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young artists A help- PRACTICAL ART LETTERING A treatise on the construction bols of the alphabet of the sym- PRACTICAL LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OILS A book to interest the general reader as well as the art student PRACTICAL WATER-COLOR SKETCHING Clear and simple directions for painting in water-colors PRACTICAL ENGRAVING AND ETCHING CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS . LUTZ the general Illustrations by the Author PRACTICAL DRAWING A book for the student and reader PRACTICAL ART ANATOMY Structural easily anatomy of the human figure understood by ingeniously drawn diagrams ANIMATED CARTOONS How they are made. their origin and development DRAWING MADE EASY A helpful book for young artists PRACTICAL GRAPHIC FIGURES The technical side of drawing for car- toons and fashions THE MOTION-PICTURE CAMERAMAN A book for the amateur and professional cinematographer PRACTICAL PICTORIAL COMPOSITION A guide to the appreciation of pictures. ings With pen-and-ink inlerpretalions of paintand diagrammatic analyses by the author PRACTICAL PEN DRAWING A clear presentation of tion pen-and-ink illustra- MORE THINGS TO DRAW A sequel to ful book for Drawing Made Easy.BOOKS BY With E. G.

DRAWING MADE EASY .

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DRAWING MADE EASY A HELPFUL BOOK FOR YOUNG ARTISTS THE WAY TO BEGIN AND FINISH YOUR SKETCHES CLEARLY SHOWN STEP BY STEP BY E-G-LUTZ NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 1935 .

No pari of this book be reproduced in any form without the permission of Charles Scribner's Sons may Y^'hS^ 37377 . by CHARLES SCRIBXER'S SONS Printed in the United States of America All rights reserved.Copyright. 1921.

13 Things needed for drawing Drawing curves with the help of a Making designs based on a square and with the help Drawing designs with the compasses and with a B'rer of the compasses 14. radish. .THR. 7 . .U5H L^' CONTENTS Page Thrush Parrakeets . etc ^ilobe Walloon 22 23 24 o 25 . tea-pot. fan. Christmas tree 19 Camp fire 20 21 Indian tent Glass fish bowl Cherries. Fox 18 Top. « » 10 11 series of dots 12. 15 16. 17 circle as a foundation ".

32 33 34 3S . Page 37 .0 31 Bees. Buttercups and daisies Jack-in-the-pulpit 36 37 38. 48 49 Cat and mice Cat and mouse „ 50 51 . . Fuchsia Rabbits 39 40 41 42 Owl Owl's head Duck and penguin Swallows Goose.V . narcissus Pansies .. heron 43 44 45 Running dog and monkey Elephants 46 47 Drawing a pig with a Pigs single line and with the eyes closed . duck Stork.8 CONTENTS Drawing leaves Butterflies —maple and oak 28... clover Resemblances Morning-glory.

.. tugboat 60 61 62 Ocean life Sailboats 63 Dolls 64 dolls to More draw 65 66..... 72 73 Round face 74 o ... and fish 52 53 chipmunk.... Squirrel. faces in profile . . 75 Face drawn within an Triangular features ellipse .. 76 77 ... . 69 Babies Little Hollanders Drawing . snail. Buffalo Instructions for drawing horses 55 .CONTENTS Page Bird... . ... „ 71 Boys' faces Expressions .. Rectangular features . 56 57 58.. flicker. 67 68. 59 Standing horse Horses in movement Houses Sailboat. thrush Prairie-dogs 54 o . tortoise. ..

10 CONTENTS Page Single-line action figures Single-line action figures c 78 . 93 To draw an ellipse 94 o o Landscape sketch 95 ' PAR-Rj!\K. . » 84 85 86 87 » c .EET5 (l)n. . w~v . . o « o An easy lesson in perspective in railway trains Drawing landscapes 88 to 91 92 An aid in drawing ovals Patterns for shields and ornaments <. Locomotive and car <. . Automobiles Airplanes . . 79 to 83 .

compasses. and architects use in planning the things that we use every day. No doubt you will want a water-color box. It is a good thing to have. FOOT-RULE COLORED CRAYONS THINGS NEEDED FOR DRAWING A lead-pencil and a pad of scribbling paper is about all you need in copying most of the pictures in this book. but you can get lots of enjoyment in coloring your drawings first rifVi the accurate instruments that inventors. The house you live in. and compasses with a penThese few tools are the modest representatives of were planned and drawn out with the aid of dividers. a foot rule. rulers.DRAWING MADE EASY 11 DRAWING BOOK PENCIL COM PA55 ES LtAD PENCILS OF MEDIUM GRADE A V PAD OF SCRIBBLING PAPER.PAPER. too. and the machines that make the many things you wear and use r»rQ\7-nr»c . BLOCK. the vehicle in which you ride. You might also get a small wooden cil-point. A soft rubber for erasing would be good to have. and other drawing instruments. engineers.> ' i>/ '.W '/r/ 5AND. triangle. Point the lead of your pencil on a block of sandpaper. ^^^Ll^L^l^ ' ' ' '^/ Lg^ // ^.

angular and wanting in beauty. and 4: we If you keep your eye on the pencil and watch it as you draw the wrong way the line will be like that in Diagram A. the outlines that define the shapes delight the eye as well as the varied colors. with the dots marked. In doing this. leaves. diagrams on the opposite page are to suggest exercises in drawing that will help you to appreciate beauty in line as well as have you understand the importance of thinking while drawoften ing. try to forget the pencil-point. — — . start our line at the 1st dot. have the dots at the example. shells.12 DRAWING MADE EASY A. above. Not in this angular way- B. continue it to the 2d. in one continuous flowing curve. It is always very The another matter. the gently curving lines of the form please In flowers. Be sure and Now. 3. different distances apart. For instance. 1. and think only of a curved line that you are imagining as already marked on the paper going through the dots. But like this. and as much as the color of the material. if we take 2. their form or outline. Make first a series of scattered dots as shown. their color that it isn't attracts or holds our attention. in a vase. and then to the 3d. The idea is to make an easy flowing curved line from the first dot to the last. and ending at the 4th. DRAWING CURVES WITH THE HELP OF A SERIES OF DOTS In the objects about us that we think of as beautiful. namely. There must be no break or angular turning.

DRAWING MADE EASY 13 • 4 .

The seven designs are made by placing the point of the compasses in comers. There will be no excuse. points to set your compasses. and with the triangle get of of equal the square sides Some the corners exactly right-angled. This can very easily be made with the With the foot rule measure off the' foot rule and triangle. with whirV. The first thing to do in making the designs on the other page is tc construct a square. as shown in B. +^ ri^-o^. ^ first — ^ . now. In Figure 8 you have four other j__. length. of no knowing the names of the different parts of a circle..--^. 14 DRAWING MADE EASY MAKING DESIGNS BASED ON A SQUARE AND WITH THE HELP OF THE COMPASSES things about geometry are explained above in a way that n( doubt will impress you.

DRAWING MADE EASY .

Now this distance—the radius— six exactly go will the circle.16 DRAWING MADE EASY ACUTE ANGLE PARALLEL LINES RAILWAY TRACKS RIDGERIQHT . as they were completed the circle. at the same distance apart if marked when describing it. . Figur figures and designs on the plane. as well as those on page 15. off around the circumference of (Turn back to page 14 again. on the" a circle with the pencil compasses Keep the legs of the compasses. triangle. -^ . may be brightened up with the colored crayc^'ls. while below it. of ** radius" «nH by glancing at its picture. i .CLE5 5PIRAL SNAIL'S SHELl geometrical figures... circumference is an unalterable law. times.") marking the radius This dividing of a circle into six parts by if you find th. When you in gettmg the pc number of circles. and worked carefully for drawmg foundations equally marked. or plane with three made withm a squ These designs. is a hexagon. on your first have drav means that you must try again. to be reminded. Similar forms in things and in DRAWING DESIGNS WITH THE COMPASSES AND WITH A CIRCLE AS A FOUNDATION Draw as shown in A. you will have remainder of the page. X ANGLE TRIANGLE L-SHAPED WEDGE "- ^^ / ^ / ^-^ WHEEL ROOF IN PERSPECTIVE SQUARE ELLIP5E SICKLE CRESCENT crescent with INTE115ECT1NG C1R. when you have opposite page. it sii does not come out this way. Figure 4. of the meaning "circumference. and attempt. as in B. or six-sided angles and three "sides.

DRAWING MADE EASY 17 .

then. y^i in III/ J.. is to understand the form of that which we wish full Some objects are so oddly formed anc/ so and give a few minute detail. If. fox The first thing in drawing to picture.. 1 pictures on these two pages.6 u: t' b'rer. ^\ \ . the rest of the drawing can proceeded with very quickly. It is very quic grasped by the eye that their general outlines are bounc by triangles.]R DRAWING MADE EASY -----•"vr P-"." » ' % 9 J! \ a \ : / 5 \ \^ V I \. But tl: are other things of simpler form. as indicated of detail that we must stop first study their form and the meaning of the the first figure of each example. . for instance. and so easier to draw. a triangle is drawn first.

. ted :3J^ .DRAWING MADE EASY 19 Y^ y I y V TOP RADISH A // V" a «^LY\ chri5tma5 tree ' ^ 1 1 ^ rOTTTTll I [ n!^^ I.

2^ "1-.^4-* Here are two more subjects that are very easy to draw characteristic forms It is if their —triangles—are first indicated.^-. Dotted hnes in these examples. In going on with your drawing by following the lesson as indicated above. that you are endeavor- . -.E .— 20 DRAWING MADE EASY A I I V / / . not intended that the dotted Hnes in the diagrams are to be copied by you as dotted Hnes.A rt/?k<A/] ' CAMP 4 "^a-.— . 4. . and in the diagrams throughout the book. as in Figure ing to copy. '^ . it is well to keep constantly in mind that it is the completed sketch.. FIR. merely represent construction lines that are to be marked faintly.'"').i~Nt/V-W> .

ijkawing made easy

21

A

V

It is very quickly understood, at the first glance, that the

Red

Indian's tent has a triangular outline.

The

construction lines, which you have

marked

faintly,

as sug-

gested on the preceding page, need not be erased in completing

copied the landscape, place in the distance a horse, or a buffalo. Farther on in the book are pages with pictures showing you how to proceed in pictYou noticed, of course, while you were uring such subjects. drawing this picture, that the flap of the tent and the openthe sketch.
ing are both triangular.

When you have

22

DRAWING MADE EASY

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GLA55 FISH

BOWL

Circles

are made first in starting the subjects on these pages. Where the form is clearly a circle, the fish bowl above, for instance, use th But in picturing the cherries, ::ompasses. the toy dog, o. t radish, draw t^'=" r-iVr-i<-c fr^*=.v.or.H

DRAWING MADE EASY

23

. where the lines are unmistakably terrestrial careful straight. use a ruler. In a subject such as this.24 DRAWING MADE EASY globe: The globe pictured on this page requires some very work with the compasses. For the middle line of the equator and the central line of the support use the ruler.

DRAWING MADE EASY 25 bALLOON /O .

The put in their proper places.26 DRAWING MADE EASY MAPLE LEAF AND MAPLE. and then draw the ribs. tc or on plants. and after that the outline. you will not get along very well.forms.. Before you general beg. in your first lines in copying one of these leaves. sure Be and draw other to their leaf. The best plan is to block out the entire space that the leaf takes up. . to mark the way the outline goes in and out. 5EED DRAWING LEAVES During the summer you patterns for drawing. give some attention little details are then much easier to form and mark that first.. will find many leaves that can serve as leaf are given The oak and the maple here as examples. If you try. t^ose that you find in the woods. sketch them.

AF AND ACOR-N "My cap a^ Feels fpif le loose! Here ^o. '' . If a squirrel doesat ^e-t rae Til be a bi^ oak^ "tree some day I .DRAWING MADE EASY 27 OAK.LE.

series of diagrams that you are striving to copy. resembles the letter Y. in its construction lines. shows the first lines that you put on the paper. that is. But the five simple combinations of lines. You will see on pages 29 and 30 the progressive steps by which five diff'erent kinds are pictured. In each case it is the last figure of each And Figure 1. grouped above. while two others suggest the letter X. ! . Notice how one of these butterflies. in each case. that marking them first makes a very good way to start picturing the five butterflies. marking out at the beginning the whole space that the subject takes up. It is also possible to draw butterflies in the way suggested for drawing leaves.28 DRAWING MADE EASY BUTTERFLIES Making pictures of butterflies is not difficult. are so expressive of our subjects.

\ AJ 5 \Qy<J 4- BUTTER-FLIES .DRAWING MADE EASY 29 2.

30 DRAWING MADE EASY BUTTER^FLIES X D \^''' \ 00 .

clover blossom and leaves are blocked out first in lightlymarked lines. as indicated in Figure 1. you may sketch a bee resting lightly on top of the clover blossom. as shown in Figure 3. And remember to indicate one flying to the hive with his gathered honey and pollen. Continue with the work.DRAWING MADE EASY 31 C^ 0^ ^ BEES The series of diagrams on the top of this page show how to go The about making pictures of bees. That is the way you often see bees when they are gathering honey in the summertime. and when you have finished it. .

particular As you know. it is help in drawing to understand thoroughly the form of the we are drawing. you will plan as your start some form like a cup and its saucer.32 DRAWING MADE EASY The engraving above shows us the resemblance between a morningglory and a funnel. for instance. Figure 2 of the narcissus diagrams on the opposite page. Now. will will learn to be good to combine with the flower sketches that draw from the lessons on the five following . Take the morningby keeping in mind its striking resemblance to a funnel. you will know how to go about the work of drawing with much more facility. the idea of showing these comparisons is to help you undera great stand the forms of these flowers. we are able to visualize it in simple lines and so sketch it easily. a very simple thing to picture. but see at once the resemblance to a cup and saucer. And in the narcissus. That is. as shown in object that glory. if you do not allow the minor divisions to bother you. and the likeness of a narcissus to a cup and saucer. The pictures of bees and butterflies that you now know how to make you pages.

DRAWING MADE EASY 33 MORNING GLORY NARCISSUS \C'< .

34 DRAWING MADE EASY Mr^ PAN51E5 i The diagrams above show how to draw the outlines of a pansy. . and the five varied -patterned pansies below give a hint for six finishing with the pencil or crayons. The picturing of buttercups and daisies is explained on ^ht opposite page.

DRAWING MADE EASY 35 BUTTERCUPS AND DAISIES .

This flower. is a cousin to the large white callalily of the conservatory. . always keeping it in mind as you draw. the important line for you to consider is the one representing the Marking this Hghtly.36 DRAWING MADE EASY In beginning to draw the Jack-in-the-pulpit pictured above. or its axis. Sketching the fuchsia is also made easier by noting the central imagined lines that go through the open flower and the bud. and centre of the flower. which you may find early in the spring. helps to place prop- erly other parts or details of the subject. growing in moist places in the woods.

l^ H :^) FUCH5IA LADY FUCH/A6 .» DRAWING MADE EASY / 37 ^— X.1 '"' N^~"*'«.

38 DRAWING MADE EASY RABBITS Here are four rabbits that will very patiently pose for you while you sketch them. as the first stroke of your pencil. but glance from time to time at the series of diagrams to see the progressive manner that you follow to complete his picture. keep your eye and mind most of the time on his picture. as the mode of procedure in each case is the same in marking an elliptical. as shown above. . In drawing one of these rabbits. or oval form. It doesn't matter which one of them you begin on.

DRAWING MADE EASY 39 .

It will not be at all difficult. . for your owl model will most likely keep very still and only blink his eyes.40 DRAWING MADE EASY 0\A/L Owls are very obliging and friendly models. When you go to the Zoo do not fail to try your hand at sketching them.

DRAWING MADE EASY 41 OWL'S HEAD (?- MaxK UK ui . . entirely by free hand.t lines faintly and get them as round as possible.

geese. is a matter of careful consideration of what pencil strokes to put down at the start. and not as if he were toppling over. they rest themselves on one leg and stay that way for som^e Drawing a bird in this position is not so easy as it time. seems. . and cranes.DRAWING MADE EASY DUCK AND PENGUIN Other birds at the Zoo that sometimes keep quiet long enough Often for you to sketch' are the ducks. Picturing him balanced on one leg.

.DRAWING MADE EASY 43 Swallows.

44 DRAWING MADE EASY .

DRAWING MADE EASY 45 .

as in Figure 1. and then mark a firm curved line. There are shown on the opposite page the progressive steps in making pictures of these two elephants. The ears look. first construct two squares side by side. He has a thick-set body and small ears. An odd below. but this difference in the size of the ear the principal one. monkey by it making a circle and then a smaller one intersecting . is like large fans. indicated by dotted lines. There are other unlikenesses between these two elephants. we see the African elephant. Sometimes. When you have proceeded as far as the next step. To draw the running dog pictured above. You will know one of this kind at once by his huge ears. especially when the elephant moves them. you will have some resemblance to the complete sketch shown by Figure way is given below of drawing the droll face of a 5. drawing the body. however.46 DRAWING MADE EASY RUNNING DOG The kind of elephant that one commonly sees at the Zoo is the Indian elephant.

DRAWING MADE EASY Hi ASIATIC ELEPHANT AFRICAN ELEPHANT 4- \ .

that is. It is a copy But you are to make your drawing in a for you to follow. and in one unbroken line. way. You can understand then that although we need pencil. 2 in his outline.48 DRAWING MADE EASY DRAWING A PIG WITH A SINGLE LINE AND WITH THE EYES CLOSED Here we have the picture of a pig in a simple outline. so as On you are forced to hold and keep in your mind the picture of a pig. and paints in picture making. the one is of a someto get one continuous line what square character round Diagrams fat one. drawing in this at the paper. with the eyes closed. are good examples of the blocking-out method in drawing. It is this: Drawing is first a matter of the mind and then only secondly a thing of pencil and paper. or not looking Now. the opposite page are two types of pigs. brushes. When you are trying this little exercise of drawing a pig with the eyes closed and without lifting the pencil from the paper. . the first thing needed is an idea or an image in the mind of that which we wish to portray. peculiar manner. while the other is a jolly and 3. of the pig of a square character. the attention is called to one great fact about drawing. by which the inner vision only is used.

DRAWING MADE EASY 49 .

as the mere addition of a curlicue for a tail at once gives a fairly good portrait of a mouse.50 DRAWING MADE EASY CAT AND MICE In drawing the very in front of her —the much surprised cat with the bold black picture on the opposite page —a mouse vertical. all the mice would scamper away. Try it. up-and-down line. If the cat on this page were to turn around. going through the centres of the two forms with which the drawing is started helps to keep these or animals in their correct positions. That is a good way to draw them. It is plain to be seen that the right way of beginning to draw a mouse is to make a simple form that gives a general idea of his body. .

DRAWING MADE EASY 51 CAT AND MOUSE .

Good subjects to sketch most likely come your way. A tortoise. The flicker. will . But do not with all your outdoor play neglect drawing. SNAIL. Notice how he uses his tail feathers to support himself as he taps the tree trunk. TORTOISE. AND FISH After school-days comes vacation time. has two toes in front and two pointing backward. as you will notice. when you will spend many happy hours in the woods and fields. will make an easy subject to draw.52 DRAWING MADE EASY (^_gV BIRD. that during a ramble may cross your path. The shell suggests an inverted cup.

USH .DRAWING MADE EASY 53 THR.

first The simple outlines at the top show what you are to draw to indicate this character. The proper tool would be a brush filled with color with which you could paint quickly the large mass of and get the outline soft and woolly. The crinkly mass of the buffalo's head is rather hard to represent in lines with a lead-pencil. of course. hair The prairie-dogs Some haven't very strongly defined character. Afterward you may paint his picture with a brush and color.IE-DOG5 -' c J-' .54 DRAWING MADE EASY PRA1R. However. character they have. but it is merely that really little they are fat bodies.^ '^r You can learn to draw a buffalo in a standing position by following the series of diagrams on the page opposite. you will learn something by trying to do the best you can in following the lesson on the page. as it really is in nature. .

^f^ I :^ .DRAWING MADE EASY 55 .^/^ Buffalo. .

In the first lesson. series B. are to be drawn step by step. Now. C. The other horses. The lesson is continued in the five diagrams on the next page. as they are only construction lines. in one corner mark a triangle pointing obliquely upward and another triangle slanting downward. that is. D. The exact procedure is shown above. and E. Draw it Make free-hand. . divide it into parts and then two possible it as accurately as by a line across it just above the middle.56 DRAWING MADE EASY A 3 A 4- The engravings on this and the three to make pictures of horses. All the lines that you have been marking so far should you start be made faintly. as shown in the diagrams. on the following pages. without the aid of ruler or triangle. following pages show you how your sketch with a square.

DRAWING MADE EASY 57 Standing Horse. Draw this horse as he appears harnessed to a vehicle. .

keep the general proportions as illustrated by the four diagrams on page 56. in mind. . While drawing these horses.58 DRAWING MADE EASY B 1 C 1 Horses in Movement.

DRAWING MADE EASY D 1 59 E 1 Horses in Movement. .

and with the addition of a line for the mast and an indication of the hull. gives the idea of a sail at once. . the other case a house is built pictorially by progres- sive steps that begin by the drawing of a lozenge- shaped design. we is have the picture almost completed. -S\v' A tri- angle. The picture soon becomes a tent and then a house when In a chimney is added. the hull and then the smoke-stack. made by strict with '-D regard to their proportions. These are the two most conspicuous parts.60 DRAWING MADE EASY On this page are two les- sons in drawing houses that have a Httle of the whimsical about the way that we go about in picturing them. There is no need to hesitate when about to sketch the sailboat illustrated on the opposite page.^^"' ^j ^^^^^ indicate them at once. quickly drawn. The tugboat sketching. and so it is good to . In one case a start is made by marking a V turned upside down.

DRAWING MADE EASY 61 TUGBOAT 1 ZIP c zzr^ £fl Dg j~| fl ^N V.) a[-[Da( E n n jsi:s_ °na° .

. or in aquariums. If you have not been have seen these creatures in Hfe at the n<"oyou are at least familiar with th. FLYING FISH. through pictures or specimens in museums.62 DRAWING MADE EASY ''^' 3 W^'^ 4 5TAR. SEA HORSE A few forms of ocean life are portrayed here.-n. STAR FISH.r in the flying-fish diagrams expresses speed in flying. CRAB. See how every I'. n5H 5e:a horse SEA GULL. so fortunate as to shore.

DRAWING MADE EASY SAILBOATS 63 .

The first figure in each series a circle for the head and a simple outline for the KJ body and limbs are to be sketched with careful thought with — — regard to the proportions.64 DRAWING MADE EASY Here are some interesting subjects to draw. To help you place them properly draw a line across the middle of the circle before you begin to draw the face. . see how much imagination you have by clothing them in some other style of dress. After you have copied the dolls as they are pictured here. \}> Notice that the eyes are placed in the lower half of the circle.

DRAWING MADE EASY 65 .

is the right proportion in which to draw pictures of very young children such as those on these two pages.66 DRAWING MADE EASY When — drawing the baby with the sunbonnet. or the one with the by making a circle for the head and an apron-like form underneath it. Drawing the head of a figure just four times the height as if dividing it cap. Mark your first lines lightly and have the head one-fourth the entire height of the figure. This . begin — is called getting a figure in the proportion of four heads.

DRAWING MADE EASY 67 5ABIE5 You will notice in these engravings that parallel dotted lines are indicated running across the diagrams. you may mark them when The children here are represented as standsketching. '-ensufg-'" ' . Of course. to di ires of children in action. but are only to remind you of the right proportions in which to draw these pictures. They are not intended to be drawn by you just this way. Farther on in the book you will be ing before us very quietly. if it will help you in your work.

-..--rr 4 .—r- Here again parallel dotted lines cross the diagrams.>%^_^<^ V I -f L -i ^-.68 DRAWING MADE EASY "—•-»» / ::. . .-•«. LITTLE HOLLANDER-S /v- . ers. to show you the proper proportions in which to draw these Little HollandBut on these pages the figures are drawn in five heads.

./' >'!"-\->— -C The babies on preceding pages were drawn four heads high.» ___ LITTLE HOLLANDERS ^k^ 'T' A. DRAWING MADE EASY 69 » '.->-•" r* 7-' / » .-V y-.0— I I I I I i ^^ _ _ _ _'^«_«__.. the pictures on these pages are drawn five heads high because they represent older children.

the opposite page are two lessons in drawing profile faces simple. an into three equal parts. by . the mouth comes at about one-third of On that division. As this the foundation for the sketch.70 DRAWING MADE EASY Drawing the side view of a face up-and-down Hne is divided is is shown above. In Figure 1. get it accurately marked. easy ways. Notice that in Figure 3.

DRAWING MADE EASY 71 DKAWlKG FACE5 N PR.OFILE .

the serious countenance. the expression of the sion the smiling one. or lines first The step that starting out to that determine the drawing of the face. as the way to go about making it is shown by the seven diagrams. while the set is otl characterized by angular and severity. Compare the lines that m. At the top of the opposite page is a face that v/ill be easy to draw. with the lines of expres- of the last one. and for the lines The lower diagrams. One set of lines .ake up first face. .72 DRAWING MADE EASY BOYS' FACES you take in draw one of the boys' faces is to make an oval-like form and draw the cross-lines through its centre. D. The line going across marks off the part of the head in which you place the lineaments. B. A. C. The up-and-down lines line helps in getting the evenly placed. The four faces with different expressions may face be drawn in the same 'step-by- step process as that shown for the with the placid countenance.a - curved and pleasing. give the essential expressions depicted above them.

. ^c^> — »/y\\ > {c4^ o .E5SION5 u"^ ^.DRAWING MADE EASY 73 EXPP.

i->' Whenever you feel in a playful is of droll-looking faces there mood and wish to make pictures no harm at all in doing so. Only avoid making rude and ugly caricatures.74 DRAWING MADE EASY ROUND FACE ^ . .G-.

DRAWING MADE EASY 75 .

.'— In these character sketches notice how the pecuHarities of featur of any particular face repeat themselves in that face.<i-.* 76 DRAWING MADE EASY FACE DFIAWH WITHIN AN ELUP5E: ^.

DRAWING MADE EASY 77 TRIANGULAR. FEATUflES .

a roughly drawn oblong for the body.78 DRAWING MADE EASY 9 2 2 O-O. Study this diagram carefully. study and draw the pictures showing them in action on the following pages. Note how balance is maintained by the bulk of the figure being equally on each side of a vertical line.L^ SINGLE-LINE ACTION FIGURES An oval-like outline for the head. you will see. resemble hands and feet. for the sake of practice. little Now these action figures are planned to be six heads high. Keep that line in mind as this vertical line. make many sketches of When you have done this and become familiar with the relative proportions of the figure. a large part of the figure is on one side of In a slow walk the figure seems nearly balanced. The diagram at the top on the left shows this. the simple standing figure. and four lines for the limbs are the few elements needed The limb lines can end in markings to to draw these figures. but in running it is pictured as falling forward.<S^. Ppopoptions 6 Body Head and Neck iy <G Lega . study the particular picture and find the line that expresses the movement best. When you are uncertain as to which line to mark first in any of these pictures. . But in distributed falling. and some Little Hollanders in five heads. you draw. and. A few pages back babies were pictured in the proportion of four heads.

and getting its proper tilt. is just as important. . slant of the P This nieans thought before marking the direction of the short jsenting the neck.DRAWING MADE EASY 79 The body and the way the lines of the limbs are marked determine the degree of any action. But the placing on of the head.

Use activit-es this way of working for making pictures of the many ^ of your play hours. . Watch your companions at work an can make many more play and see the attitudes that they take.80 DRAWING MADE EASY £:::su You sketches than those pictured here.

e sketcl It helps ner't idy mr- '— bv tl observation of the action of figures in the Tld. little figures in action try to imagine yourself as goj tliiougix he particular action that you are trying to /onderfully.DRAWING MADE EASY 81 Q O' len you draw these •:_. .

82 DRAWING MADE EASY /.-->>) 1 .

how much imagination you have.DRAWING MADE EASY 83 • > Vl'* ^plete pictures of these '^ou will see little figures by clothing them. .

The wheels in this case are circles. use the compasses.6r:l^* Two automobiles are pictured above the way they look when passing by on the road. you draw the airplanes. if you wish. the wheels would present quite another appearance to your eye. mobiles were going in some other direction instead of passing directly before you. in If the autosketching them. They would take on the form of an ellipse When and would need to be drawn free-hand. notice the slant of the lines that de- Certain groups of these lines go to an invisiThe artist speaks of them as lines ble point in the distance. .84 DRAWING MADE EASY AUTOMOBILES e. y^'—'going off in perspective toward a vanishing fine the wings.

DRAWING MADE EASY AIRPLANES 85 .

86 DRAWING MADE EASY ^ ^" / JQQ QQ ^^^^J oooai OOP OOP OOOOi n :000 ooo^ n \ ^ OO OO MQOO OOP ^^^^^rn^rn^'^-'-' LOCOMOTIVE AND GAR There is no objection. to use with drawing the construction lines. in getting the right angles correctly. nor of the ruler. to a ruler for igle. . in copying the picture above.

.DRAWING MADE EASY 87 LESSON AN EASY IN PERSPECTIVE.

with the crayons. as shown. falling into three groups. for one. have a little more complicated plan. thirdly. or waterother groups of pictures. secondly. they link the parts of the picture together so that it has a sense of completeness. they give the picture some interesting lines to attract and hold the attention of the eye. if you wish. and. on the color paints. pages. if sketched in in drawing the various parts of the picture in their proper places. Take pictures. ~v- V Al AE •^^p^^ J^. they aid. note that group on these two the they are all founded on the simple arrangement of lines shown by the diagram on These lines serve three purthis page. But by marking a rectangle and then the leading lines. Color your landscapes. poses: first. . or scheme of arrangement.88 DRAWING MADE EASY DRAWING LANDSCAPES Here we have a few landscapes to study and draw. The two following pages.G. It is as important for you to study them as it is for you to make There are altogether ten copies of them. the picture-making goes on very rapidly.

\^ .DRAWING MADE EASY 89 D 1 D Z ^.Qr.

..90 DRAWING MADE EASY LEADING LINES OF PICTURES E AND F F 1 .

H.I LEADING LINES OF AN D J .E5 G.DRAWING MADE EASY 91 P1CTUR.

One way in which you may draw an oval is to cut a pattern out first and then use this pattern by placing it against your sketching paper and tracing the outline by running the pencil around the edge. so as to get it an even curve. leaf designs. 1. 3. 4. with both sides even. with the outline firmly marked. when you have tried to draw an oval you have found it difficult to get it evenly shaped. and then cutting it out when the paper has been folded. oval. Roughly sketch an oval on a sheet of paper. with one end rounder and fuller than the other. 2. first sketching out the intended design as the oval. On the opposite page are a number of designs of shields. steady hand. Cut with a through the folded paper. and you will have an oval pattern. Open the paper. Fold the paper so that the fold goes through the long middle line of the oval. The way to make an oval pattern for tracing is explained above.92 DRAWING MADE EASY / AN AID An IN DRAWING OVALS oval has an outline like an egg. with a pair of firm. . and ornaments which can be made in the same way That is. Cut out the scissors. No doubt. as accurately as possible.

DRAWING MADE EASY 93 .

Stick pins into the paper at points string 1. and see the comparison between a wheel view and an ellipse. the problem as in Figure II. and replace it with the point of the pencil. and tie a Take out pin 1. and 3. This is one-half of in a side I Figures the long central line of the ellipse. To determine the places for the pins and the size of the loop: IV.94 DRAWING MADE EASY TO DRAW AN ELLIPSE There is an important difference between an ellipse and an oval. Take the pencil compasses and fix the legs so that they measure the distance from A to B. 2. and II of the engraving above show you how to go about drawing an ellipse. Turn back to the engraving on page 16. When you draw a wheel in any other position but one directly before you. and have the pencil-point cross the long line at 2 and 3. Now place the point at 1. while in an ellipse the two ends are exactly alike. . In an oval the fulness of the two ends is not the same. and then proceed with around them. V. give it the form of an ellipse.

^-^ i I I I 0.DRAWING MADE EASY 95 : Aa • I I . ' I I I I .rx.

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