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A.R.Elshazly, M.M.

Fouad
Electronics and Electrical Communication Dept.
Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt



Abstract— To enhance security and robustness of digital audio
watermarking algorithms, this paper presents a secure, robust
audio watermarking algorithm based on mean-quantization in
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. A binary image is
used as a watermark, and is encrypted with chaotic encryption
with secret key. This approach is based on the embedding of an
encrypted watermark in the low frequency components using a
two wavelet functions with adaptation to the frame size. The
reason for embedding the watermark in the low frequency
components is that these components’ energy is high enough to
embed the watermark in such a way that the watermark is
inaudible; therefore, it should not alter the audible content and
should not be easy to remove. The algorithm has a good security
because only the authorized can detect the copyright information
embedded to the host audio signal. The watermark can be blindly
extracted without knowledge of the original signal. To evaluate
the performance of the presented audio watermarking method,
objective quality tests including bit error rate (BER), normalized
cross correlation(NCC), peak-signal to noise ratio (PSNR) are
conducted for the watermark and Signal-to-Noise Ratio(SNR) for
audio signals. The tests’ results show that the approach
maintains high audio quality, and yields a high recovery rate
after attacks by commonly used audio data manipulations such
as noise addition, amplitude modification, low-pass filtering, re-
quantization, re-sampling, cropping, cutting, and compression.
Simulation results show that our approach not only makes sure
robustness against common attacks, but it also further improves
systemic security and robustness against malicious attack.
I ndex Terms— Audio watermarking, Binary image,
normalized cross correlation, Robustness, Security

I. INTRODUCTION
In recent years, due to the growth of networked
multimedia systems and the widespread use of personal
computers, people have easy access to vast amounts of
copyrighted digital data. This data, which includes text, digital
audio, image and video, offers various advantages [1–2]. They
can be reproduced without loss of quality, shared by multiple
users, distributed over networks, and managed for long
periods of time without any damage. However, unauthorized
copying and distribution of digital data are serious threats to
the rights of content owners [3-6]. Therefore, digital data
protection and copyright issues have become more and more
important in the face of today’s technology. As a solution to
copyright protection issues, digital watermarking technology
is gaining attention as a new method of protecting copyrights
for digital data.



M.E.Nasr
Electronics and Electrical Communication Dept.
Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt


Digital watermarking is a technique that embeds imperceptible
and statistically undetectable information into digital data (e.g.
video, images and audio signals). This embedded information
contains certain information (signature, logo, ID number, etc.)
uniquely related to the owner or distributor [7,8]. Digital data
authors and distributors are thereby able to prove ownership
of intellectual property rights without restricting other
individuals from copying the contents of the digital data [9].
There are a number of desirable characteristics that a
watermarking algorithm should satisfy. First, a watermark has
to be statistically undetectable by unauthorized persons in
order to prevent its removal. Second, the watermark needs to
be robust enough to withstand intentional signal-processing
attacks and its removal should be impossible without
perceptible signal alteration. Finally, to retain the quality of
watermarked data, the watermark insertion should be
imperceptible, thereby preventing its visual or aural
identification. When considered collectively, the above
requirements become conflictual. Therefore, when
designing a watermarking system, compromises and tradeoffs
have to be made.
Many watermarking algorithms have been reported in the
literature. Most of them were developed for digital images and
videos data; [10,11] interest and research in audio
watermarking started slightly later [12]. Compared to digital
video and image watermarking, audio watermarking
algorithms are not easy to develop because of the human
auditory system (HAS) is extremely more sensitive than
human visual system (HVS). Also the HAS is sensitive to a
dynamic range of amplitudes, and of frequencies. Even a
small amount of embedded noise can be detected by the naked
human ear. Finally, audio clips are rather short compared with
video clips in terms of time and file size. Thus, the amount of
hidden information in audio clips is relatively large compared
with the image or video. Consequently, this information tends
to degrade the audio quality. There is always a conflict
between inaudibility and robustness in current audio
watermarking methods. Finding a satisfactory balance
between these two aspects becomes an important index by
which to evaluate digital audio watermarking techniques.
Several techniques currently exist for the embedding of audio
watermarking. These can be classified into several categories,
either in time domain, transform domain, or dual domain.
The time domain watermark is relatively easy to
implement and requires less computing resources compared
with the transform domain watermark. On the other hand, the
time domain watermark is weaker against signal-processing
attacks than is the transform domain watermark. Transform
domain audio watermarking applies certain frequency
Secure, Robust, and High Quality DWT Domain Audio
Watermarking Algorithm with Binary I mage
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transforms-such as FFT[13], DCT[14-15], time-frequency
transform (DWT)[16], cepstrum and others, to the data block
of the audio signal, hiding the watermark information in the
transformed data block [17]. In audio watermarking, it is
impossible to have the same information on locations of data
blocks where the frequency transform is applied between
watermark embedding and detection parts due to the time-
scale modification attack. Therefore, to be robust against the
time-scale modification attack, spectral audio watermarking
must use a fast algorithm that quickly finds the data block
where the watermark bit is actually embedded.
Although most of watermarking techniques work well for
a relatively wide range of signals, they do not always
adequately resolve the problems of inaudibility and
robustness. In [18] a visually recognizable binary image is used
as watermark embedding within audio signals in cepstrum
domain. In [19] also the technology of embedding image data
into the audio signal and additive audio watermarking
algorithm based on SNR to determine a scaling parameter was
presented. The audio based on low-frequency band DWT, and
the intensity of embedded watermark on the original audio
signal is modified by adaptively modulation of the scaling
parameter. In [20] an audio watermark embedding algorithm
based on mean-quantization in wavelet domain is presented. It
uses planar and binary image as watermark, and encrypts the
binary image with chaos sequence, the audio signal is
decomposed for 4 levels using Daubechies-3 wavelet basis. In
[21] in order to improve the watermark invisibility and
robustness simultaneously, audio watermarking scheme with
self-synchronization which based on discrete wavelet
transforming stable feature was proposed. The scheme adopts
adjusting and checking the relationship between the absolute
average values of the discrete wavelet decomposing low
frequency cA3 coefficients in three audio frames. Also, the
relationship between the global absolute average value and the
absolute average in frames to decide where watermark bits are
embedded and extracted, which is adopted to solve the
problem of synchronization. In [22] the watermark data was
embedded by quantizing the means of two selected bands of
the wavelet transform of the original audio signal, one of the
bands was in the lower frequency and the other one in the
higher frequency ranges. An adaptive step sizes were used to
achieve robustness and good transparency. The scheme in [22]
was developed in [23] by using two stages multi layer
perception (MLP) neural network in the decoding process.
Inaudibility, robustness and other practical considerations
such as complexity have motivated us to look into other
alternatives to audio watermarking in DWT domain. In this
paper, for the purpose of establishing watermarks applicable
to audio signals, we present a method of digital audio
watermarking using low frequency components in DWT
based on adaptation to the frame size, secret key, chaos
encryption, and a binary image with less complexity than
those presented in the same DWT domain and high quality. In
this method, an audio signal is first divided into frames with
sizes adapted to give minimum BER rate and maximum
PSNR. The frames of the audio signal are then decomposed
into low-frequency components by 3
rd
level DWT, since the
energy of the low-frequency components with regard to
approximation coefficients is larger than that of the high-
frequency components with regard to detail coefficients, the
approximation coefficients are used for the watermark
embedding process. The presented method uses an encrypted
binary image to decide whether or not to embed the
watermark signal into the original host audio signal. In order
to evaluate the robustness and transparency of the proposed
audio watermarking method, we conduct watermark
embedding and detection experiments for test audio signals.
Through these experiments, we show that the proposed
method is robust to common signal-processing attacks
including filtering, re-quantization, re-sampling and
MPEG/audio layer III compression.
The outline of the paper is as follows: Section II introduces
theoretical background on chaotic encryption.. Section III
presents an overview of the watermark insertion procedure of
the proposed audio watermarking scheme. In Section IV, the
detection process is thoroughly analyzed. Section VI explains
the objective measures. Bit error rate (BER), Normalized
Cross Correlation (NCC), Peak Signal-to-Noise ratio (PSNR),
and Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) are used to evaluate
performance of the proposed method. In Section V, the
experimental results are discussed. Finally, we make a brief
conclusion in Section VI.
II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
An encryption based on the Logistic maps [24] to the
watermark image is introduced. The encryption process uses
chaotic iteration to generate the encryption keys, and then
carries out the XOR operation on the plain text to change the
values of image pixels. The basic logistic-map is formulated
as:
Xn+1 = aXn(1 − Xn), (1)
Where Xn and a are the system variable and parameter,
respectively, and n is the number of iterations. Logistic map is
chaotic for 0 . 4 569 . 3 s s a . The Logistic map has only one
parameter, and its range is relatively narrower than other
chaotic maps. Consequently the chaotic encryption and
decryption provides guaranteed high security, and the initial
value is used as a secret key. Fig1 shows the original
watermark and encrypted version for a=4.0, secret key is
0.12345, and the number of iteration n=1600.





(a) (b)
Fig 1 (a) Original watermark (b) Encrypted version




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III. EMBEDDING ALGORITHM
The embedding process is shown in fig.2 as following:
1st- Load the 2-D binary image watermark, W(i,j), let
Size=MxN be the size of the watermark, L=M.N, S is
the watermark length.

2nd- Encrypt the watermark image using chaos sequence
3rd- using a secrete key, K
1
, in the 2-D space,
) , ( j i W
e
.
4th- Lower the dimensions of the watermark to be a 1-D
vector in order to embed watermark in one-dimensional
audio. W
1
is the sequence after lowering, i.e.:
} , 0 , 0 ), , ( ) ( {
1 1
j ixM k N j M i j i W k W W
e
+ = < s < s = =

5th- Discrete wavelet transform: Decompose the original
audio signal (A) in wavelet domain at 3
rd
level and then
obtain the decomposition vector V,
} , , , {
1 2 3 3
CD CD CD CA V = ,
CA
3
is the low-frequency coefficients of the audio
signal; CD
3
-CD
1
is the high-frequency coefficients of
the audio signal.
6th- Selecting CA
3
for watermark embedding and is
arranged in matrix form of F x L, where F is the frame
size chosen to give minimum BER and maximum
PSNR, and calculate the mean of each column,
L n n m CA
F
n CA
F
m
,..., 1 ), , (
1
) (
1
3 3
= =
¿
=

7th- Calculate the variable integer, P
= ) (n P └ 2 / 1 / ) (
3
+ q n CA ┘,n=1,….,L ,└ ┘is down
integer operation, q is quantization step size, the
modified version of ) (
3
n CA due to watermark
embedding is given by:
if mod(P(n),2)=W
1
(n)
do nothing
if mod(P(n),2) = W
1
(n)&P(n) =└ ) (
3
n CA /q┘&P(n) >0
or mod(P(n),2 = W
1
(n)&P(n) = └ ) (
3
n CA /q┘&P(n)<0
q n CA n A C + = ' ) ( ) (
3 3

else
) ( ) (
3 3
q n CA n A C ÷ = '
where mod(x,y) returns the reminder of the division of x
by y .
8th- Reconstruct the watermarked audio signal A ' by
inverse wavelet transform of the coefficients
1 2 3 3
, , , CD CD CD A C '
, i.e.:
} , , , {
1 2 3 3
CD CD CD A C A ' = '

IV. EXTRACTION ALGORITHM
The Extraction of the watermark embedded in audio signal

Watermarked
Audio
Fig.3 Diagram of Watermark Recovery Process
A
e
(k)
Segmenting
Selecting
Audio Segments
By Rectangular
window
DWT
Using
dB4 or Harr
Watermark
Recover
Decrypting
Watermark
A '
watermark
data
Recovered
Select Low-
frequency
Coefficients
Mean Values
Decision
No
yes
Key
) ( k A '
) ( k A '
A C '
Reshape
A C '

Original
audio
Binary
image
Fig.2 Diagram of Audio Watermarking Embedding Procedure
A(k)
CA,D
A
e
(k)
Segmenting
Selecting
Audio Segments
By Rectangular
window
DWT
Using
dB4 or Harr
Watermark
Embedding
IDWT
Encrypting
Lowering
Dimension
Blocking
Watermarked audio
A
W
End
watermark
data
Select Low-
frequency
Coefficients
A(k)
Mean
Quantization
Segment
Reconstructing
No
yes
Key
CA
CA
W1=[0,1,0,1,0,1]
We(i,j)
W(i,j)
A'
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dose not need the original audio (blind detection). The
extraction process is shown in fig.3. Watermark recovery
process is the same watermark embedding process except for
mean value decision and decryption of recovered watermark
as following:
1st- Discrete wavelet transform: Decompose the
watermarked audio signal (A') in wavelet domain at 3
rd

level and then obtain the low-frequency coefficients,
CA
3
, and is arranged in matrix form of F x L, where F
is the frame size and calculate the mean of each column
,
L n n m A C
F
n A C
F
m
,..., 1 ), , (
1
) (
1
3 3
= ' = '
¿
=

2nd- The recovered encrypted watermark can be obtained
from :-
= ' ) (n W
r
mod(└ 2 / 1 / ) (
3
+ ' q n A C ┘,2), n=1,….,L
3rd- Reshape the recovered encrypted watermark to be a 2-
D array,
} , 1 0 , 1 0 ), ( ) , ( { j ixM n N j M i n W j i W W
r r r
+ = ÷ s s ÷ s s ' = ' = '
4th- Decrypt
r
W' with the right key to obtain recovered
watermark,
W '
V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
For evaluating the system performance of the presented
audio watermarking approach, it has two main objectives;
hiding of an encrypted binary image in the audio signal and
maintaining the perceptual quality of the audio signal. So,
there is a need of some measures to assess the perceptual
quality of the watermarked audio signal and the quality of
extracted watermark image. Several approaches based on
subjective and objective measures have been adopted in the
literature to assess the quality of audio signals [25-30]. We
will concentrate on objective measures for the evaluation of
the quality of the audio watermarked signals based on Signal-
to-Noise Ratio (SNR) witch can be expressed as:
.
¿
¿
=
=
' ÷
=
N
i
N
i
i A i A
i A
SNR
1
2
1
2
10
)) ( ) ( (
) (
log 10
(2)
where ) (i A is the original audio signal, ) (i A' is the
distorted audio signal, i is the sample index, and N is the
total number of samples in both audio signals. Because the
embedded watermark is visual distinguishable binary image,
one can easily make the decision whether the audio voice has
been tampered or destroyed by computing Peak Signal-to-
Noise Ratio (PSNR), Normalized Cross-Correlation
(NCC)[31], and Bit Error Rate (BER) as follows:
¿¿
= =
' ÷
=
M
i
N
j
j i W j i W
j i W Max N M
PSNR
1 1
2
2
10
)) , ( ) , ( (
)] , ( ( [ .
log 10
, (3)
¿¿ ¿¿
¿¿
= = = =
= =
'
'
= '
M
i
N
j
M
i
N
j
M
i
N
j
j i W j i W
j i W j i W
W W NCC
1 1
2
1 1
2
1 1
) , ( ( ) , ( (
)) , ( ) , ( (
) , (
, (4)
where MxN is the size of the watermark image, Max(W(i,j)) is
the maximum value of the entire elements of the watermark
matrix in our case Max(W(i,j))=1, W(i,j) is the original
watermark, and W
'
(i,j) is recovered watermark.
% 100 x
MxN
b
BER
error
= , (5)
where
error
b is the number of bit errors.
VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
For evaluating the system performance, five clips were
selected for simulation the specification of each clip is
summarized in table I. For selecting the operating frame size a
simulation of Bit Error Rate (BER), Peak Signal-to-Noise
Ratio (PSNR), and Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC) is
investigated. A value of 160 samples for the frame size gives
minimum BER, and maximum for both PSNR and NCC for
dB4 wavelet, and a value of 180 sample for haar wavelet
satisfies the same conditions as dB4 wavelet. A high
performance for the system is obtained using dB4 wavelet at
160 samples frame size.
Quality evaluation of watermarked data was done by using
objective measurements described in section V. Tables II and
III shows SNR, BER, NCC, and PSNR values for different
clips using dB4 wavelet based on low and high frequency
coefficients. The results shows that all values of estimated
SNR satisfied the requirements of International Federation of
the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), clip4 audio file (country)
gives a lower SNR but gives minimum BER and maximum
PSNR for low-frequency coefficients, and clip2 for high-
frequency coefficients.
Robustness of the proposed approach was also evaluated
under several common attacks. The results are presented in
table IV, showed that the algorithm is robust under the
common attacks. Fig. 4 shows a segment of original audio
signal and a cut of 1st 200000 samples from watermarked
audio signal, witch demonstrate that the algorithm is highly
robust against cropping and cutting attacks.
VII. CONCLUSION
A secure and high quality audio watermarking scheme using
two different functions in discrete wavelet transform domain
based on quantization of mean values of low-frequency
coefficients is presented. By using high-frequency
coefficients instead of low-frequency coefficients give bad
performance.
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Chaotic map encryption is used to encrypt the watermark
binary image to increase the robust of the algorithm. Using
dB4 wavelet function gives good performance than haar
wavelet function. The watermark can be blindly extracted
without knowledge of the original signal. The frame size
affects on performance of the algorithm so that it must be
adapted to give high PSNR and NCC. The results show that
the approach maintains high audio quality, and yields a high
recovery rate after attacks by commonly used audio data
manipulations.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
x 10
5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Segment of Original Audio Signal
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
x 10
5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Cutting 1st 200000 Samples of Watermarked Audio Signal
Time (Samples)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

(c)
(b)
Fig.4 (a) Segment of Original Audio Signal and Cutting 1st 200000
Samples of Watermarked Audio Signal,
(b) Original Watermark, (c) Recovered Watermark after cutting Attack.
TABLE III
SNR, BER, AND PSNR VALUES FOR DIIFERENT CLIPS USING HIGH- FREQUENCY
COEFFICIENTS WITH
4 dB
WAVELET
Audio file
name
SNR
dB
BER NCC
PSNR
dB
CLIP1 78.39 0.0419 0.9519 13.78
CLIP2 74.80 0.0225 0.9780 16.47
CLIP3 71.17 0.0344 0.9629 14.63
CLIP4 75.00 0.0306 0.9709 15.14
CLIP5 79.75 0.0269 0.9760 15.70
TABLE IV
WATERMARK DETECTION RESULTS AGAINST VARIOUS COMMON SIGNAL
ATTACKS
Attack No attack Noise adding1 Noise adding2
Watermark

NC 1 0.9770 0.9188
BER 0 0.0181 0.0756
Attack Low pass filter1 Low pass filter2 Low pass filter2
Watermark



NC 0.9830 0.9619 0.9469
BER 0.0169 0.0356 0.0519
Attack
Cutting (10%
of samples)
Cropping
(5000sample)
Cropping
(10000 sample)
Watermark

NC 0.9960 0.9940 0.9900
BER 0.0037 0.0050 0.0075
Attack
Echo
(100s delay)
Inverting Equalization
Watermark

NC 0.9940 0.9950 0.9960
BER 0.0056 0.0030 0.0044
Attack
Re-
quantization
Re-Sampling
(32/16-16/32)
MP3(48kHz)
Watermark

NC 0.989 0.8016 0.989
BER 0.010 0.1938 0.0094

TABLE II
SNR, BER, AND PSNR VALUES FOR DIIFERENT CLIPS USING LOW FREQUENCY
COEFFICIENTS WITH
4 dB
WAVELET
Audio file
name
SNR
dB
BER NCC
PSNR
dB
CLIP1 65.00 0.0113 0.990 19.49
CLIP2 61.17 0.0044 0.995 23.59
CLIP3 58.17 0.0100 0.988 20.00
CLIP4 46.96 0.0025 0.997 26.02
CLIP5 52.00 0.0069 0.993 19.49
TABLE I
AUDIO CLIPS SPESCIFICATIONS
Audio file
name
Clip1 Clip2 Clip3 Clip4 Clip5
Sampling rate
16b/s,
44.1kHz
16b/s,
44.1kHz
16b/s,
44.1kHz
16b/s,
44.1kHz
16b/s,
44.1kHz
Length(sec.) 60 60 60 60 60
Number of
embedded bits
1600 1600 1600 1600 1600
Data rate(b/s) 27 27 27 27 27
Properties Pop Blues Classical Country Folk
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