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Biome Name Tropical Rainforest

Climate: Precipitation and Temp. Low seasonality, high rainfall, high solar radiation load, high temperature generally little variation in climate


Location Around the equator between the tropic of cancer (23.2N) and the tropic of Capricorn (23.2 S)

Hot Desert

Coniferous Forest (Taiga)

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Very high productivity, very high and large trees, canopy and emergents, little ground vegetation (lots of epiphytes), lianas, trees have buttressed stems for more stability, huge floral diversity due to long evolutionary history, little seasonality, no glaciation and large numbers of niches Hot and dry Water limits production, weather, low very little vegetation rainfall, certain (apart from oases), plants amount of are either: 1. Highly seasonality, xerophytic (reduced leaves variation in and deep roots and temperature succulent stems) or 2. (day and Have very quick life cycles night) due to (seeds waiting in the lack of clouds ground for years) Moderate The soil is poor in amounts of nutrients, coniferous tree rainfall, strong (evergreens) with long, seasonality thin, waxy needles to stop between water loss and protection winter and from freezing, dark needle summer, colour allows average photosynthesis at small temperature radiation loads, slanted below freezing branches, and high density for long growth (small height of periods of the trees) protect from year, winters massive snow and wind very cold (up e.g.: pine, hemlock, white to -40C), spruce, some mosses and however lots lichens of snow, terrestrial subarctic climate Temperate Trees grow well, although maritime/ not as tall as in the tropics. coastal have Leaf fall occurs in the optimum autumn as the cold conditions for conditions lower the rate tree growth. of photosynthesis and Very hot in protection from freezing is summer and needed. very cold in Deciduous tree e.g. oak, winter. High hickory, maple dominate

Coniferous forest is mostly found in Russia, Canada, Mongolia and Alaska, but also in Norway, Iceland Finland, and Northern China. 50N to 70N

On American, European and Asian coastlines. Midlatit udes alon g the coas ts

Grassland (Prairie, Steppe, Pampas)

Shrubland (maquis, chaparral, matorral)

rainfall spread evenly over the year. In winter, water may freeze for a short time. High seasonality Lower rainfall, with freezing winters and hot summers. Seasonal droughts are common with occasional fires, medium amount of moisture. Most of the precipitation falls as snow, so that the growing season has sufficient water Mild temperatures in winter and long, hot summers. Rainy winters and dry summers. Periodic fires. Very cold, in summer the upper layer of soil thaws but lower layers remain frozen (permafrost). There is little precipitation and a range of temp. from 20 -60C, strong seasonality. Polar continental climate

the forest. In warmer season, herbaceous (herbs) plants grow/ flower on the forest ground.

Fragile ecosystem of variety of perennial grasses. Large herbivores are sustained including horses, pronghorn and bison. Rodent herbivores include ground squirrels and prairie dog. Carnivores include coyote and black-footed ferret. Prairie grasses hold the soil with their long roots, fires prevent trees and shrubs from invading the grassland. Fauna has low diversity in comparison to tropical grasslands/ Savannahs.

In the continental interior of the mid latitudes.


Shrubs are killed by This periodic fires, therefore biom they store their food in e is fire-resistant roots, quickly found regrow and only mostl germinate after a fire. y in Fauna also included the grasses, herbs and Medit geophytes. errean and Australia. However this biome also occurs during a transition from grassland to forest. Low-growing plants like Only found in the highest latitdues, mostly in lichen and mosses and a the Northern Hemishpere. To the North is Ice few grasses and shrubs. Cap and to the South is Taiga or Coniferous Permafrost prevents the forests. roots from growing deeply. Continuous daylight in summer allows some plant growth and reproduction. No trees.