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**improving the retrieval performance
**

A.Mohamed Eisa., Computer Science Department Port-Said University

B. Amira Eletrebi, Computer Science Department Mansoura University

C. Ebrahim Elhenawy, Computer Science Department, Zagazig University

Abstract— Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is fast growing technology and is the field that deals with application of computer for

retrieval of images from digital libraries. Recently, the CBIR has become the hot topic and the techniques of CBIR have been achieved great

development. In medical field the objective of CBIR is to permit radiologist to retrieve images of similar features that lead to similar diagnosis

as the input image. This is different from other field where the objective is to find the nearest image from the same category of an image.This

paper aims to present a novel methods based on image moments. In many applications, different kinds of moments have been utilized to

retrieval images and object shapes.Moments are important features used in recognition of different types of images. In this paper, three kinds

of moments: Geometrical, Zernike and Legendre Moments have been evaluated for Retrieval images using Nearest Neighbor classifier.

Index Terms— Features Extraction, Geometrical Moments, Zernike and Legendre Moments, Nearest Neighbor classifier.

——————————

——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

In image analysis, it is of utmost importance to look for

pattern features that are invariant with respect to change

of size, translation, and/or rotation [1]. There are two

different moment approaches to this problem: (i) direct

description by moment invariants and (ii) image normali-

zation. The direct description of moment invariants was

first introduced by Hu, showing how they can be derived

from algebraic invariants in his fundamental theorem of

moment invariants [2]. He used geometric moments to

generate a set of invariants that were then widely used in

pattern recognition, ship identification [3], aircraft identi-

fication [4], pattern matching, scene matching [5], image

analysis, object representation [6], edge detection [7], and

texture analysis [8]. The Hu’s invariants became classical

and, despite of their drawbacks, they have found numer-

ous successful applications in various areas.

Major weakness of the Hu’s theory is that it does not pro-

vide for a possibility of any generalization [9]. Examples

of moment-based feature descriptors include Cartesian

geometrical moments, rotational moments, orthogonal

moments, and complex moments. Moments with an or-

thogonal basis set (e.g., Legendre and Zernike polynomi-

als) can be used to represent the image with a minimum

amount of information redundancy [10].

These orthogonal moments and their inverse transforms

have been used in the field of pattern representation [11],

image analysis [12], and image reconstruction [13] with

some success. As is well known, the difficulty in the use

of moments is due to their high computational complexi-

ty, especially when a higher order of moments is used.

Teague proposed Zernike moments based on the basis set

of orthogonal Zernike polynomials [14]. Other orthogonal

moments are Legendre and pseudo-Zernike moments

which are derived from Legendre and pseudo-Zernike

polynomials, respectively. Zernike moments have been

proven to be more robust in the presence of noise. They

are able to achieve a near-zero value of redundancy

measure in a set of moment functions where the moments

correspond to independent characteristics of the image

[15].

Since their moment functions are defined using a polar

coordinate representation of the image space, Zernike

moments are commonly used in recognition tasks requir-

ing rotation invariance. However, this coordinate repre-

sentation does not easily yield translation invariant func-

tions, which are also sought after in pattern recognition

applications. Since the Zernike and Legendre polynomials

are defined only inside the unit circle, the computation of

those moments requires a coordinate transformation and

suitable approximation of the continuous moment inte-

grals [16].

In various computer vision applications widely used is

the process of retrieving desired images from a large col-

lection on the basis of features that can be automatically

extracted from the images themselves. These systems

called CBIR (Content-Based Image Retrieval).

The algorithms used in tasks [16]: extraction, selection

and classification.

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The extraction task transforms rich content of images into

various content features. Feature extraction is the process

of generating features to be used in the selection and clas-

sification tasks. Feature selection reduces the number of

features provided to the classification task. Those features

which are likely to assist in discrimination are selected

and used in the classification task. Features which are not

selected are discarded [17]. Image classification helps the

selection of proper features and descriptors for the index-

ing and retrieval purpose. It enhances not only the re-

trieval accuracy but also the retrieval speed, since a large

image database can be organized according to the classifi-

cation rule and search can be performed within relevant

classes [17]. In this paper three kinds of moments (Geo-

metric, Zernike, and Legendre) are used for feature ex-

traction. While Nearest Neighbor Classifier is used for

classifying the contours of 3D images.

2 FEATURES EXTRACTION

The feature is defined as a function of one or more meas-

urements, each of which specifies some quantifiable

property of an object, and is computed such that it quanti-

fies some significant characteristics of the object. In pat-

tern recognition and in image processing, feature extrac-

tion is a special form of dimensionality reduction. When

the input data to an algorithm is too large to be processed

and it is suspected to be notoriously redundant (much

data, but not much information) then the input data will

be transformed into a reduced representation set of fea-

tures (also named features vector).

Transforming the input data into the set of features is

called features extraction. If the features extracted are

carefully chosen it is expected that the features set will

extract the relevant information from the input data in

order to perform the desired task using this reduced rep-

resentation instead of the full size input [18]. Feature ex-

traction involves simplifying the amount of resources

required to describe a large set of data accurately. When

performing analysis of complex data one of the major

problems stems from the number of variables involved.

Analysis with a large number of variables generally re-

quires a large amount of memory and computation pow-

er or a classification algorithm which over fits the training

sample and generalizes poorly to new samples. Feature

extraction is a general term for methods of constructing

combinations of the variables to get around these prob-

lems while still describing the data with sufficient accura-

cy.

There are various features currently employed [18]:

1- General features: Application independent fea-

tures such as color, texture, and shape. Accord-

ing to the abstraction level, they can be further

divided into:

- Pixel-level features: Features calculated at each

pixel, e.g. color, location.

- Local features: Features calculated over the re-

sults of subdivision of the image band on

image segmentation or edge detection.

- Global features: Features calculated over the

entire image or just regular sub-area of an

image.

2- Domain-specific features: Application dependent

features such as human faces, fingerprints, and

conceptual features. These features are often a

synthesis of low-level features for a specific do-

main.

Moment functions of the two-dimensional image intensi-

ty distribution are used in a variety of applications, as

descriptors of shape. Image moments that are invariant

with respect to the transformations of scale, translation,

and rotation find applications in areas such as pattern

recognition, object identification and template matching

[19]. Orthogonal moments have additional properties of

being more robust in the presence of image noise, and

having a near-zero redundancy measure in a feature set.

Zernike moments, which are proven to have very good

image feature representation capabilities, are based on the

orthogonal Zernike radial polynomials. They are effec-

tively used in pattern recognition since their rotational

invariants can be easily constructed. Legendre moments

form another orthogonal set, defined on the Cartesian

coordinate space. Orthogonal moments also permit the

analytical reconstruction of an image intensity function

from a finite set of moments, using the inverse moment

transform. Both Legendre and Zernike moments are de-

fined as continuous integrals over a domain of normal-

ized coordinates [20]. In retrieval applications, a small set

of lower order moments is used to discriminate among

different images. The most common moments are: Geo-

metrical moments, Zernike moments and Legendre mo-

ments.

2.1 GEOMETRICAL MOMENTS

The shape of an object is a very important character in

human’s perception, recognition, and comprehension.

Because geometric shape represents the essential charac-

teristic of an object, and has invariance with respect to

translation, scale and orientation, the analysis and dis-

cernment like geometry are of important significance in

computer vision. Historically, Hu published the first sig-

nificant paper on the use of image moment invariants for

two-dimensional pattern recognition applications [21].

His approach is based on the work of the 19th century

mathematicians Boole, Cayley and Sylvester, and on the

theory of algebraic forms.

02 20 1

+ = M µ µ

(1)

2

11

2

02 20 2

4 + ) - ( = M µ µ µ

(2)

2

03 21

2

12 30 3

) + 3( + ) 3 - ( = M µ µ µ µ

(3)

2

03 21

2

12 30 4

) + ( + ) + ( = M µ µ µ µ

(4)

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| |

| |

2

03 21

2

12 30

03 21 03 21

2

03 21

2

12 30

12 30 12 30 5

) ( ) ( 3

) )( 3 (

) ( 3 ) (

) )( 3 (

µ µ µ µ

µ µ µ µ

µ µ µ µ

µ µ µ µ

+ ÷ +

+ ÷ +

+ ÷ +

+ ÷ = M

(5)

| |

) )( ( 4

) ( ) (

) (

03 21 12 30 11

2

03 21

2

12 30

02 20 6

µ µ µ µ µ

µ µ µ µ

µ µ

+ + +

+ ÷ +

÷ = M

(6)

| |

| |

2

03 21

2

12 30

03 21 30 12

2

03 21

2

12 30

12 30 03 21 7

) ( ) ( 3

) )( 3 (

) ( 3 ) (

) )( 3 (

µ µ µ µ

µ µ µ µ

µ µ µ µ

µ µ µ µ

+ ÷ +

+ ÷ +

+ ÷ +

+ ÷ = M

(7)

Geometric moments of a

1D

signal

S(x)

are defined by

[21]:

}

÷

= + =

e

e

,... 2 , 1 , 0 ) ( ) ( n dt t t x S x M

n

n

(8)

where

) (x M

n

is the moment of order n calculated from

a window of size

1) + (2e

pixels centered at the point

x

. Geometric moments of a 2D image

y) I(x,

are defined

by [21]:

} }

÷ ÷

= + + =

l

l

n m

n m n m dudv v u v y u x I y x M

=

=

=

=

2

2

, ,... 2 , 1 , 0 , ) , ( ) , (

(9)

where

) (

,

x M

n m

is the moment of order

n) (m,

calcu-

lated from a window of size

1) + (2 × 1) + (2

2 1

= =

pix-

els centered at the pixel

y). (x,

2.2 ZERNIKE MOMENTS

Teague first introduced the use of Zernike moments to

overcome the shortcomings of information redundancy

present in the popular geometric moments [22]. Zernike

moments are a class of orthogonal moments and have

been shown effective in terms of image representation.

Zernike moments, a type of moment function, are the

mapping of an image onto a set of complex Zernike poly-

nomials. As these Zernike polynomials are orthogonal to

each other, Zernike moments can represent the properties

of an image with no redundancy or overlap of infor-

mation between the moments [23].

Due to these characteristics, Zernike moments have been

utilized as feature sets in applications such as pattern

recognition and content-based image retrieval [24]. To

calculate the Zernike moments, the image (or region of

interest) is first mapped to the unit disc using polar coor-

dinates, where the centre of the image is the origin of the

unit disc. Those pixels falling outside the unit disc are not

used in the calculation. The coordinates are then de-

scribed by the length of the vector from the origin to the

coordinate point. An important attribute of the geometric

representations of Zernike polynomials is that lower or-

der polynomials approximate the global features of the

shape/surface, while the higher ordered polynomial

terms capture local shape/surface features.

Zernike moments have the following advantages [23, 24]:

Rotation invariance: the magnitude of Zernike moments

has rotational invariant property.

Robustness: they are robust to noise and minor variations

in shape.

Expressiveness: Since the basis is orthogonal, they have

minimum information redundancy.

Effectiveness: an image can be better described by a small

set of its Zernike moments than any other types of mo-

ments such as geometric moments.

Multilevel representation: a relatively small set of Zernike

moments can characterize the global shape of pattern.

Lower order moments represent the global shape of pat-

tern and higher order moments represent the detail.

The ease of image reconstruction from them.

The computation of Zernike moments from an input im-

age consists of three steps [24]: Computation of radial

polynomials, Computation of Zernike basis functions,

Computation of Zernike moments by projecting the im-

age on the basis functions.

The procedure for obtaining Zernike moments from an

input image begins with the computation of Zernike radi-

al polynomials. The real-valued 1-D radial polynomial

) ( R

nm

µ

is defined as [25]:

¿

÷

=

÷

=

2 / ) (

0

2

) , , ( ) (

m n

s

s n

nm

s m n c R µ µ

(10)

where

! ) 2 / ) m - (n ! ) 2 / ) m (n s!

! ) (

) 1 ( ) , , (

s s

s n

s m n c

s

÷ ÷ +

÷

÷ =

(11)

In equation (1), n and m are generally called order and

repetition respectively. The order n is a non negative in-

teger, and the repetition m is an integer satisfying

even = | m | n-

and

n | m | s

. The radial polynomials

satisfy the orthogonal properties for the same repetition

[25]:

} }

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

+ =

=

t

u µ µ u µ u µ

2

0

1

0

0

) 1 ( 2

1

) , ( ) , (

'

'

n n if

m n

nm

n d d R R

(12)

Using the radial polynomial, complex-valued 2-D Zernike

basis functions, which are defined within a unit circle, are

formed by [25]:

1 ), exp( ) ( ) , ( s = µ u µ u µ jm R V

nm nm

(13)

where

1 - = j

. Zernike basis functions are orthogonal

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and formed by [26].

2.3 LEGENDRE MOMENTS

Moments with Legendre polynomials as kernel function,

denoted as Legendre moments, were first introduced by

Teague [26]. Legendre moments belong to the class of

orthogonal moments, and they were used in several pat-

tern recognition applications. They can be used to attain a

near zero value of redundancy measure in a set of mo-

ment functions, so that the moments correspond to inde-

pendent characteristics of the image [27]. By convention,

the translation and scale invariant functions of Legendre

moments are achieved by using a combination of the cor-

responding invariants of geometric moments. They can

also be accomplished by normalizing the translated

and/or scaled images using complex or geometric mo-

ments.

However, the derivation of these functions is not based

on Legendre polynomials. This is mainly due to the fact

that it is difficult to extract a common displacement or

scale factor from Legendre polynomials. The two dimen-

sional Legendre moments of order

q), + (p

with image

intensity function

y), f(x,

are defined as:

| |

} }

÷ ÷

÷ e

+ +

=

1

1

1

1

1 , 1 , ) , ( ) ( ) (

4

) 1 2 )( 1 2 (

y dxdyx y x f y XP x P

q p

L

q p pq

(14)

Where Legendre polynomial,

, P

p(x)

of order p is given

by:

¿

=

= +

÷

¦

)

¦

`

¹

¦

¹

¦

´

¦

+ ÷

+

÷ =

p

k

even k p

k

p

k p

p

k!

k p k p

x k p

x P

0

2

)!

2

( )!

2

(

)! (

2

1

) 1 ( ) (

(15)

The recurrence relation of Legendre polynomials

, P

p(x)

is

given as follows:

p

x p p x xp p

x P

p p

p

) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 2 (

) (

1 1 ÷ ÷

÷ ÷ ÷

=

(16)

Where

x = (x) P 1, = (x) P

1 0

and

1 > p

. Since the region

of definition of Legendre polynomials is the interior of

1] [-1,

, a square image of

N x N

pixels with intensity

function

j), f(i, 1) - (N j i, 0 s s

, is scaled in the region

of

1 < y x, < 1 -

.

3 NEAREST NEIGHBOR CLASSIFIER

The nearest neighbor classifier relies on a metric or a dis-

tance function between points. For all points x, y and z, a

metric

·) D(·,

must satisfy the following properties:

1- Non-negativity:

0 y) D(x, >

.

2- Reflexivity:

0 = y) D(x,

if and only if

y. = x

3- Symmetry:

x). D(y, = y) D(x,

4- Triangle inequality:

z). D(x, z) D(y, + y) D(x, >

The nearest neighbor classifier is used to compare the

features vector of the prototype image and features vec-

tors stored in the database. It is obtained by finding the

distance between the prototype image and the database.

Let

Ck , … C3, C2, C1,

be the k clusters in the data-

base. The class is found by measuring the distance

Ck) d(x(q),

between

x(q)

and the

kth

cluster

Ck

.

The features vector with minimum difference is found to

be the closest matching vector. It is given by:

} C x : || x - x(q) min{|| = ) C d(x(q),

k k

, Nearest-

Neighbor classifiers provide good image classification

when the query image is similar to one of the labeled im-

ages in its class.

3.1 Pre-Processing

Image segmentation is the process of separating or group-

ing an image into different parts. These parts normally

correspond to something that humans can easily separate

and view as individual objects. The segmentation process

is based on various features found in the image. The goal

of image segmentation is to cluster pixels into salient im-

age regions, where the regions corresponding to individ-

ual surfaces, objects, or natural parts of objects.

Segmentation could be used for object recognition, occlu-

sion boundary, estimation within motion or stereo sys-

tems, image compression, image editing, or image data-

base. Segmentation is an important procedure in medical

image analysis and classification in [28]. Image segmenta-

tion methods can be divided into three types: Boundary-

based techniques, Region-based techniques, and Pixel-

based direct classification methods.

Region-based methods are most often used. They are typ-

ically very fast and easy to manipulate described by [28].

To improve the performance of region-based methods

and their results, preprocessing techniques are required.

The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that

collectively cover the entire image, or a set of contours

extracted from the image. Each of the pixels in a region is

similar with respect to some characteristic or computed

property, such as color, intensity, or texture.

The segmentation process is carried out as pre-processing

in the process. This method is used to separate the partic-

ular region in the image, since there are typically some

clearly defined areas within the image. Here the input

image is subdivided into blocks and it changes corre-

sponding to the size as in [29]. Then each block becomes

the smallest unit for further processing. For an image,

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Img is defined as:

W} < j 0 H, < i 0 , {pij = Img s s

(17)

Where

pij

is a pixel at location i, j; H and W are respec-

tively the height and the width of the image. The subdivi-

sion of Img into blocks can be expressed as

Ww} < J 0 Hh, < I 0 , {bIJ = Img s s

(18)

Where

pij

is a block at

Ith

row and

Jth

column; hand w

are respectively the height and the width of the blocks. A

block

bIJ

is defined as

1)} + (J × w < j J × w 1), + (I × h < i I × h , {pij s s

(19)

Pre-processing method is depicted in the following

fig (Fig 1):

Input image Output image

Fig 1. Sample pre-processed Image

4 EXPERIMENTS AND EVALUATIONS

When the input data is too large to be processed and re-

dundant, then the input data will be transformed into a

reduced representation set of features. Transforming the

input data into the set of features is called features extrac-

tion. Features extraction involves simplifying the amount

of resources required to describe a large set of data accu-

rately. When performing analysis of complex data one of

the major problems is the number of variables involved.

Here, the feature extraction process is carried out using

moment invariants, Geometrical Moments, Zernike and

Legendre Moments. Moment invariant was first intro-

duced by Hu and it is also known in some literature as

Hu’s moment invariant as in Hu.M.K and Puteh Saad,

Nursalasawati Rusli [29]. This moment was derived

from the theory of algebraic invariant.

The concept of moment in mathematics evolved from

the concept of moment in physics. It is an integrated

theory system for both contour and region of a shape;

one can use moment’s theory to analyze the object.

4.1 Algorithm for Invariant Moments

Step 1: The Input image is first converted into gray level

image.

Step 2: The obtained gray scale image is then analyzed

with different solutions and the value of mo-

ments at each level is calculated.

Step 3: There are totally seven types of moments varying

1

M

to

7

M

and each moment is calculated as fol-

lows:

Input image

Fig 2. Sample Geometrical Moments val-

ues for an Image

Output Values

TABLE 1: VALUES OF GEOMETRICAL MOMENTS

Geometrical Moments Value

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

6.2648e+010

3.2645e+019

7.9648e+023

6.5765e+023

2.9417e+045

-2.6081e+037

1.1383e+046

Result Img1 Img2 Img3 Img4 Img5 Img6 Img7

Precision

Recall

48

55

12

95

20

85

10

100

60

15

43

65

35

75

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© 2013 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

Fig 3. Sample Geometrical, Zernike and Legendre

Moments values, for an Image

4.2 Euclidean Distance Method

For retrieval of images from the database, Euclidean

method is used. It calculates the distance between the

images in Jie Chen et.al [29]. The formula for Euclidean

method is

¿

=

÷ =

n

i

i i y x y x d

1

2

) ( ) , ( (20)

Where

> ,....x x , x =< x

n 2 1

and > ,....y y , y =< y

n 2 1

. Thus,

in two-dimensional Euclidian space, the distance

AB

be-

tween ) a , (a = A

2 1

and ) b , (b = B

2 1

is

( ) ( )

2

2 2

2

1 1

b a b a + + ÷ .

4.3 Retrieval Efficiency

For retrieval efficiency, traditional measures namely pre-

cision and recall were computed with 1000 real time med-

ical images. Standard formulas have been computed for

determining the precision and recall measures. Precision

(P) is the ratio of the relevant images to the total number

of images retrieved.

1

n

r

= P

Where, r is the number of relevant images retrieved,

1

n

is

the total number of images retrieved.

Recall (R) is the percentage of relevant images among all

possible relevant images.

n

r

= R

2

Where, r is the number of relevant images retrieved,

2

n

is

the total number of relevant images in the database

The following Tables (2, 3) provides the precision and

recall results recorded for various test images, and Fig-

ures 4, 5 and 6 provides sample snapshot of the user in-

terface screen of the work. The experimental results

showed that the retrieval rate of the nearest neighbor

classifier based on Legendre moments is higher than the

recognition rate of Geometrical and Zernike moments.

Table 2: Precision and Recall results recorded for various

test images

Table 3: Retrieval Rate of Geometrical, Zernike and Le-

gendre Moments using Nearest Neighbor classifier

Result Img1

Img

2

Img3

Img

4

Img

5

Img

6

Img

7

Average

Geo 85% 65% 65% 65% 65% 85% 75% 71%

Zer. 75% 65% 65% 65% 75% 75% 65% 69%

Leg. 95% 65% 65% 85% 85% 95% 95% 81%

Ave. 85% 65% 65% 72% 75% 85% 78% 74%

Fig 4,5,6,7 : Sample User Interface Screens

Fig 4: CBIR using Geometrical Moments for medical im-

age

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© 2013 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

Fig 5: CBIR using Zernike Moments for medical image

Fig 6: CBIR using Legendre Moments for medical image

Fig 7: CBIR using Combining Geometrical & Zer-

nike &Legendre Moments for medical image

5 CONCLUSIONS

This paper proposed a model for the Content-Based Med-

ical Image Retrieval System by using Invariant Moments

(Geometrical, Zernike and Legendre). The local features

together have been used for better retrieval accuracy and

efficiency. In this paper, for retrieval process, the Euclidi-

an distances are calculated between the two pixels for

matching the images. The results are quite good for most

of the query images and it can be further enhanced by

tuning the threshold and adding other low-level features.

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