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174

CHAPTER VI



MECHANICAL DESIGN


6.0 MECHANICAL DESIGN PARAMETER
After the chemical engineering design has been completed, the mechanical details
which are needed to construct all equipment must be finalized. The design parameters
which require evaluation at this stage are material of construction, insulation, vessel
dimensions and wall thickness, ends (type, thickness), openings, joints (type,
efficiency), pressure relief valves and bursting disks and supports.
Engineering drawings can only be produced after all the relevant details have been
finalized, and these drawings can then be used to estimate the cost. The types of
equipment that must be finalized in this stage are:
1) Reactor 1(Plug flow reactor)
2) Reactor 2 (Tubular reactor)
3) Falling film evaporator
4) Absorber
5) Heat exchanger




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6.1 REACTOR 1 (PLUG FLOW REACTOR)
6.1.1 Design Pressure
A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is likely to be
subjected in operation. For vessels under internal pressure, the design pressure is
normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set. This will normally be 5
to 10 per cent above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious operation during
minor process upsets. In this design, considering 10 % safety factor so that the design
pressure become as below:

(6.1.0)


6.1.2 Design Temperature
The operating temperature of our reactor is taken as 185 0C. For safety reason, the
design pressure of this reactor is taken as 10% above the operating temperature to
avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets.

(6.1.1)


0
C

K
6.1.3 Material of Construction
Many factors have to be considered when selecting engineering materials but for
chemical process plant the overriding consideration is usually the ability to resist
corrosion. The material selected must have sufficient strength and be easily worked.
The most economical material that satisfies both process and mechanical requirements
should be selected which is this will be the material that gives the lowest cost over the
working life of the plant and allowing for maintenance and replacement.
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Stainless steels are the most frequently used corrosion resistant materials in the
chemical industry. To impart corrosion resistance the chromium content must be above
12 per cent and the higher the chromium content, the more resistant is the alloy to
corrosion in oxidizing conditions. Nickel is added to improve the corrosion resistance in
non-oxidizing environments.
A wide range of stainless steels is available, with compositions tailored to give the
properties required for specific applications. Type 304 also-called 18/8 stainless steels
is the most generally used stainless steel. It contains the minimum Cr and Ni that give a
stable austenitic structure. The carbon content is low enough for heat treatment not to
be normally needed with thin sections to prevent weld decay. The uniform structure of
austenitic is the structure desired for corrosion resistance and it is these grades that are
widely used in the chemical industry. The austenitic stainless steels have greater
strength than the plain carbon steels; particularly at elevated temperatures (see
Appendix B.1.1). So, as conclusion stainless steels type 304 is the best material of
construction and then selected as material of construction for the reactor.
6.1.4 Determination of reactor thickness

(6.1.2)
Where:

, minimum thickness
P
i
, the design pressure
D
i
, the inside diameter
f, design stress

The strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature, so the maximum
allowable design stress will depend on the material temperature. The design
temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum
working temperature of the material. With design temperature is equal to maximum
operating temperature, 185 oC, design stress for stainless steel 304, is f = 115 N/mm2
= 115 bar (R.K. Sinnot, 1999. Chemical Engineering Design). Typical design stress
values for some common materials are shown in Appendix B.1.2.

177

Thus from Eqn. (6.1.2),



The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material
lost by corrosion and erosion, or scaling. Corrosion is a complex phenomenon and it is
not possible to give specific rules for the estimation of the corrosion allowance required
for all circumstances. The allowance should be based on experience with the material
of construction under similar service conditions to those for the proposed design. For
carbon and low-alloy steels, where severe corrosion is not expected, a minimum
allowance of 2.0 mm should be used.
Add allowance for corrosion = 0.0166 m + 0.002 m = 0.0186 m
6.1.5 Vessel head design
The end of a cylindrical vessel is closed by heads of various shapes. The common
types used are:
i. Flat heads
ii. Hemispherical heads
iii. Ellipsoidal heads
iv. Torispherical heads
The heads used for the vessel may be flat if they are suitably buttressed but preferably
they are some curved shape as the hemispherical, ellipsoidal or torispherical heads.
Standard torispherical heads (dished ends) are the most commonly used end closure
for vessels up to operating pressures of 15 bar. They can be used for higher pressures,
but above 10 bar their cost should be compared with that of an equivalent ellipsoidal
head. Above 15 bar an ellipsoidal head will usually prove to be the most economical
closure to use.
The minimum thickness of torispherical and ellipsoidal head can be calculated by using
equation below:

178

For torispherical heads,


(6.1.3)
Where
P
i
, internal pressure
J , joint factor =1
f, design stress
R
c
, crown radius = D
i

C
s
, stress concentration factor = (3+( R
c
/R
k
)
1/2
)
R
k
, knuckle radius =0.06 R
c

From previous calculation,
P
i
= 8.8 bar
R
c
= D
i
= 4.3151 m (6.1.4)
R
k
=0.06 R
c
= 0.06(4.3151) (6.1.5)
= 0.2589 m
C
s
= (3 + ( R
c
/R
k
)
1/2
) (6.1.6)
= (3 + (4.3151/0.2589)
1/2
)
= 1.7706
f = 115 N/mm
2
= 115 bar
From Eqn. (6.1.3),
e =



= 0.0015 m
For ellipsoidal heads,
(6.1.7)
i
i i
P Jf
D P
e
2 . 0 2
=
179

Where
P
i
, internal pressure
J , joint factor =1
f, design stress
D
i
, inside diameter
From Eqn. (6.1.7),
e =



= 0.1664 m
By comparing minimum thickness between torispherical and ellipsoidal head,
torispherical head is the most economical. So, torispherical head is choosen for the
design domed heads. Hence,
Add 0.002 m allowance for corrosion = 0.0015 + 0.002 m = 0.0035 m
6.1.6 Pipe sizing
Liquids particularly can be transported through pipelines with pumps, blowers,
compressors or ejectors. Standard pipe is made in a discrete number of sizes that are
designed by nominal diameters (R.K. Sinnot, 1999. Chemical Engineering Design).
Formula for Optimum diameter for stainless steel pipe is as follow:
37 . 0 52 . 0
260 ,

= G optimum d
(6.1.8)
Where:
G = mass flow, kg/s

= density of flow, kg/m
3

6.1.6.1 Diameter of pipe flow in
mm
optimum d
0124 . 97
) 7117 . 67 ( ) 0146 . 3 ( 260 ,
37 . 0 52 . 0
=
=


180

From appendix B.1.3 nominal diameter d = 80 mm.
6.1.6.2 Diameter of pipe flow out
mm
optimum d
5182 . 216
) 4710 . 7 ( ) 9417 . 2 ( 260 ,
37 . 0 52 . 0
=
=


From appendix B.1.3 nominal diameter d = 200 mm.
6.1.6.3 Nozzle thickness of pipe inlet
Calculation of thickness of nozzle pipe inlet is as follow:
t =


(6.1.9)
Where:
P = internal pressure, bar
d = pipe od, mm

d
= design stress at working temperature, N/mm2
From Eqn. (6.1.9),
t =



= 0.3049 mm
Add 2 mm allowance for corrosion = 0.3049 + 2 = 2.3049 mm.
6.1.6.4 Nozzle thickness of pipe outlet
Calculation of thickness of nozzle pipe outlet is as follow:
t =


(6.1.10)


181

Where:
P = internal pressure, bar
d = pipe od, mm

d
= design stress at working temperature, N/mm2
From Eqn. (6.1.10),
t =



= 0.7623 mm
Add 2 mm allowance for corrosion = 0. 7623 + 2 = 2. 7623 mm.

6.1.7 Design of reactor subject to combined loading
Pressure vessels are subjected to other loads in addition to pressure and must be
designed to withstand the worst combination of loading without failure. The main
sources of load to consider are:
i. Pressure
ii. Dead weight of vessel and contents
iii. External loads imposed by piping and attached equipments

6.1.7.1 Weight load
The major sources of dead weight loads are:
i. The vessel shell.
ii. The vessel fittings: manways, nozzles.
iii. External fittings: ladders, platforms, piping.
iv. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel. The vessel will be filled with water
for the hydraulic pressure test and may fill with process liquid due to
misoperation.
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For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed
ends and uniform wall thickness, can be estimated from the following equation:

(6.1.11)
Where,
Cv = a factor account for the weight of nozzles, man ways
= 1.08 for vessel with only a few internal fittings
= 1.15 for vessel with several man ways and other fittings

D
m
= mean diameter of the vessel
= D
m
+ t
= 4.3151 m + 2(0.1737) m
= 4.6625 m

H
v
= height/length of the cylindrical area
= 12.9453 m
Thus,


6.1.8 Vessel support
The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and weight of the
vessel, the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and arrangement and
the internal and external fittings and attachments. Horizontal vessels are usually
mounted on two saddle supports (see Appendix B.1.4). The supports must be designed
to carry the weight of the vessel and contents, and any superimposed loads, such as
wind loads. Supports will impose localized loads on the vessel wall and the design must
be checked to ensure that the resulting stress concentrations are below the maximum
allowable design stress. Supports should be designed to allow easy access to the
vessel and fittings for inspection and maintenance.
Though saddles are the most commonly used support for horizontal cylindrical vessels,
legs can be used for small vessels. A horizontal vessel will normally be supported at
two cross-sections. If more than two saddles are used the distribution of the loading is
uncertain. For a uniformly loaded beam the position will be at 21 per cent of the span, in
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from each end. The saddle supports for a vessel will usually be located nearer the ends
than this value to make use of the stiffening effect of the ends.
The saddles must be designed to withstand the load imposed by the weight of the
vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks or concrete or are fabricated from
steel plate. The contact angle should not be less than 120
0
and will not normally be
greater than 150
o
. Wear plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall
over the area of contact with the saddle. The dimensions of typical standard saddle
designs are given in figure below:

Figure 6.1: The Dimensions of Typical Standard Saddle Designs (Source: Sinnott, R.K,
1999. Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering, Vol. 6: Chemical Engineering
Design, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann).





184

6.1.9 Flange selection
Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels, for manhole
covers and for removable vessel heads when ease of access is required. Flanges may
also be used on the vessel body when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections
for transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to connect pipes to other
equipment such as pumps and valves. Screwed joints are often used for small-diameter
pipe connections below 40 mm.
Several different types of flange are used for various applications. The principal
types used in the process industries are:
i. Welding-neck flanges
ii. Slip-on flanges, hub and plate types
iii. Lap-joint flanges
iv. Screwed flanges
v. Blank or blind, flanges
Welding-neck flanges (see Appendix B.1.5 (a)) have a long tapered hub
between the flange ring and the welded joint. This gradual transition of the section
reduces the discontinuity stresses between the flange and branch, and increases the
strength of the flange assembly. Welding-neck flanges are suitable for extreme service
conditions where the flange is likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and vibration
loads. They will normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on process
vessels and process equipment.
Slip-on flanges (see Appendix B.1.5 (b)) slip over the pipe or nozzle and are
welded externally and usually also internally. The end of the pipe is set back from 0 to
2.0 mm. The strength of a slip-on flange is from one-third to two-thirds that of the
corresponding standard welding-neck flange. Slip-on flanges are cheaper than welding-
neck flanges and are easier to align but have poor resistance to shock and vibration
loads. Slip-on flanges are generally used for pipe work.
Lap-joint flanges (see Appendix B.1.5 (c)) are used for piped work and most
suitable in this design reactor. They are economical when used with expensive alloy
185

pipe such as stainless steel as the flange can be made from inexpensive carbon steel.
Usually a short lapped nozzle is welded to the pipe but with some schedules of pipe the
lap can be formed on the pipe itself and this will give a cheap method of pipe assembly.
Screwed flanges (see Appendix B.1.5 (d)) are used to connect screwed fittings
to flanges. They are also sometimes used for alloy pipe which is difficult to weld
satisfactorily. Blind flanges (blank flanges) are flat plates, used to blank off flange
connections, and as covers for manholes and inspection ports. So, in this design lap
joint flange is chosen as the best flange.
6.1.10 Gasket
Gaskets are used to make a leak-tight joint between two surfaces. It is impractical to
machine flanges to the degree of surface finish that would be required to make a
satisfactory seal under pressure without a gasket. The following factors must be
considered when selecting a gasket material:
i. The process conditions: pressure, temperature, corrosive nature of the process
fluid.
ii. Whether repeated assembly and disassembly of the joint is required.
iii. The type of flange and flange face

Up to pressures of 20 bar, the operating temperature and corrosiveness of the
process fluid will be the controlling factor in gasket selection. Vegetable fibre and
synthetic rubber gaskets can be used at temperatures of up to 100
o
C. Solid
polyfluorocarbon (Teflon) and compressed asbestos gaskets can be used to a
maximum temperature of about 260
o
C. Metal-reinforced gaskets can be used up to
around 450
o
C. Plain soft metal gaskets are normally used for higher temperatures. So,
compressed asbestos is chosen as the best gasket to be used in this reactor design
(see Appendix B.1.6).
6.1.11 Flange faces
Flanges are also classified according to the type of flange face used. There are two
basic types:
186

i. Full-faced flanges (see Appendix B.1.7 (a)) where the face contact area
extends outside the circle of bolts; over the full face of the flange.
ii. Narrow-faced flanges (see Appendix B.1.7 (b,c,d) where the face
contact area is located within the circle of bolts.
Full face, wide-faced, flanges are simple and inexpensive but are only suitable
for low pressures. The gasket area is large and an excessively high bolt tension would
be needed to achieve sufficient gasket pressure to maintain a good seal at high
operating pressures. The raised face, narrow-faced, flange shown in Appendix B.1.7 (b)
is probably the most commonly used type of flange for process equipment.
Where the flange has a plain face, as in Appendix B.1.7 (b), the gasket is held in
place by friction between the gasket and flange surface. In the spigot and socket, and
tongue and grooved faces, Appendix B.1.7 (c), the gasket is confined in a groove which
prevents failure by blow-out. Matched pairs of flanges are required, which increases the
cost, but this type is suitable for high pressure and high vacuum service. Ring joint
flanges, Appendix B.1.7 (d), are used for high temperatures and high pressure services.
So, in this design raised face, narrow-faced is chosen as the best flange faces.











187

6.2 REACTOR 2 (TUBULAR REACTOR)
6.2.1 Introduction
The design procedure of plug flow reactor will take account several
considerations like continuous process, chemical process design and mechanical
design of reactor. The chemical process designs are focusing on determination of rate
of reaction of reactor, volume of the reactor and residence time. The mechanical design
will cover on all aspect like thickness of vessel and specification and selection of
material used. This plug flow reactor is design to produce ammonia nitrate with a
maximum capacity of 100,000 metric tons with the maximum temperature at the exit of
the reaction zone is set in the range of 180
o
C - 190
o
C (Brandt, 1994).
The design assumption should be taken before design as below:
a) Plug flow
b) Steady state
c) Constant tube diameter
d) Single reaction
e) Instantaneous reaction occur

Tubular reactor chosen as second reactor because of following reasons, which are:
a) Better conversion
b) Higher throughput
c) Better controllability
d) Optimal design by adjusting key aspects of the shell and tube bundle geometry
to provide optimal heat control in the shell-side fluid and thus eliminate the
danger areas where hotspots (areas of significantly higher temperature than
their surroundings) can occur.
In the mechanical design of process equipment, there are many aspects of design and
reactor safety factors should be considered. Among these is the stress analysis, the
burdens imposed on the reactor and the reactor design supporters. All these aspects
are based on a standard code of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME).
188

Tube and shell reactor was operated in the gas phase and liquid phase at a
temperature of 185 0C and pressure of 6.5 bar (650 kPa) design pressure, P took a
safety factor of 10% above the operating pressure.
6.2.2 Material selection
Materials selection was based on the consideration of four main factors: resistance to
ammonia, nitric acid and ammonium nitrate vapours and condensate, strength, ease of
fabrication, and low cost. Much of the vessel (both the shell and the tubes) will be in
continuous contact with ammonium nitrate aqueous at high temperatures. Therefore,
particular attention was given to corrosion resistance under those conditions. The tubes
are in direct contact with both the cooling medium and the reaction gases.
The preferred construction material for the reactor is stainless steel 16Cr-2Mo-8Ni
(316), which is described by the materials specification given in Table 5.2 and
composition of material in Table 5.3. Ammonium nitrate, ammonia and nitric acid are
not particularly corrosive to most steels. The average corrosion rates are generally less
than 0.001 per year. The addition of chromium also improves the mechanical properties
at high temperature. Several stainless steels, notably type 316, satisfy all the material
requirements. However, A387 is substantially cheaper and can be used with little
penalty to the corrosion rate. At high pressures (and, hence, large wall thicknesses),
cladding is normally recommended in order to reduce the vessel cost when alloy steels
are used.
Reactor construction material used is stainless steel 16Cr-2Mo-8Ni (316). By referring
to the standard code The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the
maximum stress is 133.5 N/mm2. (Refer to Appendix B.2.5)
By linear interpolation
Temperature,
C
150 155 200
S, N/mm
2
135 S 120



189

Table 6.1 Typical mechanical properties for 316 stainless steel alloys
Property Value
Melting Point 1375-1400C
Modulus of Elasticity 193 GPa
Electrical Resistivity 0.074x10
-6
.m
Thermal Conductivity 16.3 W/m.K at 100C
Thermal Expansion 15.9x10
-6
/K at 100C
Tensile Strength (MPa) 515
Compression Strength (MPa) 170

Table 6.2 Typical chemical composition for 316 stainless steel alloys
% 316
C 0.08max
Mn 2.0
Si 0.75
P 0.045
S 0.03
Cr 16-18
Mo 2-3
Ni 10-14
N 0.1

190

6.2.3 Welded joint efficiency
There are several methods to make welded joints. In particular case the choices of a
type from the numerous alternatives depend on:
1. The circumstances of welding.
In many cases the accessibility of the joint determines the types of welding. In a small
diameter vessel (under 18-24 inches) from the inside, no manual welding can be
applied. Using backing strip it must remain in place. In larger diameter vessels if a
manway is not used, the last (closing) joint can be welded from outside only. The type
of welding may be determined also by the equipment of the manufacturer.
2. The requirements of the code.
Regarding the type of joint the Code establishes requirements based on service,
material and location of the welding. The welding processes that may be used in the
construction of vessels are also restricted by the Code as described in paragraph UW-
27.
3. The aspect economy.
If the two preceding factors allow free choice, then the aspect of economy must be the
deciding factor.
Some considerations concerning the economy of weldings:
1. V-edge preparation, which can be made by torch cutting, is always more
economical than the use of J or U preparation.
2. Double V preparation requires only half the deposited weld metal required for
single V preparation.
3. Increasing the size of fillet weld, its strength increases in direct proportion, while
the deposited weld metal increases with the square of its size.
4. Lower quality welding makes necessary the use of thicker plate for the vessel.
Whether using stronger welding and thinner plate or the opposite is more
economical, depends on the size of vessel, welding equipment, etc. This must
be decided in each particular case
191

The strength of a welded joint depends on the type and quality of welding joint. Then,
for design purposes weld joint efficiency, J = 1.0 was chosen. This selection is based
on ASME UW-2 stated that:
all butt welded joints shall be fully radiographe, except under provision OS UW-
2(a)(2) and UW-2(a)(3) below and UW-4(a)(4).
This statement is clarifying the requirement of welded joint that fully radiograph when
pressure vessel containing lethal substances. So, all main category A and B welds must
be fully radiographed. But category B and C welds in a nozzle and communicating
chambers that are not larger than 10 inch nominal pipe size and do not exceed 1to 1/8
inch thick are exempt. Based on the fluid composition contain in the reactor for this
design, ammonium nitrate could be a dangerous and lethal substance if leaking to the
atmosphere. Furthermore, ammonia also potentially dangerous substance. The location
of A, B and C shown in Figure 6.2

Figure 6.2 Welded joint locations





192

6.2.4 Reactor shell and head thickness
6.2.4.1 Design pressure
From table 13.2 (R.K. Sinnot, 1999. Chemical Engineering Design, Appendix B.2.5),
typical design stress = 133.5 N/mm
2

Operating pressure for reactor is 6.5 bar.


The pressure given in the table only design stress for selected material but for design
stress pressure that generated by the fluid also need to take into consideration. From
book of Pressure Vessel Handbook 10
th
edition page 29 (Refer to Appendix B.2.5)
giving the pressure of water that will emit at different length. But for other material, the
value needs to multiply with specific gravity of fluid or other calculation is:


Value above is for the water. To get the pressure in the reactor emit by the fluid is
multiply value get by specific gravity of fluid. Specific gravity for the fluid in the reactor is
0.1067.


So design pressure should be taken is:



193

Taking 10 per cent above as design pressure



6.2.4.2 Design temperature
Operating temperature = 185 0C
Take 10 percent above operating temperature,
Design temperature=1.1185 =203.5 =476.65 K
6.2.4.3 Cylindrical vessel thickness
Data required to performed calculation
Cylinder length, L = 15 m
Design pressure, P = 0.778 N/mm2
Inside diameter, Di = 4.80 m
Inside radius of reactor, R = 2.4 m
Allowable stress, S = 133.5 N/mm2
Joint efficiency, J = 1.0
Determination of reactor thickness, assume
0
O
D
t
>
for cylinder wall
i) Tangential stress with condition t < R/2 and P< 0.385SE







194

where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2

R = Inside radius, m
S = Stress value of material, N/mm
2

E = Joint efficiency
t = Wall thickness
So the wall thickness is


i) Longitudinal stress with condition t < R/2 or P < 1.25 SE



where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2

R = Inside radius, m
S = Stress value of material, N/mm
2

E = Joint efficiency
So the wall thickness is


By comparing those two values, resulting maximum value of reactor thickness.
Hereby, minimum thickness of the reactor cylinder is, t
min
=14.04 mm with 4 mm
corrosion allowance because expecting the severe operating conditions where erosion
will occur, t
design
= 18.0 mm.
195

6.2.4.4 Domed head
I. Try standard dished head (torisphere)
Crown radius R
c
= D
i
= 4.80 m
Knuckle radius R
k
= 6 percent R
c
= 0.288 m
A head of this size would be formed by pressing: no joints, so J=1


Where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2

D = Inside diameter, m
f = Stress value of material, N/mm
2

= Stress concentration factor for torispherical heads


Therefore,




II. Try a standard ellipsoidal head, ratio major : minor axes = 2 : 1



Where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2

D = Inside diameter, m
f = Stress value of material, N/mm
2

J = Joint efficiency
196

Therefore,



So an ellipsoidal head would probably be the most economical. Take as same
thickness allowance of 4 mm as wall 18.0 mm.
Flat head


Where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2

D
e
= Bolt diameter, m
f = Stress value of material, N/mm
2

C
p
= Joint efficiency
Use bolted cover with a full face gasket Cp = 0.4
De= bolt circle diameter, take as approx. 4.80 m.
Therefore, from equation 6.2.5


This shows the inefficiency of a flat cover. It would be better to use a flanged domed
head. So, ellipsoidal head will be used as domed head for reactor.




197

6.2.5 Tube sheet layout
Tube sheet forms the barrier between shell and tube fluids, and where it is essential for
safety or process reason to prevent any possibility of intermixing due to leakage at the
tube sheet joint, double tube-sheets can be used, with the space between the sheet
vented. The thickness of tube sheet will reduce the effective length of the tube slightly,
and this should be allowed for when calculating the area available for heat transfer. The
thickness of tube sheet calculation given by the TEMA standard as below
Thickness of tube sheet


Where




and


Where

= Outlet diameter of shell, mm

= Outlet diameter of tube, mm

= Number of tube

= Thickness of tube, mm

= Thickness of shell, mm
= Design pressure, N/mm
2

= Design stress, N/mm
2

= Elastic modulus of shell, N/mm


2

198

= Elastic modulus of tube, N/mm


2

Therefore, from equation 6.2.8



Substituted k value into equation 6.2.7





Substituted F value inside equation 6.2.6












199

6.2.6 Reactor load
6.2.6.1 Weight of cylindrical vessel with domed end



Where
W
v
= total weight of the shell, excluding internal fittings, such as plates, N,
C
v
= a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways, internal supports,
etc; which can be taken as
= 1.08 for vessels with only a few internal fittings,
= 1.15 for distillation columns, or similar vessels, with several man ways,
and with plate support rings, or equivalent fittings,
H
v
= height, or length, between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical
section) = 15 m
g = gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s
2
,
t = wall thickness = 18.0 mm
p
m
= density of vessel material = 7787 kg/m3,
D
m
= mean diameter of vessel D =4.818 m.
C
v
taken is 1.08 for a few internal fittings.
Therefore, from equation



200

6.2.6.2 Weight of tubes
Density of stainless steel 316 = 7787 kg/m
3

(Obtain from Incropera De Witt, Heat and Mass Transfer)
From Pressure Vessel Handbook 10
th
Edition
For 2-in tube, 1 foot of pipe has weight 3.652 lb (Properties are based on ANSI B-
36.19)
0.3048 m = 1 ft
3.652 lb
m
=1.6565 kg

Therefore for 15m length = 81.5207 kg


Where

= Mass of single tubes, kg


= Gravitational force, m/s

= Number of tubes
Therefore,


6.2.6.3 Weight of fluid in the tubes
Total volume of fluid inside tube




201

Where
d
i
= Inside diameter of tubes, m
= Length of reactor, m

= Number of tubes inside reactor


Therefore from equation



Weight of fluid inside the tubes



Where

= Density of fluid, kg/m


3

= Volume of tube, m
3

= Gravitational force, 9.81 m/s
2

Therefore, from equation


6.2.6.4 Weight of tube sheet
Thickness of tube sheet = 25mm
Volume of tube sheet



202

Where
= Diameter of tube sheet = inside diameter of shell, m
= Length of tube sheet = tube sheet thickness, m
Therefore, from equation


There are 2 tube sheet been used in the reactor. So, volume of tube sheet multiplied by
2=0.9048 m
3

Weight of tube sheet


Where

= Density of fluid, kg/m


3

= Volume of tube, m
3

= Gravitational force, 9.81 m/s
2

Therefore, from equation
Density of stainless steel 316 = 7787 kg/m
3


6.2.6.5 Baffle weight


Volume of baffle,

= 1.06 m
3


203

6.2.6.6 Total weight


Therefore,


6.2.7 Analysis of shear stress and direct stress
i) Tangential stress


Where
= Design stress, N/mm
2

= Inside diameter, mm

= Thickness of shell, mm
Therefore, from equation


ii) Longitudinal stress


Where
= Design stress, N/mm
2

= Inside diameter, mm

= Thickness of shell, mm


204

Therefore, from equation


6.2.7.1 Direct stress
Direct stress is the stress that generated by the fluid inside vessel and its vessel weight


Where

= Total weight of reactor (shell), kN

= Inside diameter, m

= Thickness of shell, m
Therefore, from equation


6.2.8 Support
Support saddle used to support the container in a horizontal reactor. The former is
supported by two saddles can be considered as a simple supported beam with
uniformly distributed load. The distribution of the longitudinal axis of the bending
moment is shown in the diagram below:
205


Figure 6.3 Moment on the saddle
The maximum point occurs on both sides and support the middle range. In theory, the
optimum support position, giving rise to the maximum bending moment is the lowest
position when the magnitude of the maximum value on both sides is equal to the value
of support in the middle of the range of:

1 2
2
L L
M M =





206

Where
A = Distance from the tangent to the saddle support, m
L = Length of the container, the tangent line, m
H = column depth, m
= 1.218 m
Q = Total weight/saddle, N
= Total weight/2
= 1144.6171 kN
R = Radius of reactor
= 2.4 m
b = width of saddle, m

Bending moments at the two saddle supports, and bending in the middle of the range,
can be determined using the following equations:


207



Balance from the bending moment:


Solving from above equation, value for A =3.97m
Therefore


6.2.9 Stresses in vessel wall
Bending stress is a stress that cause by the bending moment in the shell (vessel),
bending moment is classified as the stress generated as a resultant to the dead weight
of reactor in horizontal position supported by the saddle support. Bending stress
longitudinal to the cross sectional area of shell as





208

Where
1 L
M
= Longitudinal bending stress at mid-span
h
I
= Second moment of area of the shell
D = Shell diameter
t = Shell thickness

Therefore,


Resultant axial stress due to bending and pressure is given by:


Where

= Longitudinal bending moment at the support

= an empirical constant: 1
- Downwind stress


Therefore,


- Upwind stress


209

Therefore,





Principal stress,


Longitudinal stress,


The difference in principal stresses and the longitudinal stress resultant,


Because of the stress difference is <the maximum stress, S, the design is acceptable.
The magnitude of the longitudinal bending stress on the strengthening of support will
depend on the local shell. If the shell does not remain round when loaded, this means
that some of the top cross section is not effective against longitudinal bending. This
stress is given as follows:


Where

= Longitudinal bending moment at the support

= an empirical constant: 1.0 for stiffened shell.



210

Therefore,


Because the value of o
b
, 2 is smaller than the maximum design stress allowable S, then
the pressure vessel design of the heat exchanger is acceptable.

6.2.10 Saddle design
Saddle must be designed to withstand heavy loads caused by the container and its
contents. This saddle is made of stainless steel plate. Typically, the contact angle
cannot be less than 120 and not more than 150
0
. Smooth plates (wear plate) are
usually welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall area in contact with the saddle.
Saddle support design procedure given by Brownell and Young (1959) and Megyesy
(1977), the former equal to the diameter of 4.86 m, standard steel saddles to container
with a diameter of 4.8 m is used after interpolation been made as shown in Table 5.3.





211

Table 6.3 Standard steel saddle
Vessel
Diameter
(m)
Dimension (m) Mm
V Y C E J G t
2
t
1

Bolt
diameter
Bolt
hole

4.836 4.303 0.525 4.182 1.9652 1.252 0.150 16 12 27 33


6.2.11 Design bolt flange connection
Flange can be used in the body of the container when the container must be divided
into several sections for easy removal and maintenance. Flange connection used to
connect pipes to other equipment such as pumps and valves. Typically used for
connecting the connection of bolt with small diameter pipes, less than 40 mm. Flange
connections are also used to attach sections of pipe on the installation and opening of
facilities needed for maintenance, but the structure of the pipe is usually welded to
reduce costs.
Flange sizes vary, from a few millimeters in diameter for small pipes to several meters
in diameter for use as a body or head flange on the container. There are four openings
in the design of the reactor tube and shell, which requires the use of connection,
namely:
1. Welding-neck flanges.
2. Slip-on flanges, hub and plate types.
3. Lap-joint flanges.
4. Screwed flanges.
5. Blank, or blind, flanges.

212

Welded-neck flange type (steel) used for opening the input and output openings for the
connection and the nozzle of the reactor tube and shell. Given the pressure vessel is
operated under the operating pressure of 6.5 bar (650 kPa) at a temperature of 155 C
design, the flange of this type is selected for its ability to withstand extreme operating
conditions likely to be exposed to temperature loading, shear, and vibration.
Optimum size for the flange to the nozzles feed (input) and the output of the shell and
tube can be determined using the following equation proposed by Sinnot:



Optimum pipe diameter at inlet stream from reactor 1
Data required:
G = 10313.2838 kg/hr= 2.8648 kg/s

= 7.471 kg/m3


(Refer to Appendix B.2.6)
213

Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d
d
1

Flange
Raised
face
Bolting
Drilling Neck
D B h
1
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
200 219.1 320 20 55 258 3 M16 8 18 280 236 15 10

Optimum pipe diameter at inlet stream from splitter
Data required:
G = 7787.8489 kg/hr= 2.1633 kg/s

= 1301.2 kg/m3


(Refer to Appendix B.2.6)
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d
d
1

Flange
Raised
face
Bolting
Drilling Neck
D B h
1
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
25 33.7 100 14 35 60 2 M10 4 11 75 42 6 4

Optimum pipe diameter at outlet stream of reactor
Data required:
G = 18101.1257 kg/hr= 5.0281 kg/s

= 77.74 kg/m3


214

(Refer to Appendix B.2.6)
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d
d
1

Flange
Raised
face
Bolting
Drilling Neck
D B h
1
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
125 139.7 240 18 48 178 3 M16 8 18 200 155 10 8


Optimum pipe diameter at outlet from reactor for cooling system (inlet and oulet stream
are same)
Data required:
G = 5526.327 kg/s

= 1001.1462 kg/m3


(Refer to Appendix B.2.6)
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d
d
1

Flange
Raised
face
Bolting
Drilling Neck
D B h
1
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
200 219.1 320 20 55 258 3 M16 8 18 280 236 15 10

Pipe thickness. Equation below is following British Standard 5500.


Where
215

P : Internal pressure,bar
D : Pipe outer diameter, mm

: Design stress at working temperature, N/mm


2




Inlet from reactor 1
From equation 5.65, thickness of nozzle is




Inlet from splitter
From equation 5.65, thickness of nozzle is




Outlet from reactor
From equation 5.65, thickness of nozzle is




Optimum pipe diameter at outlet from reactor for cooling system
From equation 5.65, thickness of nozzle is
216
























217

6.3 FALLING-FILM EVAPORATOR (F-1)
6.3.1 Introduction
In designing a chemical plant, the mechanical design of the process equipments such
as pressure vessel, heat exchanger tube sheets, storage tanks, centrifuges and other
equipments are needed. The detailed mechanical designing of equipment is done by
mechanical engineers who are more familiar with the codes and design. On the other
hand, chemical engineer will be responsible in developing and specifying the basic
design information for particular equipment for specialist designer.
For falling-film evaporator, the data for mechanical design needed are:
i. Vessel function
ii. Process materials and services
iii. Operating and design temperature and pressure
iv. Materials of construction
v. Vessel dimensions and orientation
vi. Types of vessel heads to be used
vii. Openings and connections required
viii. Specification of internal fitting

6.3.2 General design consideration
(a) Design Pressure
In designing a vessel, it needs to withstand the maximum pressure during
operation. For a vessel that is subjected to vacuum, the design should resist
the maximum differential pressure and is designed for full negative pressure of
1 bar, unless it is fitted with an effective vacuum breaker.
According to R.K Sinnot, the design pressure should be taken to be 10%
above the normal operating pressure:

()



218

(b) Design Temperature
Since the strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature, the
maximum allowable design stress is evaluated at design temperature which is
the maximum working temperature of the material.
The design temperature can be evaluated with 5% safety factor above the
operating temperature (R.K.Sinnot , 1999):

()
(c) Materials of Construction
Typically, the pressure vessel is made of plain carbon steel, low and high alloy
steels, alloys and etc. The material is selected based on its suitability with the
process environment and fabrication.
For the falling-film evaporator, the shell are filled with hot steam, thus, the
appropriate material chosen is carbon steel (CS) while the tubes are
constructed from stainless steel (SS316) due to the mild corrosiveness of the
feed which has the concentration of ammonium nitrate solution of 72 wt% - 84
wt%.

(d) Design Stress
For the purpose of design, the value of maximum allowable stress that can be
accepted in the material of construction is needed. For the material to able to
withstand without failure under standard condition, a suitable design stress
factor (factor of safety) is applied to the maximum stress of the material. This
design stress factor is to cover any uncertainties in the design methods, the
loading, the quality of materials, and the workmanship. The value can be taken
from Table 6.3.1 below and typical design stress for material can be taken from
Table 6.3.2.








219

Table 6.4: Design Stress Factors. Source: (R.K. Sinnot, 1999)


Table 6.5: Typical Design Stress. Source: (R.K. Sinnot, 1999)




220

(e) Welded Joint Efficiency, and Construction Categories
The welded joint strength depends on the type of joint and the quality of the
welding. The allowable design stress of the material multiplied by a welded
joint factor will give the possible lower strength of a welded joint compared to a
virgin plate. Typical value of J is given in Appendix B.3.3. For the design of this
evaporator, J of 1.0 is taken because this value means that the joint is equally
strong as the virgin plate.

(f) Corrosion Allowance
Corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of the metal to the design to
allow for corrosion and erosion, or scaling. The corrosion allowance for this
evaporator is 4mm which is higher than the usual corrosion of 2mm. This is
because, the process material used in this equipment, i.e. ammonium nitrate
solution (75wt %-84wt %) may cause corrosion and scaling to the equipment.

(g) Design Loads
This equipment should be designed to resist loading at which a pressure
vessel will be subjected during service. It can be divided into major and
subsidiary loads. Major load includes design pressure, maximum weight of
vessel and contents at operating temperature and hydraulic test condition,
wind loads, loads supported or reacting on the vessel. Subsidiary loads
includes local stresses caused by supports, internal structures and connecting
pipes; shock loads, bending moments, stresses due to difference in
temperature and loads caused by fluctuations in temperature and pressure.
Design load is further discussed in Section 6.3.4.

(h) Minimum Practical Wall Thickness
The wall thickness should not be less than the value given below. (Include
corrosion allowance of 2mm)

221

Table 6.6: Minimum practical wall thickness. Source: (R.K Sinnot, 1999)


(i) Baffles
In the evaporator, baffles are used to direct the fluid stream across the tubes. It
is places in the shell. It increases the fluid velocity and thus improves the heat
transfer rate. It also aids in supporting the tubes in the falling-film evaporator.
Commonly, single segmental baffle is used. Baffle cut is a term used to
specify the dimensions of a segmental baffle. It can be defined as the height of
the segment removed to form the baffles and is presented as baffle disc
diameter percentage. 15 to 45% baffle cuts are used at which 20 25% of
baffle cuts gives good heat transfer rates, without high pressure drop.

Figure 6.4: One-pass shell (E shell)
222


Figure 6.7: Baffle types. (a) Segmental (b) Segmental and strip (c) Disc and doughnut
(d) Orifice. Source: (R.K. Sinnot, 1999)

Table 6.7: Typical baffle clearance and tolerance. Source: (R.K. Sinnot, 1999)


223

As support plates, minimum spacing is given ranging from around 1m for 16mm tubes
to 2m for 25mm tubes. The baffles and support plates are held together with tie rods
and spacer. The number of rods required depends on the shell diameter.

Shell and Bundle Geometry:
By considering tube bundle and shell geometry, the bypass and leakages areas,
window area, and the number of tubes and tube rows in the window and cross-flow
zones for preliminary calculations estimation with sufficient accuracy.

Figure 6.6: Clearance and flow areas in the shell side of shell-tube exchanger. Source:
(R.K. Sinnot, 1999)
224


Figure 6.7: Baffle and tube geometry. Source: (R.K. Sinnot, 1999)

Referring to Figure 6.3.3 and Figure 6.3.4,

baffle cut height

= baffle cut as fraction

height from the baffle chord to the top of the bundle

bundle cut

angle subtended by the baffle chord, rads

bundle diameter
Then,



225

Where:

vertical tube pitch


(for square pitch)


(for triangular)

number of tube in window zone


()

ratio of the bundle cross sectional area in the window zone to


the total bundle cross sectional area

can be determine from Figure 6.3.5 below:




Figure 6.8: Baffle geometrical factors


226


Where:

can be determine from Figure 6.3.5 above.

can be taken from Figure 6.3.5 above for the appropriate baffle cut,



(j) Manhole
Referring to Guidance In-Service Inspection Guide (Safed.co.uk)
1
, for boilers and
pressure vessel of height more standards require a manhole to be fitted in pressure
vessels above 1200mm diameter and boilers above 1400mm diameter. For smaller
sizes a manhole is optional. Manhole of 320 mm x 420 mm or 420 mm inside diameter
with maximum height of the neck or ring = 150 mm. It is noted that for boilers a reduced
size of 300 mm x 400 mm or 400 mm internal diameter is acceptable where there is a
suitable distance between the manhole and adjacent tube nests/other obstructions.






1http://www.safed.co.uk/
227

6.3.3 Vessel design
(a) Cylindrical Shells
The minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is given by:


Where:

internal pressure

internal diameter
joint factor
design stress

Process vessels that are operated under vacuum are subjected to external
pressure. The maximum pressure the vessel will be subjected to is 1 bar
(0.9869 atm). In determining the wall thickness required for process vessel
subjected to external pressure, it is required to know the failure through elastic
instability (buckling).
The critical pressure to cause buckling, P
C
for long vessel with stiffening ring is
given by:


Youngs Modulus
wall thickness

external diameter

collapse coefficient, value can be taken from Appendix B.3.9


228

(b) Design of Stiffness Rings
The presence of stiffness rings at pressure vessel will strengthen the vessel
which is subjected to vacuum pressure. It will significantly increase the vessel
resistance to failure buckling.

Figure 6.9: Stiffness Ring. Source: (R.K. Sinnot, 1999)

Load per unit length,


Second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling,




Factor of safety is taken as 6 (R.K. Sinnot, 1999),




Critical load to cause buckling in a ring under uniform radial load,






229

(c) Vessel Head
Vessel head are used as a closure of a cylindrical vessel.




Figure 6.10: Typical Head and Closure. Source : (R.K.Sinnot, 1999)
(a) to e): flat heads, (f): hemispherical, (g): ellipsoidal,(h): torispherical.

(d) Torispherical heads
For vessel subjected to internal pressure, the minimum thickness of
torispherical head is:


Where:

stress concentration factor for torispherical head


Crown radius
(f)
(g)
(h)
230

Knuckle radius

To avoid buckling, the ratio of knuckle to crown radii should not be less than
0.06, and the crown radius should not be greater than the diameter of the
cylindrical section.
When it is subjected to external pressure,
Minimum vessel thickness,


For torispherical, radius R
s
is equivalent to Crown radius, R
c

(e) Ellipsoidal heads
For vessel subjected to internal pressure, the minimum thickness of ellipsoidal
head is:


When subjected to external pressure,
Minimum vessel thickness,


For ellipsoidal,



Where 2a = major axis = D
o,

2b = minor axis = 2h,
h = height of the head from the tangent line.



231

(f) Flat ends
Minimum thickness of flat end required for internal pressure:

()

Where:

design constant, depend on edge constraint


nominal plate diameter



For typical design, the design constant and nominal diameter area as follows:
i. (a) is flanged plate, for diameters less than 0.6m and corner radii at
least equal to 0.25e (C
p
=0.45, D
e
=D
i
);
ii. (b) and (c) is welded plate where the plate is welded to the end of the
shell with a fillet weld with angle of fillet of 45 and depth equal to the
plate thickness (C
p
=0.55,D
e
=D
i
)
iii. (d) is bolted cover with full gasket (C
p
=0.4,D
e
=bolt circle diameter)
iv. (e) is bolted end-cover with a narrow-face gasket (C
p
=0.55,D
e
=mean
diameter of gasket)

6.3.4 Design subject to combined loading
(a) Stresses Analysis
Primary Stresses:
- Longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to internal or external
pressure:



232

- Direct stress weight,


The dead weight stress will be tensile (positive) for points below the plane of
vessel supports, and compressive (negative) for points above the supports.

- Bending stress,


Where:

total bending moment at plane considered


second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending


()
- Torsional shear stresses,
This stress is resulted from torque caused by loads offset from the vessel
axis. This load is usually small and need not be considered in preliminary
design.

Principal Stresses:

()

()

Where:
Total longitudinal stress,

()

233

If torsional shear stress, is negligible, principal stress will be

and


Compressive stress and elastic stability:
If the resultant axial stress,

due to the combined loading is compressive,


the failure of the vessel may be due to elastic instability (buckling). The
design must be check to make sure that the maximum value of the resultant
axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will occur.
Critical buckling stress,

()

(b) Weight Loads, W
total

The weight loads comprises of:
i. Vessel Shell, W
V

The approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed ends, and uniform
wall thickness,
Weight of Vessel:

()
Where:

v
= total weight of shell, excluding internal fittings

factor account for weight of nozzles, man ways, internal supports, etc
for vessels with only few fittings
for distillation column, or similar vessel, with several man ways, and
with plate support rings, or equivalent fittings,

height, or length, between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical


section), m
g = gravitational acceleration,


234

t = wall thickness, mm

density of vessel material,

mean diameter of vessel, m =

()

ii. Vessel Fittings, W
F

For vessel fittings, the following can be used:
(a) Caged ladders, steel, 360

length
(b) Plain ladders, steel, 150

length
(c) Platforms, steel, for vertical columns, 1.7

area
(d) Contacting plates, steel including typical liquid loading, 1.2

plate area

For Internal Fittings, i.e. tubes:
Weight of Tubes, W
T
:

()
Where:

number of tubes

outer diameter of tubes

inside diameter of tubes


length of tubes

density of tubes material,



(c) Wind Loads
For tall columns installed in the open, it is important to consider wind loading. A
wind speed of 160 km/h is usually taken for preliminary design (R.K.
Sinnot,1999) which is equivalent to 1280

wind pressure. The wind velocity is


lower near the ground than higher ground.
235

For a smooth cylindrical column or stack,
Dynamic wind pressure:

()

wind velocity, km/h



The loading per unit length of the column:

()

effective column diameter


outside diameter plus an allowance for thermal insulation and
attachments

For a uniformly loaded cantilever the bending moment at any plane:

()

6.3.5 Vessel support
(a) Skirt Supports
The skirt carried the load and is transmit to the foundation slab by the skirt
base ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral
loads will tend to overturn the vessel. This will be opposed by the couple set up
by the weight of the vessel and the tensile load in the anchor bolts. Many types
of base ring designs as shown in Figure 6.3.8 is used with skirt support, for
example, rolled angle and plain flange rings suitable for small vessel and
double ring stiffened by gussets.
236


Figure 6.11: Flange ring design. Source: (R.K. Sinnot, 1999)

(b) Base Ring and Anchor Bolts:
The carried load by the skirt is transferred to the base ring or the foundation
slab (bearing plate). Winds and other loads produces moment that will tend to
overturn the vessel. The couple set up by the weight of the vessel and the
tensile load in the anchor bolt in turn, will oppose to the moment.
The following is the guide rules when selecting the anchor bolts given by
Scheiman:
- Bolts smaller than 25mm diameter should not be used
- Minimum number of bolts is 8
- Use multiple number of 4 bolts
- Bolt pitch should not be less than 600 mm

Approximate pitch circle diameter
Circumference of bolt circle
Minimum recommended bolt spacing
Number of bolts required,

at minimum recommended bolt spacing



()

Assuming the anchor bolts share the overturning load equally,
Bolt area required,

()
237

Where:

area of one bolt at the root of the thread,

number of bolts

maximum allowable bolt stress,

bending (overturning) moment at the base


weight of vessel,

bolt circle diameter, m


Bolt root diameter

()
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,

()
Taking the bearing pressure,

as 5


Minimum width of the base ring,

()
Choose suitable anchor bolt size design from Appendix A.10.
Actual width required

()
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:



Minimum thickness for the base ring,

()
(c) Skirt Thickness:

By trial and error, choose


The maximum dead weight load on the skirt occurs when the vessel is full with
water.
238

Approximate weight

()
Use data acquired previously,

- Total weight of skirt

Approximate weight ()
- Wind loading,



Bending moment at base of skirt,


By trial and error,
Assume skirt thickness,
Previously,
Bending stress in the skirt,

()
Dead weight stress in the skirt,

()
At test condition, the vessel full of water for the hydraulic test,
W = Approximate weight,


At operating condition,



Maximum

()
Maximum

()
Take joint factor,
239

(Double-welded butt or equivalent type of joint and degree of radiography is
spot)
Criteria for design:
Maximum

(6.3.64)
Maximum

(6.3.65)
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion.

6.3.6 Bolt flange design
The purposes of flanged joints are:
(i.) To connect pipes and instruments to vessels, for manhole covers, and
for removable vessel head for ease of access;
(ii.) To divide the vessel into sections for transport or maintenance;
(iii.) To connect pipes to other equipments such as pumps and valves;
(iv.) To connect pipe sections for ease of assembly and dismantling for
maintenance.

There are few types of flanged joints and each is being used for different
applications and can be viewed as figure below:
240


Figure 6.12: Flanges types. (a) Welding-neck (b) Slip-on (c) Lap-joint (d) Screwed

(a) Welding-neck: suitable for extreme conditions, specified for the connections
and nozzles on process vessels and process equipment;
(b) Slip-on: generally use for pipe works, cheaper than (a), easier to align, have
poor resistance to shock and vibration loads;
(c) Lap-joints or van-stone: used for pipe work, economical when use with
expensive alloy pipe where the flange can be made from carbon steel;
(d) Screwed: connect screwed fittings to weld satisfactory
Blank: flat plates, used to blank-off flange connections, as covers for
manhole and inspection ports.

Gaskets:
The purpose of gaskets is to make a leak-tight joint between two surfaces. It is made
from semi-plastic materials. It will deform and flow under load to fill the surface
irregularities between the flange faces, nevertheless retain surface elasticity to take up
the changes in the flange alignment that occur under load.

241

Flange faces:
Flanges faced classify the type of flange use. There are two principal types:
(i.) Full-faced flanges: face contact area extends outside the circle of bolts; over
the full face of the flange.
(ii.) Narrow face flanges: face contact is located within the circle of bolts.
Namely, gasket within bolt circle, spigot and socket, ring-type joint

Figure 6.8: Flange type and faces. (a) Full-face (b) gasket within bolt circle, (c) spigot
and socket (d) ring-type joint
6.3.7 Piping and flange
- Optimum diameter of flange:
d
optimum

()
Where:
fluid flow rate,

density of fluid mixture,




242

- Nozzle thickness:


Where:

operating pressure,


design stress at operating temperature


6.3.8 Evaporator tubes plate
Tube-plates support the tubes, and separate the shell and tube side fluids.
Since, one side is subjected to shell-side pressure and tube-side pressure on
the other side. Therefore, the design must able to support the maximum
differential pressure that is likely to occur.
A tube plate is a perforated plate with an unperforated rim, supported at its
periphery. The holes of plate for the tubes weaken the plate and reduce its
flexural rigidity. In between the holes is a material that holds the holes together
is ligament. The presence of tubes strengthens the plate.

Ligament efficiency of perforated plate,

()

Where:

hole pitch

hole diameter

The plate must be thick enough to resist the bending and shear stresses
caused by the pressure load and any differential expansion of the shell and
tube.

243

The minimum plate thickness to resist bending can be estimated by:

()
Where:

the minimum plate thickness

a design factor

plate diameter

the effective tube plate design pressure

maximum allowable design stress for the plate



The value of

is relies on the type of head,


Shear stress in the tube plate can be calculated by equating the pressure force
on the plate to the shear force in the material at the plate periphery.

Minimum plate thickness to resist shear is given by:

the maximum allowable shear stress, taken as half the maximum


allowable design stress for the material

The design thickness is taken as the greater of the values obtained from
bending and shears resistance and must be greater than the minimum
thickness given from Appendix B.3.11.

244

6.3.9 Calculation of mechanical design for falling film evaporator
(a) Design Pressure, P
D
and External Pressure, P
e
:
For vessels under vacuum, they are exposed to external pressure, thus, the
maximum pressure under external pressure is 1 bar,


At Tube-Side:
From eq. 6.3.1,

Normal operating pressure



From eq. 6.3.1,
At Shell-Side:

Normal operating pressure




(b) Design Temperature, T
D
:
At Tube-Side:
From eq. 6.3.2,

Normal operating temperature 5% safety factor





At Shell-Side:
From eq. 6.3.2,

Normal operating temperature 5% safety factor





245

(c) Design Stress (Nominal Design Stress):
Previously from Table 6.3.2,
Shell Side:
Material of Construction : Carbon Steel (CS)
Typical Design Stress, f : 112 N/mm
2
(calculated at T=165
o
C)
Tensile Strength : 510 N/mm
2
Tube Side:
Material of Construction : Stainless Steel (SS 316)
Typical Design Stress, f : 143.55 N/mm
2
(calculated at T=121.5
o
C)
Tensile Strength : 520 N/mm
2

From Table 6.3.1, design factor taken for Austenitic stainless steel at minimum
yield stress is 1.5. The design stresses for tubes and shells are calculated from
Table 2.3.5 are 143.5

and 112

respectively. Thus,
From eq. 6.3.4,
Maximum allowable stress = Design Factor Design Stress (at T):


(d) Welded joint efficiency, J and construction categories:
As previously explained on Section 6.3.2(e), and referring to Appendix B.3.8,
Welded joint factor chosen, J = 1
Type of joint:
Double-welded butt or equivalent of 100% degree of radiography.
246

(e) Corrosion Allowance:
Since, moderate corrosions are expected in the tubes and shell, the corrosion
allowance of 4.0mm is used.

(f) Design of Cylindrical Shells under Internal Pressure
From eq. 6.3.17,






Minimum thickness, e plus corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 4.0584 mm.
Design of Cylindrical Shells under External Pressure
From eq. ,





Minimum thickness, e plus corrosion allowance of 4 mm = 4.36 mm.

Comparing both thickness under internal and external, it seems that the
thickness under external pressure are more logical compared to under internal
pressure. So, the thickness of shell is taken as 4.36 mm.

However, comparing the thickness with Table 6.3.3 of minimum thickness, the
thickness calculated is lower than the thickness assigned for shell of diameter
1m. So, the minimum thickness of 5 mm is taken for this equipment.
Therefore, e = 5 mm.
Thus, outer diameter of shell is, D
s
, out = 810 mm

247

(g) Critical Pressure to Cause Buckling, P
C
:
For long vessel with stiffening ring, the critical pressure of buckling is high,
Refer to Appendix B.3.9,


Collapse coefficient,


From eq. 6.3.18,


For this particular thickness, e = 5 mm, the design pressure is below of critical
pressure (

), thus the thickness is


suitable.

(h) Design of Stiffness Ring:

Assume,

.
From eq. 6.3.19,
Load per unit length,



From eq. 6.3.20,
Second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling,


From eq.6.3.21,



248

Taken factor of safety = 6,
From eq. 6.3.22,



So,


From eq. 6.3.23,
Critical load to cause buckling in a ring under uniform radial load,


From eq. 6.3.24,


Since,
The length and diameter of stiffening ring are acceptable.

(i) Vessel heads:
If using torispherical head,
- Subjected to internal pressure
From eq. 6.3.25,



Where:


249


Plus corrosion allowance of 4mm,
Subjected to external pressure


From eq. 6.3.27,


For ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion allowance is 4 mm.


If using ellipsoidal head,
- Subjected to internal pressure
From eq. 6.3.28,



Plus corrosion allowance,

- Subjected to external pressure
From eq. 6.3.30,


From eq. 6.3.29,


250

For ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion allowance is 4 mm, thus

For flat ends with bolted cover with full gasket,

nominal plate diameter (equal to the bolt diameter)


Take




From eq. 6.3.31,


Add corrosion allowance,
So, the vessel head suitable with appropriate thickness is ellipsoidal
with thickness, e =

(j) Design of Vessel Subject to Combined Loading

(a) Weight Loads, W
TOTAL
:

Weight of Vessel, W
V
:
From eq. 6.3.41,



251

Weight of Tubes, W
T
:
From eq. 6.3.43,



Weight of External Fittings, W
F
:

Installed caged ladder, steel to the equipment,
Thus,


Total dead weight, W
TOTAL




(b) Wind Loading:
As explained previously on Section 6.3.4 (c),
Take wind velocity,


From eq. 6.3.44,
The load due to wind of smooth cylindrical column,



Since no thermal insulation and attachment,
D
eff
= effective column diameter = outside diameter plus an allowance
for thermal insulations and attachments.



252

From eq. 6.3.45,
Loading per unit length of column,


From eq. 6.3.46,
Bending moment at bottom tangent line,



(c) Analysis of Stresses

At bottom tangent line,
Pressure Stresses:
From eq. 6.3.32,


From eq. 6.3.33,


Dead weight stress,
W
:
From eq. 6.3.34,


The dead weight stress will be tensile (positive) for points below the plane
of vessel supports, and compressive (negative) for points above the
supports.
Since

calculated for points above the supports, it is compressive


(negative).


253

Bending stresses,
b
:
Bending stress will be compressive or tensile,
From eq. 6.3.35,


Where:

total bending moment at plane considered



From eq. 6.3.36,

second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending




Resultant longitudinal stress,
Z
:
From eq. 6.3.39,


Previously,

is compressive(negative),


254

Since the torsional shear stress is negligible, the principle stress will be

and

.
The radial stress is negligible,



The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the
down-wind side,

,
where it is well below the maximum allowable design stress of 74.67

.
(d) Elastic Stability (Buckling)
Previously, the resultant axial stress,

due to the combined loading is


compressive, the failure of the vessel may be due to elastic instability
(buckling). The design must be check to make sure that the maximum
value of the resultant axial stress does not exceed the critical value at
which buckling will occur.
From eq. 6.3.40,
Critical buckling stress,


The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under
pressure
Resultant axial stress =


is well below the critical buckling stress.
So the design is satisfactory.


255

(k) Vessel Support: Skirt Support
For tall vertical vessels, skirt supports are preferred because they do not lead
to concentrated local loads on the shell, it offers less restraint against
differential thermal expansion, and reduce the effect of discontinuity stresses
at the junction of the cylindrical shell and the bottom. The skirt support shall be
provided with at least one opening for inspection.

(i.) Skirt thickness:
Straight cylindrical skirt,


Material of Construction = Plain Carbon Steel
Referring to Table 6.3.2, for Carbon Steel,
Design stress, f at ambient temperature =


Youngs Modulus at ambient temperature,


Height of Skirt,



The maximum dead weight load on the skirt occurs when the vessel is
full with water.
From 6.3.55,



Previously,
Weight of vessel,

,
From eq. 6.3.56,
Total weight of skirt



256

Wind loading,


From eq. 6.3.57,
Bending moment at base of skirt,


From trial and error,
Skirt thickness chosen,


Previously,
From eq. 6.3.58,
Bending stress in the skirt,


From eq. 6.3.59,
Dead weight stress in the skirt,


At test condition, the vessel full of water for the hydraulic test,
,
From eq. 6.3.60,


At operating condition,


From eq. 6.3.61,



257

From eq. 6.3.62,
Maximum


From eq. 6.3.63,
Maximum


Take joint factor,
(Double-welded butt or equivalent type of joint and degree of
radiography is spot)
Criteria for design:
From eq. 6.3.64,
Maximum



102.5861
From eq. 6.3.65,
Maximum


279.37

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, which gives:





258

(ii.) Base Ring and Anchor Bolts
Approximate pitch circle diameter
Circumference of bolt circle
Minimum recommended bolt spacing
From eq. 6.3.47,
Number of bolts required,

at minimum recommended bolt spacing,


Bolt design stress,

(typical design value)


Take
From eq. 6.3.48,
Bolt area required,


From eq. 6.3.49,
Bolt root diameter


From eq. 6.3.50,
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,


Taking the bearing pressure,

as 5




259

From eq. 6.3.51,
Minimum width of the base ring,


From Appendix B.3.10,
Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967);
Nominal Diameter = 24 mm,
Root area = 353

,

This is the minimum width required; actual width will depend on the
chair design.
From eq. 6.3.52,
Actual width required


From eq. 6.3.53,
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:



From eq. 6.3.54,
Minimum thickness for the base ring,


Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.


260

(e) Tube-plates
From eq. 6.3.68,
Ligament efficiency of perforated plate,

for Stainless Steel (SS316) at 165


o
C.


From eq. 6.3.69,
The minimum plate thickness to resist bending, t
P
can be estimated by:


From eq. 6.3.70,
Minimum plate thickness to resist shear is given by:


The design thickness is taken as the greater of the values obtained from
bending and shears resistance and must be greater than the minimum
thickness given from Appendix B.3.11.



261

(f) Opening and Nozzles:
From eq. 6.3.66,
Optimum diameter of flange:


From eq. 6.3.67,
Nozzle thickness:


(i.) Feed Inlet:



(ii.) Concentrate Outlet:






262

(iii.) Vapor Outlet:



(iv.) Steam Inlet:




(v.) Condensate Outlet:


(g) Baffles:
Referring to Figure 6.3.2 and Figure 6.3.4,
From eq. 6.3.5,

baffle cut height

800mm 0.25 = 200mm


263

Where,

= baffle cut as fraction, chosen 25% (0.25) as this value gives good heat
transfer.

height from the baffle chord to the top of the bundle


angle subtended by the baffle chord, rads

bundle diameter
=


Then,
From 6.3.7,


From eq. 6.3.6,

bundle cut


From eq. 6.3.8,


From eq. 6.3.9,


Where:

vertical tube pitch


(for square pitch)


(for triangular)
264

From eq. 6.3.10,

number of tube in window zone


ratio of the bundle cross sectional area in the window zone to


the total bundle cross sectional area

determined from Figure 6.3.5 with baffle cut of 0.25.


From eq. 6.3.11,


From eq. 6.3.12


From eq. 6.3.13,


From eq. 6.3.14,

taken from Figure 2.3.12 above for the appropriate baffle cut,

2.167 rad = 124.16


o
265


Figure 6.14: Baffle and tube geometry for F-1.















200 mm
743.052mm
mm
800 mm
171.53 mm
=124.16
o

266

6.4 ABSORBER
6.4.1 Operating and design temperature and pressure
This column operates at temperature of 110C and pressure of 1 atm. The design
pressure and temperature will be 10% above the operating pressure and temperature,
to avoid spurious operation during minor process upset.



6.4.2 Material of construction
As one of the process material involve is the corrosive ammonium nitrate, the material
of construction of the column is required to be corrosion resistant. In this case stainless
steel type 304 is selected.
Table 6.8 Typical design stresses for plate
(The appropriate material standards should be consulted for particular grades and plate
thicknesses)

267

6.4.3 Column wall thickness
Calculating the cylindrical column wall thickness:
i
i i
P f
D P
e

=
2

Where e = minimum thickness required, mm
D
i
= internal diameter of column, mm
f = design stress, N/mm
2

P
i
= internal pressure, N/mm
2



For corrosive process material i.e. ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion allowance of 4
mm is included:

6.4.4 Column head
6.4.4.1 Flat head
Calculating the minimum thickness required:



where C
p
= design constant = 0.55 for plate welded to the end of the shell
268

D
e
= nominal plate diameter, mm = D
i

f = design stress, N/mm
2


For corrosive process material i.e. ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion allowance of 4
mm is included:

6.4.4.2 Ellipsoidal head
Calculating the minimum thickness required:


Where J = joint factor = 1 for no joints.


For corrosive process material i.e. ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion allowance of 4
mm is included:

6.4.4.3 Torispherical head
Calculating the minimum thickness required:



269

Where C
s
= stress concentration factor =


R
c
= crown radius = D
i

R
k
= knuckle radius = 0.06R
c

J = joint factor = 1 for no joints




For corrosive process material i.e. ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion allowance of 4
mm is included:

Type of Head Minimum Thickness, e
Flat head 22 mm
Ellipsoidal head 5 mm
Torispherical head 5 mm

By comparing the minimum thickness of these different type heads, it can be concluded
that ellipsoidal is suitable to be chosen due to the economical factor since it requires
minimum thickness compared to flat head and torispherical head.
6.4.5 Design of column subject to combined loading
The main sources of load to be considered are dead weight loads and wind. Meanwhile,
the major sources of dead weight loads include vessel shell, internal fittings (packed
bed) and external fittings (ladders, platforms, piping).


270

6.4.5.1 Dead Weight Loads
6.4.5.1 Dead weight of vessel, W
v

For a steel vessel,



Where W
v
= total weight of the shell, excluding internal fittings, kN
C
v
= factor to account for the weight of the internal supports
= 1.15 for absorption column
H
v
= height of cylindrical section, m
t = wall thickness, mm
D
m
= mean diameter, m = D
i
+ (t 10
-3
)
= 1.2 + (10 10
-3
) m
= 1.210 m


6.4.5.2 Dead weight of Packed Bed, W
p

Surface area of packing, a = 95 m
2
/m
3

Approximation volume of packed bed, V
p
=


= 0.0463 m
3

Area of packed bed, A
p
= a V
p
= 95 m
2
/m
3
0.0463 m
3

= 4.3964 m
2
271

For vertical column, steel platform = 1.7 kN/m
2
area,
Weight of packed bed, W
p
= 1.7 kN/m
2
A
p

= 1.7 kN/m
2
4.3964 m
2

= 7.4739 kN
6.4.5.3 Weight of external fitting
External fitting used is plain steel ladder. Weight of the ladder is estimated to be 150
N/m lengths. Therefore,
W
fitting
= 150 N/m 10 m = 1500 N = 1.5 kN
Total of Dead Weight Loads = W
v
+ W
p
+ W
fittings

= ( + 7.4739 + 1.5) kN
= 26.9565 kN

6.4.5.4 Wind loads
Wind loading will only be important on tall columns installed in the open. Columns are
usually free standing, mounted on skirt support and not attached to structural steel
work. Under this conditions, the vessel under wind loading acts as cantilever beam.
Take wind speed, U
w
= 160 km/h
To estimate the wind pressure, the following equation is used:
P
w
= 0.05 U
w
2

= 0.05 (160)
2

= 1280 N/m
2
Effective column diameter, D
eff
= D
m
+ 2t
= [1.2 + 2(0.005)] m
= 1.210 m
272

Loading per unit length of column, F
w
= P
w
D
eff

= 1280 N/m
2
1.210 m
= 1548.57 N/m
Bending moment at bottom tangent line,


= 77428.51 Nm
6.4.6 Analysis of stresses
At bottom tangent line,
Pressure stress:

and


Where
L
= longitudinal stress due to pressure, N/mm
2


h
= circumferential stress due to pressure, N/mm
2

P = operating pressure, N/mm
2

D
i
= column diameter, mm
t = column wall thickness, mm



273

Dead weight stress (compressive):


Bending stress:



Where M
x
= bending moment at bottom tangent line, Nmm
I
v
= second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending
mm
4

D
o
= outer diameter of column, mm
D
i
= inner diameter of column, mm



The resultant longitudinal stress:

w
is compressive and therefore negative
274



As no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be
z
and
h

The radial stress is negligible (P
i
/2) = 0.0507 N/mm
2

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side
=
h

z
(downwind)


Well below the maximum allowable design stress (145 N/mm
2
)
6.4.7 Elastic stability (Buckling)
The critical buckling stress,


= 81.1728 N/mm
2
When the vessel is not under pressure, the maximum compressive stress will occur:
Maximum stress =
w
+
b

= (0.9675 + 13.8854) N/mm
2

= 14.8529 N/mm
2
275


The maximum stress is below critical buckling stress, thus the design is acceptable.
6.4.8 Design of vessel support (Skirt design)
Type of support : Straight cylindrical skirt

s
: 90
Material of construction : Carbon Steel
Design stress, f
s
: 115 N/mm
2

Skirt height : 1.2 m
Young modulus : 200,000 N/mm
2

Total weight of vessel : 26.9565 kN
Wind loading : 1548.57 N/m

The maximum dead weight on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water.



Total weight:
W
total
= W
vessel
+ W
app


= (26.9565 + 66.5693) kN
= 93.5258 kN
276

Bending moment at skirt base:



Bending stress in skirt,
bs
:
As for the first trial, take skirt thickness = 10 mm.



Dead weight in the skirt,
ws


277

The resulting stress in the skirt,
Maximum
s
(compressive) =
bs
+
ws
(test)
= (16.9668 + 7.1051) N/mm
2

= 24.0719 N/mm
2
Maximum
s
(tensile) =
bs
+
ws
(operating)
= (16.9668 + 2.8771) N/mm
2

= 19.8440 N/mm
2

General consideration for skirt design:
Take joint factor, J = 0.85

s
(tensile) < f
s
J sin
19.8440 N/mm
2
< (115 N/mm
2
)(0.85)(sin 90)
19.8440 N/mm
2
< 87.3882 N/mm
2

s
(compressive) <


24.0719 N/mm
2
<


24.0719 N/mm
2
< 91.4527 N/mm
2
6.4.9 Base ring and anchor bolts
Assume pitch circle diameter = 2.2 m
Circumference of bolt circle = 2200
Recommended spacing between bolts = 600 mm
Minimum number of bolts required, N
b
=


278

Closest multiple of 4, N
b
= 12 bolts
Bending moment at base skirt, M
s
=
Total weight of vessel, W
t
= 26.9565 kN
Take bolt design stress, f
b
= 115 N/mm
2

The bolt area required is given by:


Use bolts standard diameter = 30 mm
Use M24 bolts (BS4190:1967) root area = 353 mm
2

Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,


The minimum width of the base ring:


279

Where L
b
= base ring width, mm
f
c
= maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation
pad (typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm
2
)



Table 6.9 Anchor bolt chair design


Actual width required:
L
b
= L
r
+ t
s
+50 mm
= (76 + 10 + 50) mm
= 136 mm
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:



280

Base ring thickness:


Where f
c
= actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm
2

f
r
= allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm
2



6.4.10 Piping and flanges design
Optimum diameter of flange:



Where G = Fluid flowrate, kg/s

mix
= Density of fluid mixture, kg/m
3
Nozzle thickness:



Where P
s
= operating pressure, N/mm
2
= 0.1013 N/mm
2

= Design stress at operating temperature, N/mm
2
= 165 N/mm
281

Pipe Flowrate, G (kg/s) Fluid density, (kg/m
3
)
Bottom inlet 1.8392 0.5222
Top inlet 0.1389 1007.3
Top outlet 1.6897 0.1462
Bottom outlet 0.2883 1515.3

Bottom inlet:


Nom.
Size
Pipe
o.d. d
1

Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
600 609.6 755 24 70 670 5 M24 20 26 705 640 16 12


Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,


Top inlet:


Nom.
Size
Pipe
o.d. d
1

Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
10 17.2 75 12 28 35 2 M10 4 11 50 26 6 4


Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,


282

Top outlet:


Nom.
Size
Pipe
o.d. d
1

Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
800 812.8 975 24 70 880 5 M27 24 30 920 842 16 12


Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,


Bottom outlet:


Nom.
Size
Pipe
o.d. d
1

Flange Raised face Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
15 21.3 80 12 30 40 2 M10 4 11 55 30 6 4


Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,








283

6.5 HEAT EXCHANGER
Shell side details :
o Material = carbon steel
o Number of shell passes = 1
o Working pressure = 0.8 N/mm
2

o Design stress for carbon steel, J = 109 N/mm
2

o Inlet temperature = 180
o
C
o Outlet temperature = 104.1
o
C

Tube side details :
o Number of tubes = 128
o Number of passes = 1
o Outside diameter = 19.5 mm
o Inside diameter = 16.5 mm
o Length = 5 m
o Pitch rectangular = 24.38 mm
o Inlet temperature = -40
o
C
o Outlet temperature = 65
o
C
6.5.1 Design pressure
The design pressure, normally taken 10% above the normal working pressure
Design pressure, Pi =
1 . 1 x P
o

=
1 . 1 8 . 0 x

=
2
/ 88 . 0 mm N

6.5.2 Design temperature
For the shell side and tube side, the highest operating temperatures are at 180
o
C, and
add up 2
o
C for uncertainties in temperature prediction.
Design Temperature, Ti =
C C
o o
2 180 +

=
C
o
182

284

6.5.3 Material of construction
Carbon steel is chosen because this material mostly used in industry and the prices is
cheapest. Besides, it is routinely used for most organic chemicals and neutral or basic
aqueous solutions at moderate temperatures.

For design purposes it is necessary to decide a value of maximum allowable stress
(nominal design stress) where can be determined by applying suitable design stress
factor (factor of safety) to the maximum stress that the material could be expected to
withstand without failure under standard test condition. For material not subject to high
temperatures the design stress is based on the yield stress (proof stress), or the tensile
strength (ultimate tensile stress) of the material at design temperature [2].

From Table 13.2 of of Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering Volume 6
(Appendix B.1), the design stress was obtain at design temperature (T = 182
o
C)
Design stress,
2
/ 109 mm N f
s
=

6.5.4 Welded joint efficiency
Joint efficiency was selected to be 1.0 because this implies that the joint is equally as
strong the virgin plate, complete weld length, and remaking any defects. The lower joint
factor will result in a thicker and heavier vessel.
Welded joint efficiency,
0 . 1 = J

6.5.5 Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material
lost by corrosion and erosion, or scaling. For carbon steel, where sever corrosion is not
expected, a minimum allowance of 2.0 mm should be used.
6.5.6 Minimum wall thickness
This is required to ensure that any vessel is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight,
and any incidental loads. As a general guide the wall thickness of any vessel should not
less than the values given below; this includes a corrosion allowance of 2 mm.

285

Table 6.10 Minimum wall thickness
Vessel diameter (m) Minimum thickness (mm)
1 5
1 to 2 7
2 to 2.5 9
2.5 to 3.0 10
3.0 to 3.5 12

Minimum wall thickness,
t
w

i i
i i
P f
D P

=
2


( )( )
( ) ( ) 88 . 0 39 . 132 2
406 88 . 0

=
mm 3538 . 1 =
Actual minimum wall thickness,
t
aw
= t
w
+ corrosion allowance
= 1.3538 + 2.0
= 3.3538 mm

6.5.7 Vessel head and closure thickness
For vessel head, the best selected type is torispherical heads (dished ends) because
torispherical mostly used for higher pressures. Compare with hemispherical heads,
even if it used for higher pressures too but the cost of forming a hemispherical head is
higher than shallow torispherical head.
Minimum thickness of vessel head,
t =
( ) 2 . 0 2 +
s i
s c i
C P fJ
C R P

Where C
s
= stress concentration factor for torispherical heads
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
k
c
R
R
3
4
1

286

R
c
= crown radius
= D
i

R
k
= knuckle radius
= 0.06R
c

R
c
= 406 mm
R
k
= 24.36 mm
C
s
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
36 . 24
406
3
4
1

= 1.7706
Minimum thickness of vessel head, t =
( )( )( )
( )( ) ( ) 2 . 0 7706 . 1 88 . 0 1 39 . 132 2
7706 . 1 406 88 . 0
+

= 2.3767
Actual minimum wall thickness = t + corrosion allowance
= 4.3767 mm



flanges

6.5.8 Longitudinal stress
t
D P
i i
h
2
= o
( )( )
( ) 3539 . 3 2
406 88 . 0
=
h
o
2
/ 2642 . 53 mm N =

287

6.5.9 Circumferential stress

t
PiDi
L
4
= o

( )( )
( ) 3539 . 3 4
406 88 . 0
=
L
o


2
/ 6317 . 26 mm N =


6.5.10 Design load
Dead weight of vessel

For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed
ends, and uniform wall thickness can be estimated from the following equation:

( )
3
10 8 . 0

+ = t D H g D C W
m v m m v v
t


Where W
v
= total weight of shell
C
v
= 1.08 for vessels with only a few internal fittings

m
= Density of vessel material (7750 kg/m
3
)
D
m
= Mean diameter of vessel =
( ) m t Di , 10
3
+


3
10 3538 . 3 406

+ =
m
D

m D
m
4094 . 0 =


288

( ) ( )( ) ( ) | |
3
10 3538 . 3 409 . 0 8 . 0 5 81 . 9 7750 08 . 1

+ = t
v
W

kN N W
v
885 . 1 9672 . 1884 ~ =


Weight of tubes
( ) g L d d N W
m i o t t
t
2 2
=

( ) ( )( )( )( ) 81 . 9 7750 5 0165 . 0 0195 . 0 128
2 2
= t
t
W

kN N W
t
509 . 16 1347 . 16509 ~ =

6.5.11 Weight of insulation
Material used = 85% magnesia
Up to about 600
o
F (315
o
C), 85% magnesia has been the most popular material. For the
insulation, the best material was chosen to be magnesium carbonate hydroxide
because it having a good thermal insulator because of the great number of closed air
cells it contains molded into rigid boards, blocks, or shapes conforming to piping. It is a
mixture of magnesia and asbestos fibers so constructed that about 90% of the total
volume is dead air space. Equivalents are available for situations where asbestos is
undesirable. Such insulants are applied to the equipment in the form of slabs or
blankets which are held in place with support and clips spot welded to the equipment.
They are covered with cement to seal gaps and finished off with a canvas that is treated
for resistance to the weather. A galvanized metal outer cover may be preferred because
of its resistance to mechanical damage of the insulation.
Table 6.11 Insulation of 85% Magnesia or Equivalent up to 600
o
F
[4]

Pipe size Standard thickness
(in)
Double standard
thickness (in)
(in) (m)
12-33 0.3048-0.8382 1-1/2 3

289

Insulation thickness was selected to be 1 inch (0.0254m)
From Table 1.3 and table 8.20 of, Stanley M. Walas, Chemical Process Equipment
Selection and Design, the insulation thickness and bulk density for 85% Magnesia is 1
inch and 12 lb/ft
2
respectively

m inch t
ins
0254 . 0 1 ~ =

3 3
22 . 192 12
m
kg
ft
lb
~ =


Approximate volume of insulation

( ) | |
2 2
o ins o
d t d L V + = t


( ) ( ) | |
2 2
0195 . 0 0254 . 0 0195 . 0 5 + = t V


02570 . 0 = V
m
3

g V W
ins
=

( )( )( ) kN N W
ins
04846 . 0 4619 . 48 81 . 9 22 . 192 02570 . 0 = = =


Total weight of Heat Exchanger:

ins t V T
W W W W + + =

4619 . 48 1347 . 16509 9672 . 1884 + + =
T
W

kN N W
T
4426 . 18 5638 . 18442 = =



290

6.5.12 Pipe selection for nozzle
Pipe size for steam inlet (shell)
Material of construction = carbon steel
Density of steam inlet, = 0.4872 kg/m
3

Flow rate inlet, G = 0.7403 kg/s
Diameter pipe for water inlet (shell),
in water
D
,
=
37 . 0 53 . 0
293

G

=
( ) ( )
37 . 0 53 . 0
4872 . 0 7403 . 0 293


= 325.9883 mm
Pipe size for water outlet (shell)
Material of construction = carbon steel
Density of steam outlet = 0.7045 kg/m
3

Flow rate outlet, G = 0.7403 kg/s
Diameter pipe for water outlet (shell),
out water
D
,
=
37 . 0 53 . 0
293

G

=
( ) ( )
37 . 0 53 . 0
7045 . 0 7403 . 0 293


= 284.4053 mm
Pipe size for ammonia inlet (tube)
Material of construction = stainless steel
Density of ammonia inlet = 0.8139 kg/m
3

Flow rate inlet, G = 0.6842 kg/s


291

Diameter pipe for ammonia inlet (tube),
in NH
D
,
3
=
37 . 0 53 . 0
293

G

=
( ) ( )
37 . 0 53 . 0
8139 . 0 6842 . 0 293


= 258.5850 mm
Pipe size for ammonia outlet (tube)
Material of construction = stainless steel
Density of ammonia outlet = 0.6098 kg/m
3

Flow rate outlet, G = 0.6842 kg/s
Diameter pipe for ammonia outlet (tube),
out NH
D
,
3
=
37 . 0 53 . 0
293

G

=
( ) ( )
37 . 0 53 . 0
6098 . 0 6842 . 0 293


= 287.7367 mm

6.5.13 Standard flanges

Flanges joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessel, for manholes
cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required. Flanged may
also be used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections
for transport or maintenance. Flanges joint are also used to connect pipe to equipments
such as pumps and valves. Flanges range in size from a few millimeters diameter for
small pipes to several meters diameter for those used as body or head flanges on
vessels.
For the design of this heat exchanger, welding-neck flanges are used. It is because
welding-neck flanges have along tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded
joint. This gradual transition of the section reduces the discontinuity stresses between
the flange and branch and increases the strength of the flange assembly. Welding-neck
flanges and branch are suitable for extreme service conditions, where flange are likely
to be subjected to temperature, shear and vibration loads. They will normally be
292

specified for the connections and nozzles on process equipment. The dimensions of
welding-neck flanges is chosen base on the nominal pipe size of the nozzle pipe. All
dimensions are listed below.

Standard flanges for inlet water
Diameter water inlet pipe = 325.9883 mm
Standard o.d pipe = 355.6 mm

Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d.
d
1

Flange Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h
i
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
350 355.6 490 22 62 415 4 M20 16 22 495 438 15 12

Standard flanges for outlet water
Diameter water outlet pipe = 284.4053 mm
Standard o.d pipe = 323.9 mm

Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d.
d
1

Flange Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h
i
d
4
F No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
300 323.9 440 22 62 365 4 M20 12 22 395 342 15 12



293

Standard flanges for inlet ammonia
Diameter ammonia inlet pipe = 258.5850 mm
Standard o.d pipe = 273 mm

Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d.
d
1

Flange Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h
i
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
250 273 375 22 60 312 3 M16 12 18 335 290 15 12

Standard flanges for outlet ammonia
Diameter ammonia outlet pipe = 287.7367 mm
Standard o.d pipe = 323.9 mm

Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d.
d
1

Flange Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h
i
d
4
F No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
300 323.9 440 22 62 365 4 M20 12 22 395 342 15 12

6.5.14 Design of saddles
Determination of support for a vessel will be depending on the design temperature and
pressure, vessel location and arrangement, and the internal and external fittings.
Support should be design to allow easy access to the vessel for inspection and
maintenance. Since heater is a horizontal arrangement, saddle support is chosen as
the support.
294

The saddle must be designed to withstand he load imposed by the weight of the vessel
and its contents. The design of saddle depends on the weight of vessel, which is the
weight of the heater itself. From previous calculation of heater weight, the total weight is
18.4426 kN. From the value of weight, the dimensions of saddle choose as referred to
Figure 13.26 from Coulson & Rochardsons Volume 6. For outer shell diameter, D
shell
is
0.406m so 0.6m is taken since it is the smallest value and the maximum weight is not
exceeded.
Vessel
diamete
r (m)
Maximum
weight
(kN)
Dimension (m) mm
V Y C E J G t2 t1
Bolt
diamete
r
Bolt
holes
0.6 35 0.48 0.15 0.55 0.24 0.190 0.095 6 5 20 2

6.5.15 Baffles
Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid flow across tube and increase the fluid
velocity. When the fluid velocity increases, it is improving the rate of heat transfer. The
assembly of baffles and tubes are hold together by support rods and spacers. The most
commonly used type of baffle is the single-segmental baffle. Baffle cut used to specify
the dimensions of a segmental baffle. Generally, baffle cut of 20%-25% will be
optimum. The value will give good heat transfer rate without excessive drop.

Type = single segmental
Baffle diameter = 0.406 m
Nb = length of tube / inside diameter shell
= 5000 / 406
= 12.3 13 baffles