. §27. but the deponent verb is not elsewhere found in Cic.g. Nobbe. VIII. where the dogmatist argues that if proof be impossible. ekkalyptikos] etc. a fixed dogma. I. De Fato 31. II. throw the whole of life into confusion (31). De Off. Hyp. on 92." Extremum expetendi: a rather unusual phrase for the ethical finis.D. With respect to physical science.F. 26. telos]. VII. §29. Cf. Perceptum: thoroughly known and grasped. II. to which Guietus thought to be ratio above. Eth.Part III of Varro's Exposition.. the statements in the text are in no sense arguments. Ad Att. III. 241. of [Greek: synagein]. the constitutio veri and the determination of what is rectum in morals are the two main tasks of philosophy. with the Academics. the definition very often given by Sext. reads sapientis. N. where si placet is appended in a similar way. Those then who deny that any certainty can be attained through the senses. §28. I.F. which I think is wrong. Decretum: of course the Academics would say they did not hold this [Greek: dogma] as stabile fixum ratum but only as probabile. and so gradually arrives at virtue. III." Halm fluctuari. and the denial of its absolute presence. Sextus passim. Est ut opinor: so Halm after Ernesti for sit of the MSS. The subj. exitus = [Greek: archê ." This being so. Aristot. Some sceptics say "we cannot help it. 20. II. Hyp. where ut opinor is thrown in as here. they are mere assertions. 8. e. 281. cf. and that the whole expression is an imitation of the Greek [Greek: hikanos eioêsthô] and the like. Sentitis enim: cf. and conclusum argumentum of [Greek: synaktikos logos]. Cognoscendi initium: cf. Summa: cf. which gives the exact opposite of the sense required. Finis: so in the beginning of the Nicom. VIII. Ratum: cf. III. Pyrrh. 141. Math. with facio and fio see Madv. I. for if the ellipse be supplied the construction will run neque dubitari potest quin satis sit. Postulanti: making it a necessity for the discussion. XIII. the nom. also Diog. says. Summary. Adv. I. Quae visa: so Halm for MSS. 337). 24. 86. we might urge that nature has constructed man with great art. Rationibus progredi: to a similar question Sextus answers. The word is mocked in 109. 20. 440 a. and by Ac. Tenetur: MSS. For this purpose the mind uses the senses. n. Halm after Dav..D. 21. 26. "This I have. tenet. 5. N. Hortensius fragm. 29. plasmatôdeis hyparchousas] (Adv. Notio: another trans.F. Veri falsi: cf. §§30--36.M. quaevis. [Greek: psilê phasei ison pheretai psilê phasis] (A. Veri falsique: these words were used in different senses by the dogmatist and the sceptic. Ut moveri non possint: so [Greek: kineisthai] is perpetually used in Sext. of [Greek: ennoia]. [Greek: Apodeixis]: cf. and cf. e. Let us deal with these rather than with the former (32). Conclusisse: although the Greeks used [Greek: symperasma] instead of [Greek: epiphora] sometimes for the conclusion of the syllogism." the Academic would reply. futurum est: for the dat. as Sext. summa philosophiae D. assumes that the actual existence of human exertion is a sufficient proof that there is a [Greek: telos]. 370. Aperta: a reminiscence of the frequently recurring Greek terms [Greek: ekkalyptein. reading is right. neque satis sit. Gram. which is the perfection of the reason. there must be a proof to show it impossible. Tantum abest ut--ut: cf.. Repudiari: the selection depended on the probabile of course.. 226 (and elsewhere) accuses them of making it in reality what in words they professed it not to be. 30. they did not use the verb [Greek: symperainein] which has been supposed to correspond to concludere.. Sextus however Pyrrh. D. 315).

VII. V. how can a thing be "evident" at all if it may be after all a mere phantom (34)? There is no definite mark. Artificio: this word is used in Cic. which is constantly hurled at the dogmatists by the sceptics. I." "go so far as to complain.F. 41. wrote dicimus. also 54 of this book. 260. p. prima or primo. Orelli gave constituit. Docere: "to prove.M. see Madv. Theaet. and the passages he quotes. Adv. 17. For the sense see n. Cf. the sceptic is called [Greek: embrontêtos] for rejecting the [Greek: katalêptikê phantasia]. cf. Math. Lucem eripere: like tollere (n. dicemus: For the repetition cf. as in 24. n. Ut virtutem efficiat: note that virtue is throughout this exposition treated as the result of the exercise of the reason.F.. virtus. Cf. 6. 16. Even if they only profess to decide after careful pondering of the circumstances. animans is therefore wrong. 350 [Greek: kai hoi men diapherein autên tôn aisthêseôn. II.F. 98. on 16. Intenderemus: as in the exx.H. "In vera et aperta partitione nec Cicero nec alius quisquam aliquis--alius dixit. De Sto. Quem ad modum primum: so Halm rightly for MSS. Cic. How can a thing be said to be "evidently white. 90. Stellarum numerus: this typical uncertainty is constantly referred to in Sext. The word. 12. on 121. 44. So in Sext. XIV. on the other hand says he can produce 50 exx.. 75. II. V. in treating of the same subject. there. also Zeller 79. Qui haec distinguunt: the followers of Carneades rather than those of Arcesilas. and on the other hold that no absolutely certain method for distinguishing between true and false is possible (33).. 38. It will be noted that [Greek: synkatathesis] must take place before the [Greek: hormê] is roused. 60. Perfecta: sapientia.g. Adv. n. also 61. Libertatem et licentiam: et = "and even. Etiam queruntur: "actually complain. All powers of sensation with the Stoics. n. not merely anima. and M.... allows animus to all animals. III. Democritus: cf. 38. 6." M. II. see 23. abstruserit: "because she has hidden. hoi de autên einai tas aisthêseis . 41. Math. III. 317. Ut dixi . Primum is out of position. 45. II. The rule given by Forc. e.D. cf. Math. Lamb. animo: Cic. which.D. Similitudinibus: [Greek: kath' homoiôsin] Sext. and cf. [Greek: diaphoran einai adêlou kai akatalêptou.. I.D. Notitiae: cf. §31. fails to distinguish between the [Greek: physikai ennoiai] or [Greek: koinai] which are the [Greek: prolêpseis]. VII. 146. This is absurd. 1057 a). which latter is not often followed by deinde in Cicero. 33 it receives its proper meaning. which occurs passim in Sext. For [Greek: hormê] see 24. 147. Fabricata esset: the expression is sneered at in 87. Antiochus' Physics.F. he forbears however. we reply that a decision which is still possibly false is useless (36). Vitaeque constantiam: which philosophy brings." Inter incertum: cf. on I. 185. n. VIII. on I. cf.v. Pr." if the possibility remains that it may be really black? Again. n. VII." cf. II. especially Sext. say the sceptics. 38. D. Their "probability" then is mere random guess work (35). I. So in the . Abditis rebus et obscuris: cf. Alia quasi: so Faber for aliqua. 90 to distinguish between true and false. are almost convertible terms in the expositions of Antiocheanism found in Cic. Cognitio is used to translate [Greek: katalêpsis] in D. Construit: so MSS. 83. 191. on I.. 21. A. §30. a thing cannot be known at all unless by such marks as can appertain to no other thing. 20. perfecta ratio. Numenius in Euseb. and the word [Greek: syneskiasmenos] Sext. The future tense is odd and unlike Cic." Libertas = [Greek: parrêsia] as often in Tacitus.F. for which see Madv. M.D. I. Cf. Ev. for this and other inaccuracies of Cic. §32. "analogies" will here best translate the word. Adv. cf. to produce them. on I. 15. is used in the same wide sense in N. hês staseôs êrxe Straton]. Appetitio pulsa: = mota. Cic. Adv. hôs hoi pleious. cf. s. in the Stoic system. Math. uses this word as including all processes by which the mind gets to know things not immediately perceived by sense. is here put by way of retort. on 29. as Lamb. given in 20. Incerta: [Greek: adêla].F. Physicis: neuter not masc. who are perhaps imitated here. Goer. Temeritate: [Greek: propeteia]. Per se: [Greek: kath' autên]. In D. Cognitionem: [Greek: epistêmên]. 22. 114 and De Or. Hyp. Quae . cf. were included in the [Greek: hêgemonikon]. 63. Animal . multo minus alius--aliquis. VII. eversio in 99. In Sext. of the usage. set in motion. III. 2. 22 38. VII. cf. III. 103 and N. P. 243. I would rather read dicamus. and those [Greek: ennoiai] which are the conscious product of the reason. on 26). I. kai panta men einai akatalêpta ou panta de adêla] (quoted as from Carneades). I. Fons: "reservoir. where it is reckoned among things [Greek: aiônion echonta agnôsian]. n.Part III of Varro's Exposition." rather than "source" here. 135. 373 [Greek: mnêmê] is called [Greek: thêsaurismos phantasiôn].. Rerumque: "facts". by which a thing may be known. Evertunt: cf.D. Pyrr. as equivalent to ars in all its senses. there is no need to read propter. Recondit: so the [Greek: ennoiai] are called [Greek: apokeimenai noêseis] (Plut. Repug. 7. Ipse sensus est: an approach to this theory is made in Plat." Alii autem: note the ellipse of the verb. 26.

. is perfectly sound. 181--189). VII. Percipi atque comprehendi: Halm retains the barbarous ac of the MSS.M. making a pause between quis and quem. (Sext.F. 18. Cont. Cf. 167--175). [Greek: aponenoêmenous tinas]. 14 erit notius quale sit. merely from love of variety. also II.g. The merely [Greek: pithanê] is that sensation which at first sight. comparing Orator 160. Signo notari: signo for nota. Moveri: this probably refers to the speech of Catulus. II.M. Communitas: [Greek: aparallaxia] or [Greek: epimixia tôn phantasiôn]. and still prefer to construe quem as a strong relative. Parad. V. 127. Sext. of [Greek: akribôs] or [Greek: kat' akribeian] (passim in Sext.H. 67). of [Greek: katalambanesthai]. before the guttural. De Div. The [Greek: diexôdeumenê] ("thoroughly explored") requires more than a mere apparent agreement of the concomitant sensations with the principal one. and the frequent phrase [Greek: kinêma tês dianoias].) The word "undisputed.D. VIII. considered spurious in the first clause. Communis: the [Greek: aparallaktos] of Sextus. Veri et falsi: these words Lamb. 18. Ac. A. of the latter phrase in Zeller 524 "probable undisputed and tested" is imperfect. cf. Antiochus' Physics. is a misleading trans. 30 explains this thus. Eodem modo falsum: Sext. 47. A. Subtiliter: Cic.W. of the term. 410. 49). VII.H. cf. [Greek: diakenos helkysmos] (ib." He is wrong however in thinking that Cic. 76. agree in ve for ne. [Greek: apoleipein] is constantly used as the opposite of [Greek: anairein] (tollere). and the soundness or unsoundness of his eyes (Sext.H. It is quite impossible that Cic. 164 (R. 143 corrected the corrupt MSS. Greek [Greek: kenopathein] (Sext. it means "within the limits of." and is so used after notare in De Or. Aliquos: contemptuous. II. 3 (inaniter moveri). 186. Visionem: Simply another trans. Ad Fam.M. 354). VIII. §34. VII. 1). and P. readings. esp.H.. I will give Sextus' own explanation. XV. Verum illud quidem: "which is indeed what they call 'true'. "You talk about a rule for distinguishing between the true and the false while you do away with the notion of true and false altogether. or during which they continue. seems probably true (Sext. Sext. Ut inter rectum et pravum: the sceptic would no more allow the absolute certainty of this distinction than of the other. see Introd. T. . [Greek: kenopathêmata kai anaplasmata tês dianoias] (ib. III. but surely their repetition is pointed and appropriate.F.. and Halm brackets.. I do not think our passage at all analogous to those he quotes. 123). A. without any further inquiry." therefore.g.M. God only "telleth the number of the stars. IX. This last is only called [Greek: aperispastos] when examination has shown all the concomitant sensations to be in harmony with it. The two verbs are both trans. For the meaning see n. A. IV. §33. II. the disposition of the person's mind. Aug. a term used with varying signification by all the later Greek schools. n. Inaniterne moveatur: MSS. 35. privaverit. A. e.D. P." Cf. and the apparent intervals between the person and the objects. 164 (R. 411). M. and P. 97 sq. pluribus notatum vocabulis idem declarantibus. the percipient subject has always other synchronous sensations which are able to turn him aside ([Greek: perispan. Ut Carneades: see Sext. 51. Proprium: so Sext. 120. P. 126. could have written it. Cic. possit dicere. in an important n. of [Greek: phantasia]. 15 refers to this passage. Lamb. the condition of the space within which they occur. As the trans.F. 184). often uses [Greek: idioma]. 20. VII. D. A.'s constant trans. which must have been preserved in the second edition. the time at which they occur. 33 agrestis aliquos. VII.D. also 175. on D. only uses the word once in the plural (Ad Att. 403. Ut si quis: Madv. on I. Inaniter = [Greek: kenôs] = [Greek: pseudôs]. proceeds as usual on the principle thus described in D. A. and P.M. P. II. P. on 18. on 47.M. Convicio: so Madv. as above 175--181. II. 166 [Greek: tên te pithanên phantasian kai tên pithanên hama kai aperispaston kai diexôdeumenên] (R. I. the Academics are not open to the criticism here attempted. Cf. Zumpt on Pro Murena 13 rightly defines the Ciceronian use of the word. 13. on which see M. p.Part III of Varro's Exposition. A. [Greek: diakenos phantasia] (ib. [Greek: koinê phantasia alêthous kai pseudous] Sext. perielkein]) from the one which is the immediate object of his attention. VIII. 110." The discussion here really turns on the use of terms. for it occurs N. VII. Relinquitur: so in Sext. If it is fair to use the term "true" to denote the probably true. Perspicua: [Greek: enargê]." Impressum: n. III. IV. ista ratione si quis . e. III. though bracketed by Halm after Manut. "Non unum maledictum appellatur convicium sed multorum verborum quasi vociferatio." cf. Em. "in whose vision true and false are confused. 410) [Greek: oudemia estin alêthês phantasia hoia ouk an genoito pseudês]. Notam: the [Greek: sêmeion] of Sextus. 111 tam vera quam falsa cernimus. Now no sensation is perceived alone. Circumstances quite external to the sensations themselves must be examined. 410). the state of the air. 140 (per se moveri). and elsewhere. 241). [Greek: kenopatheia] (= inanis motus.F. The in before communi. IV. II. 91 Psalms.

and those which are deduced from sensations. Quam proxime: cf. II. and also 7. They first give a general definition of sensation. It is the impact of the sensation from without. V. cf. P. Inanimum: not inanimatum. M. partly not. 92 §36. Mind. etc. partly false. [Greek: hôsper themelios] in Sext. 22. Artem: method. quaestionem: cf.F.D. [Greek: Oikeion]: cf. VIII. IV. made moral action depend on the freedom of the will. 23. VII. not the assent given to it. 50. 36. or allow it to assent to phenomena (37). Em. The following two assertions they strive to prove. on 33. Insigne: [Greek: sêmeion]."] §40. 796. 25. and you cannot be sure of uniting each appearance to the thing from which it proceeds. Neminem etc. and then lay down the different classes of sensations. III. 40..H. on I.: i. Quae est in nostra: Walker's insertion of non before est is needless. §35. 15 of the Ac. V. Cf. Contineant . §37. Quo obscurato: so Lamb. Explicabamus: 19--21 and 30 (quae vis esset in sensibus). Summary. Antiochus' Physics. see 33. the change of construction from infin. esp. Totidem verbis: of course with a view to showing that nothing really corresponded to the definition.F. memory. 39). seems to be thinking of the word [Greek: tekmêrion]. 69 §38. p. also 66 of this book. if you have a number of things. the false cannot of course be real perceptions. for the passive use of videri. etc. to subj. however. emitting a number of appearances.M. Carneades largely used the reductio ad absurdum method. Post. Agit aliquid: I. Mayor on Iuv. but the sceptics throughout are supposed to rob people of their senses. Neque sentire: Christ om. §§37--40. n. the arts and virtue itself. while the true are always of a form which the false may assume. M. the Stoics hardly use.Part III of Varro's Exposition. are universally made. Sensations are partly true. eixis] in Sext. [Greek: tôn de aisthêtikôn meta eixeôs kai synkatatheseôs ginontai [hai phantasia]]. see n. has a form which it might have if it proceeded from an unreality (41). 22 and T..F ed. Eripitur: cf. Primo quasi adspectu: the merely [Greek: pithanê phantasia] is here meant. cannot be partly capable of being perceived. You must either therefore deprive it of sensation.D. which. Cedere: cf. partly false. A. 4. (2) every sensation which proceeds from a reality. (1) false sensations cannot be perceptions. Quasi fundamenta: a trans. they say.D. Now sensations which are indistinguishable from false cannot be partly perceptions.. The Academics have a regular method. Two admissions. Argumentum: Cic. 397 [Greek: to men gar phantasiôthênai aboulêton ên]). 65 . 230. (2) sensations which are indistinguishable from false. which see. VII. 193. Primum quia . partly not. who were fatalists as a rule. 40. they divide perceptions into those which are sensations. Diog. n. There is therefore no sensation which is also a perception (40). see n. Id quod significatur: [Greek: to sêmeiônton] in Sext. IV. cannot be partly perceptions. on 25. 40. 25. 131. the same as nota and signum above. N. [The word "perception" is used to mean "a certainly known sensation. require a firm assent to be given to some phenomena. To prove these propositions. then you can have no faith in any appearance even if you have gone through the process required by Carneades' rules. In nostra potestate: this may throw light on fragm. Vim: the general character which attaches to all [Greek: phantasiai]. 30. Virtus: even the Stoics. 20. for MSS. partly not capable.F.M. A.. Then they put forward their two strong arguments. Tollit e vita: so De Fato 29.e.. neque. cf. after necesse est on D. 47. De Fato 9. §39. obscuro which Halm keeps. (2) sensations must be assumed to be of the same form if our faculties do not enable us to distinguish between them.D. (1) things which produce sensations such as might have been produced in the same form by other things. I. Ante videri aliquid for the doctrine cf. Summary The distinction of an animal is to act. cf.D. deinde: for the slight anacoluthia. probably of [Greek: themelios] or the like. Adsentitur statim: this really contradicts a good deal that has gone before. on I. [Greek: eikein. Then they proceed. For in potestate cf. after which they show that credit cannot be given to either class (42). (1) sensations are partly true. cf. that is involuntary (Sext.: the [Greek: diexôdeumenê]. I. 177. Memoriam: cf.: they are content to make strong statements without any mark of certainty. §§40--42. 34. 51. he therefore who does away with assent does away with all action in life (38. Adsentiatur: the passive use is illustrated by Madv. genera the different classes of [Greek: phantasiai]. M. quam obscurari volunt in 42 and quo sublato in 33. cf. Ex circumspectione. Iis visis. Ad verum ipsum: cf. like [Greek: technê].

93 una res videtur causam continere. Sext. of Dav. our sensations do not give us correct information about them. 438. Alia vera sunt: Numenius in Euseb. Adiuncta: Sext. obscurare is against Cic. aided by reason. Madv. on I. n.e. the em. If we could only pierce through a sensation and arrive at its source. if even the definition is firmly known.H. 51 fulgor ab auro. though nearly all editors attack them. the thing from which the appearance proceeds) [Greek: oudeis isôs amphisbêtei. §43. change from recta oratio to obliqua. Sext. 24. Horum: Lamb. iis quae a sensibus ducuntur. etc. Cf. just as their "truth" was (cf." Vel illa vera: these words seem to me genuine. Vel = "even" i. 209 [Greek: mochthêrous horous einai tous periechontas ti tôn mê prosontôn tois horistois]. we should be able to tell whether to believe the sensation or not. Here the things are meant. 85. it is enough if he can show that human faculties are not perfect enough to discern whatever difference may exist. 20. therefore C. §§43--45. An Academic would say in reply to the question. I. Impediri . Reasoning can only proceed upon certain premisses. quae ad sensus pertinent cf. Nihil interesse autem: the sceptic is not concerned to prove the absolute similarity of the two sensations which come from the two dissimilar things. (2) if the definition is applicable only to one thing. 33 eodem modo. 22 [Greek: peri men tou phaisthai toion ê toion to hypokeimenon] (i. I. (D. 30) thinks. Antiochus' Physics. III.. A little closer attention to the subject matter would have shown emendation to be unnecessary. For the sense cf. also VII. Cf.M. The sceptics ought not to define. Ev. but omnibus hardly ever stands for omn. Omni consuetudine: "general experience" [Greek: empeiria]. 8.e. which was constantly in the mouths of sceptics. 410) [Greek: pasêi tê dokousêi alêthei kathestanai eurisketai tis aparallaktos pseudês]. A. cf. Neque enim: a remark of Lucullus' merely. two things are supposed to cause two sensations so similar that the person who has one of the sensations cannot tell from which of the two things it comes. as some modern sceptics have done. Gram.D. P.F. as Madv. 33. the text however is quite right. Occurretur: not an imitation of . Non posse accidere: this is a very remarkable. P. see e. pars = subdivision. De reliquis: i. harum. Quam obscurari volunt: cf. reads potest. Let us discuss the matter farther. §42. not things. and the schoolmen's maxim definitio non debet latior esse definito suo. that thing must be capable of being thoroughly known and distinguished from others (43). it is wrong to assume that sensation and thing correspond. rebus. ejected this. "probably it cannot. Sext. where genus = division. n. P.. In sensus: = in ea. cf. granting the existence of the things. I. cf. transferri: I need hardly point out that the [Greek: horos] of the Academics was merely founded on probability. II. VII.g.'s usage. Possit: for the om. quod explanari volebant. As we cannot do this.e. and. 4 says Carneades allowed that truth and falsehood (or reality and unreality) could be affirmed of things. which is more important. §41. 83. peri de tou ei toiouton estin hopoion phainetai zêteitai]. Halm with Manut.F. cf. can lead to knowledge (45). Partibus: Orelli after Goer. the actual existence of things which cause sensations. Pr. for (1) a definition cannot be a definition of two things. that of Christ quam observari nolunt is wanton without being ingenious. of esse cf. In singulisque rebus: the word rebus must mean subjects. Again to say that there are false sensations is to say that there are true ones. Luminibus: cf. 29.. though not of sensations. Summary. fatebuntur: essentially the same argument as in 33 at the end.H. Num illa definitio . 214 b. [Greek: protaseis] passim in Sext. In falsum: note that falsum = aliam rem above. In illa vera we have a pointed mocking repetition like that of veri et falsi in 33. Neither Carneades nor Arcesilas ever denied.H. and P. II. Quae ita: it is essential throughout this passage to distinguish clearly the sensation (visum) from the thing which causes it. 101. Quod sit a vero: cf. Eiusdem modi: cf. §44. 14. then you contradict yourselves and say there is none (44). Munio on Lucr. Proposita: cf. you acknowledge therefore a difference. 164 (R. must also be known. to which the words in minima dispertiunt would hardly apply. but I will not affirm it. Nihilo magis: = [Greek: ouden mallon]. N. on 29). 18.. they simply maintained that. impossible. For the purposes of reasoning their probabile is not enough. I.Part III of Varro's Exposition. 42 dividunt in partis. I. 101. Under these circumstances the sceptics urge that it is absurd to divide things into those which can be perceived (known with certainty) and those which cannot. the thing. I. T. Minime volunt: cf. XIV.D. Hermann reads pariter rebus for partibus. The innate clearness of visa.

"in the class of things passed over. Interrogationibus: cf. It must not be repeated after the . cf. (1) they do not make a serious endeavour to see the light by which these phenomena are surrounded. Gram. in themselves. The criticism in 50 shows that the argument is meant to be based on the assumption known to be Stoic. §45. does sometimes use this word like ratio ([Greek: syllogismos]). omnibus veris visis adiuncta esse falsa. After long consideration I elucidate it as follows. II. separately [Greek: lêmma] and [Greek: proslêpsis] (sumptio et adsumptio De Div II. VIII. Fab. §§46--48. in remissis Orat. denotes false sensations such as have only a slight degree of resemblance to the true. 430. etc. affirmed of Epicurus in D. ekkalyptikos.Part III of Varro's Exposition. (2) their faith is shaken by sceptic paradoxes (46). VIII. Confuse loqui: the mark of a bad dialectician. Further. 27. [Greek: ekkalyptein. A. Lucullus confuses essential with apparent difference. but probable (as the Stoics say he does in dreams). where see n.M.. omnia deum posse. 283. Madv. A.)? Probabilia. 48 conclusa oratio. For the phrase cf. The dogmatists say they admit that mere phantom sensations do command assent. 5. 150. Primum igitur .. Quae in somnis videantur: for the support given by Stoics to all forms of divination see Zeller 166. refers to Gell. Dissolvere: [Greek: apolyesthai] in Sext. 94 [Greek: enantiousthai] as Goer. 34. a phantom behind which there is no reality at all. 80. that two sensations caused by two really existing things may be mistaken the one for the other? (47). which is severely criticised by Madv. they urge that a phantom sensation produces very often the same effect as a real one. and Terence. The whole is an attempt to prove the proposition announced in 41 and 42 viz. For Epicurus' view of sensation see n.. 44. from those which either are mere phantoms or. why can he not manufacture false sensations which are so probable as to closely resemble true ones. sed tamen: for the slight anacoluthia cf. but of [Greek: apantan]. might be true or false. 455 obs. called together [Greek: lêmmata]. I. while in Cic. XV. Summary. There are two ways in which a sensation may be false. it occurs mostly in the Letters. Why should they not admit that they command assent when they so closely resemble real ones as to be indistinguishable from them? (48) §46. or finally to be utterly indistinguishable from the true (this meaning of inter quae nihil sit omnino is fixed by 40.. dêlôtikos] (the last in Sext. Non iungitur: a supposed case of [Greek: diartêsis]. Gram. 108). nihil sit omnino: this difficult passage can only be properly explained in connection with 50 and with the general plan of the Academics expounded in 41. 122 circumfusa tenebris. A.F. having a real source.g. then. Circumfusa sint: Goer. Praeteritis: here used in the strong participial sense. Madv. sunt on the ground that the clause quanta sint is inserted [Greek: parenthetikôs]! Orelli actually follows him. I may add that in Sextus pure syllogisms are very frequently called [Greek: erôtêseis]. when there is nothing interrogatory about the argument at all. The usage is mostly colloquial and is very common in Plaut. retains the MSS. do not correctly represent it." cf. De Div. (2) it may be a mere [Greek: phantasma] or [Greek: anaplasma tês dianoias]. why then do you not allow what is easier. Inaniter: cf.M. §47. 277) often recur in Greek.. but be supposed by the person who feels it to be caused by a totally different thing. or to be only with difficulty distinguishable from the true. but affirmed that human faculties were incapable of distinguishing those visa which proceed from real things and give a correct representation of the things. Nulla sunt: on the use of nullus for non in Cic. Patefacturum: n. Occurrere: cf. The refusal of people to assent to the innate clearness of some phenomena ([Greek: enargeia]) is due to two causes. De Leg. I. cf. 480. I. which is opposed to [Greek: synartêsis] and explained in Sext. 26. Carneades allowed that visa. on 26. 5 where I showed that the words interrogatio and conclusio are convertible. on 79. The word probabilia is a sort of tertiary predicate after efficere ("to manufacture so as to be probable"). e.. VIII. Cic. nihil interesse: there is no inconsistency. Assentati: here simply = assensi. Em. is qui videtur. and that he often introduces a new argument by [Greek: erôtatai kai touto]. (1) it may come from one really existent thing. If the god can manufacture (efficere) sensations which are false. 7. says. Antiochus' Physics. by the three succeeding stages the resemblance is made complete. which occurs very frequently in Sext. 59. Quonam modo . Sumpta: the two premisses are in Gk. The sceptics argue thus: you allow that mere phantom sensations are often seen in dreams. Quaerunt: a slight anacoluthon from dicatis above. Iis qui videntur: Goer.M. Orationis: as Faber points out. Profiteatur: so [Greek: hypischneisthai] is often used by Sext. Primum esse .

Vitiosum: cf. Antiochus attacked these arguments as soritae. say our opponents.D. as [Greek: dianoia] is in Greek. §52. [Greek: tini]. and you get the real view of the Academic. who would allow that things in their essence are divisible into sharply-defined genera. "you allow that the wise man in madness withholds his assent." This proves nothing. 112. De Rep. see Madv. see De Div. 47. 46. to whose exx. D. De Div. i. This we deny (52). add De Div." say they. and therefore faulty (49). Una depulsio: cf. 45. wrote ac before eorum. vitiosum above. 11 (where Cic. etc. Most edd. and an instance of proximus quisque in De Off. so that his proposed trans.F. cf. I. Hoc vocant: i. II. Nihil ut esset: the ut here is a repetition of the ut used several times in the early part of the sentence. Sin autem sunt. 47. 50 ille sorites. therefore used it to avoid writing ac before a vowel. IV. cf. Cic. as the c before a guttural condemned in n. Primum quidque: not quodque as Klotz. see n. II. says the Greek word was already naturalised. D. who. 58 for sit. All this talk about dreamers. Plane proxime: = quam proxime of 36. Klotz alter into narrat. for MSS. on 34. §50. VII. ejects. 241 [Greek: êtoi tôn ektos ê tôn en hêmin pathôn]. fragm. hoc. 48 and notes. this however is as impossible in Cic. II. most wantonly. however. 33 ut should probably be written (with Manut.: if there are false sensations which are probable (as the Stoics allow). VI.e.F. a rather poetical usage. A. I. II. In quiete: = in somno. Cogitatione: the only word in Latin. and n. 33. 1). etc. but would deny that the sensations which proceed from or are caused by the things. and the two classes of falsa visa mentioned in n." Non numquam: so Madv. §§49--53. D. falsum. II. often quotes him in the discussion of this and similar subjects. without the approach of any external object. unduly restricts the usage. II.. Hortens. When we have wakened from the dream. hoc genus. but merely that when one of them is present.F. Interrogationis: the sorites was always in the form of a series of questions. Eadem: this does not mean that the two sensations are merged into one. Vitium: cf. In three out of the five passages where he allows it to stand. Dav. non inquam. Dormienti: sc. III. The argument has the same purpose as that in the last section. que. on 47.e. Hor. Lamb. 136 (omnium somniorum una ratio est). Cic. Ipsa capita: [Greek: auta ta kephalaia]. Edormiverunt: "have slept off the . Simul ut: rare in Cic. it cannot be distinguished from the other. II. on 40. 41. Tale visum: i.: this famous dream of Ennius.e. quod absurdum est. Similes: after this sunt was added by Madv. De Div. after Manut. Goer. Antiochus' Physics. II.F. 95 §48. is referred to by Lucr. on 92. We contend that these phantom sensations lack that self evidence which we require before giving assent. recorded in his Annals. Scip. Ipsa per sese: simply = inaniter as in 34. De Div. are so divisible." "for instance. Ut probabile sit. Sext.F. why should there not be false sensations so probable as to be with difficulty distinguishable from the true? The rest exactly as in 47. viz to show that phantom sensations may produce the same effect on the mind as those which proceed from realities. 106 fac dare deos. read hos. 128 (omnium rerum una est definitio comprehendendi). and others) for et which Madv. cf.F. all of them alike depend on sic.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Omnia deum posse: this was a principle generally admitted among Stoics at least. acervalis is unnecessary). 124. 47. Intestinum et oblatum: cf." cf. quae prosunt. c. for he will do so in many other circumstances in life. on 33. II. Veri simile est: so Madv. the ut precedes a vowel.M.: cf. The admission of a certain amount of similarity between true and false sensations does not logically lead to the impossibility of distinguishing between the true and the false (50). 1. In suo genere essent: substitute esse viderentur for essent. D. n. M. quo nihil putatis (Stoici) vitiosius. or the whole sense will be inverted and this section placed out of harmony with 50. wrote non inquiunt with an interrogation at omnino. to express our "imagination. Visus Homerus. Antiochus: Sext. 75. which indeed in 136 is a necessary em. etc. 70 ex eo genere. expunged ut before esset and before quicquam. 50. we make light of the sensations we had while in it (51). "But. Primum interest: for om. 105. Epist. 86. II. om. second efficere. madmen and drunkards is unworthy our attention (53). Eorumque: MSS. of deinde cf.. 10 (Somn. while they last our dreaming sensations are as vivid as our waking ones. §49. §51. For the line of argument here cf. For the argument see n. so that in D. for MSS. But. Orelli. Ut si qui: the ut here is merely "as. Narravit: Goer. on 80 quasi vero quaeratur quid sit non quid videatur. III. Imbecillius: cf.

De Communi Notit. D. II." stands without the consequence "thou wouldst not have died. 408--410. viz. who took two twins. a good ex. 57). Cicero." or something of the kind. 94. Lucullus answers that. Ne hoc quidem: the common trans. the panegyrist of philosophy. The Academics fail to see that such doctrines do away with all probability even. without "if. Such a condition may be expressed without si. 35 seems to imply that he prefers the hypothesis of a suppressed protasis. while the other after a time asked for the money back and received it. 1077 ([Greek: hôs panta pragmata syncheousi]). III. VII. 157 ([Greek: syncheomen ton bion]). did no distinction exist. Another thing that they say is absurd. A. Summary. and Delian breeders of fowls could tell from the appearance of an egg which hen had laid it (56. amid the continued wonder of Hortensius (62. [Greek: apobrizein] in Homer. 78 and Mayor's n. etc. [Madv. "hadst thou but kept to thy word. and about the bad influence of authority! (60). Aliquando sustinere: the point of the Academic remark lay in the fact that in the state of madness the [Greek: epochê] of the sapiens becomes habitual. We however. Trans. 56 ([Greek: syncheousi ta pragmata]).F. Alban!" Here the condition "if thou hadst kept.M. especially at the end of a clause. [Greek: anienai tês orgês] Aristoph. adv." cf. §54. Sext. which Halm approves. he would give up the attempt to draw it. The dogmatists maintained that the similarity between two phenomena could never be great enough to render it ." so [Greek: chrêsthai] is used in Gk. while the Stoics contended that no two things were absolutely alike. even in the sane condition.. 4 he attempts no elucidation. Ran." cf. "tu dictis Albane maneres" may fairly be translated. on D. 56). II. 44. by Madv.M. I note that they can be most rationally explained as elliptic constructions in which a condition is expressed without its consequence. They press into their service the old physical philosophers. §53. has many such points of similarity with the Gk. eggs. 5. plunge us into more than Cimmerian darkness? (61) By holding that knowledge is impossible you weaken the force of your famous oath that you "knew all about" Catiline. nearly always places esse second. optative. 84--86. though ordinarily none are so much ridiculed by them (55). The Latin subj. and Orelli write num illud. who maintain that each thing has its own peculiar marks (55. Iuv. Cur eo non estis contenti: Lucullus here ignores the question at issue.. but as in his Gram. having absorbed most of the functions of the lost Lat. 62. 110. "not even" for "ne quidem" is often inappropriate. Sustinet: [Greek: epechei]. used to denote "non id quod fieret factumve esset. Can you. 700. and Orelli quite destroys the point of the sentence. VIII. Aristo the Chian. but not between classes of sensations (58). and made one deposit money with Aristo. The doctrine that true and false sensations are indistinguishable logically leads to the unqualified [Greek: epochê] of Arcesilas (59). Stoicos p. Relaxentur: cf. Habeant: the slight alteration habeat introduced by Goer. e. VIII. optative.] §§54--63. etc. Thus ended Lucullus. was a favourite theme with the sceptics. IV. relaxare is used in the neut. Confundere: so 58. n. qu." cf. and Baiter reads. Democritus may say that innumerable worlds exist in every particular similar to ours. Utimur: "we have to put up with. 35 of the subj. 96 effects.F. and even without [Greek: ei]) is susceptible of the same explanation. etc. The impossibility of distinguishing between twins. Ebriosorum: "habitual drunkards. who maintained the Stoic view. 63).F. just as in Eng. here "they do not see this either. Equally absurd are those "probable and undisturbed" sensations they profess to follow. Proferremus: this must apparently be added to the exx. do not much care whether we are able to distinguish eggs from one another or not. II. Plut." As such passages are often misunderstood.g. but the emphatic ille is often thus introduced by itself in questions. VIII. 372 ([Greek: holên syncheei tên philosophon zêtêsin]). sed quod fieri debuerit. I cannot be certain." more invidious than vinolenti above. Their talk about twins and seals is childish (54). see on 94. ib. Alcmaeonis: the Alcmaeon of Ennius is often quoted by Cic. The use of the Greek optative to express a wish (with [Greek: ei gar].Part III of Varro's Exposition.F. on D. was practically refuted by his fellow pupil Persaeus. Quod nolunt: cf. occurs in 136. What nonsense they talk about inquiring after the truth. On this subject cf.. Then Catulus said that he should not be surprised if the speech of Lucullus were to induce me to change my view (63). We have an exact parallel in English. Similitudines: cf. obs. on I. Negat esse: in phrases like this Cic. Sextus A. The Servilii were distinguished from one another by their friends. an ut sano. he gives up the attempt to distinguish between true and false visa.g. Antiochus' Physics. 351 b. that there may be distinction between individual sensations. e. An sano: Lamb. but I appeal to more cultivated physicists. the impressions of seals. sense in D. which concerned the amount of similarity. Illud attendimus: Goer.

at si vis.W. for which no satisfactory em. B is very frequently written for V in the MSS. proverbii locum obtinere. For this opinion of Democr. e. "we are quite content not to be able to distinguish between the eggs. Madv. approved by Halm and other recent edd.g.. brackets ita. Gallinas: cf. Potiusque: this adversative use of que is common with potius. Hyp.M. Nulla re differens: cf. cf." will require modification. Madv. if any change be needed. Non internoscere: this is the reading of all the MSS. Contra nos: the sense requires nos. A. cf. proposed to read nulla re differens communitas visi? Sint et ova etc. 10. except one read vos. but all Halm's MSS. has just repeated in the second vol. 97 impossible to guard against mistaking the one for the other.). nihil intersit: these two verbs often appear together in Cic. nec est in duobus aut pluribus nulla re differens ulla communitas ([Greek: oude hyparchei epimigê aparallaktos]).F. I have met with no other passage where any such doctrine is assigned to a sceptic. §58. ut si sint after C. which most MSS. Natura tolletur: this of course the sceptics would deny. the sceptics argued that it could. and Orelli have potest. for per. Ne confundam omnia: cf. and Halm's ed of the philosophical works.g. Transversum digitum: cf. Muller. e.D. mentioned by Suidas. III. II. dignoscebantur. Proprietates: the [Greek: idiotêtes] or [Greek: idiômata] of Sextus. IX. They refused to discuss the nature of things in themselves. etc. probably correctly. §57. The older edd. In proverbio: so venire in proverbium. Cf.. of the common Gk. Quasi: the em. If the non before vos were removed . with one of the sceptic [Greek: tropoi]. Minimum: an adverb like summum. Most edd. see Pyrrh. 51. As it stands in the text the doctrine is absurd. The opinion maintained by the Stoics may be stated thus suo quidque genere est tale. sint. improbable conj. n. are correct the assertion of Krebs and Allgayer (Antibarbarus. the doctrine of course involves the whole question at issue between dogmatism and scepticism. The MSS. proverbii loco dici are all used. A. we shall not on that account be led into a mistake for our rule will prevent us from making any positive assertion about the eggs.. and P. Par est: so Dav. Cognoscebantur: Dav.. ed. and kept to phenomena. Hermagoras the Stoic actually wrote a book entitled. if the MSS. 252. on 50. Antiochus' Physics. 53. "experience". Faber's em. 4) "imprimere wird klas sisch verbunden in aliqua re. and I would easily slip in. Species et quasdam formas: [Greek: eidê kai genê]. e. 86. see R. as I think. also ac potius. novas for bonas in 72). term [Greek: aparallaktos] (Sext. Quod rerum natura non patitur: again Lucullus confounds essential with phenomenal difference. (Em. reads at tibi sint. the nihil differens of 99. Irridentur: the contradictions of physical philosophers were the constant sport of the sceptics. idque raro. In animos: Orelli with one MS.. [Greek: ôi skopia] (egg investigation) [Greek: ê peri sophisteias pros Akadêmaikous]. and is correct. Dinotatas: so the MSS. This opinion is negatived by non patitur ut and it will be evident at a glance that the only change required is to put the two verbs (est) into the subjunctive. Post. §56. Eosdem: once more we have Lucullus' chronic and perhaps intentional misconception of the sceptic position. 42.e. Lamb.g. I should prefer sui for sibi (SVI for SIBI). 45. Ad Fam. with one MS. 1. Ad Att. though Forc. The sense is. the substitution of which here would perhaps make the sentence clearer. 854 of Bait. see n. Absolute ita paris: Halm as well as Bait. inter visa. 116. 125. IV. 154). fragm. 39. The similarity of eggs was discussed ad nauseam by the sceptics and dogmatists. I. quasdam marks the fact that formas is a trans. and so misses his mark. T. of his Adversaria. 110. does not recognise the word. quale est. for the quam si of the MSS.D. has yet been proposed. Walker internoscebantur. though Orelli omits non. cf.M. omitting ulla and ut and changing visi into sibi (cf. nulla after the fine note of Madv. nicht in aliquam rem. Sext.. Before leaving this section. a set of rules. Intersit: i. Nihil differat. Ulla communitas: I am astonished to find Bait. etc. The words are a trans. 55 ingemescere nonnum quam viro concessum est.F.F. Consuetudine: cf. §55. for surely it must always be easier to distinguish between two genera than between two individuals. it would be better to place it before undique. in proverbii usum venire. cf. reads animis. Ut [sibi] sint: sibi is clearly wrong here. Artem: [Greek: technên]. I. Dav. 1. on 50. Et eo quidem innumerabilis: this is the quite untenable reading of the MSS. of Madv. 124. reading is right. The change of ulla into nulla is in no way needed.Part III of Varro's Exposition. This ingenious but. I. after Christ. 19 of the Acad. VII. change it into denotatas. have. 25. Salvis rebus: not an uncommon phrase. Bait. in a note communicated privately to Halm and printed by the latter on p.D. returning to the reading of Lamb." Adsentiri: for the passive use of this verb cf. Christ ut tibi sint. I may point out that the [Greek: epimigê] or [Greek: epimixia tôn phantasiôn] supplies Sext.

vary.F. cf. to such an extent that.D. if rebus be meant. 37. must be read. this may throw light on fragm. 74. 78. 33). n. III. II. on I. Comperisse: this expression of Cic. 1).D. and probably induced this mention of the legendary people. possibly by a mere misprint reads iratus. on 33. of the pres. s." cf. Deus aliquis: so the best edd. on 81). n. I. more doubt than the use of ne alone as in vero falsone. cf. Cimmerii. 481 b. see my n. "which admiration he had shown . 5. Impediamini: cf. V. cf. §63. have. 35. 26 and Forc. 6. e. treated by Madv. used in the senate in reference to Catiline's conspiracy. 87. I. Kl. Illud vero perabsurdum: note the omission of est. not liquebat. §61. De Div. Gram. make this mean e . had become a cant phrase at Rome. IV. comes in the following clause. deus aliqui (T.. 2). tamen. 1. III. Zeller 534. p. 1. Iam nimium etiam: note iam and etiam in the same clause. and Antiochus. Ista mysteria: Aug. Ac. 82. In the case of personal nouns the best edd. 59. Madv. 9. or sequeris. nescio quis and nescio qui. Adprobare: this word is ambiguous.. during the conspiracy see 3. Ital. on the ground that the Academics swept away not sensus but iudicium sensuum Cimmeriis.g. Orbat sensibus: cf. N. 63 qui tibi constares. Contra Ac. Sil. p.. Plin. verum dispicere. 2. Ad Fam. The notion that the Academic scepticism was merely external and polemically used. Si vera sunt: cf. Quod refers simply to the fact of Lucullus' admiration. As aliquis is substantival.. 1). and all succeeding inquirers. V. ed. Ad Att. IV.D. and the passages quoted in Introd. VII. the constant form in Cic. I. which were servata et pro mysteriis custodita by the New Academics. 98 §59..e. nouns. fecerat. 42. which the clause introduced by ut defines.. Auctoritate: cf. even that qualified assent which the Academics gave to probable phenomena. Memoriter: nearly all edd. magistratus aliquis (In Verr. actio ullius rei (108 of this book). 313. must have originated in the reactionary period of Metrodorus (of Stratonice). I. with which Cic. without comment. which see. Sequere: either this is future. A veris: if visis be supplied the statement corresponds tolerably with the Academic belief. p. Festus. Or. Or. 64. 62). It has often been inserted by copyists when sed. 64. 81. where Madv. 15 of the Acad. in Madv. 67... as in the famous passage of Cic Ad Quintum Fratrem.) Iuratusque: Bait. be attributed to the first of the three (cf. I. before Madv. on 104.D. anularius aliqui (86 of this book). 38 speaks of various doctrines. 279). as in 109. in most of which Lucullus is also mentioned. deus aliquis (Lael. II. Goer. 97.). With a proper name belonging to a real person aliquis ought to be written (Myrmecides in 120. 11. see however nn. Pro omnibus: note omnibus for omnibus rebus. qu. §62. etc. §60. III. 83. IV. casus (De Off. I. II. 41 (whose authority must have been Cicero). For the support accorded by Lucullus to Cic. referring to two fem. X. V.Part III of Varro's Exposition.F. 8. Cf. is wrong in reproving Torquatus for using the phrase sensus tolli. 46 with respect to Catulus. II.. cf. Philo. to show that the town or village of Cimmerium lay close to Bauli.H. it is wide of the mark. Lamb. on 34. which Goer. The idea is ridiculed by Petrus Valentia (Orelli's reprint. Lucr.F. III.. while they had an esoteric dogmatic doctrine.. Licebat: this is the reading of the best MSS. and D. Approbatione omni: the word omni is emphatic. It is difficult to distinguish between aliquis and aliqui. Quod . See Ad Fam." Iocansne an: this use of ne . 5. si quis and si qui (for the latter see n. Dispiciendum: not despiciendum.. Actio rerum: here actio is a pure verbal noun like [Greek: praxis]. an implies. Motum animorum: n. 131. Iis vinculis. De Off.. retentio: supposed to be a gloss by Man. M. was often taunted. aliquis must not be written with impersonal nouns like terror (T.. Ad Fam. not from consisto cf. also Introd. and expressions like actio vitae (N. 23. see 78. ut: different from the constr. with Mayor's n.. a better sense would be given. 7. also De Div. C. 31. 146). aliqui adjectival. Id est peccaturum: "which is equivalent to sinning. and includes both qualified and unqualified assent. Constitit: from consto. see exx. 35). meaning either qualified or unqualified assent. The nonnulli are Philo and Metrodorus. I.v. p. n. or some such word. Id est . Antiochus' Physics. says (on D. Gram. 3. Amicissimum: "because you are my dear friend". although they write deus aliqui in 19. 112. Tollendus est adsensus: i. Commoveris: a military term. 5. is noticeable. 214 c. IV. Post. discussed by Munro. and the similar use of actus in Quintilian (Inst. 87). dolor (T. which often takes place after the emphatic pronoun. and may perhaps from a passage of Augustine... 148.). 53. XIV. 8.D. XII. etc. Utroque: this neuter. 14.

yet I feel that it can be answered. (1) Si ulli rei. on 14. proposes. 107. Elimatas: the MSS. 7. I. Gram. see Madv. Turpissimum: cf.. . III. and are quoted in N. etc. what proof had he of the doctrine he had so long denied? (69) Some think he wished to found a school called by his own name. after the best MSS. "Carneades sometimes granted as a second premiss the following statement. XVI.) or to insert me (as Lamb. inf. and on that very account hold it disgraceful to assent to what is false. Elimare. 13. seeing no way of taking modo exc. Tristia IV. nihil posse percipi. it has been supposed. 115. Praepostere: in a disorderly fashion. §§64--71. ed... Madv. Adsentiri quicquam: only with neuter pronouns like this could adsentiri be followed by an accusative case. also Bait. n. 3. III.'s Aratea. of me before the infin. Quadam oratione: so Halm. Antiochus' Physics. Visis cedo: cf. on the ground that it is possible to distinguish between true and false (67). Pertinacia .F. The argument of Carneades would then run thus. which. Iurarem: Cic. which has wrongly caused many edd. taking tantum as hoc tantum. 380. Even if it be so the mere habit of assenting is full of peril. either to read respondere (as Dav. The Stoics and Antiochus deny the first of these statements. Still. However. I do not deny that I make slips. I am a passionate inquirer after truth. on I. 144. §67. The difficulty lies in the words secundum illud. I. Orelli. §65. 2. The best MSS. Censuerim: more modest than censeo.. Qua fidunt. were that proper (65). 15 magnus definitor. Cogitatione: "idea". III. not quandam orationem as Lamb. 55. Opiner: opinio or [Greek: doxa] is judgment based on insufficient grounds.D. but we must deal with the sapiens. 1. Antiochum: cf... Respondere posse: for the om. §68.). Temeritate: cf. I. Iis quae possunt: these words MSS. de causa ipsa above.F. First. 408 b. altered tamen to tam in n. I. V. on D. this passage wrongly as from the Hortensius. Sed Helicen: the best MSS. De ipsa re: cf. 75 non quid ego sed quid orator. But if the passage be translated thus. He imitates it. 42. 34). Studio certandi: = [Greek: philoneikia].D. Sed quaerimus de sapiente: cf. Tam in praecipiti: for the position of in cf. nihil praeterea. opinator: Aug. I protest my entire sincerity in all that I say. 7. taking the wrong thing first. Fasti III.. 160) retains it. Contra Acad. I. have here tamen in. much moved thus begins. and by the perf. ad. Secundum illud . §66. Hear Arcesilas' argument: if the sapiens ever gives his assent he will be obliged to opine.. with non. 7.. though a very rare word occurs Ad Att. When he was converted. see n. he says. Bait. are divided between this and limatas. Summary. before Madv. Halm after Christ asserts that tantum non = [Greek: monon ou] occurs nowhere else in Cic.. I.F. therefore ejects non. Livy certainly has the suspected use of tantum non. 59 also De Or. obs. 3. I must speak something that concerns my character (64). 106. IV. 1. 25. N. Vim maximam: so summum munus is applied to the same course of action in D. Phoenices: the same fact is mentioned by Ovid. (2) adsentietur autem aliquando. making it mean paulo ante. Gram. n. om.. II. om. ejected it. I. T. It is more probable that he could no longer bear the opposition of all other schools to the Academy (70). a few words first with Antiochus. which Orelli places before Helicen. See Krebs and Allgayer in the Antibarbarus. whose characteristic it is never to err in giving his assent (66). Cic. §64. 99 memoria as opposed to de scripto. and would confirm it by an oath. Destitisse: on the difference between memini followed by the pres. Magnus . Madv. 4. 105. On the other hand. as Manut. however. and the charge of [Greek: propeteia] constantly brought against the dogmatists by Sext. (3) opinabitur igitur. etiam opinari: it seems at first sight as though adsentiri and opinari ought to change places in this passage. consult Madv. must refer back to the second premiss of Arcesilas' argument. ibid. opinabitur: this of course is only true if you grant the Academic doctrine. 31. 45. our whole argument must tend to show that perception in the Stoic sense is impossible (68).D. on I. on 38. 31 qu. was thinking of his own famous oath at the end of his consulship. but he never will opine therefore he never will give his assent.: these lines are part of Cic. Tantum enim non te modo monuit: edd.Part III of Varro's Exposition. His conversion gave a splendid opening for an argumentum ad hominem (71). "laudem habet bonae et copiosae memoriae" (on D. (Em. Sustinenda est: [Greek: ephekteon]. De Div. Aliquando .. Bait. as above. Tribunus: a retort comes in 97. calumnia: n. The strength of Lucullus argument has affected me much. that the wise man sometimes does opine" the difficulty vanishes. etc.

Zeno held strongly that the wise man ought to keep clear from opinion. he admitted that it was not easy to escape being ensnared by them (75). 16. Gloriae causa: cf. 60.: for the conversion of Dionysius (called [Greek: ho metathemenos]) from Stoicism to Epicureanism cf. while Plato pursued the same theme in all his works (74). of course. Antiochus' Physics. The scribes often prefix h to parts of the pronoun is. and are often mentioned by Cic. the broken thread is picked up by quod argumentum near the end. tota philosophia sublata est. qu. n.. The sincerity of Arcesilas may be seen thus (76). D.. n. This definition Arcesilas combated. §71. 18 voluptatis alii putant primum appetitum.. Excogitavit: on interrogations not introduced by a particle of any kind see Madv. 100 26. and Goer. 115 sustinuero Epicureos. Maenianorum: projecting eaves. non. ut Zeno. 60. III. Quis enim: so Lamb. 14. Aug. 73." cf. Valentia (p. yet Anaxagoras. cf. cf. which would be written nobas. Dardani: see Dict. Empedocles. 452. Xenophanes. Sustinere: cf. Em. Popularis: cf.D. read antiquos philosophos. which Or. VII.F.. Revocata est: Manut. Knowledge consists of perceptions. and deny the possibility of knowledge altogether (72. Lamb. obs. Nitamur . M. etc. Sub Novis: Faber's brilliant em. I have before remarked that b is frequently written in MSS. 2.: cf. on I. V. on 132. You said that Socrates and Plato must not be classed with these. II. Summary. here wished to read renovata. nisi sub nube.F. may be felt by comparing that of Manut. quisquam enim. 115 utrum copiane sit agri an penuria consideratur. in hoc pronomen saevire. the two alternatives are marked by ne and an. Why? Socrates said he knew nothing but his own ignorance. 450. II. and Metrodorus. The same usage is found in D.. percipi: "let us struggle to prove the proposition.. Laert. om.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Non acrius: one of the early editions omits non while Goer. an. On this point cf. Zumpt on Cic. added with two very early editions. IV. A vero: "coming from a reality. The excellence of Faber's em. De antiquis philosophis: on account of the somewhat awkward constr. for v..v. 15 Antiochus gloriae cupidior quam veritatis. 1. 73). even if he did. Now do you see that I do not merely name. neque opinari. 41. §69. 7. II. for the MSS.. You accuse me of appealing to ancient names like a revolutionist. Eadem dicit: on the subject in hand. T. etc. 78). §70.: hence Aug. Verr. facerent. ut Socrates docuit. Honesti inane nomen esse: a modern would be inclined to write honestum. Gram. and the [Greek: epochê] of Arcesilas follows at once (77. Mnesarchi . Contra Acad. 161 points out the absurdity of making Cic. and must be carefully distinguished from the use of utrum . on I. "solet V.D. etc. see n. 3. who. according to Festus s. Sin autem. II. and Parmenides all declaim against sense knowledge. 166--7. IV. on I. Quoque . and that of Lamb. M." says Madv. 266 a story is told of Caesar. for MSS. Arcesilas therefore demanded a definition of perception. to have fallen out between igitur and nihil. and then pass into bonas. The Novae Tabernae were in the forum. also n. You say he solved them. Faber ingeniously supposed the true reading to be novas. This is the controversy which has lasted to our time. Biogr. The Cyrenaics too held that they knew nothing about things external to themselves. while speaking sub Veteribus. Is curavit: Goer. as in T. protest against the truth of sense knowledge. say that the old arguments of Antiochus in favour of Academicism were weaker than his new arguments against it. 278 of Orelli's reprint) si neque sciri quicquam potest. e g De Invent. IV. Democritus. §72.. Vatinia etc. points to a "tabula" which hangs sub Novis. reads his. Em. the passage of Lactantius De Falsa Sapientia III." The construction is. ne . They were probably named from their inventor like Vitelliana. which occurs not unfrequently in Cic. argumento: the sentence is anacoluthic. philosophers of the highest position. reads acutius and puts a note of interrogation at defensitaverat. Utrum: the neuter pronoun. 22. and Livy.. T. or some such word. generally patronises their vulgar error. Taken without this limitation the proposition is not strictly true. Gram. 9. but take for my models famous men? Even Chrysippus stated many difficulties concerning the senses and general experience.D. unexampled so that I suspect hoc. oportet. not the so called conjunction. . II. which I do not believe. 41 calls him foeneus ille Platonicus Antiochus (that tulchan Platonist). The two words are often confused. Do away with opinion and perception. Diog.. sub nube. 163. Voluptatem etc. Facere dicerent: so Camerarius for the MSS. Res non bonas: MSS. Sensisse: = iudicasse. cf. in apposition to nomen. Arcesilas agreed but this without knowledge was impossible. by P. n. I believe. Nominis dignitatem. sub nubes. D. In De Or. §§72--78. ibid. 13.

148). I. Adfici se: = [Greek: paschein]. Antiochus' Physics. p. Videorne: = nonne videor. II. The words referred to are in Plat.. their great word was [Greek: pathos]. Fratrem II. on 17. 94. by no means a sceptic. Furere: cf. Zeller 501. 16. I. From 143 (permotiones intimas) it might appear that Cic. Aiebas removendum: for om. D. I. and P. while exposing sham knowledge. Democrito: Cic.D. and P.. De Platone: the doctrine above mentioned is an absurd one to foist upon Plato." Sonum fundere: similar expressions occur in T. "[Greek: Anaxagoras tôi leukên einai tên chiona.. Qui veri esse aliquid. Act. 54. Non obscuros sed tenebricosos: "not merely dim but darkened. I. cf. of esse see n. Imitari numquam nisi: a strange expression for which Manut. They advanced indeed arguments against sense-knowledge.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Nisi videret: for the tense of the verb. is translating either [Greek: pathos] or [Greek: kinêsis]. as Madv. [Greek: sophismata]: Cic. See R. Bait. Fulcire porticum: "to be the pillar of the Stoic porch". Brut. Plato I. Minus bonis: Dav. on 87. and P. I. Quo quid colore: cf. That [Greek: epistêmê] in the strict sense is impossible. 20. take offence.M. 162 sq. 68 and cf. 107. and followed by Bait. VII. Orat. 116 refers. I.. Cf. for he also held a [Greek: gnêsiê gnôsis]. 13. on the ground that Cyrenaeus is a citizen of Cyreno. etc.M.H. and P.F. De Div. in the second edition probably introduced here the translation cavillationes. 61. Quae in consuetudine probantur: n. 62 minuti philosophi. 1 risi nivem atram . 45 A.D. I. 14. A. Tactu intimo: the word [Greek: haphê] I believe does not occur in ancient authorities as a term of the Cyrenaic school. and P. Zeller Socrates 297. 43. and P.D. which I think harsher than that of the MSS. 5.: Megarians. see R. n. 65. imitari? num quem. qu. §74. Quintae classis: a metaphor from the Roman military order. 2.. Nulla fuit ratio persequi: n. also R. V. for the illustration of the present passage pp 293--300 with the footnotes. to which Seneca Ep. etc. however. 41. R. the atoms and the void. and for the belief of Empedocles about the possibility of [Greek: epistêmê] see the remarks of Sextus A. Quid . Quamquam: on the proper use of quamquam in clauses where the verb is not expressed see M. 12 non enim sumus ii quibus nihil verum esse videatur. The dialogues of search as they are called. Cf. and P. all assume that the real [Greek: epistêmê] is attainable. 44. Gram. 42. obs. conj." There is a reference here to the [Greek: skotiê gnôsis] of Democr. Ironiam: the word was given in its Greek form in 15. §75. 5. Plut. Quasi irati: for the use of quasi = almost cf. N. cf. 191 (qu. Ostentationis: = [Greek: epideixeos]." There is an obscure joke on this in Ad Qu. VII. Grote. R. 165). N. is a doctrine which Socrates would have left to the Sophists. Perscripti sunt: cf. as videsne = nonne vides..: cf. on I.D. on Xenophanes and Parmenides. 16. 177--182. For a clear account of the school see Zeller's Socrates. remarks on D. but held that real knowledge was attainable by the reason. 347 b. Apol. prints the reading of Man. He was. Minutos: for the word cf. Orbat sensibus: cf. In P. II. hoti a mê oida oude oiomai eidenai]. 21 [Greek: eoika goun toutou smikrôi tini autôi toutôi sophôteros einai. 22. dealing with the realities of material existence. 123--4 qu. [Greek: mempsaito d' an tis Parmenidou tên stichopoiian]. which exist [Greek: eteêi] and not merely [Greek: nomôi] as appearances do. T. sed ii qui omnibus veris falsa quaedam adiuncta dicamus. on I. I. Cyrenaicus a follower of Aristippus) and the insertion of tibi. the anonymous line [Greek: ei mê gar ên Chrysippos. Sext. Sophistes: here treated as the demagogue of philosophy. who say "patet errare eos qui scepticis adnumerandum Empedoclem putabant. at which so many edd. R. anetithei hoti chiôn estin hydor pepêgos to de hydor esti melan kai hê chiôn ara melaina]. 101 Nivem nigram: this deliverance of Anaxagoras is very often referred to by Sextus.D. 33 he quotes it as an instance of the refutation of [Greek: phainomena] by means of [Greek: nooumena]. Scire se nihil se scire: cf. De Or. Parmenides. . which only requires the alteration of Cyrenaei into Cyrenaici (now made by all edd. 42. Krische. Cf. Halm nullum unquam in place of numquam.. interprets it (cf. philosophi: my reading is that of Durand approved by Madv. I. ouk an ên Stoa]. Xenophanes: these are the last men who ought to be charged with scepticism.F. 51. 22. §73. I see no difficulty in the qui before negant. 73. V. a very different statement from the nihil sciri posse by which Cic. I. I. by which he meant that knowledge which stops at the superficial appearances of things as shown by sense. also De Div. III. see Madv. Stilponem. in order to depreciate the Epicureans. It is strange that Halm does not mention this reading. always exaggerates the merits of Democr. 120. In Verr. teque hilari animo esse et prompto ad iocandum valde me iuvat. etc. 139. De Audit. 48. §76. Orat. R.F.. 256 minuti imperatores.

and Ad Att. what can be greater than the sun? Still he seems to us a foot broad." For the omission of esse in that case cf. it is enough that human faculties cannot distinguish between them. an ellipse of excessive rarity in Cic. of four propositions which prove my point only one is disputed viz. Ex eo. effectum. 40. cf. as in 118 concessisse is now read for MSS. the latter merely implying the mechanic exercise of utterance. A man who has mistaken P. Exprimere and dicere are always sharply distinguished by Cic. In their case at least 'mind and eyes agreed. Recte . Never mind. §78. which with the ordinary stopping expresses Cic. 406. For the constr. 68. 55. 79. pertinebat: by illud is meant the argument in defence of [Greek: epochê] given in 67. 69.. Lucullus. as because it deceives me (80. You are thus acting like the Epicureans. he appears to us to stand still (82). the use of pertinere in D. cf. of Dav. I. 7 and I. see Madv. n. De Div. have eius modi.F.. also the construction with ita iudico in 113. cf. If you want something greater than the bent oar. you say. You say that no such indistinguishable resemblances exist. 80). maximis studiis in 15. idiom requires the perfect or aorist. The whole question lies in a nutshell. credo (sc. 19. Ab eo. altered by Dav. Yet I would not so much reproach the god because my vision is narrow. How about the impressions of signet rings? (85) Can you find a ring merchant to rival your chicken rearer of Delos? But. Clitomacho: cf.). You say everything belongs to its own genus this I will not contest. that every true sensation has side by side with it a false one indistinguishable from it (83). No I answer. respondit). 44. 479 a.Part III of Varro's Exposition. the sober and the sane. Eiusdem modi: cf. also I. of the Hercules of Euripides disprove your point (88. Quae adhuc permanserit: note the subj. and Epicurus thinks he may be a little broader or narrower than he seems.: cf. "which is of such a nature as to have lasted". consensisse? A vero: cf. quod non est: the words non est include the two meanings "is non existent.F. I am not concerned to show that two sensations are absolutely similar. on 47. Summary You are wrong. the question is. Cf. Orat. Nam illud . and such expressions as dicere solebat perturbatum in 111. III. who is followed by all edd.. 11.F. 3. 43. §77. I. the credo being now repeated to govern the infin. 1. for MSS. Obtrectandi: this invidious word had been used by Lucullus in 16. esp. Nec percipere. 18. not the sensation itself (79.. 32. 13 (who quotes exx. Effictum: so Manut. additum: the semicolon at Arcesilas was added by Manutius. drunkards and madmen were feebler than those of the waking. 89). see n. Gram. So we cannot see or hear without art. the former the moulding and shaping of the utterance by conscious effort. 81). VIII. of your own relative Tuditanus. "agreed that the addition had been rightly made. the same words in 15. Madv. Tot ingeniis tantisque studiis: cf. also De Or. He would have a bad time with me.D. I. n.'s needless approval of Arcesilas' conduct would thus gain in point. 41. Tum illum: a change from ille. 102 Quaesieras: note the plup. also ita scribenti exanclatum in 108. Expresserat: "had put into distinct shape".. Cf. You said that the sensations of dreamers. for Q.. what was the nature of their sensations at the time they were affected? (90) . 84. Gram. exposuerat is therefore needless. qu. MSS. I think it quite possible that recte consensit additum should be construed together.. who say that the inference only from the sensation can be false. The cases of Ennius and his Alcmaeon. in upholding your cause in spite of my arguments yesterday against the senses. after ita definisse cf. I wish the god of whom you spoke would ask me whether I wanted anything more than sound senses. quod esset: cf. you are like the mole who desires not the light because he is blind. §§79--90. With all his enormous speed. M. Geminus could have no infallible mode of recognising Cotta. Qy. etc. Opusc. I. n.. This involves taking additum = additum est. pertinebat nothing more is intended than that there was no immediate or close connection. 18. Fortasse: "we may suppose". For even granting that our vision is correct how marvellously circumscribed it is! But say you. The conj. I am going now to advance against the senses arguments drawn from Chrysippus himself (87). art aids the senses. should concessit be read.. which so few can have! What an idea this gives us of the art with which nature has constructed the senses! (86) But about physics I will speak afterwards. too. where Eng. by nihil . by Krebs and Allgayer. on 59. D. they seem to exist and that is enough. we desire no more. II. It is no good to talk about the saner moments of such people. Tot saeculis: cf. Recte. One mistaken sensation will throw all the others into uncertainty (84). 448." and "is different from what it seems to be"--the two meanings of falsum indeed. summis ingeniis. Antiochus' Physics.

Gram. 87.H. 38. si maneant . 2. multos. Caec. as Orelli takes it. Tennyson seems to allude to this in his "Higher Pantheism"--"all we have power to see is a straight staff bent in a pool". Madv. by placing the finger beneath the eye and pressing upwards or sideways. II. 21. 465). Maiorum: cf. Quasi quaeratur: Carneades refused to discuss about things in themselves but merely dealt with the appearances they present. candid. 31 [Greek: dia ti eis to plagion kinousi ton ophthalmon ou (?) phainetai duo to hen]. Hoc est verum esse: Madv.. the Stoics and Antiocheans. 18. Domi nascuntur: a proverb used like [Greek: glauk' es' Athênas] and "coals to Newcastle. Post. A glance will show the insipidity of the . of which in critical editions of Cic.M.. XIV. where nescio qui would contradict his rule. Halm lacera est ista causa. pisces). cf. Introd. Of course all the ancients thought the mole blind. (from dicit to habes) occurs also in 101. 2. subj.. adiungit. Dav. in qu. I prefer to eject cerno regionem. quotes Solinus and Plin. De Div. Halm ejects the words regionem video. cerno: MSS. have si qui and si quis almost in the same line with identically the same meaning Dav." see Lorenz on Plaut. 1. Also ib. exx. Quod abesset: "whatever might be 1800 stadia distant. Octingenta: so the best MSS.. 75.. 3 inquiring the reason why drunkards see double he says [Greek: tauto touto gignetai kai ean tis katôthen piesê ton ophthalmon]. Desideramus: Halm. see Ad Att. For the allusion to the fish. fragm. laceratis istam causam. It is as difficult to define the uses of the two expressions as to define those of aliquis and aliqui. egerit. To paraphrase the sense is this "But say my opponents. P.. Em. inquit in 101. did in 69. IX.. Heri: cf. on 19. Halm has audiret . 120. Habes: as two good MSS. however. We are thus left with the slight change from video to cerno. in this explanation I concur. 8). Deus: cf.. see 19. as importune does not suit the sense of the passage. Ex hoc loco video .. in his critical epistle to Orelli p. 13 (qu. Ad Fam." Well you are like the mole. 47. failing to understand the passage. torsisset: for the tenses cf.. Epicurus: n. Madv. Hermann approves the odd reading of the ed. 14. Pr. cf. 13. X. Halm's conj. Acrius: [Greek: oxyteron]. but the rest have importata. iaceat.. O praeclarum prospectum: the view was a favourite one with Cic. Videntur: n. Madv. 103 §79.. which is very often found in Cic. Sextus refers to the same thing P.. we desire no better senses than we have. 78.H. id is not altogether insupportable. Lamb. In Paradoxa 12 the best MSS. Em. Audiret . approves maneant . audiet. VII. on 19. sit hic. 104 exposuisset. II. without need read acutius as Goer. 364. I may observe. whence Klotz conj. Eth. Orat. The nom. your case is overthrown. Arist. Ad Att. 176 in combating the conj. 210 on behalf of Epicurus. 109. Trans. quod be taken as the conjunction. Madv. have audies . Eu. a reading with some MSS. As the insertion of n in the imp. 47. 177 took verum as meaning fair. 55. ageretur with Dav. adopted by Orelli. of Goer. Antiochus' Physics. 3. and cf. not Epicurus. Infracto remo: n. on 25. agerent.Part III of Varro's Exposition. on which see 61 n. and not as the pronoun. conjectured comically blaterat iste tamen et. have loco cerno regionem video Pompeianum non cerno whence Lipsius conj. however. Importune: this is in one good MS. Cratandriana of 1528 latrat. have habes et eum. Em. Cf. 5.. Lucretius gives the same answer as Timagoras. lacerat. 139 abandoned it and proposed virum esse. by Dav. that of blinking facts which cannot be disproved. but Lucullus. ageret: MSS.) [Greek: ophthalmous diastrepsanta hôste duo to hen phanênai]. follows Christ in reading desiderant (i. support. is quite wrong in saying that nescio quis implies contempt. 176 conj. while nescio qui does not. Manent illa omnia.e. is so common in MSS. sometimes however joins the two verbs as in De Or. a very strange em.H. VII. Aristot. A. a good em.M. iacet: this is my correction of the reading of most MSS. 144. I read ageret and alter audies to suit it. I. omitting pisces. I. occur every few pages. but the best have ullos. III. e. which does not yearn for the light because it does not know what light is. If. 19 non video cur quaerat amplius. Illos pisces: so some MSS. to dicit is. however. I think the whole confusion of the passage arises from the mania of the copyists for turning indicatives into subjunctives. Faber qu. I. Problemata XVII. to show that the man mentioned here was called Strabo--a misnomer surely. ex hoc loco e regione video. Cic.. If iacet were by error turned into iaceret the reading lacerat would arise at once.. cf. Communi loco: [Greek: topô]. Amplius: cf. Quod ne [id]: I have bracketed id with most edd. [Greek: to gar alêthes kai to pseudes en tois pragmasi synechôrei] (Numen in Euseb.. N. "all my arguments remain untouched. XXXI. Cum oculum torsisset: i. maneant . 192 ([Greek: ho parapiesas ton ophthalmon]) so Cic..g. not octoginta. VII... Acad. 161. Bait." aberat would have implied that Cic. also Sext. 115). is needed. Div. Orelli multos illos. §80. Nescio qui: Goer.. yet his senses are true quotha!" (For this use of dicit cf. as does Sext. VII. obs. Negat . 13. The change of person. Miles II. since Manut.. §81. Cf. 19. had some particular thing in mind.e. propter opinatus animi (IV. Sed hic: Bait. which however agrees better with Pliny. Eud. A. habet. certum esse is weak and improbable. 143.

I. Praeclara: evidently a fem. note on 74. like [Greek: loidoresthai tini] as opposed to [Greek: loidorein tina] implies mutual recrimination. etc.e. Quererer cum deo: would enter into an altercation with the god. Madv. Navem: Sextus often uses the same illustration. Madv.M. ed 2.. C.F. tibicen: so in 20.F. V.e. MSS. neither has observed that quin ne . e. 13. Sto. Ne sit . 1 [Greek: hêlion megethos echein euros podos anthrôpeiou]. and Ern. Admodum: i. Sui generis: cf. which Goer. Halm's aeque introduces a construction with ceteris omnibus which is not only not Ciceronian. 50. Semel: see 79. 56. Gram. 890 E. 4 on quin. but Goer. §84.D. of te before habere. an error easy. have aqua. at least do not prove his point that the ancients commonly estimated the sun at 28 times the size of the earth... 93. Antibarbarus ed. a graving tool. or Lat. T. acu = schraffirnadel. II. 20 pedalis fortasse. Goer. cf. as in P. D. De Plac. metaxy. I read atque. Simul inflavit: note simul for simul atque. and Roeper qu. or atque in. qu. id quod esse videtur. 56. Madv. n. who copies Epicurus. Si ipse erit for ipse apparently = is ipse cf. D. for the in parvulis sitis of the MSS. Alexandros: Lysippus alone was privileged to make statues of Alexander. viz. Dav. also Lucr.F. neuter. 54. Ne modo: for modo ne. has sed quid after Ernesti. M. 12. and P. in which however no mention of a foot occurs. and not [Greek: glypheion]. X. 54... Geminum: cf. Romani. Antiochus' Physics. aut non multum mentiantur aut nihil. Note the word Stoicum. that Heraclitus asserted the sun to be a foot wide. Rep. 814.. however. 6. 113. 42. he does not however quote Stob. on D. Laert. cf. §86. §85. 20 quotes Diog.F. 12. The reff. cf. 104 sense given by Halm's reading. 7. Nave: so the best MSS. Ne maiorem quidem: so the MSS. to a scribe who understood caelum to be the heaven. 57. reading. a noticeable use. is due to Manut. 107. also 77. which last leading would make omnibus = om. 91. taking ceteris omnibus to be the abl. Nullum esse pilum. I. R. who preserves the very words of Epicurus. as Halm notes. 590. Quid ego: Bait.. but Antiochean." §87. V. Faber and other old edd. 19. 56). Nat. not navi. II. I. Quattuor capita: these were given in 40 by Lucullus. cf. 414. and Orelli read nec for ne. and Seneca Quaest. 105. Anulo: cf. V. is rash. The reading tam quererer for the tamen quaereretur of the MSS. the correction of Orelli. neut. potest: cf.. but not Latin at all. I. made the adj. defend the MSS. Quasi pedalis: cf. Physicis: probably neut. Nota: cf. which has strangely troubled edd.D.. adducing passages to show that sky and water were important in the making of statues. etc. Gallinarium: cf. and such words. 30.D. 20 adhibita arte. it is not necessary. III. p. adj. V. IV. "naturlich. A. the elliptic constructions in Gk. p. mentiri sensus putat. 58 and the speech of Lucullus passim. non quid videatur. Carneadem: Plut. 24. §82. Pro Deiotaro 9 querellae cum Deiotaro. cf. alone defends. 121 and N. pauci cf. I. VII. Pictor . Qui ne nunc quidem: sc. Nihil aut non multum: so in D." Fabricata sit: cf." Formerly I conj. Duodeviginti: so in 128. In parvo lis sit: Durand's em. of Goer. 59. as Apelles alone was allowed to paint the conqueror. For aqua Orelli conj. For the om. 119. quidem is bad Latin (see M. Krebs and Allgayer. For quasi = circiter cf. 10 (solem sapientes viri pedalem esse contenderunt). and understanding sunt interpreted "these arguments I am going to urge are grand. 3. Phys. Eodem caelo atque: a difficult passage. which does not seem to be a Ciceronian word. points out from Plut. Halm prints quin.F. Quod non est: = qu. ascra.F. cf. 360 and 368. and induced them to alter the text. quanto art. adm. etc.. Epicurus: as above in 19. Nostri quidem: i. on I. statuis. Contra sensus: he wrote both for and against [Greek: synêtheia]. Nihil interest: the same opinion is expressed in 40. by Halm wished to read duodetriginta. Non tu verum testem. R.F. 1036 B relates that Carneades in reading the arguments of . and P. 80 quasi quaeratur quid sit. Nor can quin ne go together even without quidem. Cf. Lucullus is of course not Stoic. §83. to express both of two related things when a word is inserted like differat here.: cf. and is followed by Baiter. incurring the reprehension of Madv. cf. Visa res: Halm writes res a re. 32 pauci enim atque admodum pauci. Ad Fam. therefore. with [Greek: homoion. De Leg. The phrase. Hermann caelatura. Adhibes artem: cf.H. agreeing with natura. "all the other implements. Scilicet: Germ. 380.: a strong expression of this belief is found in Seneca Ep. on 61. mesos]. see n. Phil.Part III of Varro's Exposition. 21.D. Aliqui: n. which is affirmed to be the opinion of Heraclitus and Hecataeus. either in Gk. where see my note. I. which shows that they are related. 79 etc.

I. and goes on with Luna innixans. The mad visions of this hero. which Dav. 100. 52. like those of Orestes. Madere is common with the meaning "to be drunk. 22. reads somnia. etc.. 9. 105 Chrysippus against the senses. by Goer. Eur. XIV. 26. i. p. reads genu for luna. says on D. in n. somnia reprobare. tum commovebantur.e. Antiochus' Physics. III. 25 (qu. after killing. have illa. in De Or. 4. missing the sense. here have igni.M. Virg.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Possibly putare. on 75. see Madv. on 40. which Lamb. Aen. Video. "merely because he dreamed it. I do not see why the poet should not regard luna and Diana as distinct. You value the art. altered. Em. and pointing out that when awake Ennius did not assent to his sensations at all. Somnia reri: the best MSS. p. Incedunt etc. "oculis postremum lumen radiatum rape. has got misplaced. p. see Ribbeck Trag. VII. Crit. Luna innixus: the separate mention in the next line of Diana. forgetting that the verb reprobare belongs to third century Latinity. adopts. video te: evidently from a tragedy whose subject was [Greek: Aias mainomenos]. Some old edd. for plup. I. Halm would prefer credidit. also for the treatment of dreams. Cic. have incede. cf. 80 n. §88. to emend this line. Ennius' own Alcmaeon. qu. quoted the address of Andromache to Hector: [Greek: daimonie phthisei se to son menos]. Two participles used in very different ways not unfrequently occur together. while Lamb. the em. 14. Fur. and T.F. Dav. Sestio p. as in 90. Cic. visa. is supported by 88." i. vigilantis. on Halm's suggestion I have written it twice. Madv. etc. Mostellaria I. I read reri. Dav. Siccorum: cf. 162 thus continues the quotation. a little farther on. its processes are not applicable to a large number of philosophical questions (91). 1013 puts a stop at auratum.D. while Ribbeck repeats it thrice. Thinking this too large a departure from the MSS. Tum cum movebantur: so Halm for MSS. also A.. 921--1015. I. I. Caerulea . angui: anguis fem is not uncommon in the old poetry. 13. Herc.. cf. IV. 405 [Greek: ho goun Heraklês maneis kai labôn phantasian apo tôn idiôn paidôn hôs Eurystheos. 52. 63. in n. have somniare. Sext. 15 and I. 205. Liv. "cum furor eius initio remissior paulatim incitatior et vehementior factus esset. I. 6. P.D. but remember that it gave rise to fallacies like the . Aiax 100 the hero. A. are often referred to for a similar purpose by Sext. Alcmaeo autem: i. Taber strangely explains luna as = arcu ipso lunato. have lunat. 44.e.M. 249.g. I. V. rel. VII. [Greek: ei mê gar ên Chrysippos ouk an ên egô]. perversely insists on taking somniantium recordatione ipsorum closely together. Non id agitur: these difficulties supply Sextus with one of his [Greek: tropoi]. MSS. a favourite quotation with Cic. 55 ed. 1... 51 this explanation. III. Goer." Aeque ac vigilanti: = aeque ac si vigilaret. which governs the two genitives.. §89." as Milton translates it. Ita credit: MSS.: the MSS. §90. impossible. Non diceret: Orelli was induced by Goer.) lunavitque genu sinuosum fortiter arcum. Diligentissime: in 48--53. For my part. Si modo. The subject of the verb is evidently Furiae. very often uses very similar language. §§91--98. e. cf. Tam certa putat: so Sextus A. Summary: Dialectic cannot lead to stable knowledge. Crinitus: [Greek: akersekomês]. akolouthon de ên to tous tou echthrou paidas anelein.e. 442. conj. VII. Itera dum. as it is the utterance of a maniac. as in P. Alcmaeo tuus: cf.H.. 1 consilia siccorum.] Cf. Ov. has led edd. ad Or. which Bait. says we ought not to expect the passage to make sense. [Greek: ho peri tas peristaseis]. Hercules: cf. Am. 62 we learn that he thus parodied the line qu. Hand. corrected. Adsunt: is only given once by MSS. Contra Rullum I. I have already remarked on his extraordinary power of supplying. Incitato furore: Dav. ib. usually identified with the moon. also sua visa putare. From Diog. to omit the verb. see Ad Att. 61 points out that Protagoras must in accordance with his doctrine [Greek: pantôn metron anthrôpos] hold that the [Greek: memênôs] is the [Greek: kritêrion tôn en maniai phainomenôn]. the Atridae.F. "never shorn. Tull. Halm qu. Moveretur: imperf. 39. Quisquam: for the use of this pronoun in interrogative sentences cf.: from the Iliona of Pacuvius." as in Plaut. 48 with the FileOutputStreams of Wagner and Conington. with one MS.M. hoper kai epoiêsen. for other ellipses of the verb see M. from Wesenberg Observ. II. as he thinks. supplying non fuisse vera. p. Illa falsa: sc. Wakefield on Lucr.: "if only he dreamed it. Lat. 104.H. cf. Goer. tên akolouthon praxin tautêi tê phantasiai synêpsen. Halm conj. Non enim id quaeritur: cf. The omission of a verb in the subjunctive is. which verb occurred in I. keeps Odysseus alive awhile in order to torture him." So in Soph. Dicebas: in 52 imbecillius adsentiuntur. reads incitatus." he also refers to Wopkens Lect.

of a disiunctio (disjunctive judgment) "aut vivet cras Hermarchus aut non vivet". 24. II. 114. with footnotes. 301. Quatenus: the same ellipse occurs in Orator 73. it must be remembered. I just remind you that Epicurus would not allow the very first postulate of your Dialectic (97). Erunt . 422. the fallacy of the sorites and other such sophisms lies entirely in the treatment of purely relative terms as though they were absolute. Concludendi: [Greek: tou symperainein] or [Greek: syllogizesthai]. etc. Interrogati: cf." When he begins to answer "Yes. 454 C. 29. You assent to arguments which are identical in form with the Mentiens. §92. the instances in Sext. of his Aristotle. De se ipsa: the ipsa. §93. cf. One grain therefore does make a heap. 82 [Greek: hêsychazein] the advice is quoted in Sext.) that the Expert is the man who knows exactly what his art can do and what it cannot. Quod sit summum bonum: not [Greek: dialektikê] but [Greek: êthikê] must decide this. Ambigue dictum: [Greek: amphibolon]. Tria pauca sint: cf.H. n. pp 201--203. I. 453 D. 201. The art you admire really undoes itself. quod interrogatur. 104. also 127. Quid sequatur: [Greek: to akolouthon].Part III of Varro's Exposition. is nom. 508) treats it as a superabundance of negation arising from a sort of anacoluthon. The titles of numerous distinct works of his on the Sorites and Mentiens are given by Diog. Diog VII. 1. 511. Liv. 782. etc. Very similar arguments to this of Cic. Finium: absolute limits. P. II. Inventam esse: cf.H. V. [Non] habemus: I bracket non in deference to Halm. read here. Thomson's Laws of Thought. ed Orelli) justly remarks that an art is not to be condemned as useless merely because it is unable to solve every problem presented to it.M. Sol quantus sit: this of course is a problem for [Greek: physikê]. He quotes Plato's remarks (in Rep. The present is of course required by the instantaneous nature of the action. Quae coniunctio: etc. The scribes insert and omit negatives very recklessly. which you say is faulty (92). The true sorites or chain inference is still treated in books on logic. (95). tui finitor acervi. grains make a heap. four. lucet" below. n. refute it. 256. Petrus Valentia (p. 28.'s usage. will avail you nothing (93). 62. 73. In acervo tritici: this is the false sorites. Madv. Chrysippo: he spent so much time in trying to solve the sophism that it is called peculiarly his by Persius VI. however (Opusc. 416 ([Greek: ho . Heindorf's note on [Greek: kata smikron] in Sophistes 217 D.: it will be easily seen that the process of questioning above described can be applied to any relative term such as these are. The plan of Chrysippus to refrain from answering. cavetis: this form of the conditional sentence is illustrated in Madv. esp. and cannot prove it. 19 n. according to Cic. A.. which may be briefly described thus: A asks B whether one grain makes a heap. 340. You must go to a tribune for that exception. Chrysippe. VII. Ad Fam. the Mentiens and the arguments identical with it in form must stand or fall together (98). 59. so Sext. also Diog.D. on which see P. cf. This was clearly seen by Aristotle alone of the ancients. 175 and the words [Greek: eautou estai ekkalyptikon]. inventus. 125. Frangite: in later Gk. 140 of this book. III. Zeller 510. A. V. II." A goes on asking whether two. if you can answer and yet refrain. and Zeller 109 sq. you are unfair (94). In my opinion. and I learned Dialectic from Antiochus. B cannot always reply "No. For the mode in which Carneades dealt with Dialectic cf. not for [Greek: dialektikê]." there will be a difference of one grain between heap and no heap. occur in Sext. ta myria oliga estin]. cf. P. Quid repugnet: cf. T. obs. comparing In Vatin. 27. B answers "No. I. which some edd. and yet refuse to assent to it Why so? (96) You demand that these sophisms should be made exceptions to the rules of Dialectic. 32. I. qu. 59 quot incommoda tibi in hac re capies nisi caves. included [Greek: rhêtorikê]. If it is so. 19. 80. Quanto addito aut dempto: after this there is a strange ellipse of some such words as id efficiatur. I.. Vitiosum: 49. Goer. p. An instance of a coniunctio (hypothetical judgment) is "si lucet. Em. 64.F. cf. and not abl.M. see Grote's essay on the Origin of Knowledge. often opposes [Greek: symplokê] or [Greek: synêmmenon] to [Greek: diezeugmenon]. generally [Greek: apolyein]. VII. Nata sit: cf. three. witness the Mentiens. Loquendi: the Stoic [Greek: logikê]. 106 sorites. cf.H. Terence Heaut. If you refrain because you cannot answer. your knowledge fails you. Minutatim: cf. II. In 94 we have interroganti. Dives pauper. Zumpt Gram. §91..H. 418 [Greek: ta pentêkonta oliga estin. now reprinted in Vol II. esp P. For the omission of any connecting particle between the members of each pair. cf. D. II. The true ground of attack is that Logic always assumes the truth of phenomena. XII. 70. as Penelope did her web. Antiochus' Physics. Num nostra culpa est: cf. VII. 26. 3. 1. Locum: [Greek: topon] in the philosophical sense. Gram. In geometriane: with this inquiry into the special function of Dialectic cf. 253 ([Greek: dein histasthai kai epechein]). the inquiry about Rhetoric in Plato Gorg. so that the point may remain doubtful. ed 8.

. which one would expect.. This was the proper term for the hypothetical judgment. 19 (Orelli) sed ad extremum pollicetur prolaturum qui se ipse comest quod efficit dialecticorum ratio. alii enuntiatum. in which Cic.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Ultimum . retains. alla mên hêmera estin phôs ara estin] (Sext. "to put in as a plea". II. in De Fato 26 pronuntiatio. Superbus es: I have thus corrected the MSS. in Gellius XVI.D.. II. De Leg. mentior an verum dico? The sophism is given in a more formally complete shape in De Div. "hateful. Zeller 109. III. often has the same meaning as an adj. Odiosius: this adj. I cannot believe the phrase primum augendi to be Latin. note). Effatum: Halm gives the spelling ecfatum. Augentis nec minuentis: so Halm for MSS. phôs estin . Stertas: imitated by Aug.. n. translates [Greek: alytos] by indissolutus and indissolubilis indifferently. modum: the word modus is technical in this sense cf. 10 cum mentior et mentiri me dico. [Greek: epochê] by refrenatio cf. mentiris igitur. Eiusdem generis: the phrase te mentiri had been substituted for nunc lucere." Non comprehensa: as in 99. 107 sophos stêsetai kai hêsychasei]).D. the use of defendere with an accus. trans.. 253 points the moral in the same way. with the exception of nunc which was added by Dav. as this sophism does. Antiochus' Physics. responde superbe. cf. and 107. Ut agitator: see the amusing letter to Atticus XIII. etc. Si dicis: etc. on 27. §95. who gives the Stoic refinements on this subject. on 66. The phrase superbe resistere in Aug. 66. in -bilis. that when a man truly states that he has told a lie. Orelli superbis. Zeller 107.'s translation. rightly understands [Greek: to hêsychazein] (Em. Halm writes facis superbe. 301. 420. N. P. cf.. 157." "annoying. I. the opposite of comprehendibilia III. crederet. Conexi: = [Greek: synêmmenon]. proficis. I. Illustribus: Bait. in Cic. also ib. III. Primum . clipped these trite sophisms as he does verses from the comic writers is untenable. 167. the hypothetical part and the affirmative--called in Greek [Greek: hêgoumenon] and [Greek: lêgon]. see n. and were given by Manut. quis unquam dixit "ego mentior" quum hoc ipsum pronuntiatum falsum vellet declarare? Inexplicabilia: [Greek: apora] in the Greek writers. or that of Zeller (114. 81. of Gk. §94. The idea of Orelli. augendi nec minuendi. Kayser suggests paucorum quid sit. see Corss. V. Zeller 114). 184). which merges [Greek: phôs] and [Greek: hêmera] into one word. The same terms seem to have been used by the Cynics. The [Greek: protos logos anapodeiktos] of the Stoic logic ran thus [Greek: ei hêmera esti. Mentiris an verum dicis: the an was added by Schutz on a comparison of Gellius XVIII. and other passages qu. Contra Ac. dicis autem te mentiri verumque dicis. [Greek: eikein]. Facere non sinis: Sext. P. superiora: cf. II. Chrysippea: n. II. ed Orelli). 57. I. 25 ter terna novem esse . De Or. Contra Ac. the words in italics are needed. 20. 41. 117 enuntiativum quiddam de corpore quod alii effatum vocant. Aut verum esse aut falsum: the constant Stoic definition of [Greek: axiôma]. 63. Top. I. that Cic.H." but simply means "tiresome. comparing in decimo below. These arguments are called [Greek: monolêmmatoi] (involving only one premise) in Sext. after Christ needlessly writes nostra an vestra. Ausspr. 152. n.H. It is probable that this spelling was antique in Cic. II.. Vestra an nostra: Bait. 244. III. but also that he is telling a lie at the moment when he makes the true statement. P. 14 may be a reminiscence. if one is .: it is absurd to assume. Conclusioni: on facere with the dat. In docendo: docere is not to expound but to prove. [Greek: axiôma]: "a judgment expressed in language". Proficit: Dav. Irretiat: parallel expressions occur in T. 76. vel genere humano stertente verum sit. has not the strong meaning of the Eng. 11 where the following words are added. cf. on 93. 159. Si dicis te mentiri. but Madv. Aug. 22.. 21. Contra Ac. P. on 121. respondere: "to put in as your answer" cf. Tollit . Imperceptus. Superius: the [Greek: synêmmenon] consists of two parts. VII. The past partic. Cederet: some edd. 14 pronuntiatum is found. 65 and other passages in Zeller 107.'s time and only used in connection with religious and legal formulae as in De Div. adding semperque Carneades [Greek: probolên] pugilis et retentionem aurigae similem facit [Greek: epochê]. alii edictum.D. he establishes against himself not merely that he has told a lie. 155 For the word cf. De Fato 7. which verb is hardly found in prose. III.. §96. also Lael. Ep. with some probability adds in.. cf.H. however Munro on Lucr. discusses different translations for the word [Greek: epechein]. The root of the sophism lies in the confusion of past and present time in the one infinitive mentiri.H. II. 1. 8 (from Varro) prologium. I. which Bait. The fallacy is thus hit by Petrus Valentia (p. 58. This bears a semblance of inference and is not so utterly tautological as Cic. 43. but the word is a trans. see Sext. is found in Ovid. see Diog. I. Hortensius fragm. Sen. and quotes a line of Lucilius sustineat currum ut bonu' saepe agitator equosque. Faber points out that in the Timaeus Cic. in T. II. cf.

like [Greek: oligôrein]. adeant: a retort upon Lucullus. according to Cic... The latter mode leaves all that is required for ordinary life (104). 42. See Madv. Esse conexum: with great probability Christ supposes the infinitive to be an addition of the copyists.g. on 54. D. modes of dividing visa.F. admitted the other follows of course. "to despise" for contemnere is too strong. Tortuosum: similar expressions are in T. as in many instances the Stoic sapiens confessedly does (99. 157 [Greek: syncheomen ton bion]. 70. Quicquam tale etc. sic below replaces it. A. §98. III.F. Eversio: cf.F. quo genere nihil arrogantius. and the frequent use of [Greek: bradys] in Sext. Et sensibus: no second et corresponds to this.F. This way of taking the passage will defend Cic. In order to overthrow at once the case of Antiochus. 50 (the same words).D. I proceed to explain. III. on I. unless certain other facts were proved. 8. Plat. on 96. Excipiantur: the legal formula of the Romans generally directed the iudex to condemn the defendant if certain facts were proved. The MSS. Is it possible that any one should read the Academica up to this point. It is strange that our Probables do not seem sufficient to you.Part III of Varro's Exposition.. Si probabile: the si is not in MSS. 108 §97.e. 325. but is conclusively refuted by Madv. II. picks up the broken thread of the sentence. for which see Zeller 112. Evertit: for the Epicurean view of Dialectic see R." cf. tuus ille Poenulus. Effabimur. Sequor: as in 95. Our sapiens is not made of stone. concedendum sit fato fieri quaecumque fiant. also ib. D. cf. and P.D. follow Christ in reading est. cf. Halm and also Bait. 31. Non comprehensa: n. II. Carneades laid down two divisions of visa. The same construction occurs in 103. 22. which in Greek would be marked by [Greek: men] and [Greek: de]. and perception becomes impossible (101). Arguments aimed at the senses concern the first division only. for MSS.. No. 96. Contemnit: the usual trans. Gorg.: cf. for which see Cope in the old Journal of Philology. 116.M. The Stoics themselves admit that the senses are often deceived. 343. Sext. p. 96.. the latter portion went by the name of exceptio.F. He condemns those who say that sensation is swept away by the Academy. lxiii. 58.. as most edd. ed. There are two modes of withholding assent. III. 7. Catus: so Lamb. A different meaning is given by the ut in passages like De Div. 2. 22. Nihil ab eo differens: n. 40. II. D. against the strong censure of Madv. comparing 86 and Pro Rabirio 20. The context of that passage should be carefully read. here wished to insert cum before iudicem. 481 C [Greek: hêmôn ho bios anatetrammenos an eiê]. the other into probable and improbable. 13. many things seem to him true. is capable of supposing.D. Contra Ac. where the Dialectici refused to allow the consequences of their own principles. M. cf. has been a great crux of edd. 790. adhibeant. 41. ab Academicis. yet he always feels that there is a possibility of their being false. effatum above. See Dict. merely to neglect or pass by. Necessarium: the reason why Epicurus refused to admit this is given in De Fato 21 Epicurus veretur ne si hoc concesserit. VIII.) who holds him convicted of ignorance. Cum hoc igitur: the word igitur. §98. VII. Aug. IV. for representing Carneades as dividing visa into those which can be perceived and those which cannot. have videant or adeant. Commemorabas: in 53. cautus.F. the whole of Carneades' system (98). II. it means. Em. §§98--105. e. I. Iudicem . Id est: n. D. Ant. Put this admission together with the tenet of Epicurus. Zeller 399 sq. 29 lays great stress on the necessary truth of disjunctive propositions. nothing is swept away but its necessary certainty (103).. 103 Epicurum quem hebetem et rudem dicere solent Stoici. along with N. Genera: here = classifications of. p. homo acutus. Hear the account given by Clitomachus (102). 30 Democritus non inscite nugatur. Antiochus' Physics. "for a physical philosopher.. 7. Diiunctum: [Greek: diezeugmenon]. that Carneades in any way upheld [Greek: katalêpsis]? Dicantur: i. A. Hermarchus: not Hermachus.F." §99. 100). 69. II. Tribunum . see M. Ut Poenus: "as might be expected from a Carthaginian. E contrariis diiunctio: = [Greek: diezeugmenon ex enantiôn]. Halm conj.M. even for a moment. probabile nihil esse. withholding it absolutely and withholding it merely so far as to deny the certainty of phenomena. non iudicem: this construction. and still believe that Cic. after Clitomachus. one into those capable of being perceived and those not so capable. IV. 56. as usual. (Pref. to D. . Summary. the sapiens will follow probability.D. I. ut physicus. Tardum: De Div. Ludere: this reminds one of the famous controversy between Corax and Tisias. Dav.

which. in 66 the second. Antiochus' Physics.. give concreta without variation.). 50. 851).. one which prevents a man from expressing any assent or disagreement (in either of the two senses above noticed). De Div. vites si loqui possint (ib.H. T 163 [Greek: ou gar apo drios essi palaiphatou oud' apo petrês].Part III of Varro's Exposition. ut probet: the usual construction is with ad and the gerund. Post. 98. on 26." For the force of this see my note on non probans in 148." so iam is often used in Lucretius. as in 109. 48). patria loquitur (In Cat. alterum tenere: "the one is his formal dogma. both of the Lucullus and of Nonius agree in the other form. condemns himself in Orat. 313. se putat. Hermann's neu cui labours under the same defect. of Cic. II. Neget . 107. but will merely give a qualified 'yes' or 'no. 854 of Bait. Ista diceret: "stated the opinions you asked for. I. I trace the whole difficulty of the passage to the absence of terms to express distinctly the difference between the two kinds of assent. satis esse vobis: Bait. 39). is dark in colour. the MSS. for MSS. E robore: so Nonius. fragm. Facilior . Qui neget: see 79. hominis institutio si loqueretur (ib. Non enim est: Cic.. I. of the philosophical works." indefinitely. Probo . 33. 115. 101. cf. consuetudo loquitur (D. 66. Munro on Lucr. cf. and Madv. §104.e. Concreta: so Manut. IV. with Madv. another which does not prevent him from giving an answer to questions. historiae loquantur (5). and Hahn's ed.). as in N. Inquit: "quotha. Various emendations are nam cum (Lamb. V. obs. p.... and it is noteworthy that in his communication to Halm (printed on p. 27). nor does Bait. I. Lucullus' speech. "There are two kinds of [Greek: epochê]. quibus: a number of exx. et cum (Dav. Alterum placere . n. 16. V. T.). of this change from sing. accepted by Zeller 522). taking ut in the . but only of water. bono: it would have seemed more natural to transpose these epithets. I have noticed among recent editors of Cic.. V. a strong tendency to reject explanatory clauses introduced by ut. II. treat as a gloss. 40 with n. and a full stop at probabilia. and is followed in both instances by Bait. but the MSS. I. the other is his actual practice. Nusquam alibi: cf. but the MSS. Movebitur: cf. De Div." My defence of the clause impugned is substantially the same as that of Hermann in the Philologus (vol. 141. I.D. so strong as this is produced. the result of which will be that he will neither absolutely deny nor absolutely affirm anything. rejects very many clauses of the kind in the Oratorical works. Anaxagoras: he made no [Greek: homoiomereiai] of snow. In 121 the MSS.. I. on D. et enim (cf.' dependent on probability.F. and Sext. Brut. Exposuisset adiungit: Madv... The most probable of these seems to me that of Manut. 1861) Madv. provided his answer be not taken to imply absolute approval or absolute disapproval. in the vast majority of cases writes est enim. omits the word tamen altogether. 67 notices a certain looseness in the use of tenses. follows Madv. the last use Cic. For this section cf. 130." Poetam: this both Halm and Bait. Si iam: "if. Impeditum: cf. autem is omitted with the same constr. also dicit in 79. P.. Caput: a legal term. 109 §100. Corss. VII. displays in narrating the opinions of philosophers. reading.. The same is the case with nego and aio. which I had not read when this note was first written. sed cum (Halm). by Halm) wishes therefore to read est enim. cf. for Clitomachus did allow such visa to stand as were sufficient to serve as a basis for action. for example. 97. passim. Percipiendi notam: = [Greek: charaktêra tês synktatheseôs] in Sext. 79. Academia . 80. Od.F. Nec ut placeat: this. I should prefer sic ut.. congregata. which Cic. 455. Ausspr. aiat: cf. P. Cf. in placing a comma after est. on D. For the sudden change from oratio recta to obliqua cf. which passage is very similar to this.F. I. 227 sq. 157 (qu. for propriam 34. 36. to plural are given by Madv. 85. §102. Kayser. who is perhaps the most extensive bracketer of modern times. the two words falling under one accent like sed enim. 5. Ut aut approbet quid aut improbet: this Halm rejects. Conclusio loquitur: cf. give here ebore. but no ex.F. Dolatus: an evident imitation of Hom. I. the difficulty vanishes when we reflect that approbare and improbare may mean either to render an absolute approval or disapproval. §103. For example. gives exactly the wrong sense. Halm brackets a similar clause in 20. The general sense will be as follows.D. §101. Illud sit disputatum: for the construction cf. Gram. Neque tamen habere: i. Gram. Exsistere. Beier on De Off. allows to stand in D. or to render an approval or disapproval merely based on probability. III. n. II. 71. which Madv.H. and many other places (see his note). moveri in 24. In our passage. 180.F. when pure and deep. 191. 43. Nullum: on the favourite Ciceronian use of nullus for non see 47. 41).. For the use of the gerund cf. hic ut (Manut. in 29 the words have the first meaning. followed by Bait. Reprehensio est . 18. 22 of the Acad. II. in adopting the suggestion notice the omission. 418. in D. Tamen ought in that case to follow dicimus.

" This transposition certainly gives increased clearness. sole: Nonius (cf. putavit. as Halm. II." Bentl.. reading. the false and the non existent.. Hermann further wishes to remove a.D. Responsa: added by Ernesti. to the inf.F. Dissimileque: Halm. etc.g. as one of the chief friends of Epicurus. I. is varied from the subj. For facere followed by an inf. Such changes of construction are common in Cic. Non possis . have ei.e. II. Vibrat: with the [Greek: anêrithmon gelasma] of Aeschylus. but most edd. Faber supplies haruspicia. after Kayser has habuerunt. Fateare: the em. Inducto . IV. §106. of collucere without the prep. 7 of the Acad. 5. It seems to have the force of Eng. Isdem oculis: an answer to the question nihil cernis? in 102. for the matter see 22. Quod is non potest: this is the MSS. fragm. 41. 58. Post. in our passage have flavum) videtur. see Forc. n. I. que." Sensus ipsos adsensus: so in I. 12 Soluto.F. 41 sensus is defined to be id quod est sensu comprehensum. You asked how memory was possible on my principles. 30. Falsum quod est: Greek and Latin do not distinguish accurately between the true and the existent. Sueton. of Dav. followed by Bait. Summary. Hermann would place mane ravum after quodque and take quod as a proper relative pronoun. and a full stop at sustineat. is needed. there the Academic has all the knowledge he wants (110). Orelli after Ern. Si igitur: "if then recollection is recollection only of things perceived and known. Positum: "when laid down" or "assumed. Halm restored the passage. on 27 for the constr. which are not at all parallel.. §105. facias of MSS. quoting exx. Implicato: = impedito cf. also Plat Theaet. why then should not the Academic doubt about other things? (107) Your other strong point is that without assent action is impossible (108).F.. Christ defends facere. i... haruspicinam. and you yourself refuse assent to the sorites. II.. we do deny that human faculties are capable of perceiving the difference (111). One strong point of yours is that nature compels us to assent. on actio rerum in 62. defendere: a similar line is taken in 81. 70. and 43 of this book. but. I. Proximo et: MSS. facere. We do not deny that the difference exists. cf. M. That an em..F. notably in the Sophistes and Theaetetus. on 8." as in 93 and often. Probability is quite sufficient basis for the arts. Adsensu comprobet: almost the same phrase often occurs in Livy. Bait. cf. thinking that the constr.F. libero: cf. 191 sq. De Fato 44. Lucullus. Sit etiam: the etiam is a little strange and was thought spurious by Ernesti. 23) quotes tum caeruleum tum lavum (the MSS. boldly read columina.. But surely many actions of the dogmatist proceed upon mere probability. [Greek: katalêpsis]. 8. Modo caeruleum . 18. seems due to the attraction exercised by sustineat. Nor do you gain by the use of the hackneyed argument of Antiochus (109). Alterum est quod: this is substituted for deinde. Purpureum: cf. cf. is absurd. Iacere: cf. cf. then these will be true (106). But Panaetius doubted even some of the Stoic dogmas. also Stobaeus I.. §§105--111.. Siron: thus Madv. in Plato the confusion is frequent. "in what indeed assent consists. 22." §108. 20.: so Aug. cf.D. rightly altered by Lamb. Memoria: cf.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Actio ullius rei: n. 79. on D. Lucem eripimus: cf. 119 writes the name. did not Siron remember the dogmas of Epicurus? If nothing can be remembered which is not absolutely true. some noun in the plur. Where probability is. for facile. Habuerint: the subj. while Dav. Approbari: sc. after oportet. C. prob. proposed vimina or vincula. by this time.H. Nulla: for non. IV. 71. which ought to correspond to primum above. as Halm says. is not needed may be seen from D. Lumina: "strong points. 47. §105. not Sciron. Antiochus' Physics. and I cannot follow Halm in altering the reading to approbavit. by which a colon is placed at perspicuum est above.e. fragm. 101. Why. The argument of Antiochus that the Academics first admit that there are true and false visa and then contradict themselves by denying that there is any difference between true and false. You must see. "indeed". i. not as = "because. that your defence of dogmatism is overthrown (105). hence the present difficulty. §107. Polyaenus: named D. 25 . e. Verr. Cont Ac. 79." Respondere: "to put in as an answer. also 148. cf. as after necesse est in 39. om.. negat Epicurus (hoc enim vestrum lumen est) N. quodque nunc a sole. Diog." The dogmatist theory of [Greek: mnêmê] and [Greek: noêsis] is dealt with in exactly the same way by Sext. 103. Fiet artibus: n. 10 and elsewhere. to cure a wrong punctuation. P. X. read si is. 110 sense of "although. II.

cf. I. I should not much oppose him even if he maintained that the wise man sometimes opines (112). cf. Id ipsum: = nihil posse comprehendi.. not throwing it back to Antiochus time and to this particular speech of Ant. I. item from N. that the Academic denied. ejected these words as a gloss. §§112--115. without necessity gives alia. Cognitionis notam: like nota percipiendi. Pressius: cf. while Dav. perturbatum: for om. Unum . Sequere: the fut. Ita scribenti . In navigando: cf. also that even Priscian (see M. When we consider how difficult it was for copyists not to change the rarer form into the commoner. III.. multa: Manut. cf. I see absolutely no reason for the very severe remarks of Madvig on D. as distinct from that of Carneades. but the sapiens is to adopt (115). exsultare . §109. 5 ne in quaestionis campis tua eqitaret oratio. 100. I.H. narrasti. but writes se ipse. V.. Decretum quod: Halm followed by Bait. non tamen percepta sed tantum probabilia. Ut illa: i. "multa decreta habent Academici.Part III of Varro's Exposition. who doubts whether Cic. states the doctrine as a living one. Incerta reddere: cf. 14. Dicere . my course would be easier. have ille. 226) that the Academics [Greek: diabebaiountai ta pragmata einai akatalêpta]. on D. I have already suggested (n. Saltem: so in 29. who thinks so poorly of Antiochus? Let us consider however what system not I... veri et falsi. does not generally make ipse agree in case with the reflexive. 12) made gross blunders about them. then is wrong is saying (P.D. Sibi ipsum: note that Cic. Temeritatem: [Greek: propeteian. can he profess to belong to the Old Academy? (113) I cannot tolerate your assumption that it is possible to keep an elaborate dogmatic system like yours free from mistakes (114). curiously add vide superiora. You wish me to join your school. which however does not justify the reading.. which we have already had. Some MSS.. posset on the suggestion of Halm. of esse cf. becomes almost irresistible. see 32. 61... referring to altero quo neget in 111.F. state the doctrine dogmatically. i. item: see Madv." §110. 68 and 94. The definitions of the real Old Academy are more reasonable than those of Antiochus. who quotes an exact parallel from Topica 46... on tollendum in 148. neither ita nor idem. 61. §112.F. on D. 216--226. sometimes give for item. alterum: cf. Campis . Reprehensum: sc. the decreta implied in the last sentence.M. exanclatum: for the om. 54. not the pres. Pro Archia 10. 3. while the sceptics do not.. of esse cf. Summary. Sic hoc ipsum: Sext. Herculi: for this form of the gen. Cernimus: i. I. not the actual existence of a difference. Doubtless a Peripatetic would have wondered how a sceptic could accept his formulae. but the spectacle of men of the most irreconcilable opinions clinging on to the same formulae is common enough to prevent us from being surprised at Cicero's acceptance. Stellarum numerus: another echo of Lucullus. What am I to do then with my dear friend Diodotus.F.. Dumeta: same use in . III. the supposition of Madv. Cont. Ut hoc ipsum: the ut follows on illo modo urguendum above. Lubricos sustinere: cf. Sext. also Aug. gives quo. Esse quaedam in visis: it was not the esse but the videri. I. or properly leads to qualified approval. holding the opinions he does. Orat. Et dicta ." and is followed by most commentators. 77.. the probably true and false. VII. Pingue: cf. 26. is correct. Ne confundere omnia: a mocking repetition of Lucullus phrase.D. §111. correctly explains. Esse possit: Bait. Probandi species: a phenomenal appearance which belongs to. Appetitio: for all this cf. though it seems at least possible that manum is to be understood. 48. n. noting at the same time that in such exx. Antiochus: this Bait. whose definitions are not so exacting. a passage which very closely resembles ours.e. but Cic. Convenienter: "consistently". 54. esp. on 18) that we have here a trace of Philo's teaching. but the possibility of that difference being infallibly perceived by human sense. Madv.g. De Off. Cum Peripatetico: nothing that Cic. gave nec for et. 44. states here is at discord with what is known of the tenets of the later Peripatetics. have qui. after multa the MSS.. 28. How.e. If I had to deal with a Peripatetic. putting upon it his own meaning of course. says is that he could accept the Peripatetic formula. 30. but Dav. and sicut . The best MSS. All that Cic. 108.F. D. cf. cf. 113 with notes. agrum cf.. brackets. 111 [Greek: aisthêtikê gar phantasia synkatathesis esti].. Ac.F. oratio: expressions like this are common in Cic.. Et sine decretis: Lamb. 58. which MSS. 76. of the Greek names in -es. eikaiotêta]. e. For the suppressed accus. etc. Antiochus' Physics. Quem ad modum . etc. ind. In conserendo: Guretus interprets "[Greek: en tô phytyesthai ton agron]. etc. ever wrote -is in the gen.e. A. V.

Tale verum: visum omitted as in D. ed. as in D. rexisse: so Cic. 44. it is a mistake to suppose this sentence incomplete. he must believe as strongly in the Stoic theology as he does in the sunlight. The Stoics differ among themselves about physical subjects. 112 N. Subadroganter: cf. says he does not need the deity to construct the universe. I choose Democritus. while Halm suggests sed minutiores. and Bait. on D. 6. Xenophanes. 6. Our sapiens will be delighted if he attains to anything which seems to resemble truth. 117. are confused here. 81.F.. politissimum. 136.. which Dav. Qui sibi cum oratoribus . He must choose one teacher from among the conflicting schools of Thales. 734 inferiores partibus egregie multis multoque minores. Utrumque verum: Cic. I conj.. Durand sed minutior. here has atque etiam. I. V. Anaximenos.F.. cf. 4) deny that the expression idem etiam is Latin. 65. the spinae of the Stoics are often mentioned. 5. Of the three parts of philosophy take Physics first. nimio minares. For the Epicurean friendships cf. simpliciter--subtilitas in I. 126. Democritus. I. You at once upbraid me for believing such monstrous falsehoods (125). see e. Introd. while we have not the advantage of being able to dissect the constitution of things or of the earth to see whether she is firmly fixed or hovers in mid air (122). 18 and 77. you. Ne Carneade quidem: cf. 108 ita scribenti. 2. see 77. while you will not allow me even to doubt (119). Incognito: cf. must defend the Stoics and spurn Aristotle from you. Anaximander. 25. p. Antiochus' Physics. How much better to side with Socrates and Aristo. I. The remaining teachers. Heraclitus... D. §114.g. We know nothing of our bodies. III. II. Melissus. however. Amavi hominem: cf. All these matters lie far beyond our ken. Aug. Strato. cf. or like Bait. Introd. Clericus for MSS. e. His mode of construction again differs from that of Democritus. say you. II. Adhiberet: the MSS. 133. however Orat. Constituas: this verb is often used in connection with the ethical finis. which we can dissect. exanclatum. Would your sapiens swear to the truth of any geometrical result whatever? (116) Let us see which one of actual physical systems the sapiens we are seeking will select (117). p. as I am and not compelled to find an answer to all the riddles of the universe! (120) Nothing can exist. Guietus gave sed his minores. while Kayser proposes adhaereret. Lucullus. who hold that nothing can be known about them! (123) Who knows the nature of mind? Numberless opinions clash. 19. give nolimus. who wishes to add eum esse. which is indeed nearer the MSS. D. I. of Io. however I. Illud ferre: cf. by Madv. Hicetas. as do those of Dicaearchus. Summary. II. 148. Before I proceed to Ethics. V. Nolumus: Halm and Bait. 6. Plato and Xenocrates. Ita iudico.F. If you say it is better to choose any system rather than none. Sed qui his minor est: given by Halm as the em. and go Halm reads adderet. cf. Artificium: = ars. Empedocles. Ac. vary often speaks of the Peripatetics. 129 and I. reads.D. Idemque etiam: Krebs and Allgayer (Antibarbarus. Our sapiens will be unable to decide (124). Simpliciter: the opposite of subtiliter. great men though they be. 67. Anaxagoras. I see some good in Strato. When you admit that all things can be perceived no more and no less clearly than the size of the sun. §115. often speaks of them and of Epicurus in this patronising way. he must reject (118).D. 6. §§116--128.F. if the Stoic. so fine a line divides the subjunctive from the indicative in clauses like these that the choice often depends on mere individual taste. who with Kayser prints esse after politissimum. Lucr. and the examples given from Cic. like Halm. Plato and Epicurus tell strange things of the heavenly bodies.Part III of Varro's Exposition.F. Cont. 7. apart from the deity. which would be much nearer the MSS. of course only accepts the propositions as Arcesilas did. as in 30. IV. De sapiente loquamur: n. a falso: note the change of prep. sed mihi minores. Xenophanes. 39 adhiberet. Plato and Pythagoras. Leucippus. 138 ne labar. however. cf. 77 nemo. T. §113. 70. Whatever system he selects he must know absolutely..F. follows. 76. Accessionem: for this cf. 13. II. Cf. 68. esp. If he holds this. Nusquam labar: cf.. Sustinuero: cf. Horum neutrum: cf. You must be prepared to asseverate no less strongly that the sun is eighteen times as large as the earth. Tam bonos: Cic. 78. IV. E vero . 50. One good MS. on 66. Aristotle will pronounce him mad. I note your weakness in placing all perceptions on the same level. I am almost content (128). than that yon statue is six feet high. 59. for moral good results from it (127). How much better to be free. cf. why will they not allow me to differ from them? (126) Not that I deprecate the study of Physics. yet I will not assent absolutely either to his system or to yours (121). Diodoto: cf. D.g. .

Infinitae quaestiones: [Greek: theseis]. by Dav. comparing the beginning of 119. Definita: this is opposed to infinita in Topica 79. of Manut. sed illud ante. 56 quid non mortalia pectora cogis auri sacra fames? Sapientem nec prius: this is the "egregia lectio" of three of Halm's MSS. III. Vim: = [Greek: anankên]. 65. Inflatus tumore: cf. These quaestiones are very often alluded to by Cic. 26). Bentl. 2. eli) added melius after sententiam. themselves naturally incapable of proof. Nulla crassitudo: in Sext. naturae here = [Greek: ousias]. qu. 3 argued that that letter cannot be genuine. cf. 77). Orat. Hence Markland on Cic. At illud ante: this is my em. 187. E quibus omnia constant: this sounds like Lucretius. 377). 47 repenam fortasse. however true he admits the bases of proof to be which Archimedes uses. 5. 115. of the former An uxor ducenda. I.H. I. has by preference described the point and surface negatively. Eas primum. VII.D. Our passage is imitated by Aug De Civ. Orelli. Dei XVIII. 12. 18. Dav. Antiochus' Physics. IX.) for the slope of a hill. [Greek: stigmê] = [Greek: to ameres] (A. II. A. 113 §116. I. (2) that Cic. If anything is to be introduced. 5. I. Sententiam eliget et: MSS. 15. [Greek: hypotheseis]. 128. which probably arose from a marginal variant "vel ut" taking the place of at.. II. Cogere: this word like [Greek: anankazein] and [Greek: biazesthai] often means simply to argue irresistibly. bases of proof. 46. 27 sine ulla specie et carentem omni illa qualitate. which has induced some edd. I. 19... Civ. opposed to finitae quaestiones. De Off. IV. a similar break in 40 sed prius. III. cf." etc. as in D. 76.Part III of Varro's Exposition. A more complete enumeration of schools will be found in Sext. II. always considers Thales to be sapientissimus e septem (De Leg. 37. etc.H. For velut Halm writes vel (which Bait. for si adiiciamus of MSS. so definire is used for finire in Orat. takes).M. Extremitatem: = [Greek: epiphaneian]. 143. (Sext. esp.H. the [Greek: epiphaneia] is usually described not negatively as here. Quintal III.. 39). Libramentum: so this word is used by Pliny (see Forc. The construction adigere aliquem ius iurandum will be found in Caes.. 13 (on the same subject) [Greek: hoi Stôikoi kai alloi tines]. Multis partibus: for this expression see Munro on Lucr. to transpose. he suggests quod sit sine.M. have (by dittographia of m. carentem: a difficult passage. Observe the awkwardness of having the line treated of after the superficies. P. II. and tries to condemn the Stoic sapiens out of his own mouth. III. III. 6 in R. II. though used by other schools. Punctum esse etc. Ne ille: this asseverative ne is thus always closely joined with pronouns in Cic. III. P. mêkos kai platos] (A.. Dav. thus was destroyed the whole point of the sentence.: [Greek: sêmeion estin ou meros outhen] (Sext. cf. since in it the supremacy among the seven is assigned to Solon. cogere in 116. cf. II. but positively as [Greek: mêkos meta platous] (P. For liniamentum = lineam cf. for the MSS. 126.). X. Infinitatem naturae: [Greek: to apeiron]. 58. nec ille iurare posset in 123. cf. Ad Brutum II. for the sense cf. 65--67. velut illud ante. I have merely bracketed carentem. Concessisse primas: Cic. Dav. I would rather add et crassitudine before carentem. also Virg. 29 [Greek: panta chrêmata . I. as above).F. The threefold division was peculiarly Stoic. of the latter An Catoni ducenda. and have also dropped et. comparing I. Liniamentum . Hermann takes esse after punctum as strongly predicative ("there is a point.M. Gk. cf. 123. For these physici the student must in general be referred to R. and P. I. Insipiens eliget: cf. Verr. 39). Deum: see 126. I. omnia = [Greek: to pan]. also in 128 at paulum ante. IV. 91 inflati opinionibus. which is not that the sapiens will swear to the size of the sun after he has seen Archimedes go through his calculations. and Grote's Plato Vol. IV. Topica 79. will not swear to the truth of the elaborate conclusions which that geometer rears upon them. [Greek: peras] (extremitas) [Greek: somatos duo echon diastaseis. verum. 283. 115 quale est a non sapiente explicari sapientiam? and 9 statuere qui sit sapiens vel maxime videtur esse sapientis. Such breaks often occur in Cic. where Jahn qu. 734. Bell. P. Similis inter se: an attempt to translate [Greek: homoiomereias]. though I feel Halm's remark that a verb is wanted in this clause as in the other two. limited propositions. 82. 6. general propositions. wished to read elegerit. Cicero is arguing as in 128 against the absurdity of attaching one and the same degree of certainty to the simplest and the most complex truths.: cf. Baiter and others propose by conjecture. For other modes of dividing philosophy see Sext. then adds similiter after liniamentum and ejects sine ulla. De Or. Initia: as in 118.H. and P. This latter fact seems to me strong against the introduction of longitudinem which Ursinus. 5 gives as an ex. Sext. 138. §118. also Quint. Et a vobismet: "and especially by you". Note (1) that the line is defined in Greek as [Greek: mêkos aplates]. Digitum: cf. Aen. read errore. as in Orator 87 sed nunc aliud. De Or. §117. Tres partes: cf. Before Halm sapientemne was read. the exordium of Anaxagoras given from Diog. 30 sq. also T. so [Greek: archai] in Gk. but that the sapiens. Schwegler. Si adigam: the fine em.

I. Fabricata sit: see 87 n. and esp. R.. Asperis . also Zeller. III.D. 39. mutentur: exactly the same answer was made recently to Prof. Sat. Portenta: "monstrosities these. VII. cf. Somnia: so N. Bait. Brut. Animalis intellegentia: reason is the essence of the universe with the Stoics.. on I. Mundum sapientem: for this Stoic doctrine see N. cf. 28. Lactantius qu. 24 alludes to this ([Greek: hoti chrysiou potamos eiê reontos]). Exsistere: Walker conj.F.D. I.D. and P. T. §121. Cont. T. I. Zeller 138--9. 121. p.. 6. and not to be got by exertion. 116). Arist. XXXVI. II. Bait. Met. 91--127.. Vol I.D. Melissus: see Simplicius qu. the passage without perniciosa. Circumfusa: cf. ac. tui. Posse: n. a good voice is a thing to be prayed for. see N.D. 28 of the Ac. 37. no one thing could be more or less known than another. 72). II. 17. For the Academic liberty see Introd.D. ib. §120. vestra. 18.. non esse: a remarkable construction. 375). Antiochus' Physics. III. etc. P. Ac. Libertas . fragm.D. N. A. also N. on fragm. Aristot.. Diog.D. cf. 19 optata magis quam inventa. 27. 1 imitates this passage. 9--12 an example of the refutation of [Greek: nooumena] by means of [Greek: nooumena]. This is the constant judgment of Cic. 7 qu. i. cf. That the text is sound however may be seen from T. Empirici: a school of physicians so called. II. 1.F.Part III of Varro's Exposition. Permanet: the deity is to the Stoic [Greek: pneuma endiêkon di holou tou kosmou] (Plut. vestri. De Or. in the sense of "a great task. Nostra causa: Cic.H. 75. §123. III." cf. I. om. and discusses the difficulty of applying this criticism to the works of Aristotle which we possess. The phrase magnum onus is indeed common (cf. 21. Aug..F. Xenophanes . as Halm. Solem: 126. and 46 of this book. 12 doceas oportet nec proferas. N. Durand oscitantis (cf. for latent cf. potantis. 84.. 12. Optantis: Guietus humorously conj. Habitari ait: for this edd. Nat. IV. Docentis: giving proof. II. 3 qu. Discedent: a word often used of those vanquished in a fight. cf. 46 Viderentur: a genuine passive. Zeller 147). Zeller 156--7. 49. Ad Att. Ut .. and especially for a chariot which a fly covered with its wings. Media pendeat: cf. The difficulties surrounding the opinion are treated of in Zeller 175. 23. I. I. Nulla vis: cf. 59 vocis bonitas optanda est. 66. Orat. also ib. (Seneca. 32.D. Grote. 81. 7. always writes mea. Medici: cf." is equally so. III. cf. Modo hoc modo illud: 134. p. Neque natum unquam: cf. 178. qu. but not sponte alicuius. 93. He only hypothetically allowed the existence of the phenomenal world. not mei. 141. For the Stoic opinion that men are the chief care of Providence. and P. Deflagret: the Stoics considered the [Greek: kosmos phthartos]. 79.H. nostri. II. ad Helvid. deum: Eleaticism was in the hands of Xenoph. I. R. after which he made two [Greek: archai. ib.D. also 128 non enim magis adsentiuntur. Tam multa ac: MSS. I. mainly theological. 67. famed for minute work in ivory. 30 optare hoc quidem est non docere. just as he writes sua sponte. "recte ut videtur" says Halm. §122. Hist. 331. Hor. efficere. I. tua. II. 18 miracula non disserentium philosophorum sed somniantium. tam vera quam falsa cernimus in 111. and P. I. thermon kai psychron toutôn de to men kata men to hon thermon tattei. in Sext. They supply in Sext. spiritus per omnia maxima ac minima aequali intentione diffusus. and inserting respondere makes cur deus. VII. I. Myrmecides: an actual Athenian artist. R. and a ship which the wings of a bee concealed. 39.. Magno opere: Hermann wishes to read onere. 29 of Book I. N. II. and P. De Inv. 5. 84. Phil. Post. D. De Fato 46.. De Plac. 101. part of the same sentence. II. Inst. 25. I. corporibus: cf. Consol. 14. also Orat. [Greek: to eon aiei ara ên te kai estai]. 29. D. Vita Cic..D. N. there is no need to read et. Post. 32. 98. Ornatus: = [Greek: kosmos]. nostra causa. III. I. I. 94. . D. neque ortum unquam in 119. VIII. adopts it. There is a similar Greek proverb. Sed cum: sed often marks a very slight contrast. on I. Lactant. quotes Topica 3. 45. I. 43. others opinantis. Huxley's speculations on protoplasm. 8. I. sensibus: knowledge according to the Stoics was homogeneous throughout. I. 114 ên homou eita nous elthôn auta diekosmêse]. 5 qu. Parmenides ignem: cf. 42 non philosophorum iudicia sed delirantium somnia. about Aristotle's style. See Plin. thateron de kata to mê on]. follows. Sic animo . 66 flagitia Democriti.. 23. II. De Or. which I insert. Heraclitus: n. Flumen aureum: Plut. but magnum opus. etc. also 28. 353. I. 29 of the Ac. III. Nunc lucere: cf. Plato: n. Strato: R. I. 98. etc. III. 44. on I. 70.e. [Greek: euchê mallon ê alêtheia]. he was said to have assumed that the living protoplasm would have the same properties as the dead. De Or. Latent ista: see n. §119. P. N. Quod tibi est: after these words Halm puts merely a comma. 12. non est enim in nobis.D. Ac. 29 etc. Fateri: cf.

i. Innumerabilis: 55. 61. I. Sanguis: Empodocles. III. see Stob. Zeller 161 sq. I. R. 7) mentions the theory as Pythagorean. Hicetas: he was followed by Heraclides Ponticus and some Pythagoreans. cf.. 34. quidem may possibly appear strange. and P. Commenticiis: a favourite word of Cic. 113. Impudenter: 115. 13 of Ac. see R. Post. Stob. A. 358.D. on I. protests against being compared to a demagogue. Epicurus' absurdity is by Cic. 114 subadroganter. cf. 26 (with which passage cf. Quid tu. VII. Ne . egone vobis. Tres partis: in Plato's Republic. The mutation of Augustine Contra Ac. I. XV. I. eillomenên de peri ton dia pantos polon tetamenon]. (D. 75. Tim. however ne maiorem quidem in 82. Phys. Convicio: cf. Quid sit animus: an enumeration of the different ancient theories is given in T. Egone? ne bis is the em. T. Baiter following him.. Trans. which Catius translated (Ad Fam. A. I. Epicure: the connection is that Cic. Quod movebitur . and by Sext. De Civ. I. and [Greek: pyr technikon] is one of the definitions of the Stoic deity. XV. and P. Disputantis: 55. and inserts corpus before cedat. VII. 40 B) are [Greek: gên de trophon men hêmeteran.. Nobilitatis: this is to be explained by referring to 73--75 (imitari numquam nisi clarum. It seems also to be found in Philolaus. §126. and by the Stoics. I. was prepared to go in estimating the sun's size. I. Quint. Diog. Diog. Dei XVI. Epic.M. Momenta n. I.e. Verecundius: cf. 20) This explanation though not quite satisfactory is the best yet given. In P. see R. but cf. 6. XII. also N. D. as in T. Numerus: so Bentl. 19 where his famous line [Greek: haima gar anthrôpois perikardion esti noêma] is translated. XV.H. Halm writes quo quid for quod (with Christ). and claims to follow the aristocracy of philosophy. 33 makes it probable that quemnam was the original reading here. this is all part of the personal convicium supposed to be directly addressed to Cic. 18--22. Completa et conferta: n. I.. Sext. 115 Iurare: cf. The text is sound. III. II. 113. T. etc. 124. read Xenocrati. Neque ego.D. 22. Antiochus' Physics. Ut nos nunc simus. Dicaearcho: T. and P. and is approved by Madv. 2.e. [Greek: Antipodas]: this doctrine appears in Philolaus (see Plut. Phil. 63 A. 44. Platonem: the words of Plato (Tim. VIII. on fragm. esp Aug.. 24) says that Plato first invented the name. 21. cf. Theophrastus: who wrote much on the history of philosophy. An explanation of this Pythagorean doctrine of Xenocrates is given in R.: n. I. qu. in the second question. 39. and laud it for its likeness to impromptu. 31 of the [Greek: pollê kai anênytos machê] concerning the soul. cedat: this is the theory of motion disproved by Lucr. 244.. Animam: ib. II. 29. proceeds to give the peculiar crotchet of Epic. who also speaks in P. Plac. sed inter pedalem magnitudinem et bipedalem". 185) "cum interrogatum esset num tantulum (quasi pedalem 82) solem esse putaret. was of course bound up with the doctrine that the universe or the world is a globe (which is held by Plat. and P. 27. 140).. Invidiam: cf. Cf. Philipp. Tu vero: etc. §124. Aristo Chius: for this doctrine of his see R. where Cic. Post. 16) by spectra. nisi nobilem).Part III of Varro's Exposition. Plin. aliis cum his. 116.D. §125. as in Verr. 57 he says [Greek: Gorgias oude dianoian einai phêsi]. 20. T. Cum his: i. usually puts the corresponding case of quisnam. 144. for MSS. gives way. in the Tim. cf. of Lamb. and P.. IV.H. 18.F. 41 quod subtiliter magis quam dilucide dicitur. non praecise definit (tantum enim esse censebat quantus videretur vel paulo aut maiorem aut minorem) sed latius circumscribit." Tam sit mirabilis: n. Vincam animum: a common phrase in Cic. X.D. twice the apparent size. "and yet. II. III. but in another passage (III.. Quae tu: elliptic for ut comprobem quae tu comprobas cf. 370 sq..D. Epist. 19. Phys. Summus deus: "the highest form of the deity" who was of course one in the Stoic system. Imagines: [Greek: eidôla].. Ether is the finest fire. "whatever body is pushed. 75). Putas solem . Solem: as of course .M. The existence of [Greek: antipodes]. Ignis: Zeno's opinion. who give the name of [Greek: antichthôn] to the opposite side of the world. by the Antiocheans. who both mention this trick of style." n. 83. 19. Animo videre: cf. not quis. for mens of MSS. tantum: a hard passage. was literally an aristocrat have failed. De Div. see R. 174 speaks of the followers of Aristarchus the mathematician as holding the same doctrine. 125. Atque haud scio: atque here = [Greek: kaitoi]. 20. 45.F.. The word [Greek: antipous] seems to occur first in Plat. cf. brought into strong relief by stating the outside limit to which Epic. Quod intellegi etc. on 5 ac vereor. cf. Supra infra: n. II. 5.D. on I. on I. 328.D. 25. etc. who thus explains it (Em. 41. Zeller 432. 76. 21. The attempts of the commentators to show that Democr. IX. I. having given the crotchets of other philosophers about [Greek: physikê].D.: see fragm. Zumpt on Verr.: so in T. and P. and beginning at Tune aut inane above. 11 qu. on 92. ne bis quidem tantum esse. hence the early Christian writers attack the two ideas together as unscriptural. Ut Xenocrates: some edd. 9. I. II. Queru potissimum? quem?: In repeated questions of this kind Cic. 30 of Ac.

Zeno of Elea. Ergo after vos is of course analeptic. Non magis: so in 119 nec magis approbabit nunc lucere. Halm departs somewhat from this arrangement. indeed (Em. which MSS. while if I follow Polemo. Antiochus' Physics. Aristippus. who qu. I just note that octodecim is not used by Cic. etc. I. after producing many exx. have se. et Halm sed. Virtue calls me back. 648 E [Greek: tên pantôn hêttan phoboumenos anthrôpon toi pômatos]. Val. on I. hence the Academics showed their hostility to absolute knowledge by refusing [Greek: ton hêlion homologein einai katalêpton] (Galen De Opt. 282 takes occurit.. igitur comes fourth word in the clause. Halm with Lamb. II. but he produces many instances with puto. 62 omnium philosophorum una est ratio medendi." says Antiochus. I. 21 and Madv. on D. which is a dogma common to both you. 197 qu. "but not the greatest possible. Cic. Carneades (129-131). for what reason it is difficult to see. and giving numerous exx. Quod coeperam: in 128 at veniamus nunc ad boni maique notionem.F. XXXIV. nor will she even allow me to join pleasure to herself (139). Signum illud: the xystus (9) was adorned with statues. mostly have latiores. §128. Bonorum summa: cf. but cf. 58. Flaccus Argon. explaining it as a perfect.F. II. Exigua et minima: [Greek: smikra kai elachista]. the Stoics are irate (132). Duodeviginti: 82. Callipho. as De Off. 49.Part III of Varro's Exposition. edd. §§129--141. Antiochus. completur: MSS. Agi secum: cf. the former reads inverecundior after Morgenstern. Nat. cf. comprehendendi: not a case of a plural noun with a singular gerund like spe rerum potiendi. of the reflexive pronoun omitted. on 114. 201 certe contra Ciceronis usum est 'et omitto' pro simplici 'omitto. III.F. D. 547. Hic. Opusc.). Summary. Epicurus. I gravitate then towards one of them. Madv. But the se comes in very awkwardly. but of two genitives depending in different ways on the same word (definitio). 114). Omnium rerum .D. Occurit . cf. which Halm retains. For instance.. as in Lucretius. 8. Em. Est igitur: so in De Div. VI. et omitto. "is Diogenes' view.. while hoc. which the ancients thought natural and useful (135). Sol quantus sit: 91. qu. Notionem: = cognitionem. V." said Carneades. "Yes. Omitto: MSS. If I desire to follow the Stoics. if that is retained complebitur must be read. 142). Polemo. have after decempeda. Valentia 304 ed. etc. Madv.. add Virg. 116 being the chief seat of fire. What contention is there among philosophers about the ethical standard! I pass by many abandoned systems like that of Herillus but consider the discrepancies between Xenophanes.. T. Solis autem . Madv. Elatiores: MSS. 187).D. Gen. Menedemus. and is not needed before the infinitive. At paulum: MSS. reads altiores. they regard emotion as harmful. always writes exigua et paene minima or something of the kind. 8. II. Hist. Cornix: for the Stoic belief in divination see Zeller 349--358. 153.D. Chrysippus thinks only three ethical systems can with plausibility be defended (138). 51. Or. Leniter: Halm and Hermann leviter." "That. M. 119. Em. and myself (133). cf. For the turn of expression cf. that of pleasure. says that he doubts about this passage because considero does not belong to the class of verbs with which this usage is found. 163 Scaevolae dicendi elegantia. similar combinations from D. [Greek: epistêmên]. Parmenides. Wesenberg on T. of this sequence of tenses. I must be careful not to assent to the unknown. Dicendi 497 B qu. Aristo. Constituendi: n. Plat. 66. Brut. IV. Madv. have after nego. Pyrrho. Consideratio contemplatioque: Cic. in support of which reading Dav. De Or. Zeno thinks virtue gives happiness. and so I find it impossible to choose (141. have occuret mostly. 78 notes that except here Cic. P. also Wesenb." How am I to choose among such conflicting theories? (134) Nor can I accept those points in which Antiochus and Zeno agree. which MSS.' in initio huius modi orationis ubi universae sententiae exempla .F. II. which stands immediately after nego. 78 omnium horum vitiorum una cautio est. 35. turns into hunc. 46. How absurd are the Stoic Paradoxes! (136) Albinus joking said to Carneades "You do not think me a praetor because I am not a sapiens. Lucullus. II.. 15. 9.F. this is not uncommon in Cic. V.D. not mine" (137). IV. qu. quae. Euclides. Leg. nego credere: Faber first gave ac monet for MSS. in M. Other exx. The sunlight was the stock example of a most completely cognisable phenomenon.. §127. V. then restored to its place permensi refertis. Aen. Plin. Si quae: Halm and many edd. 11. Antiochus will not allow me. V. Diodorus. nobiscum ageret in 80. Madv. Orat. 156. he ejects (Em.F. Hieronymus. which surely stands on the same level. admonens. D. also 51 of this book. Occultissimarum: n. on T. Manut. Pabulum: similar language in D. Lael.. at illud ante in 116. When I hear the several pleadings of pleasure and virtue. I cannot avoid being moved by both.. §129. is fond of this combination. 14. Simile veri: cf.

om. 22) while Polemo did (I. 1 neque enim existimat (Varro) ullam philosophiae sectam esse dicendam. Diu multumque: n. on D. also D.F. R. et as in I. Fuit: = natus est. 35 (frui principiis naturalibus). 6. as often. Hic igitur . inv. who generally uses [Greek: ataraxia]. etc. 222 sq. cf. Zeno: cf.F. aemuli. II. 35 spells the name). 352 where the differences between the two schools are clearly drawn out. Antiochus probat: the germs of many Stoic and Antiochean doctrines were to be found in Polemo. I. where the words aut omnia aut maxima. V. Prope singularem: cf. on D. and que in 52 of this book. and P. but one good one (Halm's E) has assentientes. is not different from that of Polemo. De Leg. a noteworthy passage. below on Carneades.F. 19. For the finis of Herillus see Madv. IV. II. 174 sq. Antiochus' Physics.: in D. 22 Aristoteles longe omnibus--Platonem semper excipio--praestans. The Megarian system was indeed an ethical development of Eleatic doctrine.Part III of Varro's Exposition. on D. 22). I. thus stated. see I. 55. Megaricorum: Xenophanes. but Halm refers to D. Hieronymus: mentioned D.F. who also gives the chief authorities concerning this philosopher.F. Terminis . Nunc: Halm huc after Jo. I. De Inv. D. 14. quam ut Stoicis quibuscum bellum gerebat opponeret). cf. I. 108 affirms this as well as [Greek: praiotês] to be a name for the sceptic [Greek: telos]. Momenta = aestimationes. I. in which last place Cic..D. one would expect ut Herilli. Carneades: this finis is given in D. Eiusque amici: Bentl. Clemens Alex. and Madv. See n. 32. generally classes Herillus (or Erillus as Madv. 85. 238. and three Stoic interpretations of it are given. says of him quem iam cur Peripateticum appellem nescio. Si Polemoneus: i. ut Carneades contra Stoicos disserebat). Quemlibet: cf. 16. 48. The finis therefore. see my note there and cf. 36. 14 the finis of Polemo is stated to be secundum naturam vivere. but the name scarcely occurs if at all in Sext. 15. §131. quae non eo distat a ceteris. II. = [Greek: oikistês]. 84 (naturae primus aut omnibus aut maximis frui. Cognitione et scientia: double translation of [Greek: epistêmê]. who was a Peripatetic. Cic. V.D. V. Socrates 211. by Madv. [Greek: Apatheia] was also a Stoic term. V. Zeller 58 sq. In mediis: cf. Relicta: cf. c. on D. Pyrrho autem: one would expect Pyrrhoni as Dav. but in 124 there is just the same change from Pyrrhoni to Xenocrates. 35. Cic considers the Eleatic and Megarian schools to be so closely related as to have.H. R. 358. cf. on D. like the schools of Democritus and Epicurus. I. Zeller.F. V.F. 37. [Greek: axiai] in 36. and P. and from him it is attributed to the vetus Academia in I. the last of which resembles the present passage--omnibus aut maximis rebus iis quae secundum naturam sint fruentem vivere. 38. The later Peripatetics were to a great degree Stoicised. see I. who how ever unduly limits the usage. II. 43.F. 42.F. 43. T. Nec tamen consentiens: cf. R. I. 20 (fruendi rebus iis. 91. qu. I. Aug. 130 abiectos. Cic. etc. I venture to read adsentietur. II. 41. 7.. and P. II. MSS. thinking that the last two letters were first dropt. Dicenda: for the omission of the verb with the gerundive (which occurs chiefly in emphatic clauses) cf. Dei XIX. and for the doctrines of Aristo the Chian ib. with footnotes. II.F. 56. 15 Inventor et princeps: same expression in T.D. IV. 332. §130. 126. De Off. Herilli: so Madv. cf. 448. I. Socr. The Erctrian school was closely connected with the Megarian. already quoted on I. quas primas secundum naturam esse diximus. 182. prudentior: MSS. Zeller 496. 37. Scala. Callipho: as the genitive is Calliphontis. This interpretation Antiochus adopted. 42 (Carneadeum illud quod is non tam ut probaret protulit. have either Erillum or et illum. I. etc.. quod diversos habeat fines bonorum et malorum.e. 7. II. but occasionally [Greek: metriopatheia]. 35. for the difference see R. Omnis ratio etc. II. as he did not include virtus in it (see D. 125. Diodorus: see Madv. n. Per ipsum Antiochum: a similar line of argument is taken in Sext. IV. IX. seem to correspond to words used by Polemo. 6. I. 43.F.D.. 44.F. Menedemo: see Zeller Socr. §132. De Or. 7.. Aristonem: this is Aristo of Chios. Academicos et: MSS. 338. T. II. Unum et simile: for this see Zell. V. on D. [Greek: Apatheia]: Diog. Honeste vivere. 88. 30. 15. II. ought according to rule to write Calliphon in the nom. conj. for ulli of MSS. 117 subiciuntur per figuram omissionis. as in 26 (tenetur) and that then . also Zeller 447. Carneades non ille quidem auctor sed defensor disserendi causa fuit). D. 22.F. but it is clear that Carneades intended it to be different. Pyrrho and Aristo together as authors of exploded systems. a continuous history. possessione: there is a similar play on the legal words finis terminus possessio in De Leg. 19. II. and P. 4. Simile ought perhaps to be sui simile as in Tim. P. 34.: this is the constant language of the later Greek philosophy. R. for this see Madv. 19. Peccat: a Stoic term turned on the Stoics. See more on 139. generally have assentiens. T. sapiens fuerit. and P. not Aristo of Ceos. on I. Ut Herillum.F. De Civ. where momenti is used in a different way.

quidem. n.. see D. 22. 18.. 4. the Antiochean opinion in I. Antiochus' Physics.. who is severe upon the reading of Orelli (still kept by Klotz). 454. vester." Madv." cf. Halm and Bait. III.F. Inquit: n. such phrases as stare ad cyathum. Moveri: [Greek: kineisthai]. Ne sibi constet: Cic. that there cannot be degrees in happiness. Quasi: = almost. Ad Att. 806.D. De Div. add Quint. The question uter est prudentior is intended to press home the dilemma in which Cicero has placed the supposed sapiens. Mine is rather nearer the MSS. Theophrasto. Solos reges: for all this see Zeller 253 sq. 42 in his constitit.e.F. IV. 75. I. or admiranda.. 22. Tam sunt defendenda: cf. Quid quod quae: so Guietus with the approval of Madv. V. dictata. adsentietur) for si numquam of MSS. quid quae or quid quaeque..D. Praecide: [Greek: syntomos] or [Greek: synelôn eipe]. the need for which I fail to see. Voltis: cf. 48. .. In his discrepant: I. however reads non esse illa probanda sap. 24 efficerentur). 48. §137. si deleta sit? which involves the use of nec for ne .. p. 13 Strato physicum se voluit "gave himself out to be a physical philosopher:" also Madv.D. cf. Balbutiens: "giving an uncertain sound. where Spalding wished to read in Herodoti. (Em. Etiam: = "yes. as in 147 intellegat se passed into intelligentes.. VIII.: n. Ille noster: Dav. 38. non timeat? nec si patria deleatur? non doleat? nec. non posse illa probata esse. cf. 118 adsentiet. Mai. Zeller 250. 10. IX. Crantoris: sc. etc. 4. 29. Huic Stoico: i. 18.. D. Iacere: 79. as does Baiter. Sunt enim Socratica: the Socratic origin of the Stoic paradoxes is affirmed in Parad. speaks as a friend of Antiochus. I may remark. 43. Paria: D. I. on D. which we possess: see Bait. 11.D. under the attraction of the s following. esse: this seems to me sound. 2. I have followed the reading of Madv. Aureolus . Paradoxa 20 sq. [Greek: hôs epos eipein]. is frequently inserted in MSS. Non beatissimam: I. durata. and the usage is rather colloquial.F. cf. 24. Furiosus: Parad. V. I also read sin. not the one he gives (after Davies) in D. Halm brackets Stoico. inquam (sc. But in both places Cic. generally translates [Greek: paradoxa] by admirabilia as in D. passed into adsentiens. §135.D. n. Liberum: Parad. 121. Sequi volebat: "professed to follow. 203) reads for MSS. as in Aristotle. 16. libellus: it is not often that two diminutives come together in Cic. 120. T.F. 57. I. Parad. 23. §136. When several relative pronouns come together the MSS. X. For the omission of est after the emphatic ille cf.F.. III. Mediocritates: [Greek: mesopetes]. D. Mirabilia: Cic. Solos divites: [Greek: hoti monos ho sophos plousios]. Cotem: T..F. 994. Seneca De Ira III. under which title he seems to have published a work different from the Paradoxa. after Lamb. Et hic: i. tum illud: cf.D. 59. Probabilia: the removal of passion and delight is easier than that of fear and pain.D. on 79. supplying libro. §134.F.. 33. D. All the other emendations I have seen are too unsatisfactory to be enumerated.e. 146." cf. 35. argues in T.. 43. follow Moser in writing Quid? si quae removing the stop at paria. 102. II. VI. Panaetius: he had addressed to Tubero a work de dolore. Decreta: some MSS. also for aureolus 119 flumen aureum. deleta sit: see Madv. if he can do without other advantages. and Halm's ed. 2. which Halm takes.e. 33. IV. II. IV. Carneade: the vocative is Carneades in De Div. Sapiensne . 13. in his Em. [Greek: hoti pas aphron mainetai]. and make in utramque partem follow dicantur. on I. cf.D. Tum hoc . on Orelli's suggestion. Halm conj. Gram. followed by Bait. Laetitia efferri: I. and after him Bait. 113. T. Incognito: 133. where the saying is attributed to Aristotle (iram calcar esse virtutis). Diogeni. 74. Bait.. Cat. Bono modo: a colloquial and Plautine expression. Naturalem . Deus ille: i. Dicente: before this Halm after Lamb. 7 appellant. 74. V. IV. V. III. 74. often omit one. Permotione: [Greek: kinesei]. inserts contra. and all the changes involved in my conj. III.Part III of Varro's Exposition.. Dicebant: for the repetition of this word cf. N. modum: so T. see Forc. on I. Non posse . works (1861).. T. more than man (of Aristotle's [Greek: ê theos ê thêrion]). ed. T. for the omission of which see n.. III. ne patria deleatur. 4.. 3. 23. Dicebas: in 27. Antiochus.. librum. as in 143 noster Antiochus.F. 5. [Greek: hoti monos ho sophos eleutheros kai pas aphron doulos]. are of frequent occurrence. who also conj. N.. 22. etc. Ad senatum starent: "were in waiting on the senate. 8. 16 disputant." cf. (as in I. §133. III. p. cf. of the Phil.

Dialecticians themselves cannot agree about the very elements of their art (143). Opinationem: the [Greek: oiêsin] of Sext. IV.D. 20. Venio iam: Dialectic had been already dealt with in 91--98 here it is merely considered with a view to the choice of the supposed sapiens. Prima naturae commoda: Cic. I. The meaning of pecus is well shown in T. V. on Ac. Nulla potest nisi erit: Madv. 4 si qui de nostris. 58 confuses the Stoic [Greek: prôta kata physin] with [Greek: ta tou sômatos agatha kai ta ektos] of the Peripatetics. Quod minime voltis: cf. 162. 7. In Verr. Gram. Trans. sequar: for the repeated ut see D. here as in D. I. ipsum. T. Istum finem: MSS. III. III. 17. §§142--146.. 44. Carneades . Iungit deo: Zeller 176 sq. 14 voluptatem esse summum bonum. ruunt: for constr. 25." but "from among" the different fines. III. III. Gall. Communitas: for Stoic philanthropy see Zeller 297. Reprehendit manu: M. putat after Lamb. as in D. yet another of Carneades is given in T. cf. fixum: cf. Bait.. a frequent error. 7.. 32. §142. 44 populus cum illis facit (i. 48 sq. §141. Adquiescis: MSS. removing the stop at voltis. 18. Pecudum: I.. 55. 17 (adsciscendas esse). brackets the second ut with Lamb. Now as there is no knowledge there can be no art. III. §139. To pass to Dialectic. know nothing whatever (144). 280.Part III of Varro's Exposition. 8. cf.. I. . Post. so that cum must not be taken closely with depugnet. I. Qui putet: so MSS. 9 veritus navibus. Caes. of Lamb. Why then. not being sapiens. cf. The MSS. I. Gloriosum in vulgus: cf. 34 convicio veritatis). fragm. V. on D. Lael. regulam: n. Act. P. Polemonis . Parad. 70 (adscisci et probari) Bait. as in I.F. Falso: like incognito in 133. 73. Bell.D. n.. Circumcidit et amputat: these two verbs often come together.F. cf. Si sequare. 69.D. 27 and n. and lunatics. follows Halm. obs. II. par) cum Bitho Bacchius. Labor eo: cf. for which see I.M. exiles. also Aristoph.F. also Madv.. D. II. V. e. 52 obversentur honestae species viro. 23 (sciscat et probet). III. 4. 23. V." Ne intellegi quidem: n. also D. and never stirs a step from Chrysippus.F. 18. Halm and Bait. Summary. II.. More on the subject in Madvig's fourth Excursus to the D. Hor.F. Nullo discrimine: for this see the explanation of nihil interesse in 40. quae mihi vox pecudum videtur esse non hominum. on I.F. Bait. 19. finibus: all these were composite fines. I. Halm and Bait.F. also T. for which style see 125. 83. cf. Does Antiochus follow any of these? Why. D.. 73. VII. Ipsa veritas: MSS. With the enumeration of conflicting schools here given compare the one Sextus gives in A. 119. Obversetur: Halm takes the conj.. Horace's nunc in Aristippi furtim praecepta relabor. Cum honestate: Callipho in 131. Sat.D.F. Add D. follows Halm. n. reading gives excellent sense. 59.F. V. similar expressions occur with a reference to Epicurus in De Off. T. Animum solum: the same criticism is applied to Zeno's finis in D. to which our ancestors bear testimony. 2. 19 Rupili et Persi par pugnat uti non compositum melius (sc. cf.F. 119 §138. 6. 480. Praescriptionem: I.. Plut. D. Mihi veremini: cf. Antiochus' Physics. 3. 70 "in hac coniunctione--hoc fieri non potest nisi--fere semper coniunctivus subicitur praesentis--futuri et perfecti indicativus ponitur. also D.F. on Ac. V. IV. Lucullus. This last point Zeno used to illustrate by action Yet his whole school cannot point to any actual sapiens (145). 105. 31. Relinquit: Orelli relinqui against the MSS. I. 922 [Greek: probatiou bion legeis] and [Greek: boskêmatôn bios] in Aristotle.D. do you rouse the mob against me like a seditious tribune by telling them I do away with the arts altogether? When you have got the crowd together. Si vacemus omni molestia: which Epicurus held to be the highest pleasure. Voluptas cum honestate: this whole expression is in apposition to par.. and P. he never even follows the vetus Academia. verenti. 3.F. "inasmuch as he thinks". Ratum . How would Zeuxis and Polycletus like this conclusion? They would prefer mine. adhuc for etiam with the comparative does not occur till the silver writers. 6 rapior illuc: revocat autem Antiochus.. Protagorae: R. Halm reads adsciscis. II. De Leg. adversetur. the Cyrenaics. §140. Adhuc: I need scarcely point out that this goes with habeo and not with probabilius. Cf. 17. defensitabat: this is quite a different view from that in 131. comparing 138. Epicureis). otherwise fine would have been written. severitas.. 132 sq. 10. IV. Epicurus. I. follow Christ's conj. 2." Gratuita: "disinterested. Ut . 7. De finibus: not "concerning.g. Iudicia: [Greek: kritêria] as usual.. copulabis: this is the feigned expostulation of veritas (cf. cf. and Plato disagree (142). note how Protagoras. as was Ethical Science in 129--141 and Physics in 116--128.F. Post. the two words are often confused. and that you yourself.e.D. I.H. V. Madv. Normam . I. fragm. are confused here. Tu . I will point out to them that according to Zeno all of them are slaves.

Part III of Varro's Exposition. Antiochus' Physics.

120

Permotiones intimas: cf. 20 tactus interior, also 76. Epicuri: nn. on 19, 79, 80. Iudicium: [Greek: kritêrion] as usual. Rerum notitiis: [Greek: prolêpsesi], Zeller 403 sq. Constituit: note the constr. with in, like ponere in. Cogitationis: cf. I. 30. Several MSS. have cognitionis, the two words are frequently confused. See Wesenberg Fm. to T.D. III. p. 17, who says, multo tamen saepius "cogitatio" pro "cognitio" substituitur quam contra, also M.D.F III. 21. §143. Ne maiorum quidem suorum: sc. aliquid probat. For maiorum cf. 80. Here Plato is almost excluded from the so-called vetus Academia, cf. I. 33. Libri: titles of some are preserved in Diog. Laert. IV. 11--14. Nihil politius: cf. 119, n. Pedem nusquam: for the ellipse cf. 58, 116, Pro Deiot. 42 and pedem latum in Plaut. Abutimur: this verb in the rhetorical writers means to use words in metaphorical or unnatural senses, see Quint. X. 1, 12. This is probably the meaning here; "do we use the name Academic in a non natural fashion?" Si dies est lucet: a better trans of [Greek: ei phôs estin, hêmera estin] than was given in 96, where see n. Aliter Philoni: not Philo of Larissa, but a noted dialectician, pupil of Diodorus the Megarian, mentioned also in 75. The dispute between Diodorus and Philo is mentioned in Sext. A.M. VIII. 115--117 with the same purpose as here, see also Zeller 39. Antipater: the Stoic of Tarsus, who succeeded Diogenes Babylonius in the headship of the school. Archidemus: several times mentioned with Antipater in Diog., as VII. 68, 84. Opiniosissimi: so the MSS. I cannot think that the word is wrong, though all edd. condemn it. Halm is certainly mistaken in saying that a laudatory epithet such as ingeniosissimi is necessary. I believe that the word opiniosissimi (an adj. not elsewhere used by Cic.) was manufactured on the spur of the moment, in order to ridicule these two philosophers, who are playfully described as men full of opinio or [Greek: doxa]--just the imputation which, as Stoics, they would most repel. Hermann's spinosissimi is ingenious, and if an em. were needed, would not be so utterly improbable as Halm thinks. §144. In contionem vocas: a retort, having reference to 14, cf. also 63, 72. For these contiones see Lange, Romische Alterthumer II. 663, ed 2. They were called by and held under the presidency of magistrates, all of whom had the right to summon them, the right of the tribune being under fewer restrictions than the right of the others. Occludi tabernas in order of course that the artisans might all be at the meeting, for this see Liv. III. 27, IV. 31, IX. 7, and compare the cry "to your tents, O Israel" in the Bible. Artificia: n. on 30. Tolli: n. on 26. Ut opifices concitentur: cf. Pro Flacc. 18 opifices et tabernarios quid neqoti est concitare? Expromam: Cic. was probably thinking of the use to which he himself had put these Stoic paradoxes in Pro Murena 61, a use of which he half confesses himself ashamed in D.F. IV. 74. Exsules etc.: 136. §145. Scire negatis: cf. Sext. A.M. VII. 153, who says that even [Greek: katalêpsis] when it arises in the mind of a [Greek: phaulos] is mere [Greek: doxa] and not [Greek: epistêmê]; also P.H. II. 83, where it is said that the [Greek: phaulos] is capable of [Greek: to alêthes] but not of [Greek: alêtheia], which the [Greek: sophos] alone has. Visum ... adsensus: the Stoics as we saw (II. 38, etc.) analysed sensations into two parts; with the Academic and other schools each sensation was an ultimate unanalysable unit, a [Greek: psilon pathos]. For this symbolic action of Zeno cf. D.F. II. 18, Orat. 113, Sextus A.M. II. 7, Quint. II. 20, 7, Zeller 84. Contraxerat: so Halm who qu. Plin. Nat. Hist. XI. 26, 94 digitum contrahens aut remittens; Orelli construxerat; MSS. mostly contexerat. Quod ante non fuerat: [Greek: katalambanein] however is frequent in Plato in the sense "to seize firmly with the mind." Adverterat: the best MSS. give merely adverat, but on the margin admoverat which Halm takes, and after him Bait.; one good MS. has adverterat. Ne ipsi quidem: even Socrates, Antisthenes and Diogenes were not [Greek: sophoi] according to the Stoics, but merely were [Greek: en prokopêi]; see Diog. VII. 91, Zeller 257, and cf. Plut. Sto. Rep. 1056 (qu. by P. Valentia p. 295, ed Orelli) [Greek: esti de outos] (i.e. [Greek: ho sophos]) [Greek: oudamou gês oude gegone]. Nec tu: sc. scis; Goer. has a strange note here. §146. Illa: cf. illa invidiosa above (144). Dicebas: in 22. Refero: "retort," as in Ovid. Metam. I. 758 pudet haec opprobria nobis Et dici potuisse et non potuisse referri; cf. also par pari referre dicto. Ne nobis quidem: "nor would they be angry;" cf. n. on. I. 5. Arbitrari: the original meaning of this was "to be a bystander," or "to be an eye-witness," see Corssen I. 238. Ea non ut: MSS. have ut ea non aut. Halm reads ut ea non merely, but I prefer the reading I have given because of Cicero's fondness for making the ut follow closely on the

Part III of Varro's Exposition. Antiochus' Physics. negative: for this see Madv. Gram. 465 b, obs. §147. Obscuritate: cf. I. 44, n. on I. 15. Plus uno: 115. Iacere: cf. 79. Plagas: cf. n. on 112.

121

§148. Ad patris revolvor sententiam: for this see Introd. 50, and for the expression 18. Opinaturum: see 59, 67, 78, 112. Intellegat se: MSS. intellegentes, cf. n. on 132. Qua re: so Manut. for per of MSS. [Greek: Epochên] illam omnium rerum: an odd expression; cf. actio rerum in 62. Non probans: so Madv. Em. 204 for MSS. comprobans. Dav. conj. improbans and is followed by Bait. I am not sure that the MSS. reading is wrong. The difficulty is essentially the same as that involved in 104, which should be closely compared. A contrast is drawn between a theoretical dogma and a practical belief. The dogma is that assent (meaning absolute assent) is not to be given to phenomena. This dogma Catulus might well describe himself as formally approving (comprobans). The practice is to give assent (meaning modified assent). There is the same contrast in 104 between placere and tenere. I may note that the word alteri (cf. altero in 104) need not imply that the dogma and the practice are irreconcilable; a misconception on this point has considerably confirmed edd. in their introduction of the negative. Nec eam admodum: cf. non repugnarem in 112. Tollendum: many edd. have gone far astray in interpreting this passage. The word is used with a double reference to adsensus and ancora; in the first way we have had tollere used a score of times in this book; with regard to the second meaning, cf. Caes. Bell. Gall. IV. 23, Bell. Civ. I. 31, where tollere is used of weighing anchor, and Varro De Re Rust. III. 17, 1, where it occurs in the sense "to get on," "to proceed," without any reference to the sea. (The exx. are from Forc.) This passage I believe and this alone is referred to in Ad Att. XIII. 21, 3. If my conjecture is correct, Cic. tried at first to manage a joke by using the word inhibendum, which had also a nautical signification, but finding that he had mistaken the meaning of the word, substituted tollendum. [1] De Leg. II. §3. [2] Cf. De Or. II. §1 with II. §5. [3] Ad Fam. XIII. 1, Phaedrus nobis,... cum pueri essemus, valde ut philosophus probabatur. [4] N.D. I. §93, Phaedro nihil elegantius, nihil humanius. [5] Ad Fam. XIII. 1. [6] Brutus, §309. [7] Ad Att. II. 20, §6. [8] Ad Fam. XIII. 16. T.D. V. §113. Acad. II. §115. [9] Brutus, §306. [10] Ibid. [11] Rep. I. §7. T.D. V. §5. De Off. II. §§3,4. De Fato, §2. [12] Cf. Brutus, §§312, 322. [13] Cf. Brutus, §§312, 314, 316. [14] Brutus, §315. [15] N.D. I. §59.

Part III of Varro's Exposition. Antiochus' Physics. [16] VII. I. §35. [17] Cf. N.D. I. §93 with Ad Fam. XIII. 1, §1. [18] Ac. I. §46. [19] D.F. V. §3. [20] D.F. I. §16. [21] D.F. V. §6, etc. [22] D.F. V. §8. [23] Ac. II. §4. [24] Ib. §69. [25] Ad Att. XIII. 19, §5. [26] Ac. II. §113. [27] Ac. II. §113. De Leg. I. §54. [28] II. §12. [29] Brutus, §316. [30] Hortensius, fragm. 18, ed. Nobbe. [31] T.D. II. §61. [32] De Div. I. §130. [33] D.F. I. §6. [34] Ad Att. I. 10 and 11. [35] Ibid. II. 1, §3. N.D. I. §6. [36] Ad Att. II. 2. [37] Ibid. I. 20. Cf. II. 1, §12. [38] II. 6. [39] Ad Att. II. 7 and 16. [40] Ibid. II. 6, §2. [41] Cf. Ad Att. IV. 11 with IV. 8 a.

122

Part III of Varro's Exposition. Antiochus' Physics. [42] Ibid. IV. 10. [43] Ibid. IV. 16, §2. [44] Ibid. IV. 16 c, §10, ed. Nobbe. [45] Ad Qu. Fr. II. 14. [46] Ad Qu. Fr. III. 5 and 6. [47] §332. [48] Ad Fam. XIII. 1. Ad Att. V. 11, §6. [49] Ad Att. V. 10, §5. [50] De Off. I. §1. [51] Tim. c. 1. [52] Cf. Tim. c. 1 with De Div. I. §5. Brutus, §250. [53] Ad Att. VI. 1, §26. [54] Ibid. VI. 2, §3. [55] Ibid. VI. 6, §2. [56] Ibid. VI. 7, §2. Ad Fam. II. 17, §1. [57] T.D. V. §22. [58] Ad Att. VII. 1, §1. [59] Ibid. VII. 3, VIII. 11. [60] Ad Att. X. 8, §6. [61] Ibid. VIII. 2, §4. [62] [Greek: peri homonoias], Ad Att. IX. 9, §2, etc. [63] Ibid. IX. 4, §2; 9, §1. [64] Ibid. IX. 10, §2. [65] Ad Fam. IX. 1. [66] Ibid. IX. 3. [67] Ibid. IV. 3 and 4.

123

§§10.D. [75] Cf. [77] T. I. Antiochus' Physics. 37. 66. [84] Ac. §55. IV. [73] De Div.Part III of Varro's Exposition. I. [86] Ac. Ac. II.D. §3. [80] T. [89] N. II. Ac. §10. [72] Ac. I. §2. §6. [92] Paradoxa.D. I. §7.D. II. I.D. I.D. libas ex omnibus.D.D. I. §10. §§26. N. De Off. §143. §5.D. [83] T.D. [78] N. §7. I. [69] Cf. §45. 124 . etc. N. §1. §12. II. §29. II. [87] T. §9. T. §121. II. 137. §4. §§120. etc. [81] N. §8. Ac. §70. esp.D. N. [71] Cf. §5. Ac. [90] Parad. [88] Ac. I. §10. II. §2. §3. [82] Ibid. §7. §1.D. II. [93] T. II.D. §62. De Div. II. §1. etc. §11. §17.D. [68] De Rep. I. [74] N. T. §33. I. N.D.F. II. I. T. I. De Fato. [70] Esp. V. V. V. [79] Cf. I. I. [91] D. §5. §82.D. [76] De Div. §5. II. [85] T. V.D. II.

§9. II. esp.D. [97] De Leg. §10. I. 56. I.D. vol. D. esp. [114] T. §5. T. §44. 5. ch. §135. §4. 4. I.D.D..D. [110] Ibid. I. i. §11. I.F. [105] T. §6. [111] Grote's Aristotle. V. 6. §§1 and 2. 125 . Cf. [108] Ac. §§4. [102] T. IV. also T. III. §4. 7. [115] Ibid. §§3. ii. III. [118] D. [106] Ac. I. [119] De Div. De Off. Ac. V.D. §75.F. I. §§21-31.D. §7. populus cum illis facit. [100] T. §83. [109] See esp.D. §7. III. [95] §13. [116] Ac. §6.F. V. II. V. [94] T. IV. §10.D. [103] Ibid. [99] N. II.D. §33.Part III of Varro's Exposition. [98] Ibid. II. V. [113] I. [104] De Off. §§4-6. III. IV.D. §41. [117] T. D. N. §23. Ac. [112] T. Ac. 137. [101] Cf.F. [107] Paradoxa. §35.F. N. D. 11. I.D. §§11 and 17. IV. II. D. II. §40. III. §16. Antiochus' Physics. IV. I.F. [96] Cf. IV. D. §7. §6.D. §34. §20. T. I. III. §3. §§55. §53. etc. §§136. §39.

§3. III. [134] Ad Att. T. 15.D. §1. §5. T. [136] Ibid. §2.D. 40. ed. T.D. 11. [144] Ibid. I. §2.D. §5. III. De Off. [123] De Div. 28.D. §1. [138] Ibid. II. [139] Ut scias me ita dolere ut non iaceam. De Off. D. N. I. [130] De Div. I. 19. esp. §5. XII. [128] T. §2. 26. IV. §2. [122] T. XII. 7.F. §5. 16. XII. §2 with 38. §4.D. §5. §5. XII. II. fragm. [142] Cf. I. §1. XII. II. II. §6. §109. [133] De Div. V.Part III of Varro's Exposition. De Off. §4. [127] T. §2. De Consolatione. 14. XII. §§1. D. 16. [143] Ibid. 126 . [124] De Div. §4. §5. §1. [125] See esp. [132] N. 21. [145] Ibid. [120] D. 3. [131] De Div. Ac. Nobbe.D. II.D. [121] T. [129] D. XII. II. I. [135] Ibid. §11. §§1. 40. Antiochus' Physics.D. I. XIII. II. [126] N. §1. I. §§10. De Off. III. XII. II. §§1. 4. 23. Ad Att. [141] Ad Att.F. II. §3. [140] De Or. T.F. 40. [137] Ibid. §9.D. §3. II. XII.D. §6.F. §8. II. II. II. §1. I.

[167] Ibid. XIII. [156] Ad Att. 12. XIII. 6. XII. §61. §1. 33. [160] D. 16. XII. [162] Cf. [151] Ibid. §3. 26. [166] Ad Att. XIII. II. §3. II. [148] Ad Att. 21. §61. [152] Ibid. lvii. II. [154] II. p. II. 16a. [168] Ibid. 43. Praef. §4. XII. [169] Ibid. §1. 5. §4. 41. 5. XIII. §4. 16. Krische. 3.Part III of Varro's Exposition. §1. XII. §2.F. 45. 127 . XIII. Antiochus' Physics. [157] Ibid. 22. XVI. 2. XVI. §3. 12. [158] Ibid. 5. IV. §§4. [150] Cf. [164] Ad Att.D. §2. 46. [170] Ibid. II. §2. XIII. [165] Ibid. p. 42. XIII. De Div. 19. ed. 12. 32. XIII. §1. [155] De Fin. §1. XIII. §1. [147] Ibid. XIII. [146] Ibid. §3. [153] Ibid. §1. [171] Ibid. §2. 4. where there is a distinct mention of the first two books. [163] Ac. Ad Att. XII. [159] Ac. [149] Über Cicero's Akademika. §3. also 42. p. §1. XIII. [161] T. I. §4. 12.

24. [172] Ibid. 18. 19. [194] Ibid. I may here remark on the absurdity of the dates Schütz assigns to these letters. §1. XIII. [195] Ad Att. 22. [197] Ibid. [193] Ibid. [188] Ad Att. §5. XIII. XIII. XIII. XIII. 12. §3. XIII. 13. 25. XIII. 18. §3. [190] Ibid. 25. [187] Ibid. XIII. 19. §5. §3. XIII. §3. §4. 16a. §5. [180] Ibid. §3. XIII. XIII. 19. 12. §3. §2. §4. §1. 16. §3. also IV. [177] Ibid. §1. 18. XIII. Antiochus' Physics. §3. [176] Ibid. Cf. XIII. §3. XIII. 19. §4. [186] Ibid. §4. 19. 128 . XIII.Part III of Varro's Exposition. XIII. 19. [191] Ibid. XIII. [189] Ibid. 13. 19. [185] Ibid. Ibid. [178] Ibid. XIII. 16. 36. §5. XIII. 14. §2. XIII. [192] Ibid. 12. §4. 22. [183] Ibid. XIII. §5. 24. §3. XIII. 12. §3. 35. §3. [181] Cf. He makes Cicero execute the second edition of the Academica in a single day. XIII. [182] Ibid. XIII. §1. 19. 25. XIII. [175] Ibid. XIII. [196] Ibid. 13. [179] Ad Att. [173] Ad Att. §2. §1. 12 with 13. 19. 21. 12. [174] Ibid. 21. 19. XIII. [184] Ad Att.

XVI. [214] Esp. 13. XIII. [204] Ibid. §210. II. 6. c. [216] In Verrem. II. §§133. Or. De Off. §4. III. [222] Pis. §64. I. §64. I. [205] Nat. §121. Att. 148. §4. [213] Cf. 18. 6. §59. esp. II. De Div. Inst. 19. N. §1. Post Reditum in Senatu. c. [206] Inst. [199] Ibid. XVI. Pro Sestio. 134. XIII. IX. [218] Pro Sestio. 129 . II. Pro Lege Manilia. Quintil. Or. Inst. §5. 19. II. §11. 6. 42. VI 2. N. [201] Ad Att. [198] Ibid. 16. XIII. [221] Ad Att. §4. Ad Att. I. [210] Lucullus. §1.D. [203] Ad Att. III. §3. Timæus. §222. §12. §1. 24. 1. §§3. §4. §133 with Brutus. [212] Lactant. Pro Domo. 16. §12. [207] Plut. 2. §1. §122. 3. De Div. 4. [223] Ad Fam.D. [220] Philipp. 15. §101. II.D. §51. 19. Antiochus' Physics. 6. [211] Ad Att. II. T. §4. §12. §9. §6. §113. XIII. [200] T. 12. XXXI. 21. Philipp. [219] Pro Sestio. XIII. [208] §§12. [217] Pro Lege Manilia. §1. c.Part III of Varro's Exposition. 13. Hist. [209] Cf. Lucullus. II. §4. 38.D. II. XIII. §11. [215] Brutus. Cf. [202] De Off. §8.

§51. 9. §82 sq. II. [240] De Or. III. De Or. §79. §29. [237] Brutus. II.D. [238] Brutus. §154. [226] Cf. III. Post Reditum in Senatu. fragm. [246] Cf. Cf. De Or. 75. V. [227] §62. Pro Murena. II. §365. §113. [245] §12. II.D. De Or. §9. 259. I. De Or. [236] Ibid.. §244. 133. [247] Ac. §194. §173. Pro Rabirio. [248] Cf. III. §§132. I. N. II. I. §12. Pro Cornelia II. [249] Ibid. §9 with §80. §74 with III. §45. 187. Ac. XIX. [232] Ibid. II. §§6. §28. §56. Ac. [234] Cf. esp. [230] Cf. [229] T. §11. Pro Domo. II. [239] De Or. 134. §36. III.D. 4. §§13. II. II. §148. §26. II. [224] Cf. [231] Ibid. §127. §§68. Cf. §155. [244] Ibid. Antiochus' Physics. [233] Ibid. §132. [228] Pro Plancio. §110. II. N. III. 130 . [243] De Or. [241] Ibid. §68 with III. §360. Gellius. [242] Cf. III. Nobbe. 20. §9. §80. II.Part III of Varro's Exposition. ibid. 21. ed. 28. [225] Pro Archia. II. §152 with III. §187. [235] Cf. II. commemoravit a patre suo dicta Philoni. §§182. III.

38. IX. §4. §28. III. §§33--36 inclusive. 22. [268] II. [254] Ac. [274] II. 78. II. [267] II. §2. §10. with my notes. II. [263] §13. with my notes. [256] Ibid. [272] Cf. II. and II. 56. §61. [261] Ib. [275] Ad Fam. §14 with I. D. [270] See II. §§55. [266] Cf. §§12. §45. 29. [260] Cf. §79. 18. II.Part III of Varro's Exposition. 112. [259] Lactant. [251] Ac. §54. 148. §12. §28. Ac. ut tota fere quaestio tractata videatur. II. [273] What these were will appear from my notes on the Lucullus. II. 26. 18.D. the words tam multa in II. II. [262] §§44--46. §42. 16. II. §44. 54. [257] Ibid. 131 . §79. III. II. II. 59. §61 with the fragments of the Hortensius.F. §12: ista quae heri defensa sunt compared with the words ad Arcesilam Carneademque veniamus. §§17. II. Antiochus' Physics." [271] II. where there is a reference to the "hesternus sermo. [265] II. §31 with I. [250] Ibid. II. 8. Ac. [258] Cf. §10: id quod quaerebatur paene explicatum est. II. [252] See below. [264] Cf. §§59. also T. §§17. §6. [255] Cf. [269] Cf. §10. [253] Ac. 67. §10. I. 24. 27.

the villa Cicero wished to buy after Hortensius' death. [278] II. II. §9. §9. [293] Cf. 8. [288] II. 18. 125. [282] II. That lay at Puteoli: see Ad Att. De Re Rust. [280] II. [277] This is not. 19. §1. [298] Ibid. §63. §135. Acad. III. IX. §61. §119. as Krische supposes. Aug. sub v. [279] Cf. [289] Paradoxa. IX. 132 [286] Cf. 1--8. §80. exultare. Ad Att. 81. 25. [292] Cf. §1. Antiochus' Physics. VII. §1. Nonius. III. 8. [297] Ad Att. 15.F. §3. Adv. §11. . §1. §115. II. III. 25. II. [291] Cf. 148. §35. §8.Part III of Varro's Exposition. D. 17. [290] Ac. [296] Ad Fam. §3. also §§80. 3. §12. 100. XIII. 105. §3: Ad Brutum transeamus. [276] Cf. [299] Ibid. II. Brutus. 12 with the words quae erant contra [Greek: akatalêpsian] praeclare collecta ab Antiocho: Ad Att. §3. They are the only letters from Cicero to Varro preserved in our collections. §§147. the word nuper in §1.F. §80: O praeclarum prospectum! [281] Cf. II. III. III. 18. V. [283] II. D. XIII. [284] II. [285] II. [294] §11. [295] §§3. §§11. I. [287] Varro. §8. §9 with §128 (signum illud). [300] Ad Fam.

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