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**Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM
**

Lutz H.-J. Lampe and Johannes B. Huber

Abstract Power line communications for high data rates using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing are considered. We regard the situations where no channel information is available at the transmitter and where channel information is/ is not provided to the receiver. In order to enable a performance evaluation of transmission schemes with different bandwidth efﬁciencies, a stochastic representation of the channel transfer function is given, which leads to a fading channel model. As an appropriate measure of performance when applying powerful channel coding, the capacity of this special fading channel is calculated. The combination of a large signal constellation and low rate codes in order to obtain a ﬁxed target rate proves to be advantageous both for coherent and bandwidth efﬁcient noncoherent transmission over power line. The theoretic considerations are afﬁrmed by means of simulations. Keywords power line communications, OFDM, channel capacity

sible gain in terms of required signal–to–noise ratio due to perfect channel state information available at the receiver side is quantiﬁed. We show that due to the fading the use of relatively large signal constellations in combination with low rate codes [5] is well suited for communication over a large class of power line channels. The paper is organized as follows: In Section 2 a stochastic representation of the channel transfer function is proposed. The resulting fading channel model for OFDM transmission is presented in Section 3. Section 4 gives the system model and the calculation of capacity for both coherent and noncoherent reception. In Section 5 capacity curves are shown for relevant examples. Section 6 presents simulation results which correspond well to the capacity analysis.

1. Introduction

The use of the power distribution grid to access world– wide communications networks has attracted much attention and has become a mature subject of research in the last few years. Although the power line network has not been designed for transferring data and is thus characterized by unfavorable transmission properties, frequency ranges of some MHz are at the disposal for telecommunication purposes. To achieve high data rates of some Mbit/s required for multimedia applications, sophisticated and well designed digital transmission systems are necessary in order to exploit the available frequency bands. In this paper, the well–known multicarrier technique orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), e.g. [1], is considered as modulation scheme. By the application of OFDM, the most distinct property of the power line channel, its frequency selectivity, can be easily coped with. Furthermore, OFDM makes a very efﬁcient use of the allocated bandwidth possible [2]. We concentrate on the case where no information about the channel is available at the transmitter side. Starting from a linear system approach of the transmission channel, a stochastic channel model is given. By employing OFDM, a slowly time–varying, frequency non–selective fading channel results for power line communications. Since we assume the application of powerful channel coding schemes, cf. e.g. [3], the capacity of this fading channel is regarded as appropriate measure for performance evaluation. Hence, guidelines for a system design are obtained by calculating the capacity for bandwidth efﬁcient transmission with and with no channel state information at the receiver. In the case of noncoherent reception differential encoding at the transmitter and multiple symbol differential detection at the receiver are proposed [4]. The pos-

**2. Stochastic Power Line Channel Model
**

Using the power distribution grid for communication purposes the transmission line is appropriately described by a linear, dispersive, time–invariant system, at least for time intervals which are very long compared to the duration of one OFDM–symbol. Thus, the channel is characterized by and a subsequent addia channel transfer function À constitutes tive noise term. Throughout the paper, À the transfer function in the equivalent low–pass domain, cf. e.g. [6, Appendix].

´µ

´µ

2.1 Channel Transfer Function Due to the structure of typical power line networks with a lot of impedance discontinuities a transmitted signal will be received as a number of distinctively delayed and attenuated signals at the receiver side corresponding to reﬂections from those discontinuities. Hence, a multi–path signal propagation model seems to be suitable to describe the channel transfer characteristics. Neglecting the (slow) time–variance of the channel (cf. e.g. [7]) this model was used in e.g. [8, 9] for presenting a deterministic expression depending on some parameters. of À But in many situations, a stochastic model regarding , where the transfer function as a random process À denotes the atomic event of the random experiment, is desirable instead of one determined transfer function. Clearly, as the signal attenuation and phase on the long is a non– term increase with the frequency , À stationary random process along the frequency axis. Sample functions of this process are illustrated in Figure 1. For a certain frequency the random variable À results from the superposition of numerous independent random variables which represent the effects of mismatched lines in power line networks. Therefore, the application of the central limit theorem is motivated [10], to be a complex non–stationary which yields À Gaussian process with autocorrelation function ( £ : complex conjugation, denotes expectation)

´µ

´ µ

´ µ

´ µ

Received month 00, 1999. Dipl.–Ing. Lutz H.–J. Lampe, Prof. Dr.–Ing. Johannes B. Huber, Laboratorium für Nachrichtentechnik, Universität Erlangen–Nürnberg, Cauerstraße 7/NT, D–91058 Erlangen, Germany Phone: +49-9131-85-28718, Fax: +49-9131-85-28919, email: llampe@lnt.de

´ µ

ÀÀ

´ ½ ¾µ

À´

½µ £ À £´

¾µ

(1)

but also a noise whitening filter ÀÏ with the amplitude transfer function × in many situations. terms for describe the skin–effect. À is well modeled by a stationÀÀ ary Gaussian process. we can apply the simple model of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with one–sided noise power spectral density Æ¼ . and narrow–band noise. let the mean value of À ´ µ be constant over . which is equal to the two–sided spectral noise power density of the equivalent complex baseband white Gaussian noise process. e. for example. Example of the autocorrelation function dom process À with coherence bandwidth ´ µ À À ´¡ µ of the ran . an adequate representation of the interference scenario has not been given yet. the average power of the transfer function.2 Lampe. [11.e. Sample functions of the non–stationary random process À ´ µ. and terms for give the phase term representing the average signal delay. The average phase term can be expressed by ³¼ ´ (5) ¼ where are normalization constants. 12]. and mean value Ñ´ È´ µ ´ µ À´ µ À´ (2) We will denote the second moment of the non–stationary process. and. El. An exemplary acf À À for this normalized stationary process is depicted in Figure 2. È´ µ » ÜÔ´ ¡ µ µ (4) 2. cf. the average gain È dependent average phase term ³¼ of the set of transfer functions can be assumed to be characteristic for different types of power line networks and communication links over these networks. terms for correspond to the phase term due to the transformation into the lowpass domain.2 Additive Noise In power line communication systems interference of several types occurs. by µ ÀÀ and the frequency Generally. 1. J. À À ´ · ¡ ¨ÒÒ´ µ Æ¼ (8) À´ ¼ Then. Commun Fig.. as in the subsequent analyses mainly the signal–to– noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver side is considered. Now. The average power transfer function may be approximated by Ô ´µ ´µ µ¾ . If additionally the autocorrelation function (acf) µ of this normalized process only depends À À ´ ·¡ µ on the frequency difference ¡ . Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM Submitted to AEÜ Int. let the normalized channel transfer function À virtually comprise not only the power lines and the transmitter and receiver ﬁlters.. However. usually categorized in colored noise. Therefore. i. we assume the additive Gaussian noise with power spectral density ÒÒ . Fig. i.g. it is convenient to eliminate these average values and to deﬁne a normalized random process ¼ ¨ ´µ ´ µ ½ ´µ ÀÏ ´µ (6) µ ÔÈ ´Àµ´ ¡ µ³ ´ µ For simplicity.e. the derivations in the previous section remain valid and. Hence. where the attenuation parameter corresponds to different network types. ¾ IR. impulsive noise. 2. Within the coherence bandwidth which is deﬁned by ´¡ µ ´ µ ½ ´¡ µ (3) ½ ÀÀ ´¼µ ½ ÀÀ ´µ (7) the transfer function does not change signiﬁcantly. .

Thus. one reasonable choice contains random variables is that one realization of × of one sample function À for ﬁxed frequency val¡ . we . . adjacent OFDM-subcarriers are located within the coherence bandwidth . . equal power and equal information rate have to be assigned to the OFDM–subcarriers. e. we regard the transmission of only one OFDM– symbol. if the subchannel SNR is known at the transmitter side the transmit power and information rate can be appropriately assigned (loaded) to each subchannel. and Ò represents the AWGN ¾ Æ¼ ¡ ¡ (see Section 2.AEÜ Int. a number of loading algorithms have been proposed [1. Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM 3 3. If the signal processing is performed independently in each subchannel. respectively. As a proven model to describe this time variance has not been established yet. Due to the properties of OFDM. x. [1]. In [16] it is shown that for typical ﬂat fading channels almost their capacity is achievable even without loading. e. 15]. 1–1 Lampe. or equivalently for a ﬁxed subcarrier number . El. If the guard interval is at least as long as the (discrete–time) channel impulse response. Now. where denotes the atomic event of the corresponding random expercorresponds to one eximent. the long term time variance of the power line channel has to be taken into consideration. the fading gain “time” . For transmission over a series of OFDM–symbols. too. ¾ deﬁne the discrete–“time” stochastic process × Z Z.2 Fading Channel Model First. in the decoding the reliably received symbols from a subchannel with relatively high SNR are used to restore the unreliable symbols from a subchannel with relatively low SNR. the stochastic process along the frequency axis is transformed into an equivalent discrete–time process. which models a fading channel. respectively. (1999) No. as stochastic model for the fading channel. It is also interesting to consider the normalized channel state × ℄ Ô Ô È ´¡ ¡ µ¡ × ℄ ´½ · Ã µ ¾ ¡ ³ ´¡ ¡ µ ¼ ℄ ³¼ ´¡ ¡ µ (15) is Ricean distributed with parameters ¾ and Ã independent of the subcarrier number . the fading channel is slowly time–varying and the channel state can be expected to be constant over at least two consecutive symbols. An advantageous alternative is to employ channel coding across the subcarriers. where Generally. In this case. Without loading. Clearly. with variance Ò Applying the stochastic power line channel model of ℄ × ℄¡ ³ ¡Ü ℄·Ò ℄ (11) ¡ ℄ × has for a ﬁxed Section 2.g. loading is not further considered. Usually. now a simple model for power line communication using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The subchannel transfer factors the channel transfer function À : Let Ü and Ý denote the fading channel input and output signal. For transformation of linear convolution into cyclic convolution. the signal–to–noise ratios in these subchannels differ signiﬁcantly. ¼ is commonly referred to as guard interval. 3. For that purpose. the input–output–relation reads ℄ ℄ Ý where ³ is the carrier phase offset between transmitter and receiver. Each sample function × emplary power line channel. 3. by ( ¾ Z index) ¡ À ´¡ ¡ µ ´µ ¼½ ½ ¡ µ ¡ µ Ñ¾ ´¡ ¡ µ × (14) (9) are the usual parameters of a Ricean pdf. a Ricean distribution with the probability density function (pdf)1 ( ¼ ¡ is the modiﬁed Bessel function of order zero) Ô ℄ ℄ Á ´µ ´ µ ¾ ¾ ¡ ÜÔ ¾ Ã È ´¡ ¾ ¾ ·Ã Á¼ ¾ × Ã ¾ (12) (13) · where È ´¡ ¡ µ Ã ·½ Ñ¾ ´¡ and denotes the OFDM–subcarrier spacing. the power line fading channel model for OFDM transmission is here constructed by using the well–known Ricean ﬂat fading channel model and multiplying eachÔ channel gain with the corresponding amplitude term È ¡ . 14. Hence. Multicarrier Modulation On the basis of the introduced stochastic power line channel model. Appendix]. Thus. 13. [1]. especially for the point–to–multipoint transmission situations. The normalized fading gain ℄ ℄ × ℄ ´¡ µ ℄ ℄ ¡ ¼½ ℄ ´ µ ½ × ℄ À ´¡ ¡ µ ¼½ ½ (10) 1 We denote random variables corresponding to signals by the respective capital letter. since we ues which corresponds to samples of the normalized transfer function from Equation (6). The signaling along the discrete frequency axis in OFDM is equivalent to transmission over a frequency non–selective (ﬂat) discrete–“time” fading channel. the complex–valued channel state is related to the subcarrier transfer factors and the channel Z: discrete–“time” transfer function. Commun.2).g. is derived. However.1 Application of OFDM to Power Lines Core of the OFDM–system is the conversion of the convolution of the transmit signal and the channel impulse response into a component-wise multiplication of samples of their Fourier transforms. J. Describing this fading channel in the equivalent low–pass domain [6. In power line communication schemes channel state information usually is not available at the transmitter. only a subset of subcarriers would allow reliable communication. each block of channel symbols is preceded by the ¼ last symbols of the same block at the transmitter and at the receiver only symbols out of ¼ received symbols are taken. OFDM partitions the dispersive channel into independent AWGN–subchannels (subcarare samples of riers). which can be assumed to be constant over at least one OFDM–symbol.

It should be noted that the capacities are expressed as ensemble averages. measured in bit per symbol. In this case.i. are interested in results which are valid for an average of power line transmission scenarios. For such applications the use of differential encoding at the transmitter and noncoherent reception at the receiver are convenient. El. capacity is not affected by such an interleaving technique. For a comparison the Rayleigh pdf. equals the average mutual information [18] ´µ ËÁ ÐÓ ¾ where Ô Ý is the average pdf of the channel output given the channel state. of course. Gaussian pdf with mean The channel is described by the conditioned pdf ½ ´¡ µ ´µ ´¡ µ ¡ The calculation of the channel capacity requires the optimization of all free parameters. i. the capacities represent averages of achievable rates over an ensemble of power line channel realizations and they are not the achievable rates for all special channel realizations. measurements of 10 channel transfer functions of one power line network [17] have been analyzed.1 Coherent Transmission The fading channel model introduced in Section 3 is applied and channel state information (CSI) is supposed to be available at the receiver side.2 Noncoherent Transmission In many communications scenarios reliable estimation of the channel state and carrier phase is not practicable. where the attenuation parameter is ﬁtted to the samis chople transfer functions. is plotted in Figure 3 (dashed line).4 Lampe. the phase of × ℄ ¡ ³ is irrelevant and it is sufﬁcient to consider Ô ´Ý Ü µ. Clearly.e. we are now in the position to calculate channel capacities as ﬁgure of merit to compare different transmission schemes. the capacity ËÁ . in order to make standard coding techniques applicable.e. J. we will distinguish the cases where information on the channel state and the carrier phase are and are not available at the receiver. is of no importance. The subcarrier spacing sen appropriately small so that a sufﬁcient number of samoccurs in the histogram. the channel memory. ¼ Ô ´ µ (17) 4. independently. As can be seen. But usually.) signal points. ´ ¡ µ ÑÓ ℄ Ô ´Ý Ü × ³ µ. Ô ´Ý Ü µ is the well–known two–dimensional ℄ ¡ Ü ℄. ´ µ from (12) is used. Figure 3 shows the histogram of À ¡ (solid line) for ¡ MHz assuming that the average power is well approximated by equation transfer function È (4).d. For averaging over the channel state the pdf ´ µ Ô ´Ý Ü Ô ´Ý µ µ (16) Ô with Ô ´µ ½ ½ 4. Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM Submitted to AEÜ Int. the dependency between consecutive channel states. the ﬂuctuaples of À tions of the curve are due to the relatively small available data base. interleaving at the transmitter and deinterleaving at the receiver are performed leading to a virtually memoryless channel between Ü and Ý . Commun 4. By differential encoding the information is conveyed in the transitions of the channel input symbols Ü. Subsequently. at least from the information theoretical point of view.. one fading channel realization represents an ensemble average over power line channel realizations. Ü / Fig. Thus. and identically distributed (u. For coherent reception and perfect channel state information. Histogram of the normalized channel transfer function À for MHz (solid line) and Rayleigh pdf (dashed line). i. The current transmitted symbol Ü is determined by an interleaved version (discussed in detail below) of the data– ℄ . In order to provide a veriﬁcation of this fading channel model. which is the special case of the Ricean pdf with Ricean parameter Ã equal to zero. no optimization on these parameters has to be performed. it is more convenient to identify a sample function of × with a concatenation of many realizations of the discrete–frequency stochastic process À ¡ . the channel gain and phase are known.e. the pdf given by the stochastic model satisfactorily matches the histogram based on measurements. 4. 3. Interleaver / Channel Ý / / / Deinterleaver / × ³ µ ½ ´¡ ¡ µ ´¡ ¡ Fig. . The corresponding system model for coherent transmission is sketched in Figure 4. In this case. i.. System model for coherent transmission. As full CSI is also passed through the deinterleaver. Since coherent reception is assumed and since the noise is rotationally invariant.. Channel Capacity Having established a fading channel model for power line communications using OFDM.i. constellation and a–priori probabilities are regarded as part of the channel. Figure 5 shows the system model for noncoherent transmission. Clearly. As we are interested in the limits for given PSK and QAM signal constellations with uniformly.

signal set as the transmitted signal. Numerical Results In this section capacities over the average signal–to–noise ratio × Æ¼ ( × : average receive energy per symbol) are evaluated by numerical integration. Figure 6 illustrates .e. [21]. the fading channel In order to determine Ô Ý input–output–relation (11) is extended to vector symbols ℄ ¿ ¼½ ½ ´ µ ´ µ Fig. Since a veriﬁed model of the acf of the channel gain has not been found yet. it is reasonable to exploit the well–known average channel parameters ¾ and Ã introduced in (13) and (14). Suitable signal constellations are «A¬ PSK for the sym« ¡ ¬ points arranged in bols Ü. 1–1 Lampe. For high bandwidth efﬁciency this differential encoding is performed in both phase and amplitude. Commun. and deinterleaving for Æ are assumed to be though the current channel gains unknown to the receiver.. Ö: reference symbol of the vector symbol representing Æ differential symbols ½ bols are obtained. we had already restricted the differential symbols to be u. ℄ ing is performed by ½℄ ℄ where × is nearly equal for all components of Ü . grouping. normalized to bit per scalar symbol. i.i. which is the most important special case of the Ricean fading model. for each OFDM– subcarrier . In order to apply standard coding techniques for memoryless channels. Averaging this pdf over all possible reference symbols Ö ﬁnally yields the desired pdf Ô Ý . « . 5. For the following numerical results we suppose the corresponding to subcarriers channel gains to be Rayleigh distributed. the capacity of the memoryless vector channel. differential encodand Ò . System model for noncoherent transmission. Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM 5 Fig. [19]. ¼ ÐÓ ¾ Ô ´Ý Ô ´Ý µ µ Ü ℄ ´ ½℄· ℄µ ÑÓ « ³´Ñ ½℄·Ò ℄µ ÑÓ ¬ (18) 5. J.g. e. respectively. ¿ ℄ into overlapping vectors carrying (differential) symbol and the previous transmitted symbol Ü . Regardless the distribution of the differentially encoded symbols Ü will be uniformly distributed. If the coherence bandwidth of the channel is (at least) Æ symbols the receiver favorably operates on blocks Ý of Æ consecutive symbols. which is known as differential amplitude and phase shift keying (DAPSK).e.AEÜ Int. Ò ¾ Æ¼ denotes independent AWGN with variance Ò per complex component. Ô Ý Ü can be expressed by Ô Ý Ö . Thus.. (1999) No. This is generated by applying (asymptotically ideal) interleaving based on vector symbols and Ý . Ñ ¬ .i. e. Now. the radius and phase indices of the differential symbols are written by ³Ò ℄ . corresponds to Æ subcarriers. respectively. [21. El. Apand one reference symbol pendix]. Grouping of the received sequence Ý Ý of length Æ and deinterleaving. From the observation of one received vector Ý . see Figure 6 (where Æ ) and cf. so–called “star–constellations” cf. each vector symbol and Ý . denote the sequences of radius and phase indices of the corresponding sequence Ü of channel symbols. and ¬ uniformly spaced phases ³Ñ . Replacing Ü by Ö according to (18).g. The pdf Ô Ý Ü is derived in [21. This multiple symbol differential detection provides further gains. the differential symbols are taken from the same and Ñ . which consist of Å « distinct concentric rings with different radii . e. Here. Additionally. where the ﬁrst entry acts as reference symbol Ö of the differential encoder. Ü ℄ ³Ñ ℄ . Aloverlapping. x. decision variables on the differential vector of Æ data sym- ℄ ¾ ¾ ¿ ½ ÑÓ ¡ ℄ ¡ ´µ . it is convenient to ignore the statistical dependencies between the blocks Ý .g. Thereby. where the dependency on ¾ and Ã is expressed by conditioning on one subcarrier number of the Æ consecutive subcarriers. we employ the usual assumption that the channel gain is almost constant over (at least) Æ subcarriers. As usual. [20]. Let ¾Z Z. The results are independent of the number of OFDM–subcarriers and the subcarrier spacing as long as Æ ¡ holds. i. Therefore. 22]. 6.d. the memoryless channel is represented by the pdf Ô Ý . Then. The averwith exponential decay age power transfer function È In conventional differential detection the discrete channel output sequence Ý is partitioned into overlapping vectors Ý of two consecutive symbols at the receiver. overlapping each other by one symbol. which generates a virtually memoryless channel between and Ý . Ý corresponds to the vector Ü containing Æ transmitted symbols Ü . This pdf includes inversion of the differential encoding. respectively. and Æ ¾ Z Z denotes the discrete–“time” index corresponding to vector symbols. which maximizes the throughput of the channel. is calculated by ℄ Ý ℄ × ℄¡ ´ ´ ³ ¡Ü ℄·Ò ℄ (19) ´ µ µ µ ´ ½µ ℄ ℄ ¡ ´ µ ¼½ ¼½ ½ ½ ´Æ µ ℄ ℄ ℄ ℄ ½ ¡½ Æ ½ ½ ℄ ℄ ℄ ℄ (20) It should be noted that no optimization of the distribution of can be performed.

½¼ ¿ ¿ ½¼ ½¼ ½¼ ´µ ½¼ Fig. 8PSK. Although the channel parameters are only exemplary chosen. for a ﬁxed information rate. Hence. Solid lines: Ì 1/Hz. The rings of the D«A¬ PSK constellations are geometrically for « and ·½ spaced with the ratios ½ ¼ . Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM Submitted to AEÜ Int. using a larger transmission bandwidth is equivalent to increasing the value of . and hence.e. which are reasonable values regarding restrictions imposed on power line communications by regulator authorities [23]. of course. È ´¡ ¡ µ » ÜÔ´ ¡ ¡ ¡ µ (21) ½¼ ½¼ ´µ 5.e. the capacity at a certain SNR decreases for the larger value of . in terms of capacity it is advantageous to spend more than one bit of redundancy per complex symbol (cf. 8PSK.. Note.. via the average power transfer function È . i. ¾ 1/Hz and The attenuation parameter is set to 1/Hz. optimally the ring ratios have to be optimized for each SNR. which were found to be advantageous for fading channels [25. 64QAM. cf. Capacities ËÁ (coherent reception) for 4PSK. the transmission bandwidth Ì is assumed to be limited to 2 MHz and 3 MHz. Their orders of magnitude coincide with the parameters of sample networks given in [8]. Regarding the capacity curves of different constellations the concept of CSED is expected to provide higher gains for increasing . for « . 16QAM. Dashed lines: AWGN channel. as long as ¡ does not Ì deviate negligibly from one. respectively. Dashed lines: MHz. The same observation based on bit error rates has also been reported in [5]. the respective capacities of the AWGN channel are shown. It should be noted that the capacity in bit per channel use versus × Æ¼ depends on the transmission bandwidth because. As expected. 7. 8PSK. and noncoherent detection with ¾ ¿ ¾ ÜÔ´ µ ½ ¼½¾ ¾ ¾ . [24]). (4). transmission capacity measured in bit per second increases with increasing Fig. Whereas in 1/Hz the fading variances ¾ are the case of almost identical for all .1 Coherent Transmission Coherent transmission with perfect channel state information and usual 4PSK. In Figure 8 the inﬂuence of the parameter on the capacity is illustrated. El. 32QAM. the channel fading properties depend on Ì . 8. 1/Hz Figure 7 presents the capacity curves for and Ì MHz. As can be seen. As reference. where this strategy is called channel symbol expansion diversity (CSED). Although the capacity in bit per channel use decreases for increasing transmission bandwidth Ì due to more severe fading. 64QAM. Fading channel of OFDM over power lines with 1/Hz. larger signal constellations in combination with low rate codes are favorably used. the subsequently drawn consequences apply in general. Concerning the capacity over the average SNR. Furthermore. J. typical for some classes of power line channels. Figure 10 comprises the capacity curves of various «A¬ PSK constellations. 26]. Solid lines: Fading channel of OFDM over power 1/Hz and Ì lines with parameters MHz. Commun is used. ¿ ½¼ Ì because of a higher possible number of channel uses per second. Capacities ËÁ (coherent reception) for 4PSK. 16QAM. it is interesting to recognize that for the AWGN channel the curves of different signal constellations converge much faster towards lower capacity values than for the fading channel. 16QAM. and thus.2 Noncoherent Transmission Differentially encoded transmission and differential detection is regarded without channel state information. Therefore. the channel is essenin (17) is the Rayleigh pdf). respectively. For a bandwidth of 3 MHz the channel gain performs a stronger fading which leads to a performance loss compared to the case of MHz.6 in Lampe. i. 32QAM. tially Rayleigh fading (Ô 1/Hz the variances vary strongly over the for subchannel number. Furthermore. 5. which offer spectral efﬁciencies up to 6 bit/s/Hz. the channel gain ﬂuctuates more heavily. Figure 9 shows the capacity curves for Ì MHz and Ì MHz. 32QAM. and 64QAM providing spectral efﬁciencies up to 6 bit/s/Hz is considered. the fading channel of OFDM transmission over power lines requires a considerably higher SNR than the AWGN channel. relatively large signal constellations should be applied for power line transmission over a wide spectral range.

D8PSK. Fading channel of OFDM over power lines with and Ì MHz. Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM 7 ½¼ Æ Fig. the Rayleigh fading model for the subchannel transfer factors with variances according to equation (21) is used. ¿ ¾ Fig. 64QAM. Capacities Æ for 16QAM and D2A8PSK. respectively. Howtarget rates. For several applications it has been shown [29] that based on Gray labeling BICM suffers only a marginal capacity loss compared to optimum coded modulation via multilevel coding (MLC) with multistage decoding (MSD) [30. Since the ring ratios are ﬁxed. D2A16PSK. In particular.. the capac½¼ ¾ ¿ ´ µ Fig. and ¿ MHz. ¿ ´ µ ´ ¾¿ µ ½¼ 6. cf. The parameters of the power line channel are ½¼ 1/Hz and ½¼ 1/Hz. 32QAM.AEÜ Int. Solid lines: Æ (from right to left). 11. In the case of conventional differential detection. Moreover. different transmission scenarios have been simulated. Fading channel of OFDM over power lines with 1/Hz. Æ . 29] in combination with Gray labeling of the signal points. 16QAM. 8PSK and 16QAM transmission with coherent reception and perfect channel state information at the receiver and 8PSK differentially encoded transmission (D8PSK) with (conventional) differential deover the power line fading channel are tection for Æ considered.use for ever. J. Dashed lines: Ì MHz. Dashed lines: ´ ¾µ ¿ ½¼ ½¼ ity curves for DAPSK and DPSK intersect. gains can be achieved by spending more than one bit of redundancy per symbol. Commun. Consequently. a loss of 3 to 5 dB of signal–to–noise ratio for differentially encoded transmission compared to coherent transmission is recognizable.). Again. Ì ¾. If Æ approaches inﬁnity the normalized capacity Æ converges to ËÁ . respecËÁ and 1/Hz tively. transmission bandwidth is Ì ¾ ½¼ ½¼ ¿ As coded modulation scheme we apply bit–interleaved coded modulation (BICM) [28. In order to assess the performance loss because of differential detection. The attenuation parameters are chosen 1/Hz and 1/Hz. i. By applying multiple symbol differential detection this gap can be compensated in part as shown in Figure 11 for Æ . Similar to the case of coherent transmission. respectively. Solid lines: Fad 1/Hz ing channel of OFDM over power lines with parameters 1/Hz. Parallel concatenated convolutional codes (Turbo codes) [3] perform close to the capacity limit and are thus used as codes. (1999) No. Figure 11 displays the capacities for coherent and noncoherent transmission with 16QAM and D2A8PSK. and Ì MHz. and MHz . CSED is not expected to provide gains for relatively low 1/Hz. Simulation Results In order to further assess the capabilities of power line communications. D4A16PSK. We employ Turbo codes with 16 state constituent codes and random interleavers. [27]. BICM is a suboptimum but simple scheme applying only one binary code.g. In the decoding 6 iterations are executed. 8PSK. cf. 9. Capacities Æ (conventional differential reception) for D4PSK. . for increasing the positive effect of CSED intensiﬁes. [32]. respectively. Rate is adjusted by symmetric puncturing of parity symbols. 2 bit/ch. Capacities ËÁ (coherent reception) for 4PSK. D2A8PSK. 10. 1–1 Lampe. Solid lines: Ì MHz. e. if high spectral efﬁciencies are desired. the capacity loss due to fading strongly depends on the parameter (For clarity. Dashed lines: ËÁ . 31]. El..e. the respective capacity curves of the AWGN channel are omitted in Figure 10. The symmetrical decoder concept according to [32] is used. x.

Ì MHz).1).e. As mentioned in Section 4. Left hand side: respective rate–distortion capacity limits. The simulation results for different values of the coherence bandwidth are depicted in Figure 14 ( 1/Hz. Channel coding over one OFDM–symbol. 1/Hz and Fading channel of OFDM over power lines with MHz.0 bit/symbol. i. which is illustrated by the rate–distortion capacities. Ideal interleaving is applied as indicated above.0 bit/symbol. 13. the transmission delay is limited to 1000 channel symbols.8 Lampe. coding can be done separately for each OFDM–symbol. ½¼ ¿ ½¼ (22) tively large when compared to the coherence bandwidth of e. Channel coding over one OFDM–symbol. for a larger the bit error rate deteriorates. In particular. For BER’s around the gap between the required signal–to–noise ratios and the capacity limits is about 2 dB. The lengths of the binary codes are 4000 for 16QAM and 3000 for 8PSK. the capacity limits taking the ﬁnite error rate into account (“rate–distortion capacities”) [33] are shown.5 bit/symbol is chosen.g. i. a Gaussian acf ´µ ¼½ ½ Æ¼ for coherent transmission with Fig. If the coherence bandwidth of the power line channel is negligible compared to the interleaving depth.0 bit/symbol are compared. Clearly. As reference. respectively.6 dB. The gap of about 1. As the use of regarding the bandwidth of 3 MHz.2 dB . In order to study these effects in more detail. this effect occurs because of the high sensitivity of the Turbo code to statistical dependencies within the received symbol sequence. the simulation results are in great accordance with the rate–distortion capacities. Here. randomly generated bit–interleavers are applied. ¿ ½¼ ½¼ ½¼ ½¼ ÀÀ ´µ ¿ ´ µ ÜÔ´ ´ µ¾µ Fig. El. respectively. in order to obtain results that are not affected by the special (cf.. Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM Submitted to AEÜ Int. the power efﬁciency decreases by about 1. BER as a function of Æ¼ for coherent transmission with 16QAM and rate 2.5 dB between the curves simulated for 8PSK and 16QAM matches the result predicted by the capacity analysis. For the coherence bandwidths comprising 5 and 11 OFDM–subchannels. Again. Again.1. Left hand side: respective rate–distortion capacity limits. The target rate of 1. 16QAM clearly outperforms 8PSK.. As can be seen. i.e. J. indechannel transfer factors . Coherent transmission with 16QAM over power line channels with different attenuation parameters is regarded in Figure 13. In Figure 15 the simulation results are plotted. the channel memory does not play any role for the capacity of the coherent transmission scheme. BICM with Ì ideal interleaving. the losses in power efﬁciency are about 0. 1000 OFDM–subcarriers are active. BER as a function of 8PSK (solid lines) and 16QAM (dashed lines) and rate 2. we use a simple model for the normalized stationary Gaussian process À . ideal symbol interleaving is simulated by generating the sub . However. This is due to the higher constellation expansion diversity when 16QAM with code rate 1/2 is applied to achieve the desired target rate of 2. 11 channel symbols. Commun The code lengths are chosen in that way that the code symbols of one code word are mapped to 1000 channel 1000 subcarriers is practical symbols. a decoding error is caused with high probability when deep fades occur. But if the channel coherence bandwidth is relatively large and interleaving is done within one OFDM–symbol. Although the and 0.7 dB when increases from 1/Hz to 1/Hz. The curves show that the channel memory cannot completely be eliminated by the (bit)interleaving within one OFDM–symbol. Finally. the bit–interleavers are randomly generated in order to provide results independent of a particular chosen interleaver. for which a proved model does not exist.e. pendently of each other. coherent transmission with channel state information and differentially encoded transmission without channel state information using the 8PSK signal constellation are compared. which leads to an increased average error rate. this model is appropriate. the stronger fading due to a larger value of leads to a performance loss.0 bit/symbol. Secchoice of the autocorrelation function À À tion 2. If (bit)interleaving is also restricted to one OFDM–symbol. respectively. respectively. 12. In Figure 12 the bit error rates (BER) of coherent transmission using 16QAM and 8PSK for a target rate equal to 2. Fading channel of OFDM over power 1/Hz (solid lines) and lines with Ì MHz and 1/Hz (dashed lines). In all simulations. ideal interleaving is simulated. BICM with ideal interleaving. and for D8PSK the channel is assumed to be constant over two consecutive symbols. for BER interleaving depth of 1000 channel symbols is still rela- ½¼ ½¼ .

of Int. 38(3):300–308. Symp. Glavieux.. IEEE Trans. Commun. pages 891–895. (ISPLC). On the equivalence of single. Ulm. Fischer and J. [7] M. Arzberger. BER as a function of 16QAM and rate 2. T. Fundamental Properties of the Low Voltage Power Distribution Grid. Dallas. In Proc. Zimmermann. Fading channel of OFDM over power lines with MHz and 1/Hz. and its Appl. Ideal interleaving. A Multi–Path Signal Propagation Model for the Power Line Channel in the High Frequency Range. Incorporating the transmitter and receiver operations of OFDM into the model and using coding across the OFDM–subcarriers a slowly time–varying frequency non–selective fading channel is obtained. 15. on Inf. pages 45–51. August 1996. the interleaving depth is required to largely exceed the coherence bandwidth of the fading process along the frequency axis. (1999) No. of IEEE Int. Franks. Divsalar and M.C. Æ¼ for for coherent transmission with Fig. Huber. Fig. [4] D. BER as a function of Æ¼ for 8PSK (solid lines) and D8PSK transmission and differential detection with Æ (dashed lines) and rate 1. on Power Line Commun. El. Dostert. In order to make a general analysis possible a stochastic power line channel model is introduced. Carrier and Bit Synchronisation in Data Communication—A Tutorial Review. Berrou and A. Theory (ISIT). The numerical results of the channel capacity show that the frequency dependent signal attenuation and the transmission bandwidth largely inﬂuence the required average signal–to–noise ratio for reliable communication at the receiver. Conf. Aulin. K. Channel information is assumed not to be available at the transmitter side. [6] L.5 dB between coherent and noncoherent transmission can be observed. But it should be noted that for Æ BICM is not the appropriate scheme [34]. Channel coding over one OFDM– Ì symbol. August 1980. IEEE Communications Magazine. 1–1 Lampe. In Proc.AEÜ Int. Coherence bandwidth: Hz (solid line).. Increasing the observation interval of the noncoherent detection can reduce the gap between transmission with and with no channel state information at the receiver. Bingham. Essen. March 1990. Near Optimum Limit Error Correcting Coding and Decoding: Turbo–Codes. of IEEE Int. Autocorrelation funclines with tion À À according to (22).E. To combat the signal fading the application of large signal constellations and low rate codes proves to be convenient.. Left hand side: respective rate–distortion capacity limits. Both the situations with and with no channel information at the receiver are regarded. In Proc. The theoretical results derived from capacity analysis are afﬁrmed by means of simulations for 8PSK and 16QAM signal constellations. IEEE Trans. Germany. and its Appl. Multicarrier Modulation for Data Transmission: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. page 197.5 bit/symbol. (ICC). March 1999. Simon. of Int. Hansson and T. October 1996. a difference in the power efﬁciencies of about 3 to 3. (dashed line).and multicarrier modulation: A new view.K. Lancaster. 14. Symp. on Commun. [3] C. According to the capacity curves the perfect knowledge of the channel characteristic leads to considerable gains of the order of some dB in the signal–to–noise ratio. 44:1261–1271. ´µ ½¼ ¡¡ ¿ ½½ ¡ ¡ ¼ References [1] J. x. [5] U. Fading channel of OFDM over power 1/Hz and Ì MHz. As well–known for transmission over fading channels. and M. June/July 1997. on Commun. Conclusions In this paper power line communication systems employing OFDM are described and compared. ¿ ½¼ ¾ As predicted by the theoretical considerations. Channel Symbol Expansion Diversity . on Commun.A.Improved Coded Modulation for the Rayleigh Fading Channel. (dash–dotted line). BICM (channel coding and random interleaving) over one OFDM– symbol. Zimmermann and K. [2] R. May 1990. pages 5–14. (ISPLC). pages 45–50. on Commun. J. IEEE Trans. ¾ ¾ . Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM 9 7. Waldeck. In Proc. Multiple–Symbol Differential Detection of MPSK. UK. An is exincrease of the observation interval with Æ pected to reduce the gap. [8] M. April 1997. Symp. on Power Line Commun. 28(8):1107–1121.0 bit/symbol. The capacity of this fading channel is calculated for the cases of coherent transmission and differentially encoded transmission with multiple symbol differential detection. Dostert.

on Power Line Commun. Johannes Huber is member of the editorial boards of the International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEÜ. January 1984. Lampe. Internal Report. Papoulis. Symp. he was chief engineer at the Telecommunications Institute of the Federal Armed Forces University in Munich–Neubiberg and a lecturer in digital communications and coding. on Commun. He is now a Research Assistant at the Telecommunications Institute at the University of Erlangen– Nürnberg. On Differentially Encoded Star 16QAM with Differential Detection and Diversity. [24] G. (Globecom). and its Appl. [11] K. on Commun. 43:773–775. Huber: Bandwidth Efﬁcient Power Line Communications Based on OFDM Submitted to AEÜ Int. and its Appl. [34] L. September 1997. IEEE Trans. he was a lecturer at the university of applied science in Munich. Philipps. [22] L. November 1996. February/March/April 1995. and R. of Int. Zyablov. 1977. Hirakawa. Channel Capacity of Fading Channels for Differentially Encoded Transmission.D. he is head of the Telecommunications Institute II and of the Telecommunications Laboratory of the University of Erlangen–Nürnberg. El. and its Appl. [15] A. and 1991. Divsalar and M. pages 131–138. on Power Line Commun. Imai and S. on Inf. [27] R. Chung. May 1992. Simon.J. on Vehic. 1995. In Proc. Wachsmann. of Int. 44(3):pp. Channel Coding with Multilevel/Phase Signals. He received the Dipl. pages 1–9. S. page 111. on Inf. Differentially Amplitude and Phase–Encoded QAM for the Correlated Rayleigh–Fading Channel with Diversity Reception. November 1997. In parallel. pages 107–113. Hooijen. 23:371–377. Bossert. [21] D. McEliece. Currently. IEE Electronics Letters. JPL Deep Space Network Progress Report 42–22. New York. S. IEEE Trans. OFDM–Übertragung über Mobilfunkkanäle: Bemerkungen zur Kanalkapazität (in German). IEEE Trans. third edition. 35(3):192–194. UK.C.T. Müller-Weinfurtner. 927–946.–Ing. [20] W.) degree from the Technical University of Munich. Technology. J. SA. the Ph. March 1999. 42(1):76–89. January 1994. Symp. Probability. Power and bandwidth efﬁcient digital communication using turbo codes in multilevel codes. Dostert. Since November 1991. of IEEE Global Telecom. April 1997. 6:pages 557–567. 28(1):55–67. habil. [10] A. IEEE Trans.. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Erlangen–Nürnberg in 1998. John Wiley & Sons.D. S.G. Random Variables. pages 1514–1518. In Proc. Germany. August 1974. and Stochastic Processes. In Proc. 138(3):169–175. Essen. (Globecom). McEliece and W.–Ing. Bandwidth Efﬁcient QAM Schemes for Rayleigh Fading Channels. IEE Proceedings–I. vol. on Telecommun. New York. and J. In Proc. Since August 1997. Multilevel Codes: Theoretical Concepts and Practical Design Rules. . May 1998. 44(3):586–593. Symp. A New Multilevel Coding Method Using Error Correcting Codes.M. 1982. [18] R. Johannes Huber received the Diplom (Univ. Symp. on Inf. (ISPLC). of IEEE Inf. pages 51– 56. Hanzo. and its Appl. In Proc. [32] U. Huber. [30] H. [13] P.Possibilities and Limitations. IEEE Trans. on Inf. European Trans. Sept. Webb. In Proc. Svensson. Lampe and R. Power Line Communications—A Regulatory Perspective. Chow. 873–884. Steele. pages 724–728. he is a full professor for communication engineering at the University of Erlangen–Nürnberg. A maximum rate loading algorithm for discrete multitone modulation systems. on Power Line Commun. respectively. Donder. IEEE Trans. June 1991. Fischer. Fischer. Theory. IEEE Trans. August 1995. Ciofﬁ. his research is focused on high–rate digital transmission over power line distribution networks. Ungerböck. in 1973. Fischer. Gallager. February 1999. IEEE Trans. on Power Line Commun. Huber. Johannes Huber is author or co–author of about 95 articles and conference papers and of a textbook "Trelliscodierung" (in German).Arizona. Since May 1998. of Int. (ISPLC). Wachsmann and J. Conf. June 1999. and J. on Commun. Lancaster. he received the research award of the German Society of Information Techniques (ITG).G. July 1999. Ungerboeck.K. Lampe.–Oct. and its Appl. Conf. The Ultimate Limits of Binary Coding for a Wideband Gaussian Channel.. [28] Ephraim Zehavi. and Ezio Biglieri. Channels with Block Interference.J. degree and habilitation degree (Dr. R. J. and R. Kruger National Park.) in electrical engineering from the Federal Armed Forces University in Munich–Neubiberg in 1977. Huber. Lancaster. Theory.. 8–PSK Trellis Codes for a Rayleigh Channel. (ISPLC). he was a Visiting Scientist at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory performing joint work with Dr. G. on Inf. pages 14–21.A. [26] C. of Int. [14] R. Commun [9] H. Fischer and J. on Communications (since 1996). on Power Line Commun. Huber. A Channel Model for the Low–Voltage Power–Line Channel. L. Theory. Bingham. of Int. Butman and R. OFDM–Fachgespräch. March 1999. In Proc. Comparison and Optimization of Differentially Encoded Transmission on Fading Channels. 1968.10 Lampe. UK.M. Lutz Lampe was born in Leipzig. McGraw–Hill. In 2. On the Difﬁculty of Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation for Differentially Encoded Transmission. of IEEE Global Telecom. Stark. [33] S. R.. Harris. (ISPLC). (ISPLC). April 1997. 1998. 40(5):pp. and J.S. Fischer. London. 45(3):309–321. Information Theory and Reliable Communication. [16] M. UK. His interests comprise general issues of information theory and digital communications. Germany. Theory. Lancaster. Theory.E. In 1991. on Commun. pages 1361–1391.M. [25] L. since 1993) and IEEE Trans. Calabrò. Theory Workshop (ITW). pages 78–80. A Practical Discrete Multitone Transceiver Loading Algorithm for Data Transmission over Spectrally Shaped Channels. [29] Giuseppe Caire.. Maximum-Likelihood Differential Detection of Uncoded and Trellis Coded Amplitude Phase Modulation over AWGN and Fading Channels — Metrics and Performance. [19] A. [17] Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg Lehrstuhl für Nachrichtentechnik II. In 1988. In Proc. Leke and J.A. IEEE Trans. and especially multicarrier modulation and differentially encoded transmission. 30(1):44–53. Giorgio Taricco. From 1982 to March 1991. 1991. March 1999. Phoenix. March 1997. [23] M. and V. His research interests are all sorts of applications of Information Theory. Modelling of Powerline Communications Channels. A. Measurement and Simulation Results. [31] U. Calabrò. [12] O. Bit– Interleaved Coded Modulation. Ciofﬁ. especially power and bandwidth efﬁcient digital communications and channel coding. Essen. he is Editor–in–Chief of the AEÜ. January 1982. Symp. Germany. A new loading algorithm for discrete multitone transmission. Braunschweig. IEEE Trans. Telecommunications over the Power Distribution Grid .

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