You are on page 1of 18

3GPP LTE eNodeB PHY Simulator Tool

01-Sept-2011

S T

MYMO WIRELESS TECHNO LOGY PVT LTD, FLOOR ENTREPRENEURSH IP BLDG, SID, IISC, BANGALORE 560012, INDIA

MYMO Wireless Confidential Proprietary No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of MYMO Wireless Technology Private limited.

Revision History
Revision # 0.01 Date 01-Sept-2011 Mymo Author/ Reviewer 1. Sondur Lakshmipathi Reviewer Description eNodeB PHY Emulator/ Simulator

Table of Contents
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................. II Generic: Definitions, Acronyms, Abbreviations ...................................................................... ii 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6.1. 6.2. MYMO WIRELESS INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 3 ENODEB SIMULATOR ................................................................................................... 4 PHYSICAL MECHANICS OF ENODEB SIMULATOR WITH COTS RF......................... 6 3GPP LTE HIGH-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................. 7 MYMO VALUE PROPOSITION....................................................................................... 8 APPENDICES................................................................................................................ 10 Appendix eNodeB Physical Layer TS36.211 Specifications ................................ 10 Appendix B eNodeB Physical Layer TS36.212 Features and Mymos Deliverables 13 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 16

7.

Mymo Wireless: LTE Base Station Simulator

List of Figures
Figure 1 Front panel of the eNodeB Simulator Figure 2 Emulation of radios by reprogramming the CPU and GPU 6 9

List of Tables
Table 1 LTE transmission parameters 7

Generic: Definitions, Acronyms, Abbreviations


4G 3GPP API DL FDD HW I/O IMS IOT IP OS SOW SW TBD Mymo SDR TDD UE UL UTRA UTRAN 4 Generation rd 3 Generation Partnership Project Application Programming Interface DL Frequency Division Duplex Hardware Input Output IP Multimedia System Inter Operability Testing Internet Protocol Operating System Scope of Work Software To Be Determined Mymo Wireless Technology Private Limited Software Defined Radio Time Division Duplex User Equipment UL Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
th

Page ii of 18
Mymo Confidential

Mymo Wireless: LTE Base Station Simulator

1. Mymo Wireless Introduction


Mymo brings in a proven technology leadership and the people with extensive experience in the research, design and development of next generation wireless products like MIMO-WLAN (802.11n) and LTE. Mymo has won the DST-Lockheed Martin Gold Medal in 2009 for their innovation on the design of LTE and WiFi Femtocell for next-generation communications. Mymo was the top 6 finalists of NASSCOM 2009 Awards in Start-up category. Mymo has built and demonstrated the 3GPP LTE UE on a desktop Quadcore PC interfaced with RF and established communication with eNodeB in real-time at 30.72MHz sampling rates. The innovation included multi-core, multi-threaded programming for boosting the execution speed of key algorithms by nearly several times. Mymo is building the 3GPP LTE test set-up system and the test-bed for meeting the R&D companies requirements for successfully conducting, validating and demonstrating their research ideas, inventions and innovations. The test set-up platform will be ideal choice of scientists and R&D engineers in LTE and upcoming wireless standards like LTEAdvanced. Mymo proposes the 3GPP LTE eNodeB R&D Simulator for R&D purposes. The key benefit of the simulator is that the low level eNodeB C-code for all the modules is visible and the user can plug the proprietary models and algorithms and capture the IQ signals in sample domain or bit-rate domain for conducting/ verifying the experiments and do measurements on the performance in terms of throughput or complexity. Memory is not a limitation as the Simulator is fully based on the x86 platforms. Additionally, the system can be used to tap the PHY with COTS based RF interface and tap the signals at different levels for debug purposes, for example, the IQ signals of eNodeB air interface at different levels for offline processing and also for online processing.

Page 3 of 18
Mymo Confidential

Mymo Wireless: LTE Base Station Simulator

2. eNodeB Simulator
The eNodeB PHY layer meets the 3GPP LTE specification requirements as defined by LTE Standards Release 8 [Ref 2-Error! Reference source not found.]. Some of the key specifications of the eNodeB simulator are given in Table 1 below. The simulator is designed specifically for R&D purposes for scientists in premier organizations where scientists and design engineers can have the access to the low level C-programming for experimenting the proprietary algorithms for performance study, analysis and measurements. Such a requirement involves the modification or enhancement of physical layer algorithms, scheduling of resources, modification of physical layer modules for conducting tests and experiments either in simulator or simulator mode. eNodeB Simulator Benefits: Low level C-code access to users across all the layers of eNodeB. Facility to capture the RF signals through our COTS based RF either file-based or print-screen based with different debug-level options. Readily available and well-tested eNodeB layers and algorithms with all the features implemented in C. Refer Appendix 6.1 and 6.2 for physical layer specifications as per TS 36.21x. Creating a simulation-like environment in a real-time RF scenario with COTS RF interface. Rapidly reprogrammable with instant compilation, debugging and running. Multi-core CPU partitioning of desired DL and UL chains for performance optimization Online capture of down-converted IQ signals for offline processing. No separate device needed to capture the IQ waveforms. Time scaling ability for debugging and analysis baseband processing. Example: 30720 samples per ms can be processed at any desired time-scale rather than confining to1ms. Emulation capability of any desired radio and RF interface, Figure 2 shows how different radio interfaces can be emulated with resampler catering to different radios ranging from Wi-Fi to 4G. Cost-effective, in person support, maintenance and training.

The example applications for algorithm and system designs include: Introduction of channel models, interference effects, noise conditions, multipath and fading conditions. The signals can be convoluted with different channel models of users choice and can be captured and measured for offline or online processing. Intercarrier interference (ICI) measurements, compensation effects, loss of orthogonality of subcarriers, sampling clock offset effects and estimation and tracking accuracy. CFO estimation and measurements using pilot tones (reference signals) for integer and fractional CFOs. Equalization techniques and their performance differences. Example: ML, MMSE, LS, Sphere, other decision feedback methods. Multi-cell and multi-UE interference impacts and measurements. FEC algorithm design improvements. Example: Tail-biting, Viterbi decoding, Turbo decoding, Rate-matching, Interleaving, scrambling and CRC. SFBC modes of operation and performance analysis. CQI measurements, SNR measurements, Precoding performance. HARQ soft-combining for UL and DL

Page 4 of 18
Mymo Confidential

Mymo Wireless: LTE Base Station Simulator

The example applications for existing and futuristic eNodeB design and development: 4G Wireless base stations with PHY-MAC performed through cloud computing. Emulation or simulation of future generation wireless radios like LTE-Advanced eNodeB. Future radios emulation with rapid prototyping SDR The applications listed above can range from new experiments in upcoming areas.

Page 5 of 18
Mymo Confidential

Mymo Wireless: LTE Base Station Simulator

3. Physical Mechanics of eNodeB Simulator with COTS RF


The eNB Simulator is built on a high-end desktop x86 processor specifically designed for rapid emulation of eNodeB with quick reprogramming of low level modules across all layers. The CPU is a multi-core CPU with OS as the SUSE RTOS running the PHYwith multi-core partitioning. The Figure 1 shows the front-panel with RF, GPS and Reference Clock connectors. It is a plain x86 CPU with option to work in pure simulation mode or with COTS RF interface.
External Reference Clock 1 PPS RF Ant-1

Power Supply

Reset

Ref Clock 10MHz

GPS Ant

RF Ant-2

Figure 1 Front panel of the eNodeB Simulator 1. SUSE Commercial RTOS with nVidia GPU drivers 2. High-end Intel CPU mother-board, clock speed 3.48GHz, 6 physical cores (12 virtual cores). The CPU over-clocking method, to boost execution speed for bringing down the latency, will be imparted to Customer by Mymo team. 3. CPU Multi-cores usage mechanism for isolation of CPU cores between RTOS and LTE processing. 4. eNodeB PHY layer: All the functionalities except for MBSFN and DRX a. The high-level specifications are given in Table 1. b. The detailed functionalities and specifications are given in Appendix-6.1and 6.2. 5. Documents: eNodeB Architecture document with signal flow and functionalities for key algorithms will be delivered. Additional document on the multi-core partitioning of CPU for optimizing the processing load of LTE across CPU cores will be shared at the time of delivery of the eNodeB Simulator product.

Page 6 of 18
Mymo Confidential

Mymo Wireless: LTE Base Station Simulator

4. 3GPP LTE High-level Specifications


Table 1 LTE transmission parameters Features BW (MHz) BW in terms of RB FFT/IFFT Transmission Modes Duplex Maximum bit rate RF Antennas DL 1.4,3,5,10,15,20 6,15,25,50,75,100 128,256,512,1024,1536,2048 1,2,3,4 TDD,FDD 100 Mbps 1x1 MIMO, 2x2 MIMO, MIMO PDSCH (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM) PDCCH (QPSK) PCFICH (QPSK) PHICH PBCH PMCH (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM) DL HARQ Quality CQI, PMI, RI, RSRP,RSRQ 4x4 UL 1.4,3,5,10,1520 6,15,25,50,75,100 128,256,512,1024,1536,2048 1,2,3,4 TDD,FDD 50 Mbps 1x1 for Combining SISO; MRC

PHY channels

PUSCH (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM) PUCCH (BPSK, QPSK) PRACH DRS SRS UL HARQ CQI, PMI, RI, RSRP, RSRQ

HARQ Channel Parameters

Page 7 of 18
Mymo Confidential

Mymo Wireless: LTE Base Station Simulator

5. Mymo Value Proposition


A Rapidly reprogrammable and reconfigurable SDR platform. A complete multi-core CPU platform, C-based Phy, stable RTOS running on x86, multi-core partitioning of phy and freedom to load balance across multiple cores. Instant experimentation of R&D ideas in an simulator mode (RF mode with desired sampling rate) or simulation mode (without RF mode). See Figure 2 emulating different radios. Access to validated and verified source code for all layers. Scientists, Design and Test Engineers can plug-in their algorithms, test models and verify the results. The radio can be sampled to any sampling rates. A simple baseband process to change the sampling rate to any desired rate and emulate any radio, see Figure 2. An ideal set-up for designing, developing, design modification, emulation and testing of new algorithms in the presence of RF. Mymo has experienced talent with a bent of R&D, products and understanding of standards. Next door support and maintenance and training.

Page 8 of 18
Mymo Confidential

Mymo Wireless: LTE Base Station Simulator

CPU Baseband Processing

GPU
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Reampling FFT, IFFT Channel Estimation Synchronization IN-1 Equalization Q0 CP Remove FFT

I0

IFFT CP Add

Spatial Mux

Cyclic Delay Diversity

STBC Alamouti Coding

Interleave

QAM Map

Stream Parse

Convolutional Coding &


Scramble

MAC LLC

I0

CUDA Parallel Processing Software

QN-1 I0

Channel Estimate

STBC Decode & Spatial Demux

QAM Demap
DeInterleave

Stream Deparse

Viterbi Decode

DeScramler

MAC LLC

M Tx ANT

I1 I2
IM-1

IN-1 Q0

WiFi IEEE802.11n C based DL-UL Baseband & Protocol-Stack

QN-1 Q0 I0

Q1 Q2
QM-1

CUDA Parallel Processing Software

IN-1 Q 0 QN-1 I0 IN-1 Q 0

Other Multi-Band, Multi-Mode, Multi-Functional Radios C based DL-UL Baseband & Protocol-Stack

RF IF ADC DAC

I0

QN-1

I1 I2

N Rx ANT

IN-1 Q0

IN-1 Q0
IFFT CP Add Parall el Proce -ssing
Subcarr ier Mappin g

3GPP LTE C based DL-UL Baseband & ProtocolStack

Q1 Q2
QN-1

CUDA Parallel Processing Software

R R C

QN-1 I0

DFT Precod e

I Q I Q

PRACH DRS/ SRS PUSCH mappin g PUCCH

bit2qa m bit2qa m UCI

BRP

PDU

PDU Genera te

R L C

PDC P
User Data #0

IN-1 Q0

FFT CP
Remov e Parallel Proces sng

QN-1

Cell Searche r Timing Est Time Track AFC

H Estimat e

PCFIC H PHICH PBCH PDSCH PDCCH

DL MAC
HAR Q BRP PD U SDU Extract

DCI UE#0

DCI UE#100

HAR Q

BRP

PDU

SDU Extract

User Data #100

Figure 2 Emulation of radios by reprogramming the CPU and GPU

Page 9 of 18
Mymo Confidential

6.

Appendices

6.1. Appendix eNodeB Physical Layer TS36.211 Specifications

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Specification Description: Spec compliance to 36.211, Release 8.7 Frame structure Frame structure type 1 Frame structure type 2 UL Physical channels Physical signals Slot structure and physical resources Resource grid Resource elements Resource blocks Physical UL shared channel Scrambling Modulation Transform precoding Mapping to physical resources Physical UL control channel PUCCH formats 1, 1a and 1b PUCCH formats 2, 2a and 2b Mapping to physical resources Reference signals Generation of the reference signal sequence Base sequences of length 3N_RB_SC or larger Base sequences of length less than Group hopping Sequence hopping Demodulation reference signal Demodulation reference signal for PUSCH Reference signal sequence Mapping to physical resources Demodulation reference signal for PUCCH Reference signal sequence Mapping to physical resources Sounding reference signal Sequence generation

Yes Yes Rx Rx Yes Yes Yes Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx

Rx Rx Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Page 10 of 18

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

Mapping to physical resources Sounding reference signal subframe configuration SC-FDMA baseband signal generation Physical random access channel Time and frequency structure Preamble sequence generation Baseband signal generation Modulation and upconversion DL Physical channels Physical signals Slot structure and physical resource elements Resource grid Resource elements Resource blocks Virtual resource blocks of localized type Virtual resource blocks of distributed type Resource-element groups Guard Period for TDD Operation General structure for DL physical channels Scrambling Modulation Layer mapping Layer mapping for transmission on a single antenna port Layer mapping for spatial multiplexing Layer mapping for transmit diversity Precoding Precoding for transmission on a single antenna port Precoding for spatial multiplexing Precoding without CDD Precoding for large delay CDD Codebook for precoding Precoding for transmit diversity Mapping to resource elements Physical DL shared channel Physical broadcast channel Scrambling Modulation Layer mapping and precoding Mapping to resource elements Physical control format indicator channel

Yes Yes Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Page 11 of 18

76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

Scrambling Modulation Layer mapping and precoding Mapping to resource elements Physical DL control channel PDCCH formats PDCCH multiplexing and scrambling Modulation Layer mapping and precoding Mapping to resource elements Physical hybrid ARQ indicator channel Modulation Resource group alignment, layer mapping and precoding Mapping to resource elements Reference signals Cell-specific reference signals Sequence generation Mapping to resource elements UE-specific reference signals Sequence generation Mapping to resource elements Synchronization signals Primary synchronization signal Sequence generation Mapping to resource elements Secondary synchronization signal Sequence generation Mapping to resource elements OFDM baseband signal generation Modulation and upconversion Generic functions Modulation mapper BPSK QPSK 16QAM 64QAM Pseudo-random sequence generation Timing UL-DL frame timing

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Page 12 of 18

6.2. Appendix B eNodeB Physical Layer TS36.212 Features and Mymos Deliverables
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 CQI reports Channel quality information formats for UE selected subband CQI reports Channel coding for CQI/PMI information in PUSCH Specification Description Mapping to physical channels UL DL Channel coding, multiplexing and interleaving Generic procedures CRC calculation Code block segmentation and code block CRC attachment Channel coding Tail biting convolutional coding Turbo coding Turbo encoder Trellis termination for turbo encoder Turbo code internal interleaver Rate matching Rate matching for turbo coded transport channels Sub-block interleaver Bit collection, selection and transmission Rate matching for convolutionally coded transport channels and control info Sub-block interleaver Bit collection, selection and transmission Code block concatenation UL transport channels and control information Random access channel UL shared channel Transport block CRC attachment Code block segmentation and code block CRC attachment Channel coding of UL-SCH Rate matching Code block concatenation Channel coding of control information Channel quality information formats for wideband CQI reports Channel quality information formats for higher layer configured subband

Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx

Page 13 of 18

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Data and control multiplexing Channel interleaver UL control information on PUCCH Channel coding for UCI HARQ-ACK Channel coding for UCI scheduling request Channel coding for UCI channel quality information Channel quality information formats for wideband reports Channel quality information formats for UE-selected sub-band reports Channel coding for UCI channel quality information and HARQ-ACK UL control information on PUSCH without UL-SCH data Channel coding of control information Control information mapping Channel interleaver DL transport channels and control information Broadcast channel Transport block CRC attachment Channel coding Rate matching DL shared channel, Paging channel Transport block CRC attachment Code block segmentation and code block CRC attachment Channel coding Rate matching Code block concatenation DL control information DCI formats Format 0 Format 1 Format 1A Format 1B Format 1C Format 1D Format 2 Format 2A Format 3 Format 3A CRC attachment Channel coding

Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Page 14 of 18

73 74 75 76 77

Rate matching Control format indicator Channel coding HARQ indicator Channel coding

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Page 15 of 18

7.

References
Ref 1 Ref 2 Ref 3 Ref 4 Ref 5 Ref 6 Ref 7 Ref 8 Meetings and email communication between Mymo and Customer 3GPP TS 36.201: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical Layer General Description". V8.3.0 (2009-03) 3GPP TS 36.101: Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception. V8.6.0(2009-07) 3GPP TS 36.211: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation V8.7.0 (2009-06) 3GPP TS 36.212: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Multiplexing and channel coding". V8.7.0 (2009-06) 3GPP TS 36.213: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer procedures". V8.7.0 (2009-06) 3GPP TS 36.214: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer Measurements". V8.6.0 (2009-03) 3GPP TS 36.104: Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); eNodeB (BS) radio transmission and reception. V8.6.0 (2009-06)

Page 16 of 18