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LUTZ the general Illustrations by the Author PRACTICAL DRAWING A book for the student and reader PRACTICAL ART ANATOMY Structural easily anatomy of the human figure understood by ingeniously drawn diagrams ANIMATED CARTOONS How they are made. young artists A help- PRACTICAL ART LETTERING A treatise on the construction bols of the alphabet of the sym- PRACTICAL LANDSCAPE PAINTING IN OILS A book to interest the general reader as well as the art student PRACTICAL WATER-COLOR SKETCHING Clear and simple directions for painting in water-colors PRACTICAL ENGRAVING AND ETCHING CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS . G. their origin and development DRAWING MADE EASY A helpful book for young artists PRACTICAL GRAPHIC FIGURES The technical side of drawing for car- toons and fashions THE MOTION-PICTURE CAMERAMAN A book for the amateur and professional cinematographer PRACTICAL PICTORIAL COMPOSITION A guide to the appreciation of pictures.BOOKS BY With E. ings With pen-and-ink inlerpretalions of paintand diagrammatic analyses by the author PRACTICAL PEN DRAWING A clear presentation of tion pen-and-ink illustra- MORE THINGS TO DRAW A sequel to ful book for Drawing Made Easy.

DRAWING MADE EASY .

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DRAWING MADE EASY A HELPFUL BOOK FOR YOUNG ARTISTS THE WAY TO BEGIN AND FINISH YOUR SKETCHES CLEARLY SHOWN STEP BY STEP BY E-G-LUTZ NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 1935 .

1921. No pari of this book be reproduced in any form without the permission of Charles Scribner's Sons may Y^'hS^ 37377 .Copyright. by CHARLES SCRIBXER'S SONS Printed in the United States of America All rights reserved.

etc ^ilobe Walloon 22 23 24 o 25 . 17 circle as a foundation ". 7 . Christmas tree 19 Camp fire 20 21 Indian tent Glass fish bowl Cherries. 13 Things needed for drawing Drawing curves with the help of a Making designs based on a square and with the help Drawing designs with the compasses and with a B'rer of the compasses 14. « » 10 11 series of dots 12.U5H L^' CONTENTS Page Thrush Parrakeets . fan. tea-pot. 15 16. Fox 18 Top. . . radish.THR.

..V . Fuchsia Rabbits 39 40 41 42 Owl Owl's head Duck and penguin Swallows Goose. Buttercups and daisies Jack-in-the-pulpit 36 37 38. 48 49 Cat and mice Cat and mouse „ 50 51 . duck Stork. heron 43 44 45 Running dog and monkey Elephants 46 47 Drawing a pig with a Pigs single line and with the eyes closed . Page 37 .. .8 CONTENTS Drawing leaves Butterflies —maple and oak 28.0 31 Bees. 32 33 34 3S . narcissus Pansies . clover Resemblances Morning-glory.

67 68. tortoise... snail. thrush Prairie-dogs 54 o . 69 Babies Little Hollanders Drawing .... 76 77 .. Rectangular features . .. Squirrel.CONTENTS Page Bird. 72 73 Round face 74 o . flicker. and fish 52 53 chipmunk....... 59 Standing horse Horses in movement Houses Sailboat. . . . 56 57 58. Buffalo Instructions for drawing horses 55 .. . . tugboat 60 61 62 Ocean life Sailboats 63 Dolls 64 dolls to More draw 65 66.... faces in profile .. 75 Face drawn within an Triangular features ellipse .. „ 71 Boys' faces Expressions ..

o « o An easy lesson in perspective in railway trains Drawing landscapes 88 to 91 92 An aid in drawing ovals Patterns for shields and ornaments <. 93 To draw an ellipse 94 o o Landscape sketch 95 ' PAR-Rj!\K. » 84 85 86 87 » c . .EET5 (l)n. Locomotive and car <.10 CONTENTS Page Single-line action figures Single-line action figures c 78 . . 79 to 83 . Automobiles Airplanes . w~v . . . .

The house you live in. No doubt you will want a water-color box. FOOT-RULE COLORED CRAYONS THINGS NEEDED FOR DRAWING A lead-pencil and a pad of scribbling paper is about all you need in copying most of the pictures in this book. too. A soft rubber for erasing would be good to have. compasses. but you can get lots of enjoyment in coloring your drawings first rifVi the accurate instruments that inventors. It is a good thing to have. a foot rule. and architects use in planning the things that we use every day. You might also get a small wooden cil-point. engineers. triangle. Point the lead of your pencil on a block of sandpaper. ^^^Ll^L^l^ ' ' ' '^/ Lg^ // ^. rulers.> ' i>/ '. and compasses with a penThese few tools are the modest representatives of were planned and drawn out with the aid of dividers.W '/r/ 5AND. and other drawing instruments. BLOCK. and the machines that make the many things you wear and use r»rQ\7-nr»c .DRAWING MADE EASY 11 DRAWING BOOK PENCIL COM PA55 ES LtAD PENCILS OF MEDIUM GRADE A V PAD OF SCRIBBLING PAPER.PAPER. the vehicle in which you ride.

But like this. and ending at the 4th. and 4: we If you keep your eye on the pencil and watch it as you draw the wrong way the line will be like that in Diagram A. shells. and then to the 3d. diagrams on the opposite page are to suggest exercises in drawing that will help you to appreciate beauty in line as well as have you understand the importance of thinking while drawoften ing. 1. Make first a series of scattered dots as shown. namely. continue it to the 2d. and as much as the color of the material. try to forget the pencil-point. It is always very The another matter. the gently curving lines of the form please In flowers. 3. Be sure and Now. In doing this. their color that it isn't attracts or holds our attention. their form or outline. with the dots marked. different distances apart. There must be no break or angular turning. above. For instance. leaves. have the dots at the example. start our line at the 1st dot. angular and wanting in beauty. Not in this angular way- B. DRAWING CURVES WITH THE HELP OF A SERIES OF DOTS In the objects about us that we think of as beautiful. in a vase. and think only of a curved line that you are imagining as already marked on the paper going through the dots. the outlines that define the shapes delight the eye as well as the varied colors. in one continuous flowing curve.12 DRAWING MADE EASY A. if we take 2. The idea is to make an easy flowing curved line from the first dot to the last. — — .

DRAWING MADE EASY 13 • 4 .

points to set your compasses. and with the triangle get of of equal the square sides Some the corners exactly right-angled. There will be no excuse.. as shown in B. now. of no knowing the names of the different parts of a circle. The seven designs are made by placing the point of the compasses in comers. 14 DRAWING MADE EASY MAKING DESIGNS BASED ON A SQUARE AND WITH THE HELP OF THE COMPASSES things about geometry are explained above in a way that n( doubt will impress you. The first thing to do in making the designs on the other page is tc construct a square.--^. In Figure 8 you have four other j__. This can very easily be made with the With the foot rule measure off the' foot rule and triangle. ^ first — ^ . +^ ri^-o^. with whirV. length.

DRAWING MADE EASY .

or plane with three made withm a squ These designs.CLE5 5PIRAL SNAIL'S SHELl geometrical figures. and attempt. while below it. as in B. as well as those on page 15. at the same distance apart if marked when describing it. .. or six-sided angles and three "sides. X ANGLE TRIANGLE L-SHAPED WEDGE "- ^^ / ^ / ^-^ WHEEL ROOF IN PERSPECTIVE SQUARE ELLIP5E SICKLE CRESCENT crescent with INTE115ECT1NG C1R. of ** radius" «nH by glancing at its picture. Similar forms in things and in DRAWING DESIGNS WITH THE COMPASSES AND WITH A CIRCLE AS A FOUNDATION Draw as shown in A. on your first have drav means that you must try again. of the meaning "circumference. Figure 4.16 DRAWING MADE EASY ACUTE ANGLE PARALLEL LINES RAILWAY TRACKS RIDGERIQHT . Figur figures and designs on the plane. i . off around the circumference of (Turn back to page 14 again. you will have remainder of the page. Now this distance—the radius— six exactly go will the circle. is a hexagon. circumference is an unalterable law. When you in gettmg the pc number of circles. as they were completed the circle. may be brightened up with the colored crayc^'ls. when you have opposite page. on the" a circle with the pencil compasses Keep the legs of the compasses. triangle. and worked carefully for drawmg foundations equally marked.. to be reminded.") marking the radius This dividing of a circle into six parts by if you find th. it sii does not come out this way. times. -^ .

DRAWING MADE EASY 17 .

for instance. as indicated of detail that we must stop first study their form and the meaning of the the first figure of each example. . and so easier to draw. But tl: are other things of simpler form. a triangle is drawn first. If. y^i in III/ J.6 u: t' b'rer.. is to understand the form of that which we wish full Some objects are so oddly formed anc/ so and give a few minute detail." » ' % 9 J! \ a \ : / 5 \ \^ V I \. ^\ \ .. It is very quic grasped by the eye that their general outlines are bounc by triangles. 1 pictures on these two pages. then. the rest of the drawing can proceeded with very quickly.]R DRAWING MADE EASY -----•"vr P-". fox The first thing in drawing to picture.

.DRAWING MADE EASY 19 Y^ y I y V TOP RADISH A // V" a «^LY\ chri5tma5 tree ' ^ 1 1 ^ rOTTTTll I [ n!^^ I. ted :3J^ .

^-.'"').— .. and in the diagrams throughout the book. merely represent construction lines that are to be marked faintly. that you are endeavor- . . 4.^4-* Here are two more subjects that are very easy to draw characteristic forms It is if their —triangles—are first indicated.A rt/?k<A/] ' CAMP 4 "^a-. -. as in Figure ing to copy. In going on with your drawing by following the lesson as indicated above.E . FIR. Dotted hnes in these examples. not intended that the dotted Hnes in the diagrams are to be copied by you as dotted Hnes.— 20 DRAWING MADE EASY A I I V / / .i~Nt/V-W> . 2^ "1-. '^ . it is well to keep constantly in mind that it is the completed sketch.

ijkawing made easy

21

A

V

It is very quickly understood, at the first glance, that the

Red

Indian's tent has a triangular outline.

The

construction lines, which you have

marked

faintly,

as sug-

gested on the preceding page, need not be erased in completing

copied the landscape, place in the distance a horse, or a buffalo. Farther on in the book are pages with pictures showing you how to proceed in pictYou noticed, of course, while you were uring such subjects. drawing this picture, that the flap of the tent and the openthe sketch.
ing are both triangular.

When you have

22

DRAWING MADE EASY

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GLA55 FISH

BOWL

Circles

are made first in starting the subjects on these pages. Where the form is clearly a circle, the fish bowl above, for instance, use th But in picturing the cherries, ::ompasses. the toy dog, o. t radish, draw t^'=" r-iVr-i<-c fr^*=.v.or.H

DRAWING MADE EASY

23

where the lines are unmistakably terrestrial careful straight. . use a ruler. For the middle line of the equator and the central line of the support use the ruler. In a subject such as this.24 DRAWING MADE EASY globe: The globe pictured on this page requires some very work with the compasses.

DRAWING MADE EASY 25 bALLOON /O .

tc or on plants. will find many leaves that can serve as leaf are given The oak and the maple here as examples. and after that the outline. you will not get along very well. 5EED DRAWING LEAVES During the summer you patterns for drawing. sure Be and draw other to their leaf. in your first lines in copying one of these leaves. to mark the way the outline goes in and out.forms. . Before you general beg. The best plan is to block out the entire space that the leaf takes up.. give some attention little details are then much easier to form and mark that first. If you try. and then draw the ribs.26 DRAWING MADE EASY MAPLE LEAF AND MAPLE. The put in their proper places. sketch them.. t^ose that you find in the woods.

'' .LE. If a squirrel doesat ^e-t rae Til be a bi^ oak^ "tree some day I .AF AND ACOR-N "My cap a^ Feels fpif le loose! Here ^o.DRAWING MADE EASY 27 OAK.

28 DRAWING MADE EASY BUTTERFLIES Making pictures of butterflies is not difficult. while two others suggest the letter X. ! . You will see on pages 29 and 30 the progressive steps by which five diff'erent kinds are pictured. marking out at the beginning the whole space that the subject takes up. shows the first lines that you put on the paper. in its construction lines. that is. resembles the letter Y. In each case it is the last figure of each And Figure 1. It is also possible to draw butterflies in the way suggested for drawing leaves. But the five simple combinations of lines. grouped above. are so expressive of our subjects. Notice how one of these butterflies. that marking them first makes a very good way to start picturing the five butterflies. series of diagrams that you are striving to copy. in each case.

DRAWING MADE EASY 29 2. \ AJ 5 \Qy<J 4- BUTTER-FLIES .

30 DRAWING MADE EASY BUTTER^FLIES X D \^''' \ 00 .

And remember to indicate one flying to the hive with his gathered honey and pollen. you may sketch a bee resting lightly on top of the clover blossom.DRAWING MADE EASY 31 C^ 0^ ^ BEES The series of diagrams on the top of this page show how to go The about making pictures of bees. . as indicated in Figure 1. and when you have finished it. That is the way you often see bees when they are gathering honey in the summertime. as shown in Figure 3. Continue with the work. clover blossom and leaves are blocked out first in lightlymarked lines.

if you do not allow the minor divisions to bother you. you will know how to go about the work of drawing with much more facility. it is help in drawing to understand thoroughly the form of the we are drawing. And in the narcissus. will will learn to be good to combine with the flower sketches that draw from the lessons on the five following . for instance. particular As you know. Take the morningby keeping in mind its striking resemblance to a funnel. and the likeness of a narcissus to a cup and saucer. but see at once the resemblance to a cup and saucer. The pictures of bees and butterflies that you now know how to make you pages.32 DRAWING MADE EASY The engraving above shows us the resemblance between a morningglory and a funnel. Figure 2 of the narcissus diagrams on the opposite page. we are able to visualize it in simple lines and so sketch it easily. you will plan as your start some form like a cup and its saucer. a very simple thing to picture. That is. the idea of showing these comparisons is to help you undera great stand the forms of these flowers. as shown in object that glory. Now.

DRAWING MADE EASY 33 MORNING GLORY NARCISSUS \C'< .

34 DRAWING MADE EASY Mr^ PAN51E5 i The diagrams above show how to draw the outlines of a pansy. and the five varied -patterned pansies below give a hint for six finishing with the pencil or crayons. . The picturing of buttercups and daisies is explained on ^ht opposite page.

DRAWING MADE EASY 35 BUTTERCUPS AND DAISIES .

36 DRAWING MADE EASY In beginning to draw the Jack-in-the-pulpit pictured above. . and centre of the flower. This flower. which you may find early in the spring. or its axis. the important line for you to consider is the one representing the Marking this Hghtly. is a cousin to the large white callalily of the conservatory. Sketching the fuchsia is also made easier by noting the central imagined lines that go through the open flower and the bud. helps to place prop- erly other parts or details of the subject. always keeping it in mind as you draw. growing in moist places in the woods.

1 '"' N^~"*'«.» DRAWING MADE EASY / 37 ^— X. l^ H :^) FUCH5IA LADY FUCH/A6 .

In drawing one of these rabbits. as shown above.38 DRAWING MADE EASY RABBITS Here are four rabbits that will very patiently pose for you while you sketch them. keep your eye and mind most of the time on his picture. as the mode of procedure in each case is the same in marking an elliptical. or oval form. It doesn't matter which one of them you begin on. . but glance from time to time at the series of diagrams to see the progressive manner that you follow to complete his picture. as the first stroke of your pencil.

DRAWING MADE EASY 39 .

It will not be at all difficult. When you go to the Zoo do not fail to try your hand at sketching them. .40 DRAWING MADE EASY 0\A/L Owls are very obliging and friendly models. for your owl model will most likely keep very still and only blink his eyes.

.t lines faintly and get them as round as possible. entirely by free hand.DRAWING MADE EASY 41 OWL'S HEAD (?- MaxK UK ui .

and cranes. and not as if he were toppling over. Picturing him balanced on one leg. . they rest themselves on one leg and stay that way for som^e Drawing a bird in this position is not so easy as it time.DRAWING MADE EASY DUCK AND PENGUIN Other birds at the Zoo that sometimes keep quiet long enough Often for you to sketch' are the ducks. seems. is a matter of careful consideration of what pencil strokes to put down at the start. geese.

DRAWING MADE EASY 43 Swallows. .

44 DRAWING MADE EASY .

DRAWING MADE EASY 45 .

There are shown on the opposite page the progressive steps in making pictures of these two elephants. drawing the body. and then mark a firm curved line. You will know one of this kind at once by his huge ears. monkey by it making a circle and then a smaller one intersecting . especially when the elephant moves them. however. but this difference in the size of the ear the principal one. is like large fans. He has a thick-set body and small ears. you will have some resemblance to the complete sketch shown by Figure way is given below of drawing the droll face of a 5. Sometimes. When you have proceeded as far as the next step. The ears look. we see the African elephant. first construct two squares side by side.46 DRAWING MADE EASY RUNNING DOG The kind of elephant that one commonly sees at the Zoo is the Indian elephant. To draw the running dog pictured above. indicated by dotted lines. as in Figure 1. There are other unlikenesses between these two elephants. An odd below.

DRAWING MADE EASY Hi ASIATIC ELEPHANT AFRICAN ELEPHANT 4- \ .

2 in his outline. are good examples of the blocking-out method in drawing. and paints in picture making. way. When you are trying this little exercise of drawing a pig with the eyes closed and without lifting the pencil from the paper. drawing in this at the paper. or not looking Now.48 DRAWING MADE EASY DRAWING A PIG WITH A SINGLE LINE AND WITH THE EYES CLOSED Here we have the picture of a pig in a simple outline. so as On you are forced to hold and keep in your mind the picture of a pig. peculiar manner. It is a copy But you are to make your drawing in a for you to follow. of the pig of a square character. the first thing needed is an idea or an image in the mind of that which we wish to portray. while the other is a jolly and 3. . the one is of a someto get one continuous line what square character round Diagrams fat one. You can understand then that although we need pencil. and in one unbroken line. by which the inner vision only is used. It is this: Drawing is first a matter of the mind and then only secondly a thing of pencil and paper. the attention is called to one great fact about drawing. that is. the opposite page are two types of pigs. brushes. with the eyes closed.

DRAWING MADE EASY 49 .

That is a good way to draw them. If the cat on this page were to turn around. up-and-down line. all the mice would scamper away. .50 DRAWING MADE EASY CAT AND MICE In drawing the very in front of her —the much surprised cat with the bold black picture on the opposite page —a mouse vertical. as the mere addition of a curlicue for a tail at once gives a fairly good portrait of a mouse. Try it. going through the centres of the two forms with which the drawing is started helps to keep these or animals in their correct positions. It is plain to be seen that the right way of beginning to draw a mouse is to make a simple form that gives a general idea of his body.

DRAWING MADE EASY 51 CAT AND MOUSE .

The shell suggests an inverted cup. as you will notice. has two toes in front and two pointing backward. SNAIL. But do not with all your outdoor play neglect drawing. will make an easy subject to draw. A tortoise. when you will spend many happy hours in the woods and fields. Good subjects to sketch most likely come your way. The flicker. will . AND FISH After school-days comes vacation time. that during a ramble may cross your path. Notice how he uses his tail feathers to support himself as he taps the tree trunk.52 DRAWING MADE EASY (^_gV BIRD. TORTOISE.

USH .DRAWING MADE EASY 53 THR.

but it is merely that really little they are fat bodies. character they have.^ '^r You can learn to draw a buffalo in a standing position by following the series of diagrams on the page opposite.IE-DOG5 -' c J-' . you will learn something by trying to do the best you can in following the lesson on the page. of course. . hair The prairie-dogs Some haven't very strongly defined character. The crinkly mass of the buffalo's head is rather hard to represent in lines with a lead-pencil. Afterward you may paint his picture with a brush and color.54 DRAWING MADE EASY PRA1R. as it really is in nature. The proper tool would be a brush filled with color with which you could paint quickly the large mass of and get the outline soft and woolly. first The simple outlines at the top show what you are to draw to indicate this character. However.

.DRAWING MADE EASY 55 .^/^ Buffalo.^f^ I :^ .

C. as shown in the diagrams. as they are only construction lines. following pages show you how your sketch with a square. and E. divide it into parts and then two possible it as accurately as by a line across it just above the middle. In the first lesson. The other horses. . on the following pages. All the lines that you have been marking so far should you start be made faintly. Draw it Make free-hand. that is. The lesson is continued in the five diagrams on the next page. series B. without the aid of ruler or triangle. are to be drawn step by step. in one corner mark a triangle pointing obliquely upward and another triangle slanting downward. Now.56 DRAWING MADE EASY A 3 A 4- The engravings on this and the three to make pictures of horses. The exact procedure is shown above. D.

Draw this horse as he appears harnessed to a vehicle.DRAWING MADE EASY 57 Standing Horse. .

. in mind. While drawing these horses.58 DRAWING MADE EASY B 1 C 1 Horses in Movement. keep the general proportions as illustrated by the four diagrams on page 56.

.DRAWING MADE EASY D 1 59 E 1 Horses in Movement.

made by strict with '-D regard to their proportions. There is no need to hesitate when about to sketch the sailboat illustrated on the opposite page. -S\v' A tri- angle.60 DRAWING MADE EASY On this page are two les- sons in drawing houses that have a Httle of the whimsical about the way that we go about in picturing them. and so it is good to . The picture soon becomes a tent and then a house when In a chimney is added. the hull and then the smoke-stack. the other case a house is built pictorially by progres- sive steps that begin by the drawing of a lozenge- shaped design. These are the two most conspicuous parts. quickly drawn. . The tugboat sketching. In one case a start is made by marking a V turned upside down. and with the addition of a line for the mast and an indication of the hull. we is have the picture almost completed.^^"' ^j ^^^^^ indicate them at once. gives the idea of a sail at once.

) a[-[Da( E n n jsi:s_ °na° .DRAWING MADE EASY 61 TUGBOAT 1 ZIP c zzr^ £fl Dg j~| fl ^N V.

SEA HORSE A few forms of ocean life are portrayed here. See how every I'.-n. . CRAB. so fortunate as to shore.r in the flying-fish diagrams expresses speed in flying. through pictures or specimens in museums. If you have not been have seen these creatures in Hfe at the n<"oyou are at least familiar with th.62 DRAWING MADE EASY ''^' 3 W^'^ 4 5TAR. FLYING FISH. STAR FISH. n5H 5e:a horse SEA GULL. or in aquariums.

DRAWING MADE EASY SAILBOATS 63 .

The first figure in each series a circle for the head and a simple outline for the KJ body and limbs are to be sketched with careful thought with — — regard to the proportions. After you have copied the dolls as they are pictured here. . \}> Notice that the eyes are placed in the lower half of the circle. To help you place them properly draw a line across the middle of the circle before you begin to draw the face. see how much imagination you have by clothing them in some other style of dress.64 DRAWING MADE EASY Here are some interesting subjects to draw.

DRAWING MADE EASY 65 .

This . is the right proportion in which to draw pictures of very young children such as those on these two pages. or the one with the by making a circle for the head and an apron-like form underneath it.66 DRAWING MADE EASY When — drawing the baby with the sunbonnet. Drawing the head of a figure just four times the height as if dividing it cap. begin — is called getting a figure in the proportion of four heads. Mark your first lines lightly and have the head one-fourth the entire height of the figure.

but are only to remind you of the right proportions in which to draw these pictures. you may mark them when The children here are represented as standsketching.DRAWING MADE EASY 67 5ABIE5 You will notice in these engravings that parallel dotted lines are indicated running across the diagrams. Of course. if it will help you in your work. They are not intended to be drawn by you just this way. Farther on in the book you will be ing before us very quietly. '-ensufg-'" ' . to di ires of children in action.

ers. LITTLE HOLLANDER-S /v- . to show you the proper proportions in which to draw these Little HollandBut on these pages the figures are drawn in five heads.. .68 DRAWING MADE EASY "—•-»» / ::.-.—r- Here again parallel dotted lines cross the diagrams.-•«. .--rr 4 .>%^_^<^ V I -f L -i ^-.

» ___ LITTLE HOLLANDERS ^k^ 'T' A. DRAWING MADE EASY 69 » '../' >'!"-\->— -C The babies on preceding pages were drawn four heads high.-V y-.->-•" r* 7-' / » . . the pictures on these pages are drawn five heads high because they represent older children.0— I I I I I i ^^ _ _ _ _'^«_«__.

easy ways. Notice that in Figure 3. the mouth comes at about one-third of On that division. get it accurately marked. the opposite page are two lessons in drawing profile faces simple.70 DRAWING MADE EASY Drawing the side view of a face up-and-down Hne is divided is is shown above. by . As this the foundation for the sketch. an into three equal parts. In Figure 1.

OFILE .DRAWING MADE EASY 71 DKAWlKG FACE5 N PR.

The up-and-down lines line helps in getting the evenly placed. C. the expression of the sion the smiling one. while the set is otl characterized by angular and severity. the serious countenance. . Compare the lines that m. B.72 DRAWING MADE EASY BOYS' FACES you take in draw one of the boys' faces is to make an oval-like form and draw the cross-lines through its centre. or lines first The step that starting out to that determine the drawing of the face. with the lines of expres- of the last one. At the top of the opposite page is a face that v/ill be easy to draw. D.a - curved and pleasing. and for the lines The lower diagrams. A. as the way to go about making it is shown by the seven diagrams. The four faces with different expressions may face be drawn in the same 'step-by- step process as that shown for the with the placid countenance. give the essential expressions depicted above them. The line going across marks off the part of the head in which you place the lineaments.ake up first face. One set of lines .

^c^> — »/y\\ > {c4^ o .E5SION5 u"^ ^..DRAWING MADE EASY 73 EXPP.

74 DRAWING MADE EASY ROUND FACE ^ . i->' Whenever you feel in a playful is of droll-looking faces there mood and wish to make pictures no harm at all in doing so.G-. Only avoid making rude and ugly caricatures. .

DRAWING MADE EASY 75 .

<i-.'— In these character sketches notice how the pecuHarities of featur of any particular face repeat themselves in that face.* 76 DRAWING MADE EASY FACE DFIAWH WITHIN AN ELUP5E: ^. .

FEATUflES .DRAWING MADE EASY 77 TRIANGULAR.

The diagram at the top on the left shows this. A few pages back babies were pictured in the proportion of four heads. resemble hands and feet. the simple standing figure. . and four lines for the limbs are the few elements needed The limb lines can end in markings to to draw these figures. but in running it is pictured as falling forward. a large part of the figure is on one side of In a slow walk the figure seems nearly balanced. little Now these action figures are planned to be six heads high. and. Note how balance is maintained by the bulk of the figure being equally on each side of a vertical line. But in distributed falling. a roughly drawn oblong for the body.<S^. for the sake of practice. Ppopoptions 6 Body Head and Neck iy <G Lega . When you are uncertain as to which line to mark first in any of these pictures. Keep that line in mind as this vertical line.78 DRAWING MADE EASY 9 2 2 O-O. study the particular picture and find the line that expresses the movement best. and some Little Hollanders in five heads. study and draw the pictures showing them in action on the following pages.L^ SINGLE-LINE ACTION FIGURES An oval-like outline for the head. you will see. you draw. make many sketches of When you have done this and become familiar with the relative proportions of the figure. Study this diagram carefully.

DRAWING MADE EASY 79 The body and the way the lines of the limbs are marked determine the degree of any action. and getting its proper tilt. . is just as important. slant of the P This nieans thought before marking the direction of the short jsenting the neck. But the placing on of the head.

.80 DRAWING MADE EASY £:::su You sketches than those pictured here. Watch your companions at work an can make many more play and see the attitudes that they take. Use activit-es this way of working for making pictures of the many ^ of your play hours.

little figures in action try to imagine yourself as goj tliiougix he particular action that you are trying to /onderfully.DRAWING MADE EASY 81 Q O' len you draw these •:_. e sketcl It helps ner't idy mr- '— bv tl observation of the action of figures in the Tld. .

-->>) 1 .82 DRAWING MADE EASY /.

how much imagination you have.DRAWING MADE EASY 83 • > Vl'* ^plete pictures of these '^ou will see little figures by clothing them. .

6r:l^* Two automobiles are pictured above the way they look when passing by on the road. notice the slant of the lines that de- Certain groups of these lines go to an invisiThe artist speaks of them as lines ble point in the distance. you draw the airplanes.84 DRAWING MADE EASY AUTOMOBILES e. They would take on the form of an ellipse When and would need to be drawn free-hand. in If the autosketching them. The wheels in this case are circles. y^'—'going off in perspective toward a vanishing fine the wings. use the compasses. if you wish. . mobiles were going in some other direction instead of passing directly before you. the wheels would present quite another appearance to your eye.

DRAWING MADE EASY AIRPLANES 85 .

to use with drawing the construction lines. nor of the ruler. . in getting the right angles correctly. to a ruler for igle.86 DRAWING MADE EASY ^ ^" / JQQ QQ ^^^^J oooai OOP OOP OOOOi n :000 ooo^ n \ ^ OO OO MQOO OOP ^^^^^rn^rn^'^-'-' LOCOMOTIVE AND GAR There is no objection. in copying the picture above.

DRAWING MADE EASY 87 LESSON AN EASY IN PERSPECTIVE. .

or waterother groups of pictures.G. ~v- V Al AE •^^p^^ J^. It is as important for you to study them as it is for you to make There are altogether ten copies of them. as shown. and.88 DRAWING MADE EASY DRAWING LANDSCAPES Here we have a few landscapes to study and draw. if sketched in in drawing the various parts of the picture in their proper places. on the color paints. But by marking a rectangle and then the leading lines. . The two following pages. or scheme of arrangement. with the crayons. falling into three groups. thirdly. poses: first. they give the picture some interesting lines to attract and hold the attention of the eye. pages. if you wish. have a little more complicated plan. for one. they aid. the picture-making goes on very rapidly. secondly. Take pictures. Color your landscapes. note that group on these two the they are all founded on the simple arrangement of lines shown by the diagram on These lines serve three purthis page. they link the parts of the picture together so that it has a sense of completeness.

Qr.DRAWING MADE EASY 89 D 1 D Z ^.\^ .

. .90 DRAWING MADE EASY LEADING LINES OF PICTURES E AND F F 1 .

I LEADING LINES OF AN D J .E5 G.H.DRAWING MADE EASY 91 P1CTUR.

Cut out the scissors. The way to make an oval pattern for tracing is explained above. as accurately as possible. Fold the paper so that the fold goes through the long middle line of the oval. with both sides even. oval. so as to get it an even curve. Open the paper. 1. and ornaments which can be made in the same way That is. 2. with the outline firmly marked. No doubt. . and then cutting it out when the paper has been folded. with a pair of firm.92 DRAWING MADE EASY / AN AID An IN DRAWING OVALS oval has an outline like an egg. steady hand. when you have tried to draw an oval you have found it difficult to get it evenly shaped. and you will have an oval pattern. 3. Roughly sketch an oval on a sheet of paper. Cut with a through the folded paper. with one end rounder and fuller than the other. leaf designs. 4. On the opposite page are a number of designs of shields. first sketching out the intended design as the oval. One way in which you may draw an oval is to cut a pattern out first and then use this pattern by placing it against your sketching paper and tracing the outline by running the pencil around the edge.

DRAWING MADE EASY 93 .

and II of the engraving above show you how to go about drawing an ellipse. give it the form of an ellipse. V. the problem as in Figure II. 2. When you draw a wheel in any other position but one directly before you. Take the pencil compasses and fix the legs so that they measure the distance from A to B. and then proceed with around them. Stick pins into the paper at points string 1.94 DRAWING MADE EASY TO DRAW AN ELLIPSE There is an important difference between an ellipse and an oval. Turn back to the engraving on page 16. Now place the point at 1. . In an oval the fulness of the two ends is not the same. and tie a Take out pin 1. and have the pencil-point cross the long line at 2 and 3. This is one-half of in a side I Figures the long central line of the ellipse. and replace it with the point of the pencil. while in an ellipse the two ends are exactly alike. and see the comparison between a wheel view and an ellipse. and 3. To determine the places for the pins and the size of the loop: IV.

rx.^-^ i I I I 0.DRAWING MADE EASY 95 : Aa • I I . ' I I I I .

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