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Revised Edition

Qeneral Editors Helge Kokeritx and Charles T . Prouty

Published on the fund

gives&t o the Y a l e University Press in 191Y

by the membors of the R i ~ t g s l e yTrust A s~ociution

(r3croll and K e y Society o f Y a l e Collegs)

to conzmemornte the seventy-fifth at~llivorsary

of the founding of the society




Edited by William P. Holden

Copyright 19R2, 1954 by Yale University P.rsrs.

PIRST P U n L I S l I E D , J A N U A R Y







f'rinted i n the United States of America

B E 1 ri.qhts reserved in tho editorial co~atributinns t o this edition, which m a y not be reprinted, in wtltolo 01. in part, except by written pe~mission of the p?tblishers. Librarp of C o n g r s ~ calulog ~ card number: 52-15974 Pub1i.uhe.d o n the funcl given t o the Y a l e U1tiuer8ity Pro88 in 1917 by Ihc rne~nbersof tho KIZi,rgsley T r u s t Association (Scroll awd h'ey Society of Y a l e College) t o co?tzmemornte the seao~ety-fifthantatversary of t?ie founding of ths society

Prgace o f the General Editors

S the late Professor Tucker Brooke has observed, practically all modern editions of Sht~kespeare are 18th-century versions of the plays, based on the additions, alteritions, and emendations of editors of t h a t period. It has been our purpose, as i t was Proa fessor Brooke's, t o give the modern reader's plays in the approximate form of their original appearance. About half the plays appeared in quarto form before the publication of the F i r s t Folio in 1623. T h u s for a large number of plays the only available text is t h n t of the Folio. I n the case of quarto plays our policy has been t o use t h a t text as the basis of the edition, unless it is clear t h a t the t e s t has been contaminated. Interesting f o r us today is the fact t.hat there are no a c t or scene divisions in the Quartos with the ex1 , IV, ception of Oth.elbo, which does mark Acts I, 1 and V but lacks indications of scenes. Even in the Folio, although a c t divisions a r e geccrnlly noted, only a part of the scenes a r e divided. I n no case, either in Quarto o r Folio, is there a n y indication of the place of action. T h e manifold scene divisions for the battle in such a play as Anton.9 and Cbeopa.tra, together with such locations as "Another p a r t of the field," a r e the ndditians of the 18th century. We have eliminated all indications of t.he place and time of action, because there is no authority for them in the originals and because Shakespeare gives such information, when i t is requisite for understanding the play, through the dialogue of the actors. W e have been sparing in our use of added scene and, in some cases, a c t divisions, because these frequently impede


the flow of the action, which in Shakespeare's time was curiously like t h a t of modern films. Spelling has been modernized except when the original clearly indicates a pronunciation unlike our own, e.g. desart (desert), divel (devil), banket (banquet), and often in such Elizabethan syncopations a s ere (e'er), stoln.e (stol'n), and t a w (ta'en). I n reproducing such forms we have followed the inconsistent usage of thc original. W e have also preserved much more of t h e original capitalization than is usual, for often this is a p a r t of t h e meaning. I n like manner we have tended t o a d o p t the lineation of t;he original in nlanp cases where modern editors print prose a s verse or verse as prose. WC have, moreover, followed t h e original punctuation wherever i t was practicable. I n verse we p r i n t a final -ed t o indicate its full syllabic value, otherwise 'd. I 1 1 prose we have followcd the inconsistcncies of the original in this respect. Our general practice has been t o include in footnotes all infornmtion a reader needs f o r i~nmediatc understanding of the given page. I n somewhat empiric fashion WC repeat glosses a s we think the reader needs t o be reminded of thc meaning. F u r t h e r information is given in notes (indicated by t h e letter N in the footnotes) t o be found a t the back of each volumc. Appendices den1 with the t e x t and sources of the play. Square brackets indicate rrlaterial n o t found in the original text. L o n g crnendat,ions o r lines taken from another authoritative text of a play a r e indicated in the footnotes for the information of the reader. W e have silently corrected obvious typographical errors.

Preface of the General Editors


The Text


Text and Date Sources






c : Reading List




brother to Yiola a sea captain, friend to Sebastian CAPTAIK, friend to Tiola gentlemen attending on the Duke


kinsman of Olivia suitor of Oslivia MALVOLIO, steward to 02iuin F A B I A N , an attendant to Olivia T H E C L O W N F E S T E , Oliviah fool




a countess in love w i t h the Duke; sister to Sebastian Olivia's gentlewoman

Lords, a Priest, Sailors, O p c e r s , Jlztsicians, and 0 t h A t tendants Scene: Illyria and the coast nearby] [The Actors'

. . . nearby] N.



Act 1

Enter O r s i ? ~ Duke ~ , of IZZlyria, Curio, and otAer Lords.

Duke. If music be the food of love, p l a y on! Give me excess of it, t h a t surfeiting, T h e appetite may sicken and so die. T h a t strain w e n ! It had n dying fall; 0, it came o'er my ear like the sweet sound That breathes upon a bank of violets, Stealing and giving odor. Enough, no more; 'Tis not so sweet nonr a s it was before. 0 spirit of love, how quick and fresh a r t thou, T h a t notwithstanding t h y capacity, Receireth as the sea. Nought enters there, Of what vttliditv and pitch soe'er, But falls into abatement and low price Evcll in n minute. So full of shapes is fancy That it nlo~le is high fantastical. Curio. \T7ill FOU go hunt, my lord?


E 8 .

1-3 If music . so die N. 4 agen again. fall cadenm* rhythm. 5 sound both the sound of music and of the win& 9-14 0 spirit . in a minute N. 9 quick alive. 12 pitch higk point of a falcon's flight. 14 Even monosyllabic. shapes figurers, fornu. fancy imagination, the mind of the lover N. 15 high f a tastical highly changeable and imaginative.

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T W E L F T H N I G H T , 1. l

Dz~h-e. What, Curio? Cz~rio. T h e hart.. DuIce. JqThy, so I do, the noblest t h a t I have. 0, when mine eyes did see Olivia first, 20 Methought she purg'd the air of pestilence. T h a t instant was I turn'd into a hart, And my desires like fell and cruel hounds E r e since pursue me. How now, what news from her?
Enter Vale71 tine.

Valentine. So please my lord, I might not be atl-

mitted, 25 But from her handmaid do return this answer: T h e element itself, till sevcll years' hest, Shall not behold her face a t ample view ; But like a cloistress she will veiled walk, Ancl water once a d a y her cllnmber round With eye-ozending brine: all this t o season A brother's dead love, ~vlliclislie would lrcey fresh And lasting in her sad remembrance. Duke. 0, she t h a t hath ,z lieart of t h a t fine frame T o pay this debt of love b ~ l t o n brother, How will she love wlicn the rich golden sllnft E a t h kill'd the flock of all affections else T h a t lire in h e r ; when liver, brain, and heart, These sovereign thrones, are all supplied and m'd,
17 hart t,he adult male deer. 18 the noblest N. 20 Methought it scemed 1,o me. 21 hart possibly a pun on 'heart' N. 22 fell savage, fierce. 23 Ere e'er, ever. 2 . 1 might not could not. 2 G element sky. heat the course of the sun. 25 cloistress nun in a convent. 30 eyeoffending brine the salt, tears irritate the eye. to season both 'to spice' and 'to preserve.' 32 remembrance probably four syllables. 33 frame construction. 36 golden shaft Cupid's golden arrow brings love N. 36 else other. 37 liver, brain, and heart suppoxd centera of love, thought, and emotion, respectively.


H e r sweet perfections, with one self king. 40 Aray before me t o sweet beds of flow'rs ; Love-thoughts lie rich when canopied with bow'rs. Exeunt.

Enter Viola, a Captain, and Sailors.

I'iola. W h a t country, friends, is this? Captain. This is ~ l l y r i a lady. , Viola. And what should I do in Illyria? 4 My brother he is in Elysium. Perchance he is not, drom'd. W h a t think you sailors? Captain. It is perchance t h a t you yourself were
S av'd. Viola*.0 my poor brother, and so perchance may he be! Capfain. True, madam, and t o comfort you with chance, 9 Assure yourself, after our ship did split, When you, and those poor number sav'd with you, H u n g on our driving boat, I saw your brother, &lost provident in peril, bind himself (Courage and hope both teaching hini the practice) T o a strong mnst tliat liv'd upon thc sea : Where, like Arion on the dolphin's back, 11 I saw him hold acqunintnnce with the waves S o long as I could see.

39 one self king one and the same person, her husband. 8 Illyria on the cast coast of thc Adrialic. 4 Elysium heaven (Greek mythology) N. 8 chance what m y have happened. 11 driving 'driving before the wind' or 'drifting.' 12 provident foretjeeing and thrifty. 14 liv'd survived by floating. 15 Arion P Orion N .


I'YoZa. F o r saying so, there's gold.

*Mineown escape unfoldeth t o my hope,

IVhereto t h y speech scrves for authority


The like of him. ICnow'st thou this country?

Captain. Ay, madam, well, f o r I was bred and born Not three hours' travel from this very place. I'iola. T%'ho governs hcrc? 25 Captain. A noble duke in n a t u r ~ as in name. Yiola. 'CVhat is his n a m ~ ? ,Cnrpta,in.Orsino. Viola. Orsino. I have heard my father name him. R e was a bachelor then. 30 Captain. And so is ~iom, or was so very late: For but a month ago I went from hencc, And then 'tnras fresh in murmur (as you know W h a t great ones do, the less will prattle of) That he did seek the love of fair Olivia. BioZa. What's she? 35 Captain. A virtuous maid, the daughter of a count T h a t died some tn~elveinonthsince ; then leaving her I n the protection of his son, her brother, 'Who shortly also died; f o r whose dear love, 40 They say, she h a t h abjur'd tile sight And company of men. 0 t h a t I serv'd t h a t lady, Viola. And might not be deliver'd t o the world Till I had made mine own occasion mellow,
19 unfoldeth to my hope reveals itself so as to give me hope (for my brother). 21 the like tllc same cscape. country probably three qHablcs. 22 bred conceived. 32 'twas fresh in murmur there was . a eurrent rumor. 35 What's she 'who's she' and 'what sort of -gerson is she.' 42 deliver'! given ovcr to, disclosed, revealed N. 43 T i l l . . , mellow till I lhnd arranged my own proper opporPnuity (to disclose).


W h a t my estate is. T h a t were hard t o compass, Captain. Because she will admit no kind of suit, 45 No, not the Duke's. Viola. There is a fair behavior in thee, Captain, And though t h a t nature with a l~eauteous wall Dot11 o f t close in pollution,,yet of thee 59 I will believe thou hast a m n d t h a t suits With this t h y fair and outward character. I prethcc (and I'll p a y thee bount~ously) Conceal me what I am, and be my aid F o r such disguise as haply shall becolne 55 T h e form of my intent. I'll serve this Duke, Thou shalt present me as an eunuch t o him.; It may be worth t h y pains. F o r I can sing, And speak t o lliim ill many sorts of music T h a t will allow me very worth his service. 68 W h a t else nlny Imp, t o time I will commit; Only shape thou t h y silence t o my wit. Captain. Be you his eunuch, and your mute 1 ' 1 1 be; When m y tongue blabs, then let mine eyes not see. Exeunt, Vwla. I thank thee. Lead me on.

Enter Sir T o b y a,nd illaria.

Toby. W h a t a plague means my niece t o take the

44 estate position in society. to compass to achieve. 47 behavior both 'conduct' and 'appearance.' 48 ,though that though. 51 character personal appearance. 52 I prethee I prithee, I pra.y thee. 66 The form of my intent my outward purpose. 59 allow me . . service make me very worth while as his servant. 61 to my wit In accordance with my cleverness N. 62 mute silent servant (in

contrast with Viola as the sexless servant). 6


death of her brother thus ? I aln sure care's an enemy t o life. Maria. B y my troth, Sir Toby, you must come in earlier a nights. Your cousin, my lady, takes g r e a t 6 exceptions t o your ill hours. Toby. Why, let her except before excepted. ~ l f a r i a .Ay, but you must confine yourself within 9 the modest limits of order. Toby. Confine? I'll confine myself no finer than I Rm. These clotlles a r e good cnough t o drink in, and so be these boots too. And tlicy be not, let them hang 13 themselves in their own straps. Maria. T h a t quaffing and drinking will undo you. I henrcl my lady talk of i t yesterday, and of a foolirll knight t h a t you brought in one night here t o be her

Toby. W h o ? Sir Andrew Aguecheek? Maria. Ay, he. 20 Tobg. He's as tall a man as any's in Illgrin. ~ l l n r i n \lTliat's . t h a t to th' purpose? T o b y . Why, he has three thousand ducats a gear. iilaria. Ay, but he'll have hut a year in all these 34 ducats. He's n vcrp fool and a prodigal. T o b y . F;e t h a t you'll say s o ! H e plays o' th' violde-gamboys and speaks three or four languages word
4 by my troth truly. 6 a nights 01 nighta. cousin mecl loo,wsely for 'Icinsman,' 'cousin,' 'aunt,' 'nephew,' 'niece.' 7 except before exeepted object wcles~lyto what I do N. 9 modest decent, restrained. order good conduct. 10 h e r 'tighter' and 'better,' both of clothing and conduct, with a quibble on 'confine.' 12 be a regular plural. And if N. 1.4 undo ruin. 20 tall both 'tall' and 'brave' (ironically of Sir Andrew). 22 ducat an Italian coin N. 24 very true, genuine. 35 viol-de-gamboys 'leg-viola,' predecessor of the vioiincello (Italian, viok & ganrba).

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 1. t

for word without book, and hath all the good gifts of nature. 28 Illaria. H e h a t h indeed, almost natural. F o r besides that he's a fool, he's a great quarreler; and but that he ]lath the gift of a coward t o allay the gust he

huth in quarreling, 'tis thought among the prudent lie moulcl quickly hare the gift of a grave. Toby. By this hand, they a r e scoundrels and substractors t h a t say so of him. Who are they? 35 Ikiilria. They t h a t add, uioreover, he's drunk: nightly in your company. Toby. W i t h drinking llealths t o my niece. I'll drink t o her as long as there is s passage in my t h r o a t and drink in Illyrin. He's a coward and a coistrel t h a t will not drinli t o my niece till his brains t u r n o' th' toe like a parish top. What, wench? Casdiliano mlllgo; f o r here comes Sir Andrew Agueface.
Enter Sir Andrea. Andrew. Sir T o b y Belch. How now, Sir Toby Belch ? 45 Toby. Sweet Sir Andrem. Andrew. Bless you, fair shrew. Maria. And you too, sir. Toby. Accost, Sir Andrew, accost. Andrem. What's that ? 50 T o b g . Rly niece's chambermaid.
27 without book by memory. 29 almost natural almost like a fool N. 31-2 gust in taste . . . for. 34 substractors detractors, calumuiators. 36 nightly 'nightly' ancl posibly 'knightly,' 'like a knight.' 40 coistrel a groom, a base fellow. 42 parish top N. wench young girl N. 42-3 Castilian0 vulgo N. Agueface pale and thin-faced. Ague an acute fever, commonly malaria. 46 sweet 'dear,' cr conventional form of address. 47 shrew a ~colding man or woman. 49-55 Accost . . . Accost N.



. C

A.rdrew. Good Mistress Accost, I desire better arquaintance.

Maria. My name is Rfn,ry, sir. 55 Andrezu. Good Mistress Mary Accost. Tobg. you mistake, knight. 'Accost' is front her,
board her, woo her, assail her. dndrem. By my t r o t h I mould not undertake her in this company. I s t h a t the mealling of 'accost'? 80 Jfaria.. F a r e you well, gentlemen. Toby. And thou let p a r t so, Sir Andrew, would thou rnightst never draw sword agen. Andrew. And you p a r t so, mistress, I would I might never dram sword agen. F a i r lady, do you think you 65 have fools in hand? Maria. Sir, I have not you by th' hand. Andrew. M a r r y , but you shall have, and here's my hand. Maria. NOW, sir, thought is free. I p r a y you bring 70 your hand t o th' butt'ry bar and let i t drink. Andrew. Wherefore, sweetheart? What's y o u r metaphor? Maria. It's dry, sir. Andrew. W h y , I think so. I am not such a n ass but E can keep my hand ctry. B u t uhat's your ,jest? 75 Maria. A dsy jest, sir. 312 Andrew F Ala[ria]. 55 Mistress M a y Accost F nzistris Mary,
accost. 56 front her face her. 57

board 'to greet'; but also 'to go on board,' as of a ship (French, aborder). 58 By my troth truly. mdertake in the literal as well ns the figurative sense. 61 And thou let part so if you let her go thus. 63 agen again. 63 And if. 15 fools in hand fools to do business wit,h. 67 Marry originally 'the Virgin Mary,' but hcre a mild oath, 'indeed,' 'to be sure.' 10 butt9ry bar N. it your hand, i.e. 'Have a drink.' 73 It's dry,
& N.


Andrew. Are you full of them?

JIaria. Ay, sir, I have them a t my fingers' ends. Marry, now I let g o your hand, I am barren. Exit. Toby. 0 knight, thou lack'st a cup of canary. When 81 did I see thee so p u t down? Andrew. Never in your life, I think, unless you see canary p u t me down. Metl~inkssometimes I have no more wit than a Christian or an ordinary Inan has. B u t I am a great eater of beef and I believe t h a t does harm t o my wit. 88 Toby. N o question. Andrew. And I thought that, I'd forswear it;. I'll ride home tomorrow, Sir Toby. 90 Toby. Pourquoi, my dear knight? Andrew. W h a t is 'pourquoi'? Do, o r not do? I would I had bestowed t h a t time in the tongues t h a t I have in fencing, dancing, and bear-baiting. 0, had 94 I but followed the a r t s ! Toby. Then hadst thou had a n excellent head of hair. Andrezc. JT7hy, would t h a t have mended my hair? Toby. Past question, for thou seest it will not curl by nature. 99 Andrew. B u t i t becomes me well enough, does't n o t ? Toby. Excellent. It hangs like flax on a distaff;
79 barren barren of jokes. 80 canary a sweet wine from the Canary Islands. 81 put down discomforted. 83 methinks it seeto me. 83-4 no more wit than a Christian no more intelligence wit N. wit intellect, mind. than the average man. 85-6 great 88 And if. 90 Pourquoi why (French). 93 bear-baiting N. '34the arts liberal learning such as languages. 97 mended improved. 98-9 curl by nature F cook my nature. N. 100 becomes me P becoms W. 101 like flax on a distaff like straight stringa of flax on a stick used in spinning.


and I hope t o see a huawife take thee between her 103 legs a n 3 spin i t off. Andrew. Faith, I'll home tornorrow, S i r Toby. Your niece will not be seen, o r if she be, it's four t o one slie'll none of me. T h e Count himself here hard by woos her. T o b y , She'll none o' th' Count. She'll n o t match above her degree, neither in estate, years, nor wit; I have heard her swear't. T u t , there's life in't, man. Andrew. I'll s t a y a month longer. I am a fellow o ' th' strangest mind i' t h y world. I delight in masques and revels sometimes altogether. T o b g . A r t thou good a t these kick-chnwses, knight? Andreu. As a n y man in Illyria, whatsoever he be, under the degree of my betters, and yet I will not compare with an old man. Toby. W h a t is t h y excellence in rt gnllinrd, knight? Andrew. Faith, I can cut a, caper. Toby. And I can cut the mutton to't. 120 Andrew. And I think I have t h e back-trick simply ns strong as any man in Illyria. T o b g . Wherefore a r e these things hid? Wherefore have these gifts a curtain before 'ern? Are they like t o take dust, like Mistress hlnll's picture? Why dost thou not g o t o church in n galliard and come honlc in a coranto? hly very walk should be a jig. I would.
102 huswife housewife, pronounced 'huzzif.' 106 hard by near by. 109 degree position in society. estate fortune. 113 altogether in all respects. 114 kick-chawses trifles (French, queZque chose). 116 under the degree of my betters except of R social ranlc higher t,han mine. 117 an old man probably 'an experienced person.' 118 galliard a quick dance in triple time. 119 caper 9, fro1ic;somo leap; also a spice used with mutton. 121 back-trick a step backward in a dance N. 124 like likely. 125 take collect. Mistress Mall's picture an?; woman's portrait N. 127 coranto a swift running dance (French courante), should would.

T W E L F T H NLCEIT, 1. 3

not so much as make water but in a sink-a-pace. W h a t dost thou mean? Is it a world t o hide virtues i n ? I did think by the excellent constitution of thy leg, it was form'd under the s t a r of n gallinrd. 131 Andrew. A y , 'tis strong, and i t does indifferent well in a damyd color'd stoclr. Shall we sit about sollie revels ? 134 Toby. W h a t shall we do else? Were we n o t born under T a u r u s ? Andrew. T a u r u s ? That's sides and heart. Toby. No, sir: i t is legs and thighs. L e t me see thee Exewn t. caper. Ha, higher ; ha, ha, excellent!

Enter Valentine, n.nd Viola in man's attire. Vnlcl~t,ine. I f the Duke contiriue these favors towards you, Cesario, you are like t o be much udvanc'd. Hc hath known you but three days and already you a r e no s t r i ~ n g c r . 4 Viola. You either fear his humor or my ~legljgence, t h a t you call in question the continuance of his love. Iu hc inconstant, sir, in his favors? I'alent hze. No, believe me. Enter Duke, Curio, and Attendants. Viola.. I thank you. Here comes the Count.
128 sink-a-pace tt rapid dance of five steps (French n'nquc-p) N. 131 under the star of a galliard i.e. under a dancing atar. 133 dam'd color'd N. stock stocking. sit set N. 136 Taurus the Lull, ,me of tllo signs of the Zodiac N. 137 That's sides F l'hal sides. 5 his humor or my negligence his changeableness or my neglc-f
(as a servant). 11


Dzhlie. TT7ho saw Cesario, ho? Violn. On your attendance, m y lord, here, D1~Jie.S t a n d you awhile .aloof. Ccsario,
Thou knonr'st no less b u t all. I hare unclasp'd T o thee the book even of my secret soul. Therefore, good youth, address t h y g a i t unto h e r ; 16 Be not denled access, stand a t her doors, And tell them there t h y fixed foot shall grow Till thou have audience. Viola. Sure, my noble lord, If she be so abnndon'd t o her sorrow eo As it is spoke, she never will admit me. D1~7ie. Be c l ~ m o ~ o u and s leap a11 civil bounds R a t h e r t h a n lllalie unprofited return. T'ioln. Say I do speak with her, my lord, what then? 1)uke. 0, then unfold the pnssio~lof my love; es Surprise her with discourse of my dear f a i t h ; It shall become thee well t o a c t my woes. She \{-ill attend i t better in t h y youth T h a n in a nuncio's of more grave aspect. ITioln. I thinlc not so, my lord. Duke. D e a r lad, believe it; SO F o r they shall yet belie t h y happy years T h a t s a y thou a r t a man. Diannss lip I s riot more s ~ i ~ o o and t h rubious ; t h y small pipe I s as the msiden's orgnn, shrill and sound,
12 you all except Cesario. 13 no less but all everylhing. 14 even monosyllabic; 15 address thy gait direct thy steps. 16 access st;ressed - - doors N. 21 clamorous noisy. civil polite. 22 unprofited unproductive. 25 surprise to overcome suddenly (Frencli su.rprendre). dear 'extrcmo,' commonly uscd as an intensive. 28 nuncio's mnessenger's. aspect stressed - L . 32 rubious ruby red. pipe throat. 33 sound clear.

And all is semblative a woman's part. I know thy cor~stellation is right a p t 95 F o r this affair. Some four or five attend him, All if you will ;for I ~nyselfa m best When least in company. Prosper well in this, And thou shalt live as freely s s thy lord T o call his fortunes thine. Viola. 1'11 do my best 46 T o woo your lady: [Aside.] yet a barful strife! Whoe'er I woo, myself would be his wife. Exeu/~jt.

Enter Maria and Clown. Maria. Nay, either tell me where thou hast been, or* ' I will not open my lips so wide as a bristle may enter in way of t h y excuse. My lady will hang thee for t h y

Clown. Let her hang me. H e that is well hang'd in this world needs to fear no colors. ~lfarin. Make t h a t good. Clown. He shall see none t o fear. 3faria. A good lenten answer. I can tell thee where 10 t,he saying was born, of 'I fear no colors.' Clown. Where, good &fistress hlary? Maria.. I n tllc wars ; and t h a t may you be bold t o say in your foolery.
34 semblative a woman's part likc a woman's actions. a possibly 'of a.' 35 thy constellation thy nr~tureN. apt suited. 36 him Cesario (on his visit to Olivia), 30 freely without restriction. 41 a barful strife a conflict full of hindrances. 41-2 woo . woo would a verbal quibble N. G to fear no colors 'to fear nolihing,' proverbial N. 9 lenten thin, poor. 13




CZown. Well, God give them wisdom t h a t have it; and those t h a t are fools, let them use their talents. 15 Maria. Yet you will bc hang'd for being so long absent, o r t o be turn'd away. I s not t h a t as good as a hanging t o you? CZo7c~e.Many a good hanging prevents a bad marriage; and f o r turning away, let summer bear i t out. 21 rllaria. You a r e resolute t h e n ? Clor~n. N o t so neither; but I a m resolv'd on two points. Maria. T h a t if one break, the other will hold; o r 25 if both break, .your gnskinn fall. Clown. Apt, in good faith; very apt. Well, g o t h y way. If Sir T o b y would ler~ve drinking, thou wert as witty a piece of Eve's flesh as any in Illyria. Mnria. Peace, you rogue; no inore o' that. Here comes my lady. Make your excuse wisely, ypu were bes t. [Exzt.] 31

Enter La,dy Olivia with ilfaluolio. Clown. Wit, and't be thy w i l l , p u t me into good fooling. Those wits t h a t think they have thee do very oft prove fools; and I t h a t arn sure I lack thee may pass f o r a wise man. For what says Quinapnlus? 'Better a witty fool than a foolish wit.' God bless thee, lady. OEiuia. Take the fool away.
14-15 Well, God talents N. 20 for as for. away N. let summer bear it out let the warm weather rnalce it (the loss of.:py job) endmabla. 24 if one [point] break 'point' in the argument and 'point' as a string used to hold up breeches. 25 gaskins loose breeches. 27-8 If Sir Toby Illyria N. 30-1 you were best it would be best for you. 32 and% if it. 35 Quinapalus m invontion of the Clown.

.. .



T W E L F T H N I G H T . L.

Clown. Do you not hear, fellows? Take away the lady. -40 Olivia. GO to, y'are a dry fool. I'll no more of you. Besides, you grow dishonest. Clown, Two faults, madonna, that drink and good counsel will amend. F o r give the dry fool drink, then is the fool not dry. Bid the dishonest man mend himself: if he mend, he is no longer dishonest; if he cannot, let the botcher mend him. Anything that's mended is but patch'd; virtue that transgresses is but patch'd with sin, and sin that amends is but patch'd with virtue. If that this simple syllogism will serve, so ; if i t trill not, what remedy? As there is no true cuckold but calamity, so beauty's a flower. The lady bade take away the fool; therefore I say again, take her away. 55 Olivia. Sir, I bade them take away you. Clown. Misprision in the highest degree. Lady, cuct~llus7 ~ 0 1 1facit ~ naonachu~m.That's as much t o say as, I nrcar not motley in my brain. Good madonna, give me leave to prove you a fool. 60 Olivia. Can you do it? CZ0w.n. Dextcriously, good madonna. Olivia. &lake your proof.

41 go to go away, cease. dry 'barren,' 'unfruitful,' rather than 'ironical.' 42 dishonest unreliable (because he has been absent). 43 madonna my lady (Italian ~ n i a dm~na). 44 dry 'thirsty' and 'barren.' 47 botcher a mender, especially rt tailor or cobbler who does repairs. 47-50 Anything . . . virtue N. 51-2 As there . . . flower N, 56-7 Misprision mistalie, cucullus . . . monachum the cowl doesn't make the monk. 5s motley clothing of a mixed color, worn by stagc fools N. 61 dexteriously variant of 'dextero~~ly.'

T W E L F T H N I G H T . I.

Cloron. I must catechize you for it, madonna. Good ing mouse of ~rlrtue, answer me. 64 Olivin. Well, sir, f o r want of other idleness, I'll bide your proof. Clomn, Good madonna, why mourn'st thou? Olivia. Good fool, for my brother's death. Clowr~. I think his soul is in hell, madonna. 70 Olivin. I know his 5oul is in heaven, fool, Clown. The more fool, madonna, t o mourn for your brother's soul, being in heaven. T a k e away the fool, gen tlemcn. OZivia. IV11at think you of this fool, hIalvolio? Doth he not mend? 75 Malvolio. Yes, and shall do till the pangs of death shake him. Infirmity t h a t decays the wise doth ever make the better fool. Clown. God send you, sir, a speedy infirmity for the better increasing your folly. Sir Toby will he sworn t h a t I am no fos, but he will not pass his word for twopence t h a t you a r e no fool. 83 OZivia. How s a y you t o that, Malvolio? Malaolio. I marvel your ladyship takes delight in such n barren rascrd. I s a w him p u t clown the other d a y with an ordinary fool t h a t has no more brain than a stone. Look you now, he's out of his guard already. Unless you laugh and minister occasion t o him, he is gagg'd. I protest I take these wise inen t h a t crow so at these set kind of fools no better than the fools' zanies. Q1
63-4 Good my mouse '~ny good mouse'; 'mouse' was a common term 01 endearment. 75 mend get better as to his jokes. 76 shall do shttll become more foolish. 85-6 barren empty (of nit). put down with defeated by. 87 out of his guard without an answer of wit. 88 minister occasion g i ge opportunity or opening. 90 set kind conventional sort. 01 zanies N. 1G



T W E L P T I I N I G H T , 1. 6

Olivia. 0, you a r e sick of self-love, Malvolio, and taste with a distemper'd appetite. T o be generous, guiltless, and of free disposition, is t o take those things for bird-bolts t h a t you dean cannon bullets. There is no slander in an allow'd fool, though he d o nothing but rail; nor no railing in a known discreet man, though he do nothing but reprove. Cloron. Now Mercury endue thee with leasing, for 100 thou speak'st well of fools.
E n t e r Il/ia,rin.

Maria. Madani, there is at the gate a young gcntleman much desires t o speak with you. Olivia. From the Count Orsino, is i t ? Marin.. I know not, madam. 'Tis a fair young man and well attended. 10s Olivia. W h o of my people hold him in delay? Maria. Sir Toby, madam, your kinsman. 0livi.a. Fetch him off, I p r a y you. H e speaks nothing but madman. Fie on him. [ExitMaria..] Go you, Malvolio. If it be a suit from the Count, I am sick o r not a t home. W h a t you will, t o dismiss it. ( E x i t Jfalvolio.) Now you see, sir, how your fooling grows 113 old and people dislike it. Clown. T h o u hast spoke f o r us, madonna, as if t h y eldest son should be a fool; whose scull Jove cram l16 with brains, for here he comes.
92 of with. 93 distemper'd ill, unhealthy. 95 bird-bolts blunt headed arrows for shooting birds. 96 no slander in an allow'd fool N. 99 Mercury Mercury nraa full of guile and tricks. endue supply with. leasing lying. 100 madman like a lunntic. 113 old stale. 115 should be were going to be (in the future). 116 h e Sir Toby, drunk. 17

T W E L F T H N I G H T , I.

Enter Sir T o b y .

One of thy kin has a most weak pia mnter. Olivia. By mine honor, half drunk. W h a t is he a t the gate, cousin? Toby. A gentleman. leo Olivia. A gentleman? W h a t gentleman? Tobg. 'Tis a gentleman here. A plague o' these pickle-herring ! How now, s o t ? Clown. Good Sir Toby. 124 Olivia. Cousin, cousin, how have you come so early by this lethargy? T o b y . Lechery, I defy lechery. There's one at the
129 Olirria. A y , marry, what is he? Toby. L e t him be the divel and he mill, I care not. Exit. Give me faith, say I. Well, it's all one. Olivin. What's a drunken man like, fool.? C2own. Like a drown'd man, a fool, and a madman. One draught above heat makes him a fool, the second mads him, and a third drowns him. 135 Olivin. Go, thou, and seek the crowner, and let hirn sit O' my coz; f o r he's in the third degree of drink: he's c1rowl1'd. G o look after him. Clown. H e is but mad yet, madonna, and the fool [Exit.] shall look t o the mttclinnn.

117 pia mater imermost membrane enveloping the brain. 118 What 'what' and 'who.' 122 A plague N. 123 sot fool, clown. 125 Cousin loosely for 'kinsman' or 'uncle.' 126 lethargy torpor (of drunkenness). 129 marry to be sure. 130 divel devil. and if. 131 faith to resist the devil. it's all one no difference. 134 One draught above heat one drink above the amount to make him normally warm. 136 crowner varitlrlt of 'coroner.' 137 sit o' my coz hold an inquest on my oousin or kinsman (Sir '.Coby).


Enter Jfa,luoZio.
Malvolio. Madam, yond young fellow swears he will speak with you. I told him you were sick; he takes on hirn t o understand so much and therefore comes t o speak with you. I told him you mere asleep ;he seems t o have a foreknowledge of t h a t too, and therefore comes t o speak with you. W h a t is t o be said t o him, lady? He's fortified against a n y denial. Olivia. Tell him he shall not speak with me. Malvolio. H a s been told so ; and he says he'll stand at your door like a sheriff's p o s t and be the supporter t o a bench, but he'll speak wit11 you. 151 Olivia. W h a t kind o' man is he? ilfalvolio. Why, of mankind. Obiuia. W h a t manner of man? ilfalvolio. Of very ill manner. He'll speak with you, mill you or no. 158 Olivia. Of what personage and years is he? Jfaluolio. Not yet old enough for a man nor young enougll for a boy: as a squash is before 'tis a pescod, or a codling when 'tis aIn~ost an apple. 'Tis wit11 him in standing water, between boy and man. H e is very well favor'd and he speaks very shre~vishly. One would think his mother's milk were scarce out of him. OlP'via. L e t lzim approach. Call in m y gentlewoman. MaEvoEio. Gentlewoman, my lady calls. Exit. 16s
Enter Maria.
142-3 on him upon himelf. 149 Has he has (from 'h' has'). 150-1 sheriff's post supporter to a bench N. 159 squash unripe pea pod. pescod peascod, ripe pea pod. 160 codling unripe apple. 161 standing water the tide at ebb or flood when it flows neither way. 162 w e l l favor'd of good appearanw or face. shrewishly irritably.

.. .




Olivia. Give me my veil; come, throw it o'er my face. We'll once more hear Orsino's embassy.


Viola. T h e honorablc lady of the house, which is

she? mill ?

Oliwia. Speak t o me; I shall answer f o r her. Y o u r Viola. Most radiant, exquisite, and u n m a t c h n b ! ~ beauty. I p r a y you tell me if this be the lady of tlv. house, f o r I never saw her. I would be loath t o cast away my speech, f o r besides t h a t i t is excellently well penn'd, I have taken g r e a t pains t o con it. Good beauties, let me sustain no scorn. I am very c o n ~ p t i ble, even t o the least sinister usage. 179 Olivia. Whencc came you, sir ? Viola. I can s a y little more t h a n I have studied, and t h a t question's out of rriy part;. Good gentle one, give me modest assurance if you be the lady of the house, t h a t I may proceed in my speech. 184 Olivia. A r e you a comedian? Viola,. No, my profound heart; and yet ( b y the very fangs of malice I swear) I am not t h a t I play. Are you the l a d y of the house? 188 Oliwin. If I do not usurp mysclf, I am. Viola. Most certain, if you a r e she, ypu do u s u r p yourself ; for what is yours t o bestow is n o t yours
167 SD Enter Viola F Enter 'CrioZenta N. (SD is used throughout to indicrtt,~stage direction.) 173 if this be N. 176 con learn, memorize. 177 sustain endure, rcceivc (from you). comptible spelling variant of 'countable' (sensitive). 178 the least sinister usage the hostile treatment,. 182 modest moderate. 184 comedian %clor. 185 my profound lioart N. 185-6 the very fangs of malice the very worst reports and rumors about me. 189-90 you do usurp yourself i.e. you should be married.


t o reserve. B u t this is from nly commission. I will on with my speech in your praise alld then show you the heart of my message. Olivia. Come t o what is important in't. I forgive you the praise. 195 Violu. Alas, 1 took g r e a t pains t o study it, a n d 'tis

poetical. Olivia. It is the more like t o be feigned; I p r a y you keep it in. I heard you were saucy a t my gates, and allow'd your approach rather t o wonder a t you than t o hear you. If you be not mad, be gone ; if you have reason, be brief. 'Tis not t h a t time of moon with me t o make one in skipping a dialogue. 203 illaria.. Will you hoist sail, s i r ? H e r e lies your \?-ay. Viola. No, good swabber; I a m t o hull here a little
longer. Some mollification for your giant, sweet lady. Tell me your mind; I am a messenger. Olivia.. S u r e you have some hidems nlntter t o dcliver, when the courtesy of i t is so fearful. Speak your office. 210 Viola. It alone concerns your car. I bring no overt u r e of war, no taxation of homage. I hold the olive in my hand. M y words are as full of pence as matter. 07iz.i~. Yet you began rudely. PC7hrzt are y o u ? IIVllat would YOU? 215 Viola. The rudeness t h n t h a t h appcar'd in me have I learn'd from my entertainment. \%'hat I am, and
191 from in addition to, outside. 194-5 forgive you excuse you (from delivering). 202 reason snnil(y. 202-3 'Tis not that time dialogue N. 204 Here lies your way i.e. go. 205 swabber minor officer in charge of cleaning a ship. to hull to float withorit sail. 206 giant (guarding) monster K.209 when the courtesy of it is so fearful when t.he manner of delivering it is so frightening. 210 office message, business. 212 taxation of homage dcmnd or assessment for submission. 213 matter mea~Gng, significance. 214 What are you w l ~ o are you. 217 my entertainment my reception.



what I would, are a s secret as maidenhead: t o your ears, divinity ; t o any otllcr's, profanation. Olirin. Give us the place alone; we will hear this divinity. [Exitillaria.] Now, sir, what is your t e x t ? T ' i o l a . Most sweet lady. Oliuin. A comfortable doctrine, and much may be said of it. Where lies your text? 23 5 Viola. I n Orsino's bosom. Olivia. I n his bosom? I n wllut c l ~ a p t e r of his bosom? Viola. T o answer by the method, in the first of his heart. Oliuia. 0,I have read i t ; it is heresy. Have you no more t o s a y ? 230 Viola. Good madam, lct nlc see your face. Olicin. Have you any commission from your lord to negotiate with m y face? You are now out of your text; but we mill draw the curtain and show you the picture. [Unveils.] Loolc you, sir, such a one I was 236 this present. Is't not well done? Viola. Excellently done, if God did all. Olivia. 'Tis in grain, sir; 'twill endure wind and weather. 239 Viola. 'Tis beauty truly blent, whose red and white, Nature's own sweet and cunning hand laid on. Lady, you are the cruel'st she alive If you will lead these graces t o the grave, 244 And leave the world no copy. 3livia. 0, sir, I will not be so hardhearted. I will
218 maidenhead chastity. 219 divinity a holy measage (of love). 227 the method the formal summary of contents. 233-4 out of your text o f f your assigned subject. 236 this present a minute ago. 238 in grain ;ast dyed N. 350 blent blended. 341 cunning



give out divers schedules of my beauty. It shall be inventoried and every particle and utensil labcl'd t o my will: as, item, two lips indifferent red; itern, two grey eyes, with lids t o them; item, one neck, one chin, and so forth. Were you sent hither t o praise me? Viola. I see you what you are; you are too proud; B u t if you were the divel, you a r e fair. 252 My lord and master loves you. 0, such love Could. be but recompens'd though you were crown'd T h e nonpareil of beauty. Olivia. How does he love me? 255 I'iola. W i t h adorations, fertill tears, With groans t h a t thunder love, v i t h sighs of fire. Olivia. Your lord does know my mind; I cannot love him. Yet I suppose him virtuous, know him noble, 2~ Of great estate, of fresh and stainless youtlz ; I n voices well divulg'd, free, learu'd, and valiant, And in dimension and the shape of nature A gracious person. B u t yet I cannot love him. H e rnight liave took his answer long ago. Viola. I f I did love yen in xny master's flame, 265 \$Tit11 such a suff'ring, such s deadly life, 111 your denial I would find no sense; P would not understand it. Olivia. Why, what would you? F7iola. P.fal;e me a willow cabin a t your g a t e 270 And call upon my soul within the house;
246 schedules list,ings. 247 utensil article. label'd to addcd to. 248 item namely N. 252 divel devil. 256 fertill tears fertile tezrs, abundnnt bars. 261 In voices w e l l divulg'd, free in public opinion well reported, generous. 262 dimension figure, form of body. 263 gracious graceful. 266 deadly lifa life which is like death. 269 willow a symbol of gicf for unrequited love. cabin hut.


W r i t e loyal cantons of contemned love And sing them loud even in the dead of night; E-Iallow y o u r name t o the reverberate hills And make the babbling gossip of the a i r C r y out 'Olivia.' 0, you should not rest Between t h e elements of a i r and e a r t h B u t you should pity me. 0li.via. You might do much. W h a t is y o u r parentage? Viola. Above my fortunesSyet my s t a t e is well. I am a gentleman. Oliuin. Get you t o your lord. 280 I cannot love him. L e t him send n o more Unless, perchance, ~ o come u t o me again T o tell rrle how he takes it. Fare you well. I thank you f o r your pains. Spend this f o r me. 28.4 Viola. I am no fee'cl post, l a d y ; keep your purse; M y master, not myself, lnclrs recompense. Lovc make his heart of flint t h a t you shall love; r like my master's, be And let y o ~ fervor, Exit. Placsd in contempt. Z'arcwell, f a i r cruelty. %W Olivia. 'What is your parentage?' 'Above my fortunes, yet my s t a t e is well. I am a gentleman.' I'll be sworn thou a r t . Thy tongue, thy face, t h y limbs, actions, and spirit D o give thee fivefold blazon. N o t too f a s t ; soft, soft ; Unless the master mere the ma.n. How now? 295
271 cantons variarit of 'cantos,' 'songs.' contemned condemned, rejected. 272 even monosyllabic. 273 Hallow 'hallos,' 'call out,' and 'make holy.' 274 babbling gossip echo. 279 state condition, social position. 2% fee'd post messenger to be paid or tipped. 287 Love make may love make. that the antecedent is his (of him). 289 Plac'd in contempt scorned. 292 thou art N. 294 blazon a shield or coat of arms in heraldry. 295 Unless the master were the man unless Orsino mere Cesario.

T W E L F T H NIGHT, I . 6

Xven so quickly may one catch the plague? :dethinks I feel this youth's perfections With a n invisible and subtle stealth .ilo creep in a t mine eyes. Well, let it be. 4,Yhat ho, Malvolio !


Here, madam, a t your service. 'MalvoZio. OIivia. R u n a f t e r t h a t same peevish messenger The County's man. H e left t.his ring behind him, 'SVould I or not. Tell him I'll none of it. Desire him not t o flatter with his lord

Nor hold him up with hopes. I a m n o t f o r him. I f t h a t the youth will come this way tomorrow,
I'll give him reasons for't. Hie thee, Malvolio. JIa.Zuolio. Madam, I will. Exit. Olivia. I do 1 know not what, and f e a r t o find 309 Mine eye too g r e a t a flatterer f o r my mind. t h y force: ourselves we do n o t owe. Fate, sl~ow [Exit.] W h a t is decreed must be, and be this so.

Finis, Actu.s pm'7nus.

302 County's 'Count's' or 'Duke's'; F Countes N. 304 t o flatter with t o encourage. 310 W e :eye mind N. 311 owe possess, lawn, control.

.. .

Act fl

Enter Antonio and

An.tonio. IITill you stay no longer? N o r w i l l you n o t t h a t I g o with you? Sebastian. B y your po.tience, no. Riy s t a r s shine darkly over me; the malignancy of my f a t e might perhaps distemper yours. Therefore I shall crave of you y o u r leave t h a t I Inay bear my evils alone. It were a bad recompense for your love t o l a y a n y of them on you. Antonio. L e t me yet ltnom of you whither you are bouncl. 10 Sebastian. No, sooth, sir. M y determinate voyage is mere extravagancy. B u t I perceive in you so excellent a touch of modesty t h a t you will n o t cxt o r t from me what I am willing t o keep i n ; therefore i t charges me in manners the rather t o express myself. You must know of me then, Antonio, my name is Sebastian, which I call'd Roderigo. Riy 17 father was t h a t Sebastian of 3Iessnline mhoin I know you have heard of. H e left behind him myself and a sister, both bnrn in a n hour. If the heavens

. . . distemper yours N. 11 sooth truly. determinate determined

1-2 Nor

. . . not N.

3-5 patience allon~ance,leave. My stars

upon. 12 extravagancy a n extravagant fancy. 13 touch feeling. 15 it charges me in manners I am compelled in good manners. 18 Messaline perhaps bfitylene, but identification is unnecasary. 20 in an hour in the same hnnr.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 1

had been pleas'd, mould we had so ended. But you, sir, alter'd t h a t , f o r some hour before you took me
from the breach of the sea was my sister dromn'd. 24 Antonio. Alas the d a y ! Sebastian. A lady, sir, though it was said she much resembled me, was yet of many accounted beautiful. B u t though I could not with such estimable wonder overfar believe t h a t , yet thus f a r I will boldly pub4ish her: she bore a mind t h a t envp could n o t b u t call fair. She is drown'd already, sir, with salt water, though I seem "c drown her remembrance again with more. 32 An tonio. Pardon me, sir, your bad entertainment. Sebastian.. 0 good Antonio, forgive me your trouble. Antonio. If you will not murther me f o r my love, 36 let me be y o u r servant. Sebastian. If you will n o t undo what you have done, t h a t is, kill him whom you have recover'd, desire i t not. Fare ye well a t once. My bosom is full of E n d ness; and I a m yet so near the manners of my mother t h a t , upon the least occasion more, mine eyes will tell tales of me. I am bound -to the Count Orsino's court. Farewell. EAt. 43 T h e gentleness of all the gods go with thee. 45 I have many enemies in Orsino's court, Else would I very shortly see thee there.
23 the breach of the sea the breaking waves, usually on a coast. 27 with such estimable wonder with so much admiring wonder (for her). 28 publish declare, describe publicly. 33 your bad entertainment fhe poor hospitality I have given you. 34 your trouble for causing you trouble. 35 murther me for my love i.e. l d l me by leaving me. for in reward for. 38 recover'd saved. 44 gentleness ?cindlinew.

a .

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. I

B u t come what may, I do adore thee so T h a t danger shall seem sport and I will go.


Enter Viola and Malvolio at several doors. Malvolio. Were not you ev'n now with the Countess Oliviu.? 17iola. Even now, sir. On a moderate pace I have since arriv'd but hither. 4 Mnlvolio. She returns this ring t o you, sir. You might have saved me my pains t o have taken it away yourself. She adds, moreover, t h a t you should p u t your lord into a desperate assurance she will notic of him. And one thing more, t h a t you bc never so hardy t o come again in his affairs, unless i t be t o report your lord's taking of this. 13eceive i t so. 12 Viola. She took the ring of me. I'll none of it. Il.inlaolio. Come, sir, you peevishly thrclv i t t o her; and her will is, i t should be so return'd. If it be worth stooping for, there it lies, in your eye; if ~ i o t , Edi. be it his t h a t finds it. Viola. I left no ring with her. W h a t mcans this lady? 17 Fortune forbid my outside have not charmed her. She made good view of me; indeed, so much
SD Enter
at several doors N. 3 On a moderate pace at a moderate waking pace. G to have taken it if you had taken it. 8 a desperate assurance she will none of him an extreme msurance leaving no hope that she will have any part of him. 10 so hardy to come so venturesome as to come. 18 not emphatic negative attached to forbid. 19 made good view of me looked favorably a t me.


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. e
20 T h a t methought her eyes had lost her tongue, F o r she did speak in s t a r t s distractedly. She loves me sure; the cunning of her passion Invites me in this churlish messenger. None of my lord's ring? Why, he sent her none. 25 I am t h e man. I f it be so, as 'tis, Poor lady, she were better love a dream. Disguise, I see thou a r t a wickedness Wherein the pregnant enemy does much. How easy is i t for the proper false S(J I n women's waxen hearts t o set their forms. Alas, 0, frailty is the cause, not we, F o r such a s we a r c made, if such we be. How will this fadge? M y master loves her dearly ; And I (poor monster) fond as much on him; 35 And she (mistaken) seenis to dote on me. W h a t will become of this? As I am man, My s t a t e is desperate f o r my master's love. As I am woman (now alas the day!), W h a t thriftless sighs shall poor Oliviu breathe? 40 0 Time, thou must untangle this, n o t I; It is t o o hard a knot f o r me t' untie. [Exit.]


Enter Sir T o b y and Sir Andrew.

T o b y . Approach, S i r Andrew. N o t t o be abed a f t e r

20 methought it seemed to me. her eyes had lost her tongue what she saw had caused her to lose her tongue. 22 cunning craftiness. 23 in through. 28 pregnant enemy strong enemy N. 29 the proper false i.e. those who appear to be respectable and genuine but are deceivers. 30 forms 'impressionsJ as of a seal, and 'appearance.' 31-2 Alas . such we be N. 33 fadge fit, be suitable. 34 monster because of both sexes. fond dote. 37 desperate pronounced 'desp'rate.' 39 thriftless unprofitable.



T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 3

midnight is t o be u p betirnes, and diluculo surgere, thou know'st. Andrew. Nay, by my troth, I know n o t ; but I know to be u p late is t o be u p late. 5 T o b y . A false conclusion: I hate i t as an unfill'd can. T o be u p after midnight and t o g o t o bed then, is early; so t h a t t o g o to bed after midnight is t o go t o bed hetinies. Does not our lives consist of the four elements ? 10 And?-cw. Faith, so they say; but I think it rather consists of eating and drinking. T o b g . Th' a r t a scholar. Let us therefore eat and drink. Rrlarian, I say, a stoup of wine. Enter Clown. 1s Andrew. Here comes the fool, i' faith. CIOZCJGTL HOW now, my hearts? Did you never see the picture of 137e Tllrcc? T o b y . FVelcome, ass. Now let's have a catch. 18 A?tdrm. By my troth, the fool has an excellent breast. I had rather than forty shillings I had such a leg and so sweet a breath t o sing as the fool has. I n sooth, thou mast in very gracious fooling last night when thou spok'st of Pigrogromitus, of the Vupians passing the equinoctial of Queubus. 'Twas very good, i' faith. 1 sent thee sixpence for t h y 26 lernan. I-Iadst i t ?
2 betirnes early. diluculo surgere to get up at dawn; F Deliculo N. 4 by my troth truly. 7 can metal vessel for holding liquor. 9-10 Does not . . . elements N. l 4 stoup a drinking vessel. 16 hearts a term of endearment. 17 the picture of We Three N. 18 a catch rr musical round in which one singer 'catchcs' at the words of anolher. 20 breast lungs, henc.c voice in singing. 22 gracious graceful, elegant. 23-4 Pigrogomitus . Queubus the names


are meaningless. 26 leman sweetheart. 30


Clown. I did impeticos t h y gratillity, f o r Mnlvolio's nose is no whipstock. My lady has a white hand, and the Myrmidons are no bottle-ale houses. 29 Andrew. Excellent. Why, this is the best fooling, when all is done. Now a song. Toby. Come on, there is sixpence for you. Let's have a song. Andrew. There's a testril of me too. I f onc knight give a 35 Clown. Would you have a love song, o r R. song of good life? Toby. A love song, n love song. Andrem. Ay, ay. I care not for good life.

Clown sings.
0 mistress mine, where cre you 0,stay and hear, your true
roaming? love's coming, That can sing both high and low. Trip no further, pretty sweeting; Journeys end in lovers meeting, Every wise man's son doth know.


Andrew. Excellent good,

i' faith.

Toby. Good, good.

Clown [sings].
W h a t is love? 'Tis not hereafter; Present mirth hath present laughter; What's to come is still unsure. I n delay there lies no plenty; Then come kiss me, sweet and t w a ~ t y : Youth's a stuff will not endure.

27-9 I did impeticos thy gratillity . . bottle-ale houses N. 34 testril diminutive of 'tester,' 'sixpence.' of from. 35 give a P give a. 37 good life virtuous living. 40 0 mistress mine N. 50 stU al~irays.52 sweet and twenty 'sweet a n d twenty time9 sweet' or 'sweet and twenty years old.'

I'TI'JiLETH N I G H T , 11. S

Andrew. A mellifluous voice, as I am true knight. T o b y . A contagious breath. 55 Andrew. Very sweet and contagious, i' faith. T o b y . T o hear by the nose, i t is dulcet in contagion. But shall we make the melkin dance indeed? Shall we rouse the night owl in a catch that will dram three souls out of one weaver? Shall me do t h a t ? 60 Andrew. And you love me, let's do't. I am dog a t s catch. Clozon. B y ' r Lady, sir, and some dogs will catch M well. Andrew. Most certain. Let our catch be 'Thou

Clown. 'Hold thy peace, thou knave,' knight? I shall be constrain'd in't t o call thee knave, knight. AncErew. 'Tis not the first time I have constrained one t o call me knave, Begin, fool. It begins, 'Hold thy P C R C ~ . ' 71 Clorwa. I shall never begin if I hold my peace. Andrm. Good, i' faith ;come, begin.

Catch sung. Enter Maria. Ifaria. W h a t a caterwauling do you keep here? If my lady hare not cnll'd up her steward Mnlvolio and bid him turn you out of doors, never trust me. 76 Toby. My lady's a Catayan, we are politicians, BIalvolio's a Peg-a-Ramsey, and [Sings.] 'Three
55 A contagious breath 'a catchy voice or tune,' also 'a. bncl breath.' 57 To hear . . . contagion N. 58 the welkin the sky. 59 a catch a round (of singing). 54-60 draw three souls out of one weaver N. 61 and if. 61-62 I am dog at a catch I a m an expert at a round (of singing). 63 By'r Lady 'by our Lady' (the Virgin Mnry), a petty oath. 65-6 'Thou knave' N. 74 caterwauling the cry of the cat nt rutting time. 77 Catayan person of na account, scoundrel N. politicians statcwzen concerned with important questions. 78 a Peg-a-Ramsey probably 'a lewd, coarae person' N.
1 3 2

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11.

merry men be we.' Am n o t I consanguineous? Am I not of her blood? Tilly vally, lady [Sings.l, 'There 81 dwelt a man in Babylon, lady, lady.' Clown. Beshrew me, the knight's in admirable fooling. Andrew. Ay, he does well enough if he be dispos'd, and so do I too. H e does it with a better grace, but 86 I d o it more natural. T o b y . [Sin-gs.] ' 0 the twelfe d a y of December.' fi1a.ri.a. F o r the love o' God, peace.

Enter Il-lalvotio. Ilfalvolio. M y masters, are you m a d ? O r what a r e

you? H a r e you no wit, manners, nor honesty, b u t t o gabble like tinkers a t this time of night? D o ye make a n alehouse of my lady's house, t h a t ye squeak out y o u r coziers' catches without a n y mitigation o r remorse of voice? I s there no respect of place, per95 sons, n o r time in y o u ? T o b y . W e did keep time, sir, in our catches. Sneck

UP* Mal.oolio. Sir Toby, I must be round with you. My

lady bade me tell you t h a t though she harbors as her kinsman, she's nothing allied t o your orders. I f you can separate yourself and y o u r demeanors, you a r e welcome t o the house. I f you dismisnot,

78-9 'Three merry men be we' N. consanguineous related. 80

T i l l y vally nonsense. 80--1'There dwelt a man' N. 82 Beshrew

me 'curse me,' a mild oath. 86 natural 'naturally,' but also 'a fool,' 'like a fool.' 87 ' 0the twelfe day of December' N. twelfe twelfth. 90 wit sense. honesty respectability. 93 coziers' catches cobblers' musical rounds. 93-4 mitigation or remorse lessening or regret. 94 respect of respect for. 90-7 Sneck up snick up, go hang. 98 round plain.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11.

and it would please you t o take leave of her, ehe is very willing t o bid you farewell. 104 T o b y . [Sings.] 'Farewell, dear heart, since I must needs be gone.' I?farin. Nap, good Sir Toby. Clown. [Sings.] 'His eyes d o show his days are almost done.' ~?falvolio. Is't even so? 110 T'oby. [Sings.]'But I will never die.' Clozem. Sir Toby, there you lie. lilalvolio. This is much credit t o you. Tob;y. [Sings.] 'Shall I bid him go.?' 115 Clozun. [Sings.] 'What and if you do?' T o b y . [Sings.] 'Shall I bid him go, and spare not?' Clown. [Sings,] '0, no, no, no, no, you dare not.' T o b y . Out o' tune, s i r ? Ye lie. A r t any inore t h a n a steward? Dost thou think because thou a r t ~ i i r t u ous, tlicre shall be no more cakes ancl ale? 120 Cloru,~,. Yes, by St. Anne, ancl ginger shall be hot i' th' mouth too. Tob!j. Tli' a r t i' th' right. Go, sir, r u b your chain with C I * U ~ I I ~ S .A stoup of wine, Maria. 124 Mcrlvolio. IkIistress Mary, if you priz'd m y lady's fuvor a t anything more than contempt, you would not give means for this uncivil rule. She shall know E x i t . of it, by this hand. 129 r31uria. Go shake your ears. Andrew. 'Twere as good a deed as t o drink when a
103 and if. 105 'Farewell, dear heart' N. 112 there you lie you are a liar. 115 and if if. 120 cakes and ale N. 121 St. Anne N. ginger N. 123-4 rub your chain with crumbs N. 124 a stoup a cup. 127 give means i.e. bring the wine. uncivil rule disorderly revel. 128 by this hand a mild exclamation. 129 Go shake your ears i.e. you are an ass. 130 as good a deed as to drink N.


man's ahungry, t o challenge him the field and then t o break promise with him and make a fool of him. T o b y . Do't, knight. I'll write thee a challenge ; or

I'll deliver t h y indignation t o him by word of mouth. Marin. Sweet Sir Toby, be patient for t o n i g h t Since the youth of the Count's was today with my lady, she is much out of quiet. F o r Monsieur Rlalvolio, let mc alone with him. If I do not gull him into a nayword and make him R comnlon recreation, da not think I have wit enough t o lie straight in my bed. I know I can do it. LU. T o b y . Possess us, possess us. Tell us something of him. ?faria. Marry, sir, sometimes he is a kind of Puri.tan. 14s Andrew. 0, if I thought that, I'd beat him like s

Toby, What, for being a Puritan? T h y exquisite 149 reason, dear knight. Andrer~l. I have no exquisite reason for't, but I have reason good enough. Maria. The div'l a Puritan t h a t he is, or anything constantly but n time-pleaser, a n aff ection'd ass, t h a t cons s t a t e without book and utters i t by great swarths. T h e best persuaded of himself, so cramm'd (as he t.hinks) with excellencies t h a t i t is his grounds
131 to challenge h i m the field to challenge him to tohefield o f battle. 135 Sweet dear. 138 gull trick. 139 a nayword s byword; F an ayword. 139 recreation *pastime'or 'anlusemcnt.' 142 Possess us give us the facts. 144 Marry indeed. a kind of Puritan K. 152 div'l devil. 153 a time-pleaser a sycophant, a toady. aBe+ tion'd affected. 154 cons state without book studies and learns a stately manner by heart. 155 swarths quantities N. The best persuaded of himself the highest o p i n i o ~o f himelf. 156-3 grounds of faith firm belief.

T W E L P T H N I G H T , 11. d

of faith t h a t all t h a t look on him love him; and on t h a t vice in him will my revenge find notable cause t o work. 180 Toby. W h a t wilt thou do? M&&. I will d r o p in his wag some obscure epistles of love wherein by the color of his beard, the shape of his leg, the manner of his gait, the expressure bf his eye, forehead, and complexion, he shall find himself most feelingly personated. I can write very like my lady your niece; on a forgotten matter we can hardly make distinction of our hands. Toby. Excellent. I smell a device. ISR Andrew. I have't in my nose too. Toby]. He shall think by the letters t h a t thou wilt drop t h a t they come from my niece, and t h a t she's in lore with him. Maria. My purpose is indeed a horse of t h a t color. Andrew. And your horse now would make him an


Maria. Ass, I doubt not. Andrew. 0, 'twill be admirable. M a r k . S p o r t royal, I warrant you. I know my physic will work with him. I will plant you two and let the fool make a third, where he shall find the letter. Observe his construction of it. F o r this night., Exit. to bed and dream on the event. Farewell. Toby. Good night, Penthesilea. 1 84 dndrew. Before me, she's a good wench.
163 expressure exprosaion. 165 personated represented. 167 distinction of our hands difference in our bndwritings. 176 Ass both 'ass' and 'as.' 179 physic 'mcdicinc' in the sense of 'cure' for Malvolio's conceit. 180 let the fool make a third N. he hIalvolio. 181 construction interpretation. 182 the event the outcome. 183 Penthesilea Queen of the Amazons (ironically). 184 Before me 1 qwenr by myself.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 8

T o b y . She's a beagle true bred, and one t h a t adores me. W h a t o' t h a t ? Andrew. I was ador'd once too. T o b y . Let's t o bed, knight. T h o u hadst need send for more money. 189 A d r e w . I f I cannot recover your niece, I am a foul way out. T o b y . Send f o r money, knight. I f thou h a s t her n o t i' th' end, call me Cut. Andrew. If I do not, never t r u s t me, take it liom you will. 195 T o b y . Come, come; I'll g o burn some sack. 'Tis too late t o g o t o bed now. Come, knight; come, knight.

Enter Duke, Viola, Curio, and others.

Duke. Give me some music. Now good morrow, friends. Now, good Cesario, but t h a t piece of song, T h a t old and anticke song we heard last night. Methought i t did relieve my passion much, S More t h a n light airs and recollected terms Of these most brisk and giddy-paced times. Come, but one verse. Cz~rio. He is not here, so please y o u r lordship, t h a t should sing it.
185 a beagle a small rabbit hound. 190 recover 'win,''gain,' possibly with the legal force of 'gain title t o . ' 190-1 a foul way out miserably out of money. 193 Cut a horse with A short tail. 196 burn some sack warm some sherry. 1 morrow morning. 3 anticke antique, old-fashioned (strwed L-). 5 recollected studied, learned.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 4

Duke. W h o was i t ? 10 Curio. Feste the jester, my lord, a fool t h a t the Lady Olivia's father took much delight in. H e is about the house. Duke. Seek him out, and play the tune the while. [ExitCz~rio. 3 Music plays. IB Come hither, boy. I f ever thou shalt love, h the sweet pangs of i t remember me; E o r such as I am, all true lovers are, Unstaid and skittish in all motiorls else Save in the constant image of the creature 20 T h a t is belov'd. How dost thou like this t;une? Viola, It gives a very echo t o the seat Where love is thron'd. Duke. Thou dost speak masterly. My life upon't, young though thou a r t , thine eye H a t h stay'd upon some favor t h a t i t loves. H a t h it not, boy? Yiola. A little, by your frrvor. 25 Duke. W h a t kind of woman is't? Viola. Of your complexion. Dt~71.e. She is n o t worth thee then. W h a t years, i' faith ? Viola. About your years, my lord. Duke. T o o old, by heaven. Let still the woman take 30 An clder than herself: so wears she t o him, So sways she level in her husband's heart. For, boy, however me do praise ourselves,
18 in all motions else * mall other ornotions or feelings. 21 the seat the. heart. 22 masterly in an cxpericnced manner. 24 favor 'face'; in 1. 25 Viola puns on 'favor.' 29 still always. 30 so wears she to E m so she adapts herself to him. 31 so sways she level so she k e c g constant her husband's love.

TWELF-TH N I G H T , 11.

Our fancies are more giddy and unfirm, W More longing, vavering, sooner lost and worn, T h a n women's are. I think i t well, my Lord. Viola. Duke. Then let t h y love be younger than thyself, Or t h y affection cannot hold the bent; F o r women are as roses whose fair flow'r, Being oncc displny'd, doth fall t h a t vcry hour. Viola. And so they a r e ; alas, t h a t they are so. 40 T o die, even when they t o perfection grow.
Enter C u ~ i o a.nd Clown. Duke. 0 fellow, come, the song we had last night. Mark it, Cesario; i t is old and plain. The spinsters and the knitters in the sun, And the free maids t h a t weave their thread with bones, 45 D o use t o chant it. It is silly sooth, And dallies with the innocence of love Like the old age. Clown. Are you ready, sir? Duke. I prethee sing.
Come away, come away, death, And in sad cypress let me be laid.

33 Our fancies men's loves. 34 worn worn out N. 37 hold the bent 'keep the intensity,' as in a bent bow; or 'hold the direction.' 41 even monosyllabic. 44 spinsters spinners. 45 free happy, carefree. weave their thread with bones make bone or thread lace with bone bobbins. 46 do use to arc accustomed to. silly sooth simple truth. 47 dallies with treats lightly of. 48 the old age the former times (of virtue). 50 I prethee I pray thee. 51 Come away 'come away from there,' i.e. 'come here.' 52 cypress a coffin of cypress mood, boughs of cypress, or thin black cloth (all associated with mourning). 89

T W E L l ? T I I N I G H T . 11. 4
Fie, owuy; fie, away, breath;

I a m slain by a fair cruel maid.

My shroud of white, stuck all with yew, 0, prepare it. My part of death, no one so true
Did share it.

Not a flower, not a flower sweet On my black coffin let there be strown.
N o t a friend, not a friend greet

My poor corpse, where my bones shall be thrown. A thousand thousand sighs t o save, Lcy me, 0, where
Sad true lover never find my grave, T o weep there.

Dulce. There's f o r t h y pains. Clown. N o pains, sir. I take pleasure in singing, sir. 09 Duke. I'll p a y t h y pleasure then. Clown. Truly, sir, and pleasure will be paid one time o r another. 72 Dwke. Give me now leave t o leave thee. Clomz~. Now the melancholy god prot,ect thee, and thc tailor make thy doublet of changeable taffeta, f o r thy mind is a very opal. I would hare men of such coristancy p u t t o sea, t h a t their business might be everything, and their intent evcrywhcrc ;for that's it t h a t always makes a good voyage of nothing. Farewell. Exit.
53 Pie, away fie, go a w y N, 55 yew the yew tree, associated with mourning. 57-8 My part share it N. 70 pleasure will be paid indulgence exacts its pendty N. 73 the melancholy god N. 74 doublet a closely fitted jacket. taffeta a thin fiillc cloth. 76 opal a sc?rniprcciouustone of changeable color. 75-8 I would have . . voyage of nothing N.

.. .


T W E L F T H NIGIIrl', 11. 4

Du.kE. L e t all the rest give place. [Exeunt Curia and Attendants.]
Once more, Cesario, 80 Get thee t o yond same sovereign cruelty. Tell her my love, more noble t h a n the world, Prizes n o t quantity of d i r t y lands. T h e p a r t s t h a t fortune h a t h bcstom'd upon her, 85 Tell her I hold as giddily a s fortune. B u t 'tis t h a t miracle and queen of gems T h a t n a t u r e pranks her in, a t t r a c t s my soul. Viola. B u t if she cannot love you, sir. Duke. I cannot be so answer'd. Viola. Sooth, but you must. 90 S a y t h a t some lady, a s perhaps there is, H a t h f o r your love a s g r e a t a p a n g of heart As you have f o r Olivia. You cannot lore her. You tell her so. 3 i u s t shc not then bc answer'd? Dulce. There is no woman's sides 95 Can bide the beating of so s t r o n g a passion As love doth give my h e a r t ; no woman's hcnrt S o big t o hold so much; they lack retention. Alas, their love may be call'd appetite, N o motion of the liver, but the palate That suffer surfeit, cloyment, and revolt. B u t mine is all a s hungry as the sea And can digest a s much; make no compare
80 give place leave. 81 sovereign cruelty supremely cruel person (Olivia). 83 dirty 'made of earth or dirt' and 'filthy.' 84 parts possemions, attributes. fortune luck, chance. S5 giddily lightly. 87 pranks her in decks her or dresses her in. 89 I cannot F It cannot N. 89 Sooth truly. 94-6 woman's sides Can bide N. bide withstand, endure. 97 they lack retention women lack the ct+ pacity of retaining. 99-100 No motion and revolt N.

.. .


T n l E L F T H N I G H T , 11.I

Between t h a t love a woman can bear me And t h a t I owe Olivia. Viola. Ay, but I know. 105 Duke. W h a t dost thou know? Viola. T o o well what love women t o men may owe. I n faith, they are a s true of heart as we. Bly father had a daughter lov'd a man As i t might be perhaps, were I a woman, I should your lordship. Duke. And what's her history? 110 Viola. A blank, my lord. She never told her love, B u t let concealment like a worm i' th' bud, Feed on lier damask cheek. She pin'd in thought; And wit.h rt green and yellow melancholy, 115 She s a t like Patience on a monument, Smiling a t grief. W a s not this love indeed? W e men may s a y more, swear more; but indeed Our shows arc more than will; for still we prove Much in our vows, but little in our love. Duke. B u t died t h y sister of her love, my boy? 120 T7i07a.I a m all the daughters of my father's house, And a11 the brothers too ; and yet I know not. Sir, shall 1 t o this lady? Duke. Ay, that's the theme. 124 T o her in haste. Give her this jewel. S a y My love can ~ i v no e place, bide no denay. Exeunt.

104 owe have toward; so also l. 106. 113 damask of variegated color, hc1.c pink and white as of a damask rose. 114r16 And with smiling at grief N. 118 Our shows w i l l N. still alwaya. 125 can give no place cannot yicld. denay denial.




T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11.


Enter Sir T o b y , Sir Andrew, a.nd Fabian.

T o b y . Come thy ways, Signior Fabian. Fabian. Nay, I'll come. I f I lose a scruple of thig sport, let me be boil'd t o death wit.11 melancholy. T o b y . Wouldst thou not be glad t o have tlle niggardly rascally sheep-biter come by some notable

Ir'abinn. I would exult, rnan. You know he brougllt me out o' fnvor with 111y lady about a bear-baiting 9 here. T o b y . T o anger him we'll have the bear again; and we will fool him black and blue, shall we not, Sir Andrew ? Andrew. And we do not, it is pity of our lives. Enter Maria. T o b y . Here comes the little villain. How now, my metal of India? 15 Mnlyia. Get ye all three into the box tree. &lalvolio's coming d o r n this walk. H e has been yonder i' the sun practicing behavior t o his owri shadow this half hour. Observe him, for the love of mockery; f o r I know this letter will make a contemplative idiot of him. Close, in the name of jesting. [The others hide.]
1 Come thy ways come along on your way. 2 a scruple a bit N. 3 let me . . melancholy N. 5 sheep-biter a dog that, bites sheep, a sneaking fellow. 7-9 You know . . a bear-baiting here N. 13 And if. 14-15 my metal of India my golden one N. 18 behavior elegant conduct. 20-1 make a contemplative idiot of him fill him with idiotic thoughtp- 21 close hide.


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11.

Lie thou there, [Throws down a letter.] for here comes the t r o u t t h a t must be caught with tickling. Exit.

Enter Malvolio. Malvolio. 'Tis but fortune, all is fortune. Rlaria once told me she did affect me; and I have heard herself come thus near, t h a t should she fancy, i t should be one of my complexion. Besides, she uses me with a more exalted respect than anyone else t h a t follows her. W h a t should I think on't? 30 T o b y . Here's an overweening rogue. Fabian. 0, peace! Contemplation makes a rare turkev cock of him. I-Iom he jets under his advanc'd plumes ! Andrew. 'Slight, I could so beat the rogue. T o b y . Peace, I say. 35 i! T o be Count &lalvolio. Toby. Ah, rogue! Andrezc. Pistol him, pistol him. T o b y . Peace, peace. 39 Ma.lvolio. There is example for't. T h e L a d y of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe. Andrew. Fie on him, Jezebel. Fabian. 0, peace! Now he's deeply in. Look how imagination blows him. 44
23 trout tickling N. 25 she did affect me Olivia was inclined to love me. 27 complexion per~onalit~y, temperament N. 2S-9 fallows her is in her service. 32-3 jets under his advanc'd plumes struts undc!r his stiffened feathers. 34 'Slight 'by God's light.,' a mild oath. 35 Toby N. 38 Pistol him shoot him. 40-1 The Lady of the Strachy N. 41 the yeoman of the wardrobe thc servant in charge of t,he clothing and line11 of a noble family. 42 Fie on h i , Jezebel N. 44 blows him puffs him up.


T W E L F T H N I G H T . XI.

Malvolio. Having been three months married t o her, sitting in my state. T o b y . 0, f o r a stonebow t o hit him in the eye! Malvolio. Calling my officers about me, in my branch'd velvet gown; having come from a day bed, 50 where I have left Olivia sleeping. T o b y . F i r e and brimstone ! Fabian. 0, peace, peace ! 1Malvolio. And then t o have the humor of state; and after a der~lurc travel of regard-telling them I know my place, as I would they should do theirs-to ask for m y kinsman Toby. 56 T o b y . Bolts and shackles ! Fabian. 0, peace, peace, peace, now, now ! AIalaolio. Seven of my people with a n obedient s t a r t make out for him. I frourn the while, and perchance wind up nly watch, o r plng with my- some rich jewel. T o b y approaches ; curtsies there t o me. T o b y . Shall this fellow live? Fabian. Though our silence be drawn from us with cars, yet peace. GS ~llalvolio. I extend my hand t o him thus, quenching my familiar slllile with a n austere regard of control. T o b y . And does not Toby take you a blow o' the G9 lips then ? fifalvolio. Saying, 'Cousin Toby, my f ortuncs hnv46 state dignity, mat of state. 47 a stonebow a crossbow or catapult for shooting stones. 49 branch'd embroidered with figures of branches or flowers. a day bed a couch. 53 the humor of state the manner and dispositioxl of authority. 54 a demure travel of regard a grave survey of observation N. 56 my kinsman Toby Malvolio omits tlie title 'Sir.' 60 make out go out. 61 my- some rich F my some rich h ' . 64-5 with cars by force, by terrible violence N. 67 control authority. 68 take you give you. 4 6

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 6

ing cast me on your niece, give me this prerogative of spcech.' T o b y . W h a t , what? dfalvolio. 'You must amend your drunkenness.' T o b y . Out, scab. 75 Fubiun. Nay, patience, or we break the sinews of our plot. Malvolio. 'Besides, ypu waste the treasure of your time with a foolish knigl~t.' 80 Andrew. That's me, I warrant you. Malvolio. 'One S i r Andrew.' Andrew. I knew 'twas I, for many do call me fool. Illalsolio. W h a t employment have we here? [ T a k e s u p tT~e letter.] Fabian. Now is the woodcock near the gin. 84 T o b y . 0, peace, and the spirit of humors intimate reading aloud t o him. Malvolio. By m y life, this is my lady's hand. These bc hcr very C's, her U's, nnd her T's, and thus makes she lier g r e a t P's. It is in contempt of question her hand. 90 ilndrew. Her C's, her U's, and her T's; why that? Ilinlvo7io. [Reads.] 'To the unknown belov'd, this, and my good ~ishes.' I3cr verp phrases. By your lenrc, wax. Soft. And the ilnpressure lier Lucrece, with which she uses t o seal. 'Tis my lady. T o whom sliould this be? 86 Fabian. This wins him, liver and d.
75 Out, scab away, scurvy fellow. 83 employment affair, matter. S4 woodcock . gin N. g i n snare, trap. 85-6 the spirit to h i m N. 88-9 her very C ' s . P's N. 89 in contempt of question beyond question. 93-4 By your leave, wax N. 94 Soft careful, slow. Lucrece N. 95 uses is accustomed to. 97 Liver the seat of passion.





T W E L P T H N I G H T . 11. 8

Ma~z)oZio. [Reads.]
Jove knows I / w e , But who? Lips, do not move, N o man must know.


'No m a n must know.' W h a t follows? T h e numbers alter'd. 'No man must know.' If this should be thee, Malvolio? 10s T o b y . M a r r y , hang thee, brock. ,~~alvoEio. [Reads.]
I may command where I adore,
But silence like a Lucrece knife, W i t h bloodless stroke my heart doth gore. M . 0. A. I . doth sway my life.

Fabian. A fustian riddle. 110 Toby. Excellent wench, say I. Afalvolio. 'M. 0. A. I. doth sway my life.' Nay, but first let me sec, let me see, let me see. Fabian. 'What dish o' poison has she dress'd him ! T o b y . And wit11 what wing the stuniel checks at i t ! ilfalvol~io. 'I may c o m ~ n a ~where ld I adore.' Why, she may command me: I serve her; she is mp lady. Why, this is evident t o any formal capacity. There is no obstruction in this. And the end; what should t h a t alphabetical positioil portend? I f I could make t h a t resemble something in me? Softly. '$1. 0. A. I.' 121
102-3 The numbers alter'd the meters or accents of verse altered N. 105 brock badger N. 110 fustian ridiculously lofty N. 111

Excellent wench clever girl (of Maria). 114 What what a. dress'd prepared. 115 And with at it N. staniel an inferior hawk; F Stallion. 118 formal capacity normal intellect. 119 obstruction difficulty. 119 what should w h a t would. 120 position order. 121 Softly easily, carefully.




Toby. 0,ay, make u p that. He is now a t a cold


FalEian,. Sowter will c r y upon't f o r all this, though 12s it be a s r a n k as a fox. illalvolio. &I., ~ ~ a l v o l i o M, . Why, t h a t begins my hame. Fnbian. Did n o t I s a y he would work it o u t ? T h e 119 cur is excellent a t faults. .Ala.Zuolio.M . B u t then there is no consonancy in the sequel. T h a t suffers under probation. A should follow, b u t 0 does. Fabian. And 0 shall end, I hope. T o b y . Ay, o r I'll cudgel hi111 and make him cry 0. 1Cialvolio. And then I comes behind. 135 Fabian. Ay, and you had a n y eye behind you, you might see more detraction a t your heels t h a n fortunes before you. Mu.luolio. 'M. 0. A. I.' This simulation is not as the former; and yet t o crush tllis a little, i t would bow t o me, f o r every one of these letters a r e in my name. Soft, here follows prose. 1.22, [Reads.] 'If this fall into t h y hand, revolve. I n my s t a r s I am above thee, but be not afraid of greatness. Some a r e born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness t h r u s t upon 'em. T h y fates open their lmnds; let t h y blood and spirit embrace thern;
122 Make up that put thst together. 122-3 a cold scent an old and clificult trail, a false trail. 124-5 Sowter . . fox N. 129 faults g a p or brealcs in tha scent N. 130-1 But then . probation N. 133 And 0 shall end N. 136 And if. any eye behind you N. 137 more detraction at your heels more loss of face and humilik tion coming directly after you. 139 simulation puzzle, hidden tneanfng. 140-1 and yet bow to me N. 142 Soft carefully, 610wIy. 143 revolve think, consider. 144 my fate, my pition. 145 born F b e c o w . achieve F &haves N. 48



TWELFTH N I G H T , 11. 5

and t o inure thyself t o hat thou a r t like t o be, cast t h y humble slough and a p p e a r fresh. Be opposite with a kinsman, surly wit11 servants. L e t t h y tongue t a n g arguments of state. P u t thyself into the trick of singularity. She thus advises thee t h a t sighs f o r thee. Remember who cornmended t h y yellow stockings a n d wish'd t o see thee ever cross-garter'd. I s a y remernber ; g o t o ; thou a r t made if thou desir'st t o be so. I f not, let me see thee a steward still, the fellow of servants, and not worthy t o touch Fortune's fingers. Farewell. She t h a t would alter services with thee, 159 'The Fortunate-Unhappy .' Daylight and champinn discovers not more. This is open, I will be proud, I will read politic authors, I will baffle Sir Tobp, I will wash off gross acquaintance, I will be point devise, the very man. I d o n o t now fool myself t o let imagination jade me; for every reason excites t o this, t h a t my l a d y loves me. She did com~nendmy yellow stockings of l a t e ; she did praise my leg being cross-garter'd; and in this she manifests herself t o my love, and with a kind of injunction drives me t o these habits of her liking. I thank my stars, I am happy. I will be strange, stout, i n yellow stockings and cross-garter'd, even 145 inure get used to. like likely. 148-9 cast . . . fresh N. 151

tang sound with, echo with N. 152 singularity eccentric it.^. 154 cross-garter'd N. 1.55 go to go on. 158 alter services exchange positions N. 159-61 thee,14The Fortunate-Unhappy.'/Daylight F thee, fht fortunate unhappy dayligllt N. 161 champian variant of 'chrtmpaign,' 'open country.' 162 politic authors writers on government ;F pollticke N. 163 baffle to subject (especially a knight) to dhgrace. 164 point devise perfectly correct. 165 jade me befool me. 168 in this in this letter. 171 strange aloof. 172 stout brave, proud. 48

TTI'ELPTEI N I G H T , 11. 5

with the su-iftness of putting on. Jove and m y stars be praised. Here is yet a postscript. 174 [Reatds.] 'Thou canst not choose but know who I am. If thou entertain's t my love, let i t appear in t h y smiling. T h y smiles become thee well. Therefore in my presence still smile, dear my sweet, I prethee.' 178 Jove, I thank thee. I will smile, I will do everyt.hing Exit. t h a t thou wilt have me. Fnbian. I will not give my p a r t of this sport for a pension of thousands t o be paid from the Sophy. T o b y . I could m a r r y this wench for this device. 184 Andrezo. S o could I too. T o b y , And ask no otllcr dowry with her b u t such another j CS t.
Enter Maria. Andrew. N o r I neither. Fabian. I-Tere comes m y noble gull-catcher. T o b y . Wilt thou set t h y foot o' my neck? 190 Andrew. Or o' mine either? T o b y . Shall I play my freedom at tray-trip and become t h y bondslare? Andrew. I' faith, o r I either? Toby. 147hy, thou hast put him in such n dream t h a t when the image of i t leaves him, he must run mad. 198 Illaria. Nay, but s a y true, does i t work upon him? T o b y . Like aqua-vite with a midwife.
173 Jove N. 178 still alvuyu. dear F &ero. I prethee I pray thee. 182 the Sophy the shah of Persia N. 187 Nor I neither nn emphatic ~iegative. 188 gull-catcher ono who crtt,chcs gulls; gulls are persona ~ar;ilytricked; compare 'gullible,' 180 Wilt neck N. 191 play gamble. tray-trip a game of dice. 198 aqua-vite any distilled liquor (Latin aqua vilae, 'water of life') N.



T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 6

Maria. If you will then see the fruits of the sport, mark his first approach before my lady. H e mill come t o her in yellow stockings, and 'tis a color she abhors; and cross-garter'd, n fashion she det-ests; and he will smile upon her, which will now be so llnsuitable to her disposition, being addicted t o a melancholy as she is, t h a t it; cannot but t u r n him into a notable 206 contempt. If you will see it, follow me. Toby. T o the gates of T a r t a r , thou most excellent divel of wit. Andrew. I'll rnake one too. Exeunt.
Finis, A C t u s secundus.
205-0 a notable contempt a statc of being particularly despised (by Olivia). 207 Tartar Tartarus, the section of hell reserved for ' l l make the most evil (Roman mythology). 208 divel devil. 200 I

one too I'll go along too.

Act 1.1

Enter Viola and Clown.

Viola. Save thee, friend, and t h y music. Dost thou live by t h y tabor? Clown. No, sir, I l i ~ by e the cllurch. 4 Viola. A r t thou a churchman? Clozun. N o such matter, sir. I d o live by the church; for I d o live a t my house, and my house doth stand by the church. Viola. S o thou mayst say the king lies by a beggar, if a beggar dwell near him; or the church stands by t h y tabor, if t h y tabor stand by the church. 10 Clown. YOUhave said, sir. T o see this age! A sentence is b u t a chev'ril glove t o a good wit. How quickly the wrong side may be turn'd outward ! I"i0Ea. Nay, that's certain. They t h a t dally nicely with words may quickly make tllem wanton. 15 Clown. I would therefore my sister had had no name, sir. Viola. Why, man? Clomn. Why, sir, her name's n word, and t o dally
1 Save thee God save t.hee. 2 live by make a living by. tabor drum (which the stage clown commonly carried). 8 king F kings. lies by dwells by. 11-12 A sentence any unit of meaning. a chev7rilglove a kid glove. 14 dally nicely play foolishly or fastidiously. 15 wanton capriciom, unmanageable.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 1

with t h a t word might make my sister wanton. B u t indeed words a r e very rascals since bonds disgrac'd 22 them. Viola. T h y reason, man ? Clown. T r o t h , sir, I can yield you none without words, and words a r e grown so false I a m loath t o 26 prove reason with them. Viola. I w a r r a n t thou art a merry fellow and car'st f o r nothing. Clown. N o t so, s i r ; I d o care f o r something; b u t in my conscience, sir, I d o not care for you. I f t h a t be t o care f o r nothing, sir, I wo.uld it would make you 32 invisible. I'iola. A r t not thou the L a d y Olivia's fool? Clown. No, indeed, sir. T h e L a d y Olivia has n o folly. She will keep no fool, sir, till she be married; and fools a r e as like husbands as pilchers a r e t o herrings, the husbands the bigger. I am indeed not her fool, b u t her corrupter of words. ITiolap. I saw thee late a t the Count Orsino's. 39 Clown. Foolcry, sir, does walk about the o r b like the sun: it shines everywhere. I would be sorry, sir, but the fool should be as oft with your master a s with my mistress. I think I saw your wisdom there. Viola. Nay, and thou pass upon me, 1'11 no more with thee. Hold, there's expenses f o r thee. 45 [Gives a coin.]
20 wanton lascivioup, lewd N. 21-2 since bonds disgrac'd them N. 24 troth truly. 25-6 to prove reason to test rightness. 27-8 car'st for nothing you never worry. 36 pilchers pilchards, small fish related to the herring. 39 late lately. 40 the orb the world. 41 I would N. 43 your wisdom N. 44 and thou pass upon me if you thrust at me (with your jokes). 45 expenses reimbursement.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 1

Clown. Now Jove in his next commodity of hair send thee a beard. Viola,. B y my troth, I'll tell thee, I am almost sick f o r one, though I would not have it grow on my chin. Is t h y lady within? 50 Clown. Would not a pair of these hare brsed, sir? Viola. Yes, being kept together and p u t t o use. C1oze.n. I would play Lord Pundarus of Phrygia, sir, t o bring a Cressida t o this Troilus. 55 F7iola. I understand you, sir. 'Tis well begg'd. [Gives another coin.] Clown. T h e matter, I hope, is not great, sir, begging but a beggar: Cressida was a beggar. M y lady is within, sir. I will conster t o them whence you come. N7ho you a r e and what you would are out of my welkin. I might sag 'element' but the word is overworn. Exit. 81 Viola.. This fellow is wise enough t o play the fool, And t o d o t h a t well craves a kind of wit. H e must observe their mood on whom he jests, 08 T h e quality of persons, and tllc time; Not, like the haggard, check n t every feather T h a t comes before his eye. This is a practice As full of lsbor as R, wise man's a r t ; F o r folly t h a t he wisely shows is fit;
46 Jove in his next commodity of hair Jove when he next sends a lot or =ignment of hair. 51 these these coins. 52 put to use loaned at interest. 53-4 Pandarus Cressida Troilus N. 57 Cressida was a beggar N. 5s conster construe, explain. 60 welkin sky. element both 'sly' and 'clement' in the modern sense. 63 craves a kind of wit demands a liind of intelligence. 66 Not, hawk. check at every like F And like. the haggard tho ur~trained feather forsake her quarry for other game. 67 practice skill. 69 it suitable. 651

. ..


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 1

But wise men, folly-fall'n, quite t a i n t their wit.


Enter Sir T o b y and [Sir] Andrew. T o b y . Save you, gentleman. Viola. And you, sir. Andrezu. Dieu vows garde, monsieur. Viola. Et wous aussi. Vostre serviteur. Andrezo. I hope, sir, you are, and I a m yours. 75 T o b y . Will you encounter the house? My niece is desirous you should enter, if your trade be t o her. Viola. I am bound t o your niece, s i r ; I mean, she 73 is the list of my voyage. T o b y . T a s t e your legs, s i r ; p u t them t o motion. Viola. M y legs do better understaad me, sir, than I understand what you mean by bidding me taste my
84 T o b y . I mean, t o go, sir, t o enter. Viola. I will answer you with g a i t a n d entrance; but

we a r e prevented.

Enter Oliwiar and [Jfaria].

&lost excellent accomplish'd lady, the heavens rain odors on you! Andrew. [Aside.] T h a t youth's a r a r e courtier. 90 'Rain odors.' Well!
70 wise men F wisemens. folly-fall'n when they have fallen into folly. 71 Save you God save you. 73-4 Dieu . . serviteur God And you also. Your servant (French). 76 protect you, sir. encounter meet, i.e. go into N. 77 if your trade be to her i f your business concern her. 78 bound to bound for. 79 list limitl, end. 80 taste t.ry. 81-2 understand both 'comprehend' and 'stand under.' 86 gait walking; F gate N. 86 prevented anticipated 87 excellent exce!lently.



I ' R ' E L F T U N I G H T , 111. l

Viola,. M y matter hat11 no voice, lady, b u t t o your own most pregnant and vouchsafed ear. Andrew. [Aside.] 'Odors,' 'pregnant,' and 'vouch94 safed.' I'll get 'em all three already. Olivia. L e t the garden door be shut and leave me to my hearing. [Exeunt Sir T o b y , S i r Andrerv, a.nd nlariu.] Give me your hand, sir. Piola. My duty, madam, and most humble service. 99 Olivia. What is your name? Viola. Ccsario is your servant's name, f a i r princess. Oliuia. My servant, s i r ? ' T ~ v a snever merry world Since lowly feigning was call'd compliment. Y' a r e servant t o the Count Orsino, youth. Viola. And he is yours, and his must needs be yours. Your servant's servant is your servant, madam. 10s Olivia. F o r him, I think not on him ;f o r his thoughts, Would they were blanks, rather t h a n fill'd with me. Viola. Madam, I come t o whet your gentle thoughts On his behalf. 0, by your leave, I p r a y you. Olivia. 110 I bade you never speak again of him; B u t ~vouldyou undertake another suit, I had i*nther hear you to solicit t h a t T h a n music from the spheres. Viola. Dear lady. OliVia. Give me leave, beseech you. I did send, 115 After the last enchantment you did here, 9 1 bath no voice cnn bc told no one. 92 pregnant receptivc.
vouchsafed graciously give^. 94 already fully prepared (for my iuture use), all ready. 101-2 'Twas never . . compliment N. 104 yours your servant (in love). his hiy servant,. 107 blanks blank thoughts. 108 to whet to sharpen (part.iculttrlyby rubbing). 112 1 had pronounced 'I'd.' 113 music from the spheres N. 114 bsseech I beseech. 115 enchantment magic of making me love you. here F heare.


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 1

A ring in chase of you. S o did I abuse Myself, my servant, and, I fear me, you. Under your h a r d construction must I sit, T o force t h a t on you in a shameful cunning Which you knew none of yours. W h a t might you think? 120 Have you not set mine honor a t the stake And baited i t with all th' unmuzzled thoughts That tyrannous h e a r t can think? T o one of your receiving Enough is shown; a cypress, n o t a bosom, 125 Hides my heart. S o let mc hear you speak. Viola. I p i t y you. That's a degree t o love. Olivia. Viola. No, n o t a grize; for 'tis a vulgar proof T h a t very o f t we pity enemies. Olivin.. IVhy then methinks 'tis time t o smile agen. 13R 0 world, how apt the poor a r e t o be proud! I f one sl~ould be a prey, how much the better T o fall before the lion than the wolf!
Clock strikes.
T h e clock upbraids me with the waste of time. Be not afraid, good youth: I v411 not have you. 134 And g e t when wit and youth is come t o harvest, Your wife is like to reap a proper man.
116 abuse deceive. 116 construction interpretation (of my character). 119-20 To force none of yours N. 121-2 at the stake unmuzzled thoughts N. baited it harassed it. 123 your receiving your recepiive capacit.y N. 124 a cypress a tr:insparent black cloth used in sign of mourning. 125 Rides speak N. 127 a grize a grece, a flight of steps, a degree. a vulgar proof a common experience. 129 'tis time to smile agen N. 132 the lion the wolf N. 136 proper worthy, handsome.






T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111, l

There lies your way, due west. Viola. Then westward ho! Grace and good disposition attend your ladyship. You'll nothing, madam, t o my lord by me? Olivia. Stay. 140 I prethee tell me what thou think'st of me. Viola. T h a t you d o think you are not what you are. Olivia. I f I think so, I think the same of you. Viola. Then think you right. I am not what I am. OZivia. I would you were as I would have you be. Viola. Would i t be better, madam, than I am? I wish it might, for now I am your fool. Oliuia. 0, what a deal of scorn looks beautiful 149 I n the contempt and anger of his lip! A murd'rous guilt shows not itself more soon T h a n love t h a t would seem hid: love's night is noon. Cesario, by the roses of the spring, By maidhood, honor, truth, and everything, I love thee so, t h a t maugre all t h y pride, N o r wit nor reason can my passion hide. 155 D o n o t extort t h y reasons from this clause, F o r t h a t I WOO, thou therefore hast no cause. B u t rather reason thus with reason fetter: Love sought is good, but given unsought is better. Viola. By innocence I swear and by my youth, I have one heart, one bosom, and one truth, 161 And t h a t n o woman has, nor never none
137 due west. Then westward ho N. 138 disposition frame of mind. 142-3 That you do think . . . the same of you N. 147 I am your fool you make a fool of me. 148 what a deal what a great deal. 151 love's night is noon love makes itself plain. 164 maugre despite. 156 Nor . . nor neither . . nor. 156-9 Do not extort better N. 162 nor never none nor ever one.

.. .


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. l

Shall mistress be of it, save I alone. And so adieu, good madam. Never more 165 Will I my master's tears t o you deplore. Oliha. Yet come again; f o r thou perhaps mayst move T h a t h e a r t which now abhors, t o like his love.

Enter Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Fabian. Andrew. No, faith, I'll not s t a y a j o t longer. Toby. T h y reason, dear venom; give t h y reason. Fabian. You must needs yield your reason, Sir

Andrew. M a r r y , I saw your niece d o more favors

t o the Count's servingman t h a n ever she bestow'd upon me. I saw% i' th' orchard. T o b y . Did she see the while, old boy? Tell me t h a t . Andrew. As plain as I see you now. 9 Fabian. This wits a g r e a t argument of love in her toward you. Andrezu. 'Slight. Will you make a n ass o ' me? Fabian. I will prove it legitimate, sir, upon the 14 oaths of judgment and reason. Toby. And they have been grand-jurymen since before Noah was a sailor. Fa.bian. She did shov favor t o the youth in your sight only t o exasperate you, t o awake y o u r dor167 his the Duke's. 2 venom venomous person N. 5 Marry to be sure. 7 orchard probably 'garden' in the modern senso N. 8 see watch N. 12 'Slight 'God's light,' an oath. 13 legitimate legitimately, logically. 15 grand-jurymen competent to judge evidence. 18 dormouse i.e. sleepy N.

mouse valor, t o p u t fire in your heart and brimstone in your liver. You should then have accosted her; and ~ v i t h some excellent jests, fire-new from the mint, you sllould have bnng'cl the youth into dumbness. This was look'cl f o r a t your hand, and this wns balk'd. T h e double gilt of this opportunity you Ict time mash off, and you arc I~OW sail'd into the north re an of my lady's opinion where you will hang lilicicle on a Dutchman's beard, unless you d o redeem i t by some laudable attempt either of valor o r policy. Andrew. And't be a n y way, it must be with valor, f o r policy I hate. I had lief be a Brownist as a politician. 31 T o b y . W h y then, build me t h y fortunes upon the basis of vnlor. Challcngc me the Count's youth t o fight with him ; h u r t him in eleven places. M y niece shall take note of it; and assure thyself there is no love broker in the world can more prevail in man'e commendation with woman than report of valor. Fabian. There is no may but this, S i r Andrew. Ar~drew.Will either of you bear me a challenge to him ? 40 T o b y . Go, write i t in a martial hand. Be curst and brief. It is no matter how witty, so it be eloquent and full of invention. T a u n t hiin with the license of ink. If thou thou'st him some thrice, it shall not be amiss; and as many lies as will lie in t h y sheet of paper, although the sheet were big
14-20 brimstone in your liver illake your liver hot. 21 fie-new brand-~~ew. 24 balkydmissed. double g i l t N. 26-7 an icicle on a Dutchman's beard N. 29 And't if it. 30 Brownist N. 32-3 build me . challenge me ethical datives. 41 curst perversely cross. 43-4 with the license of ink with all the excessive liberty that written language allows. 44 If thou thou'st him if you call him 'thou' N.



T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 4

enough f o r the bed of W a r e in England, set 'em down, g o about it. L e t there be gall enough in t h y ink, though thou write with 6 goose-pen, no matter. 50 About i t ! Andrew. Where shall I find you? Toby. We'll call thee a t t h e cubiculo. Go. Exit Sir Andrew. Fabian. T h i s is a dear manikin t o you, Sir Toby. T o b y . I have been dear t o him, lad, some two thousand s t r o n g o r so. 55 Fabian. W e sllctll have a r a r e letter from him; b u t you'll not deliver 't. Toby. Never t r u s t me then; and b y a11 means s t i r on the youth t o a n answer. I think oxen and wainropes cannot hale them together. F o r Andrew, if he were opcn'd and you find so much blood in his liver a s will clog the foot of a flea, 1'11 e a t the rest of thl a n a t orny. Fabian. And his opposite, the youth, bears in his 65 visage no g r e a t presage of cruelty.

Enter iWaria. T o b y . Look where the youngest wren of mine comes. dfnria. I f you desire the spleen and will laugh gourselves into stitches, follow me. Yond gull Malvolio is turned heathen, a very renegatho; f o r there is n o Christian t h a t means t o be saved hy believing rightly
47 the bed of Ware N. 48 gall N. 49 goose-pen M. 52 the cubiculo the sleeping chanllocr (Latin in cubiculo). 58 dear manikin dear little man N. 54 dear expensive. 59 wainropes wagon ropes. 60 hale haul. 61 blood in his liver i.e. courage N. 66 youngest wren of mine N. 67 If you desire the spleen N. 68 gull dupe. 69 renegntho renegade N.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 4!

can ever believe such impossible passages of grassness. He's in yellow stoclrings. 72 Toby. And c ; ~ s s - ~ a r t e r ' d? Jfaria. Most villainously, like a pedant t h a t keeps a school i' th' church. I have dogg9d him like his murtl~ercr. H e does obey every point of the letter t h a t I dropp'd t o betray him. We does smile his face into more lines than is in ,the new map with the augmentation of the Indies. You huve not seen such a thing as 'tis. I can hardly forbear hurling things a t him. I know my lady will strike him. I f she do, he'll smile 82 and talr't for a great favor. Toby. Come bring us, bring us where he is. Exeunt omnes.

Enter Sebastian and Ant onio.

Sebastian. I mould not by my will have troubled you, But since you make your pleasure of your pains, I will no further chide you. Antonio. I could not stay behind you. M y desire (More s h a r p than filed steel) did spur me forth; And not all love t o see you (though so much 6 As might have drawn one t o a longer voyage) But jealousy what might befall your travel, Being sliilless in these parts ; which t o a stranger, 1 0 Unguided and unfriended, often prove Rough and unhospitnbl.e. M y willing love,
71-2 passages of grossness stutements (in the letter) of exrtggerated misinformatiou. 74 pedant schoolteacher. 76 murtherer variant form of 'murderer.' 78-9 new map . Indies N. 6 all love extreme desire. 8 jealousy solicitilde. 8 skilless in withnu'. knowledge of.



T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111,

The r a t h e r by these arguments of fear,

Set f o r t h i n y o u r pursuit.

Sebastian. My kind Antonio, I can no other answer make b u t thanks,

And thanks; and ever oft good t u r n s 10 Are shuffl'd off with such uncurrent pay. B u t were my worth, as is my conscience, firm, You should find better dealing. What's t o d o ? Shall we go see the relics of this town? Antonio. T s m o r r o a , sir. Best first g o see your lodging? 20 Sebastia-n. I am n o t weary and 'tis long t o night. I p r a y you let us satisfy our eyes W i t h the memorials and the things of fame T h a t do renown this city. Antonio. Would you'ld pardon me. I do n o t without danger walk thesc streets. 25 Once i n a sea fight 'gainst the Count his galleys I did some service of such note indeed T h a t , were I tane here, i t nrould scarce be answer'd. Sebastian. Belike you slew g r e a t number of his people. 29 Antonio. T h ' offence is rtot of such a bloody nature, Albeit the quality of the time and quarrel Might well havc given us bloody argument. It might have since been answer'd in repaying W h a t we took from them, which for traffic's sake
15 And thanks turns N. 16 shufEiYd off set aside, dii~ount~ed. uncurrent valueless as currency (i.e. 'thnks'). 17 my worth the money I have. my conscience m y conscience concerning your favors. 19 relics monuments. 26 the Count his galleys the Count's galleys. 28 tane taken. it would scarce be answer'd it would be dficult to explain away. 29 Belike perhaps. 31 Albeit although. 34 for traffic's sake for trade's sake.

. ..

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. B

Most of our city did. Only myself stood o u t ; 36 For which, if I be 1apr;ed in thir, place, I shall p a y dear. Do not then walk too open. Sebastian. Antonio. I t doth not fit me. Hold, sir, here's m y purse. I n the south suburbs a t the Elephant 40 Is best t o lodge. I mill bespeak our diet, Whiles you beguile the time and feed your 1;nowledge With viewing of the town. There shall you have me. Sebastian. Why I your purse? Antonio. H a p l y your eye shall light upon some toy 45 You have desire t o purchase; and your store I think is not f o r idle markets, sir. Sebastian. 1'11 be your purse-bearer a n d leave you

An hour.
Antonio. T o th' Elephant. Sebms tia.n. I do remember.

Exez~n t.


Enter 0Eiui.a and Ma7.Ba.

Olivia. I have sent after him; he says he'll come. H o w shall I feast him? W ~ a bestow t of him? F o r youtll is bought more oft than begg'd o r borrow'd.
36 lapsed pounced upon as an offender. 39 the Elephant A London inn sign N. 44 some toy some trifie. 45 store store of money. 46 idle markets useless purchasings. 2 of him on him (Cesario). 64

T W E L F T H N I G I I T , 111. 4

I speak too loud. Where's Malvolio? H e is ahd and


And suits well for a servant with my fortunes.

Where is 3Ialvolio? ilfa.~ia. He's coming, madam, but i r k Jrery strange manner. H e is sure possess'd, madam. Olivia. m7hy, what's the nlatter? P)ol:s he rave? 9 Marin. NO, mtidam, he does nothing b u t smile. Your ladyship were best t o have some g u a r d about you if lle come, for sure the man is tainted in's wits. Olivia. -GO call him hither.

Enter MaluoZio.

I am as mad as he, If sad and merry nladncss equal be.

1s How now, Malvolio? filalvolio. Sweet lady, ho, ho! Olivia. Smil'st thou? I sent for thee upon a sad occasion. &falvobio. S a d lady, I could be sad. This cloes make some obstruction in the blood, this cross-gartering: but what of t h a t ? If i t pleuse the eye of one, it is with me a s the very true sonnet is, 'Please one and please all.' Olivia.. W h y , how doest thou, m a n ? is the matter with thee? 25 Ma.loolio. N o t black in my mind, though yellow in my legs. It did come t o his hands, a n d commands

4 sad and civil serious and sedate. 8 possess'd possessed by the devil. 12 i n ' s in lis. 14 sad serious. 1 9 sad 'unhappy' and 'uncomfortable.' 20 this cross-gartering N. 22 sonnet any short poem. 22-3 Tlease one and please all' N. 24 Olivia. m y , how F illal. Why how.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 4

shall be executed. I think we do know the sweet Roman hand. 30 Olivia. W i l t thou go t o bed, Malvolio? n4alvoZio. T o bed? Ay, sweetheart, and I'll come t o thee. Olivia. God comfort thee. W h y dost thou smile so and kiss t h y hand so o f t ? 35 illaria. How do you, Blalvolio? Malaolio. A t your request? Yes, niglltingalcs answer dams. illaria. W h y a p p e a r you with this ridiculous bold39 ness before my l a d y ? I).falaolio. 'Be n o t afraid of greatness.' 'Twas well writ. Olivia. What mean'st thou by that, Malvolio? Molaolio. 'Some a r e born great.' Olivia, Ha ? 11.fa.1~01i0. 'Some achieve greatness.' 48 Olivia. W h a t say'st thou? Mnlvolio. 'And some have greatness thrust upon them.' 02iaia. Heaven restore thee. 49 ilf nlaolio. 'Remember who cornmended t h y yellow stockings.' Oliain. T h y yellow s toclrings ? JlalvoZio. 'And wish'd t o see thee cross-garter'd.' Olivia. Cross-garter'd T 54 ~?falvolio.'Go to, thou a r t made, if thou desir'st t o bc so.' OZivia, Am I made? 2lialaoZio. 'If not, let me see thee a servant still.'
29 Roman hand the Italian style, like modern handwriting N. 36-7 At your request daws N. 55 Go to go on. made N .



T W E L F T H N I G I I T . 111. 1

Olmia. Why, this is very n-iidsurnmer madness.

Enter Servarrat. Servant. Madam, the young geiltleinan of the Count Orsino's is return'd. I could hardly entreat him back. 62 H e attends your ladyship's pleasure. Olivia. I'll come t o him. [Exit Servant.] Good Maria, let this fellow be look'd to. M'here's my cousin T o b y ? L e t some of my people have tt special care of him. I would not have him miscarry for the half of E x i t [Olivia wit/& ~llaria]. 67 my dowry. MalvoZio. 0,ho, d o you come near me now? N o worse man t h a n Sir Toby t o look t o me. This concurs directly with the letter. She sends him on purpose t h a t I may appear stubborn t o him, for she incites me t o t h a t in the letter. 'Cast t h y humble slougll,' says she. 'Be opposite with a kinsman, surly with servants. Let t h y tongue tang with arguments of state. P u t thyself into the trick of singularity.' And consequently sets down the manner how: as, a sad face, a reverend carriage,, a slow tongue, in the habit of some sir of note, and so forth. I have lim'd her, but i t is Jove's doing and Jove make me thankful. And when she went away now, 'Let this fellow be look'd to.' Fellow? hTot 'Rlalvolio,' nor after my degree, but 'fellow.' Why, everything adheres to59 midsummer madness N. 66 miscarry como to harm. 71 stiibborn hard, stiff, rigid. 74 tang with sound with, echo with; P Zanger with N. 76-8 And consequently . . and so forth N. 77 sad serious. 77-8 the habit of some sir the ~lot~hing of some gentleman. 78 lim'd caught N. 81 fellow probably in the sense of 'companion,' not as Olivia uses it in addressing an inferior. 82 degree poaition. togither together.


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111.

gither, t h a t no dram of a scruple, no scruple of a scruple, no obstacle, no incredulous or unsafe circumstance---what can be said? Nothing t h a t can be, carr come between xrlc and the full prospect of my hopes. Well, Jove, not I, is the doer of this and he is t o be thanked. 88
Enter [Sir] Toby, Fabian,, and Maria. T o b y . Which way is he, in the name of sanctity? If all the divels of hell be drawn in little and Legion himself posscss'd him, yet 1'11 speak to him. nI Fnbinn. Here he is, here he is. How is't with you, sir? 1-3:omis't with you, man? Jfalvolio. Go off, I discard pou. Let mc enjoy my private. Go off. 95 llfaria. Lo, how hollow the fiend speaks within him. Did I n o t tell you? Sir Toby, my lady prays you to have n care of him. 99 ~llalvolio. Ah, ha, does she so? T o b y . Go to, go t o ; peace, peace; we must dcnl gently with him. Let me alone. IIow do you, Malvolio? H o w is't with you? What, man, defy the divel? Consider, he's an enemy to mankind. 104 ilialvolio. Do you know what you s a y ? Marin. L a you, and you speali ill of the divel, how he takes i t at heart. P r a y God he be not bewitch'd. Fabia~~a. Crrrry his water t o th' wise woman. Rfaria. Marry, and i t shall be done tonlorrow mortl83 dram onwighth fluid ounce. scruple both 'doubt' and 'oi~c twenty-fourth of an ounce' (apothecaries' weiglit).'84 incredulous incredible. 9 0 drawn in little brought,together in a small space N. Legion N. 93 How is't with you, man? N. 95 private privac~j~. 10@ Go to go on. 105 La Oh! and if. 106 bewitch'd N. 107 Carry . woman N. % i



ing if I live. My lady would not lose him f o r more than 1'11 say. 110 ilfnluolio. How now, mistress? Maria. 0 Lord. Toby. Prethee, hold thy peace. This is not the may. D o you not see you move him? Let me alone with him. Fabian. N o way but gentleness ;gently, gently. The fiend is rough and will not be roughly us'd. 116 T o b y . Why, how now my bawcock? How dost thou, chuck ? ~ ~ l u l v o l Sir. ~o. 119 T o b y . Ay, biddy, come with me. What, man, 'tis not for gravity t o play a t cherry-pit with Satan. Hang him, foul collier ! Maria. Get him t o say his prayers; good S i r Toby, get him t o pray. 125 ilialvolio. My prayers, minx ? Maria. No, 1 warrant you, he will not hear of god1' mess. Jfalvolio. Go hang yourselves all. You are idle shallow things. I a m not of your element. You shall know more hereafter. Exit. T o b y . Is't possible? 131 Fabian. If this were play'd upon a stage now, I could condemn i t as an improbable fiction. T o b y . His very genius hath taken the infection of the device, man. 135 Mnria. Nay, pursue him now, lest the device take air and taint.
113 Prethee I pray t,hee. 117 bawcock good fellow {French beau
cog). 118 chuck chick. 120 biddy chicken. 121 gravity dignity.

cherry-pit a child's game N. 322 collier coal peddler N. 128 idle empty, trifling. 134 genius nature. 136-7 take air and taint be exposed and thus contaminated,

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 4

Fabinn. Why, me shall make him mad indeed. 139 illaria. T h e house mill be the quieter. Tab?). Come, we'll have him in a d a r k room and bound. My niece is already in the belief t h a t he's mad. 'CVe Inay c a r r y i t thus f o r our pleasure and his penanee, till our very pastime, tired out of breath, pron~pt us t o have mercy on him; a t which time we will bring the device t o the b a r and crown thee f o r a finder of madmen. B u t see, but see. 140
E n t e r Sir Andrere!. Fabian. %lore matter f o r a M a y morning. Andrem. Here's the challenge; read it. I warrant
thcrc's vinegar and pepper in't. Fa.bian. Is't so saucy? 150 Andrem. Ay, is't? I warrant him. D o but read. Tob;y. Give me. [Reuds.] 'Youth, mlintsoever thou a r t , thou a r t but tl scurvy fellow.' Fabian. Good and valiant. 154 Toby. [Reads.] 'Wonder not n o r a d ~ n i r e n o t in thy mind why I do call thee so, f o r I will show thee n o reason f or't.' Fabian. A good note t h a t keeps you from the blow of the lam. 159 Toby. [Reads.] 'Thou com'st t o the L a d y Olivia, a n d in my sight she uses thee kindly. B u t thou liest in t h y t h r o a t ; t h a t is not the matter I challenge thee for.' Fabian. Very brief and t o exceeding good sense4ess. 165 140-1 in a dark room and bound N. 142 carry it carry the trick
on. 146 the bar the bar of judgment. 147 matter for a May morning material for a May-day comedy. 150 saucy a quibble on 'spicy' and 'impudent' or 'sharp.' 151 Ay, is't? F I , ist? 158 scurvy scabby, dirty. 158-9 A good note law N.

. ..


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. /

Toby. [Reads.] 'I will waylay thee going home; where if it be t h y chance t o kill me-' Fabian. Good. Toby. [ R e a d s . ] 'Thou lrill'st me Like a rogue and a villain.' l70 Fabian. Still you keep o' th' windy side of the law. Good. Toby. [ R e a d s . ] 'Fare thee well, and God have mercy upon one of our souls. H e may have mercy upon mine, but my hope is better, and so look t o thyself. T h y friend as thou usest him, and t h y sworn enemy, 'Andrew Aguecheek.' I f this letter move him not, his legs cannot. I'll give't him. 179 d f a ~ i aYou . may have very fit occasion for't. H e is now in some commerce with my lady and nil1 by and by depart. 182 Toby. Go, Sir Andrew. Scout me f o r him a t the corner of the orchard like a bumbaily. S o soon as ever thou seest him, draw; and as thou dram'st, smear horrible: for i t comes t o pass oft t h a t a terrible oath with a swaggering accent sharply twang'd off, gives manhood more approbation then cver proof 189 itself would have earn'd him. Away. Andrew. Nay, let me alone for swearing. Exit. Toby. hTom will not I deliver his letter ; for the behavior of the young gentleman gives him out t o be of good capacity and breeding; his employment between his lord and my niece confirms no less. There171 windy windward, safe. 175 my hope my hope of winning. 180 You may F Yon may. for't F fot't. 181-2 by and by immediately, soon. 183 me ethical dativc. 184 orchard probably 'garden.' bumbaily bumbailiff, an agent employed in making arrests. 188 approbation confirmation. proof testing. 190 let me alone leave that (swearing) to me. 7I

I ' W E L F T H N I G H T , 111,

fore this letter, being so excellently ignorant, win breed no terror in the youth. I l e mill find i t comes from a clodpoll. But, sir, I will deliver his challenge by word of mouth, set upon Agueclleelr a notable report of valor, and drive the gentleman (as I know his youth will aptly receive i t ) into a most hideous opinion of his rage, skill, fury, and impetuosity. This will so fright them both t h a t they wqll kill one 203 another by the look, like cockatrices. Eater Olivia and Viola. Fabian. Here he conles with your niece. Give them WRY till he take leave, and presently after him. Toby. I will meditate the while upon sorne horrid message for n chailenge. [Exeunt Sir Toby, Fabian, and ICfa~ia.] Olivin. I have said too much unto a heart of stone, ZOO And laid nliue honor too unchary on't. Tllcrc's sorncthing in me t h a t reproves my fault; B u t such a headstrong potent fault it is T h a t i t but mocks reproof. Viola. W i t h the same llavior t h a t your passion bears, Goes on ~ n y master's griefs. Olivia. Here, wear this jewel f o r me; 'tis my pic215 ture. Rcfusc i t not: i t h a t h no tongue t o vex you. And I beseech you come again tomorrow.
197 a clodpoll a ciocl-head, a fool. 203 cockatrices bmilisks N. 204-5 Give them way give them privacy, let them alone. 205 presently immediately. 209 unchary on't carelessly on it (t,he heart of stone). 213 havior behavior. 214 Goes griefs niy mastcr's grieving love for you goes on N. 315 jewel any ornamcnt or trinket; 11crc pcrhnps 'locket.'



T W E L P T H N I G H T , 111,

W h a t shall you ask of rrte t h a t I'll deny, T h a t honor, sav'd, may upon asking give? Viola. Nothing but this: your true love for my master. 220 012:vla. H o w with mine honor may I give him t h a t Which I have given t o you? Vzfoln. I will acquit you. OZivin. Well, come again tomorrow. Fare thee n-ell. A fiencl like thee might bear my soul t o hell. [ E x i t . ]
Enter [ S i r ] Toby and Fabian.
225 T o b y . Gentleman, God save thee. Viola. And you, sir. T o b y . That defense thou hast, betake thee to't. Of wlmt nature the wrongs are thou hast done him, I know n o t ; but thy intercepter, full of despite, bloody ns the hunter, attends thee a t the orchard end. Dismount t h y tuck, be yare in thy preparation; f o r t h y assailant is quick, skillful, and deadly. 232 Viola,. You mistake, sir. I a m sure no m a n hat11 any quarrel t o me. M y remembrance is very free and clenr from any image of offense done t o a n y man. T o b y . You'll find it othernrise, I assu1.e you. Therefore, if you hold your life a t any price, hetake you t o your g u a r d ; for your opposite h a t h in him what youth, strength, skill, and wrath cctn furnish man ivi thal. 240 Viola. I p r a y you, sir, what is he? T o b y . He is knight dubb'd with unhatch'd r a p i e ~

219 honor, sav'd honor preservccl. 227 betake thee to't F betalcr the too't. 229 despite scorn, defiance. 230-1 Dismount thy tuck take out thy rapier. 231 yare quick. 240 withal with. 242-3 with

unhatch'd rapier

. . . carpet consideration W.


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 4


and on carpet consideration, but he is a dive1 in private branrl. Souls and bodies hath he divorc'd three ; and his incensement a t this moment is so implacable t h a t sc~tisfactioncan be none but by pangs of death and sepulcher. 'Hob, noby is his word. 'Give't or take't.' 248 Viola. I will return again into the house and desire some conduct of the lady. I am no fighter. I have heard of some kind of men t h a t put quarrels purposely on others t o taste their valor. Belilre this is a man of t h a t quirk. 253 T o b y . Sir, no. EIis indignation derives itself out of a very competent in,jury; therefore get you on and give him his desire. Back you shall not t o the house, unless you undertake that with me which with as much safety you might answer him. Therefore on, o r strip your sword s t a r k naked; f o r meddle you must, that's certain, or forswear t o wear iron about you. Viola. This is as uncivil as strange. I beseech jou, do me this courteous office, as t o know of the knight what m y offense t o lliin is. It is something of my negligence, nothing of my purpose. 264 Tobg. I will do so. Signior Fabian, s t a y you by this E x i t Toby. gentlernnn till m y return. Viola. P r a y you, sir, do you know of this matter? Fabian. I know the knight is incens'd against you,
247 Hob, nob have or have not, give or take. 250 conduct protective escort. 252 Belike probably, possibly. 253 quirk peculiarity. 255 competent injury sul1iciently serious injury; P compulenl. 257-8 unless you undertake answer him N. 269 meddle ongage (in the fight). 260 forswear to wear iron repudiate on oath (your right) to wear a sword. 262 to know of the knight to find out from the knight.

.. .


T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 4

even t o a mortal arbitrement; but nothing of the circumstance more. 270 Viola. I beseech you, wlint manner of man is he? Fabian. Nothing of t h a t wonderful promise, t o read him by his form, as you are like t o find him in the proof of his valor. H e is indeed, sir, the most skillful, bloody, and f a t a l opposite t h a t you could possibly have found in any p a r t of Illyria. Will you walk towards him? I will make your peace with him if I

Viola. I shall be much bound t o you for't. I am one t h a t had rather go with sir priest than sir knight. I care not who knows so much of my mettle. Exeunt. Enter [Sir] Toby mad [Sir]Andrew. Toby. Why, man, he's a very dive1 ; I have not seen such a firago. I had a pass with him, rapier, scabbard, and all, and he gives me the stuck-in with such a mortal motion t h a t i t is inevitable; and on the answer he pays you as surely as your feet hits the ground they step on. They s a y he has been fencer t o the Sophy. 8n.drezu. P o x on't, I'll not meddle with him. 289 T o b y . Ay, but he will not now be pacified. Fabian can scarce hold him yonder. Andrezv. Plague on't, and I thought he had been valiant and so cunning in fence, I'd have seen him
269 mortal arbitrement deadly settlement. 274 proof testing.280 sir priest i.e. 'dominus,' a common title of address for the clergy. 281 mettle quality of temperament. 283 firago virago N. pass bout. 284 the stuck-in the thrust or lunge. 285-6 the answer the return hit. 286 hits N. 288 the Sophy the shah of Persia. 289 Pox on't the plague on it N. 292 and if.

I ' W E L P T H S I G H T , 111. 4

dnmn'd ere I'd h a r e challeng'd him. Let him let the mutter slip, and I'll givc him my horse, grey Capilet. Tobg. I'll make the motion. Stand here; inake a good show on't. This shall end without the perdition ' l l ride your horse as well of souls. [Aside.] Marry, I as I ride you. 299

Enter Fnbinm and Viola. I have his horse t o take up the quarrel. I have per301 suaded him the youth's a divcl. Fabian. H e is as horribly conceited of him, and pants and looks pale as if a bear were a t his heels. Toby. There's no remedy, sir. H e will fight with you for's oath sake. Marry, be hnth better bethought him of his quarrel, and he firlds t h a t now scarce t o be worth talking of. Therefore draw f a r the supportance of his vow. H e protests he will not hurt you. Viola. [Aside.] P r a y God defend me! A little thing would make me tell them how much I lack of a man. Fabian. Give ground if you see him furious. 311 Toby. Come, Sir Andrew, there's no remedy. T h e gentleman will for his honor's sake have one bout with you. H e cannot by the duello avoid i t ; but he has promised me as he is a gentleman and n soldier, he will not h u r t you. Coine on, to't. 316 [Draws.] Andrew. P r a y God he keep his oath ! Enter Antonio. Viola. I do assure you 'tis against my will. [Draws.]
295 Capilet N. 297-8 the perdition of souls i.e. killing. 300 to take up to settle. 302 He is as horribly conceited of him he is imagining all sorts of dreadful things about him. 305 for's for his. 307 supportance keeping. 314 the duello the rules of polite dueling N.

' T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. i!

Antonio. P u t u p your sword. I f this young gentle man 324 Have done offense, I take the fault on me ; If you offend him, I for him defy you. Toby. You, sir? Why, what are you? Antonio. [Draws.] One, sir, t h a t for his love darea yet do more Than you have heard him brag t o you he will. 324 Tobg. Nay, if you be an undertaker, I am for you. [] Enter Officers. Fabian. 0 good Sir Toby, hold. Here come t.he o~fficers. Toby. [ T o Alzton,io.] I'll be with you anon. Viola. [ T o Sir Andrew.] Pray, sir, p u t your sword up, if you please. 330 Andrew. Marry, will I, sir; and for t h a t I promis'd you, I'll be as good as my word. H e will bear you easily and reins well. 1 Oficer. This is the man; do thy office. ~ 9 5 B Officer.Antonio, I arrest thee a t thc suit Of Count Orsino. You do mistake me, sir. Aszton,io. 1 Officer. No, sir, no jot. I know your favor well, Tllough now you have no sea cap on your head. Take him away. H e knows P know him well. A~z~tonio. I must obey. [ T o Viola.] This comes with seeking you. 340 But there's no remedy ;I shall answer it. What will you do, now my necessity
32.5 an undertaker one who takes up a challenge. 328 anon prw ently. 331 and for that and for the horse. 333 reins F rainrs, 337 favor face.

TWELFTH N I G H T , 111.

Makes me t o ask you for :ny purse? It grieves me Much more f o r what I cannot do for you 345 T h a n what befalls myself. You stand amnz'd; B u t be of comfort. 2 Officer. Come, sir, away. Antoni.~. I must entreat of you some of t h a t money. Viola. W h a t money, sir? F o r the fair kindness you have show'd me here, 350 And p a r t being prompted by your present trouble, Out of my lean ancl low ability I'll lend you something. My having is not much; 354 I'll make division of my present with you. Hold, there's half my coffer. Will you deny me now? Antonio. Is't possible t h a t my deserts t o you Can lack persuasion? Do not tempt my misery, Lest t h a t it make me so unsound a man As t o upbraid you wit11 those ltindnesses T h a t I have done f o r you. Viola. I know of none, 360 N o r lirlorn I you by voice o r any feature. I h a t e ingratitude more in a nlnn Than lying, vainness, babbling drunkenness, Or ally t a i n t of vice whose strong corruption Inhabits our frail blood. Antonio. 0 heavens themselves ! 365 9 Officer. Come, sir, I pray you go. Antonio. Let me speak a little. This youth t h a t you see here
345 amaz'd 'dazed,' stronger t11an in m.odern usage. 351 part in part. 353 M y having what I Izuve. 354 my present what I havenow. 355 my coffer my money. 356 my deserts to you what you owe me. 357 persuasion the power to persuade. 363 vainness 'uselessness' or 'personal conceit.'

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 4

I snatch'd one half out of the jams of death; Reliev'd him with such sanctity of love ; And t o his image which methought did promise 370 &lost venerable worth, did I devotion. 1 Oficer. What's t h a t t o us? T h e time goes by. Away. Antonio. But 0, how vild an idol proves this god! Thou hast, Sebastian, done good feature shame. I n nature there's no blemish but the mind. 375 None can be called def orm'd but the unkind, Virtue is beauty; but the beauteous evil Are empty trunks, o'erflourish'd by the devil. l Oficer. The man g r v s mad; away with him. Come, come, sir. 379 Antonio. Lead me on. Exit [with Ofi;cers]. Viola. Methinks his words do from such passion fly T h a t he believes hiinself ; so do not I. Prove true, imagination, 0, prove true, 384 T h a t I, dear brother, be now tane for you! Toby. Come hither, knight; come hither, Fabian. We'll whisper o'er a couplct or two of most sage saws. Viola. H e nam'd Sebastian. I my brother know 1 1 7 glass. Even such and so Yet living in 1 I n favor was my brother, and he went 390 Still in this fashion, color, ornament,
370'image appeltranc.e N. 371 venerable worthy of veneration. 373 vild vile N. 376 unkind 'cruel' and 'unnatura.l.' 377 beauteous evil evil beautiful in appearance. 378 empty trunks, o'erflourish'd empt.y bodies covered with blossoms or verdure N. 381 fly come violently. 382 so do not I '1 c10 not believe him,' and '1 do not believe myself' (in the hope that my brother is alive). 384 tane $%ken. 386 sage saws wise sayings. 388 Yet living in my glass i.e. whenever I loolr in t,he mirror. 389 favor face. 390 still always. 79

l'kYEILPTII N I G H T , 111. 4

F o r hirn I imitate. 0, if it prove, Tempests are kind, and salt waves fresh in love! [Exit.] I'oby. A very dishonest paltry boy, and more a coward than a hare. His dishonesty appears in leaving his friend here in necessity and denying him; and 396 f o r his cowardship, aslr Fabian. Fabian. A co~vard, a most devout coward; religious in it. Andraw. 'Slid, I'll after hiin again and beat hirn. Toby. D o ; cuff him sounclly, but never draw thy sword. 401 AncZrew. And I do not. Fabian. Come, let's sec the event. Toby. I dare lay any money 'twill be nothing yet. Exezont.

391 For became. it that he is alive. 303 dishonest dishonorable. 394 hare X. 399 'Slid 'God's lid' (eyelid): a mild onth. 402 And if. 403 the event the result, tho outcome. 404 yet nevertheless. Exeunt F E&.

Act IV

Enter Sebastian and Clown.

Clown. Will you make mc believe t h a t I a m not sent for you? Sebastian. Go to, g o to, thou art a foolish fellow. 4 Let me be clear of thee. Clown. Well held out, i' faith. No, I do not knov you ; nor I a m n o t sent to you bp my lady t o bid you come speak with her; nor your name is not Blaster Cesario; nor this is not my nose neither. 9 Nothing t h a t is so is so. 8ebastia.n. I prethee vent t h y folly somewhere else. Thou knom'st not me. Clomn. Vent my folly! H e has heard t h a t word of some great man and now applies i t t o rt fool. Vent mp folly! I am afraid this great lubber the world will prove a cockney. I prethee now ungird t h y strangeness, and tell me what I shall vent t o my lady? Shall I vent t o her t h a t thou art coming? 17 Sebastian.. I prethee, foolish Greek, depart from me. There's money f o r thee. If you t a r r y longer,
3 Go to go on. 5 held out kept up, continued. 10 I prethee I pray thee. 14 lubber lout. 15 a cockney an affected, foppish person N. ungird thy strangeness let loose thy strangc manner. 18 Greek 'merry companion' or 4unintelligible speaker.'

T W E L F T H N I G H T , IV, l
20 I shall give worse payment. Clown. B y m y troth, thou hast an open hand. These wise men t h a t give fools money get themselves a goccl repork, after fourteen years' purchase. 23

Enter [ S i r ] An,drew, [ S i r ] T o by, and Fahian. dndrezu. Now, sir, have I met you again. There's for you. [Strikes Sebastian.] Sebastian. Why, there's f o r thee, and .there, and there. 26 [Beats Sir A?tdrew.] Are all the people mad ? T o b y . Hold, sir, or 1'11 throw your dagger o'er the house. [Holds Sebastian.] Clown. This will I tell my lady straight. I would not be in some of your coats f o r twopence. [ E x i t . ] 32 T o b y . Come on, s i r ; hold. Andrew. Nay, let him alone. I'll go another way t o work wit11 him. I'll have an action of battery against him if there be a n y lam in Illyria. Thoug11 I stroke him first, yet it's no matter for that. 36 Sebastinilz. L e t go t h y hand. T o b y . Come, sir, I will not let you go. Come, my young soldier, p u t up your iron. You arc well flesh'd. Come on. 40 Sebastian. I will be free from thee. [Frees 7ti;mself.l W h a t woulds t thou now? If thou dar'st tempt me further, draw thy sword. [Draws.] T o b y . What, what? N a y then, I must have a n ounce
23 after fourteen years9 purchase a t cr high price N,:34 action of battery a suit at law for beating (me). 35 stroke struck. 39 You are well flesh'd you have had a good tarrte N.


IV. l

or two of this rn~lapert bb&dfrom you.


Enter OZiwin.

OZiviu. Hold, Toby. On thy life I charge thee, hold. Toby. Msdani. 46 Olizda. Will it be ever thus? Ungracious &retch, F i t for the mountains and the barbarous caves, Where manners ne'er mere preachyd. Out of my sight. 50 Be not off ended, dear Cesario. Rudesby, be gone. [Exez~nt f i r Toby, Sir Andre~u,and Fabian.] I prethee, gentle friend, Let thy fair wisdom, not thy passion, sway I n this uncivil and unjust extent Against thy peace. Go with me t o my house, And hear thou there how many fruitless pranks 55 This ruffian hath botch'd up, that thou thereby 3Xayst smile a t this. Thou shalt not choose but go. Do not deny. Beshrew his soul for me. H e started or~e poor heart of mine, in thee. Sebastian. What relish is in this? How runs the stream ? 60 Or am I mad, or else this is a dream. Let fancy still my sense in Lethe steep; I f i t be thus t o dream, still let me sleep. Olivia. N a y , come, I prethee. 'ATould thou'dst be rul'd by me? Sebastia?z. Madam, I will.
44 malapert impudent. 51 Rudesby unmannerly fellow. 52 fair just. sway rule. 53 uncivil uncivilized. extent probably 'diplay,' possibly 'assault.' 58 beshrew curse. 59 started startaled. heart 'heart' and 'hart' N. 60 relish taste. G1 Or or either or. 62 Lethe the river of forgetfulness in the underworld (Greek mythology). 63 still always.








Enter itlaria and Clown.

illaria. Nay, I prethee p u t on this gown and this beard. Make him beliere thou art Sir Topns the curate. D o i t quickly. I'll call S i r Tobg >he whilst. [Exit.] Clown. Well, I'll p u t i t on, and I will dissemble self in't, and I would I were the first t h a t ever dissembled in silch a gown. I am not tall enough t.o become the function well, nor lean enough t o btt thought a good studient: but t o be said an honest man and a good housekeeper goes as fairly as t o say a careful man ancl a great scholar. T h e competitors enter. 11


Enter [Sir] Toby [and Maria]. Toby. Jove bless thee, 31uster Parson. Clown. Bonos dies, Sir Toby; for as the old hermit of Prague t h a t never saw pen and ink very wittily said t o a niece of King Gorboduc, 'That t h a t is is'; so I being Master Parson, a m Master Parson. F o r what is 'that' but t h a t ? And 'is' b u t is? 17 T o b y . T o him, Sir Topas.
2 Sir comlnon title of address for the clergy. Topas N. 3 the whilst meanwhile. 4 dissemble disguise. 7 the function the function of a cleric. 8 studient student. 9 a good housekeeper one who lives well. 10 the competitors the associates. 13 Bonos dies good day (a prct,enrx at ecclesiastical Latin). 13-14 the old hermit of Prague probably the clown's invention. 15 King Gorboduc N.


ie CZOIUT~. W h a t ho, I say. Peace in this prison. Toby. T h e knave counterfeits well; a good knave. Jla2uoli.o within. Malvolio. Who calls there? Clown. S i r T o p a s the curate, who comes t o visit Malvolio the lunatic. il1alvoZio. Sir Topas, S i r Topas, good S i r Topas, go t o my lady. 25 Clown. Out, hyperbolical fiend! How vexest thou this m a n ? Talkest thou nothing but of ladies? T o b y . Well said, Master Parson. JlaZvolio. S i r Topas, never rras man thus wronged ; good Sir Topas, do not think I am mad. They have 31 laid me here in hideous darkness. Clown. Fie, thou dishonest Satan. I call thcc by the most modest terms, for I urn one of those gentle ones t h a t will use the dive1 himself with courtesy. Say'st 35 thou t h a t house is dark? Malvolio. As hell, Sir Topas. Clown. Why, it hath bay windows transparent c ~ s barricadoes, and the clear stores toward the sou211 north are as lustrous as ebony. And yet complaincst thou of obstruction? 40 Malvolio. I am not mad, Sir Topas; I say t o you this house is dark. Clown. Madman, thou errest. I say there is no darkness but ignorance, in which thou a r t more puzzl'd 45 than the Egyptians in their fog.
20 knave boy, fellow. 20 SD Malvolio within N. 26 hyperbolical enormous. 32 dishonest dishonorable. 33 modest moderate. 35 house 'house' and 'darkened room.' 38 barricadoes barricaclcs. clear stores clerestorics, t.he upper part of a church or building witoha serie~o f windows. 45 the Egyptians in their fog N.

T W E L F T H N I G I I T , IV. ! 3

Malvolio. I say this house is as dark s s ignorance, though ignorance were as dark as hell; and I s a y there was never man thus abus'd. I a m no more mad than you a r e ; make the trial of it in a n y constant question. 50 Clcwn. W h a t is the opinion of Pythagoras concerning wild fowl? Ma~volio. T h a t the soul of our grandam might hnppily inhabit a bird. 59 Clown. W h a t think'st thou of his oainion? Mnluolio. I think nobly of the soul and no way approve his opinion. CZozan. F a r e thee well. Remain thou still in darkness. Thou shalt hold th' opinion of Pythagoras ere I will allow of thy wits, and fear t o kill a woodcock, lest thou dispossess the soul of t h y grandam. F a r e thee well. Malvolio. Sir Topas, Sir Topas. T o b y . M y most exquisite Sir Topas. 65 Cloron. Nay, I am for all waters. Maricc. Thou mightst have done this without t h y beard and gown. He sees thee not. T o b y . T o him in thine own voice, and bring me word how thou find'st him. [ T o illaria.] I mould we were well rid of this knavery. If he may be convcnierltly deliver'd, I would he were; for I am now so f a r in offense with my niece t h a t I cannot pursue with a n y safety this sport t o the upshot. [ T o the Clown.] Come by and by t o my chamber. En't [wiiit Maria].
49 constant consistent. 51 Pythagoras N. 53 happily haply, by chance. 65 for all waters good for any trade, occupation. 71 deliver'd let out. 73 this sport to the upshot thii sport to the outcomo N. to F omits. 74 by and by immediately.

T W E L F T H N I G H T , IV. t

Clown. [Sings.]
Hey Robin, jolly Robin, Tell me how t h y lady does.

Malvolio. Fool. Clown. 'My lady is unkind, perdie.' Malvolio. Fool. Clown. ' A l a s , why is she so?' 80 Malvolio. Fool, I say. Clown. 'She loves another.' Who calls, h a ? Jfalvolio. Good fool, as ever thou wilt deserve well a t my hand, help me t o a candle, and pen, ink, and paper. As I am a gentleman, I will live t o be thankful t o thee for't. 86 Clown. Master fifalvolio? illalvolio. A y , ,good fool. Cloron. Alas, sir, how fell you besides your five wits? Illalvolio. Fool, t,heer was never mail so notoriously nhus'rl. I am as well in my wits, fool, as thou art. 91 Clown. B u t as well: then you are mad indeed, if you be no better in your wits than a fool. JfaZv~lio. They have here propertied me; keep me in darkness, send ministers t o me, asses, and d o all they can t o face me out of my wits. 96 Cloiwn. Advise you what you say. T h e minister is here. l'vlalvolio, hfalvolio, thy wits the heavens restore. Endeavor thyself t o sleep, and leave t h y vain bibble babble. loo iL1alvoli.o. Sir Topas. Clown. Maintain no words with him, good fellow.
75 Hey Robin N. 78 perdie certainly (French par dieu). 89 how fell you besides how fell you out of. five wits N. 94 propertied me made me a property, a mere thing. 96 face me out of my w i t s impudently claim thmt I am mad. 97 Advise you be careful of.

T W E L l ~ T I IN I G H T . I V . e

IVho, I, sir? Not I, sir. God buy you, good Sir Topus. Marry, amen. I will, cir, I will. lot Malvolio. Fool, fool, fool, I say. Clown. Alas, sir, be patient. What sap you, s i r ? I am shcnt for speaking to you. Malvotio. Good fool, help me t o some light and some paper. I tell thee I am as well in my wits as any man in Illyria. 110 Clozon. \Veil-a-day, that you were, sir. ~ ~ a 1 v o l iBy o . this hand, I am. Good fool, some ink, paper, and light; and convey what I will set down t o my lacly. It shall advantage thee more than ever the bearing of letter did. 115 Clozon. I will help you to't, But tell me true, are you not, rrlad indeed? Or do you but counterfeit? Maluolio. Believe me, I am not; I tell thee true. Cloron. Nay, I'll ne'er believe a madman till I sce his brains. I will fetch you light and paper and ink. iklalwolio. Fool, I'll requite it in the highest 121 degree. I prethee be gone. Clown, [Sings.]
I a m gone, sir,
And anon, sir, 1'11 be with you again.
In a trice,

Like t o the old Vice,

Your need t o sustain. W h o with dagger of lath, i n his rage and his wrath, Cries 'Ah, ha,' to the divel.

103 God buy you good-by N. 104 Marry N. 107 shent reproved. 111 Well-a-day woe, alas. 114 advantage be of advantage to, 124 anon straightway, at once. 123-5 I a m gone, sir agm Er. 127-33 Like to the old Vice 'Pare thy nails, dad' N.


. ..



Like a mad lad, 'Pare thy nails, dad.' Adieu, goodman dive/.



Enter Sebastian.
Sebastian. This is the air; t h a t is the glorious sun; This pearl she gave me, I do fecl't ancl see't ; And though 'tis wonder t h a t enwraps me thus, Yet 'tis not madness. Where's Allto~lio then? 5 I could not find hi111 a t the E l e p l l a ~ l t ; Yet there he was, and there I found this credit T h a t he did range the town t o seek mc out. EIis counsel now might do me golden service; F o r though my soul disputes well with my sense 10 T h a t this may be some error, b u t no rnadncss, Yet doth this accident and flood of fortune S o f a r exceed all instance, all discourse, T h a t I a m ready t o distrust mine eyes ' And wrangle with m y reason t h a t persuades me 15 T o any other t r u s t but t h a t I am mttd, O r else the lady's mad. yet if 'tnyere so, She could n o t s\vnp her house, command her followers, T a k e and give back affairs and their dispatch
134 Adieu, goodman dive1 N. 6 this credit this report believed. 9 my soul disputes well with my sense my mind agrees well with my senses. 12 instance example. discourse logic, reason. 14 wrangle dispute. 17 sway rulc. 18 dispatch mrtnagernent.. 89

T n ' E 1 , F T H N I G H T . IF. S

With such a smooth, discreet, and stable bearing As I perceive she does. Therc's something in't T h a t is deceivable. B u t here the lady comes.


Enter Olivio and Priest. OEivia. Bltirne not this haste of mine. I f you moan well, Now g o with me and with this holy man Into the chantry by. There before him U And underneath t h a t consecrated roof, Plight me the full assurance of your faith, T h a t my most jealious and too doubtful soul May live a t peace. Ile shall conceal i t Whiles you a r e willing it shall come t o note, 90 What tiiile we will our celebration keep According t o my birth. Whut do you s a y ? Sebastian. 1'11 follow this good man and go with
And ]raving sworn truth, ever mill be true. Olivia. Then lead the way, good father ;nnd heavens 5 0 shine 35 That they may fairly note this a c t of mine. Ea~zr ni.

Finis, d c t ~ h q .~ ~~nrtrc:~.
2 l deceivable deceptive. 24 the chantry by the cha1xI r1e.r by N. 26 Pliglit me . . . your faith N. 27 jealious jcalou~.29 Whiles until. note notice. 30 What time at which time. 31 11.y birth nly station.


Enter Clo7on and Fabian.

Fabian. Now as thou lov'st me, let me see his letter. Clown. Good Master Fabian, g r a n t me another request. Fabian. Anything. 5 Clown. D o not desire t o see this ietter. Fabian. This is t o give a dog and in recompense desire my dog again.

Enter Dulre, Viola, Curio, and Lords. Duke. Belong you t o the Lady Olivia, friends ? 9 Cloron. Ay, sir, we a r e some of her trappings. Dwke. I Bnom~thee well. IIow doest thou, rrly good f ellow ? Clomn. Truly, sir, the better for my foes and the worse for my friends. Duke. J u s t the contrary : tlie Letter for t h y friends. l5 Cloron. No, sir, the worse. Duke. How can t h a t be.? Cloron. Marry, sir, they praise me and make a n ass of m c ; now my foes tell rne plainly I am a n ass. So that by my foes, sir, I profit in the knowledge of
G This is to give a dog N. 9 trappings train, attendanta. 1 0 doest N. 91

myself, and by my friends I a m abused. So t h a t conclusions t o be as kisses, if your four negatives make your two nffirnlat,ives, why then, the worse f o r my friends and the better for iny foes. Dulce. Why, this is excellent. Clown. my troth, sir, no ; though it please you t o be one of lny friends. Thou shalt not be the worse for me. There's gold. Clown. B u t t h a t i t would be double dealing, sir, I 30 would you could make i t another. Duke. 0, you give me ill counsel. Glo.rcrn. P u t your grace in your pocket, sir, for this once, and let your flesh and blood obey it. Dulte. Well, I will be so much a sinner t o be a double dealer, There's another. 85 Clown. Primo, secuv2cl0, tertio is a good play, and the old saying is 'The third pays for all.' T h e triplex, sir, is a good tripping measure; or the bells of St. Bennet, sir, nlny p u t you ill mind, one, two, three. 39 Duke. You can fool no more money out of me at this throw. If you will let your lady k1101v I am here t o speak with her, and bring her along with you, it 43 may awake m y bounty further. Clown. Marry, sir, lullaby t o your bounty till I come agen. I go, s i r ; but I nrould not have you t o think t h a t my desire of having is the sin of covetous-


20 &bused 'deceived' and 'wronged.' 20-3 So that conclusions . for my foes N. 29 But that but for the fact that. double dealing both 'doublc giving' and 'deceit,' 32 grace both 'Duke' and 'generosity.' 36 Primo, secundo, tertio N. 37 'The third pays for all?N. triplex triple time in music. 38-9 St. Bennet St. Benedict N. 41 throw throw of the dice.





ness. But as you say, sir, let your bounty take r Exit. nap; I will awake i t anon.
Viola. H e r e co~nesthe man, sir, t h a t did rescue me. 58 Duke. T h a t face of his I d o remember well. Yet when I saw it last, i t was besmear'd As black: as Vulcan in the snloke of war. A haubling vessel was he captain of, F o r shallow draught and bulk unprizable, .W W i t h which such scathful grapple did he make W i t h the most noble bottom of our fleet T h a t very envy and the tongue of loss Cried fame and honor on him. IVhat's the matter? 59 1 OfFccr. Orsino, this is t h a t Antonio T h n t took the Phoenix and her fraught from Candy; And this is he t h a t did the Tiger board When your young nephew Titus lost his leg. Here in the streets, desperate of shame and state, 64 I n private brabble did we apprehend him. Viola. I I e did me kindness, sir, drew on my side; B u t in conclusioll p u t strange speech upon me. I know not what 'twas but distraction. Duke. Notable pirate, thou salt-water thief, W h a t foolish bolrluess brought thee t o their mercies Whom thou in terms so bloody and so dear 7%
62 Vulcan Raman god of fire and patron of metal workers. 63 E baubling vessel a trifling vessel, an unimportant ship. 54 unprizable incapable of being valued, worthless. 55 scathful harmfuL 56 bottom ship. 57 very even. loss those losing the battle. 60 fraught cargo. Candy 'Candia' and 'Crete.' 63 desperate of shame and state reckless of shame and of his condition. 64 brabble brawl. 65 drew drew his sword. 66 put strange speech upon me spoke to me st.rangely.67 distraction madness. 68 thief 'robber,' a strong word. 70 dear costly N. 93

T W E L F T H N I G H T , V. 1

H a s t made thine enemies ?

dnfo?zi~. Orsino, noble sir, Be plens'd t h a t I shake off these names you give me. Antony never yet was thief or pirate, Though I confess, on base and ground enough, 75 Orsino's enemy. A witchcraft drew me hither. T h a t most ingrateful boy there by your side From the rude sea's enrag'd and foamy mouth Ditl I redeem. A wrack past hope he was. E i s life I gave him and did thereto add 3iy love without retention o r restraint, ill1 his in dedication. For his sake Did I expose myself (pure for his love) Tnto the danger of this adverse town; Dl-cw t o defend him when he was beset; 86 tV11ere being apprehended, his false cunning ( N o t meaning t o partake ~vith me in danger) T a u g h t him t o face me out of his acquaintance, And grew a twenty y e w s removed thing While one would wink; denied. me mine own purse, 90 'Whicl-i I had recommended t o his use N o t half an hour before. Viola. How can this Ix? Duke. When ctrrnc he to this town? Anfonio. Today, my lord: and f o r three months before, N o intrim, not a minute's vacancy, 95 Both dng and niglit did we keep company.

En.ter Qlivio and Attendants,

78 wrack wreck. 82 pure purely, only. 83 adverse hostile. 87 to face me out of his acquaintance s h u m e l e ~ l ytro pretend not to know me. 88-9 And grew . . . would wink N, 90 had recommended had given in charge, had urged. 93 three months N. 94 intrim interim.

T W E L F T H N I G H T . V.

Duke. Here comes the countess; now heaven walks on earth. , words a r e madness. B u t f o r thee, fellow: f e l l o ~ thy Three months this youth hath tended upon me, B u t more of t h a t anon. Take him aside. OEivia. What would my lord, but t h a t he may not have, 100 Wherein Olivia may seem serviceable? Cesario, you d o not keep promise with me. Viola. Madam. Dulie. Gracious Olivia. 104 Olivia. W h a t do you say, Cescrrio? Good my lord. Viola. My lord would speak; my d u t y hushes me. Olivia. If i t be ought t o the old tune, my lord, It is 8s f a t and fulsome t o mine ear As howling after music. Duke. Still so cruel? IU) Olivia. Still so constant, lord. Duke. What, t o perverseness? You uncivil lady, T o whose ingrate and unauspicious altars My soul the fnithfull'st off'rings have breath'd out T h a t e'er devotion tcnder'd. W h a t sliall I do? Olivia. Even what i t plefisc my lord, t h a t shall become him. 115 Duke. W h y should I not (had I the heart t o do i t ) , Like t o th' Egyptian thief a t point of death, Kill what I love? (A savage jealousy T h a t sometimes savors nobly.) B u t hear me this: 120 Since you t o nonregardance cast my faith,
100 but that he may not have except what he m y not have (my love). 108 fat superabundant, uunecessary. fulsome offensive to the taate. 112 ingrate ungrateful. unauspicious unpropitisus. 113 My soul have breath'd N. 115 Even monmyllabic. 117 th' Egyptian thief N. 120 nonregardance neglect, lack of regard,



T B E L F T H N I G H T , V. 1

And t h a t I p a r t l y ltnow the instrument T h a t screws me from my t r ~ l e place in your favor, Live you the marblc-breasted t y r a n t still. B u t this your minion, wliorrl I knom you love, 125 And whom, by heaven I swear, I tender dearly, Him will I t e s r out of that cruel eye Where he sits crowned in his master's spite. Come, boy, with me. My t,houghts are ripe in mischief. 129 3'11 sacrifice the lamb t h a t I do love, [Going.] T o spite a raven's heart within R, dove. Viola. And I most j ocuncl, apt, and willingly, T o do you rest a thousand deaths would die. [ F ollo7e~ng.) Oliwia, Where goes C c s ~ ~?i o Yioln. After him I love More than I love these eyes, more than my life, 135 More by all nlorcs than ere I shall love wife. I f I d o feign, you wit~lcsses above Punish my life for tainting of my love. Olivin. Ay me detcstcd! llow am I beguil'd! Ya'ola.. -Who does beguile you? Who does do you

OEiuin.. H n s t thou forgot tliysclf? I s i t so long? 140 Call forth the holy father. [Exit an A tten.dant.1 Duke. [To Vi.oEa.1 Come, away. OZivia. Whither, my lord? Cesario, husband, stay. Du(7ce. Husband ? Qlivia. Ay, husband. Can he t h a t deny?

DzLX:~. H e r busbancl, sirrah .?

124 minion iavoritc. 125 tender hold. 137 in his master's spite &spil,e his mastcr. 131 apt properly. 132 To do you rest to give you peace. 135 mores custom. 137 for tainting for c~rrupt~ing (by feigning). l42 husband N, 3.44 sirrah 'sir';thc Ic~rm is familiar or contemptuous.

T W E L F T I - I N I G H T , V. h

No, my lord, not I. Viola. OZivia. Alas, it is the baseness of t h y fear T h a t makes thee strangle thy propriety. F e a r not, Cesario ; take t h y fortunes u p ; I3e t h a t thou knom'st thou a r t , a n d then thou a r t As g r e a t a s t h a t thou fear'st.


Enter Priest.

0 welcome, father ! IW Father, I charge thee by t h y reverence Here t o unfold-though lately we intended T o keep in darkness what occasion now Reveals before 'tis ripe-what thou dost know H a t h newly pass'd between this youth and me. 15s Priest. A contract of eternal bond of love, Confirm'd by mutual joinder of your hands, Attested by the holy close of lips, Gtrengtli'ned by interchangcmcnt of your rings; And all the ceremony of this conlpact la Seal'd in m y function, by my testimony; Since when, my watch h a t h told me, toward my grave I have travel'd b u t two hours. Duke. 0 thou dissembling cub, what wilt thou be When time hxth sow'cl a grizzle on tliy case? 163 Or will not else t h y c r a f t so quickly grow T h a t thine own t r i p shall be thine overthrow? Farewell, and take h e r ; but direct t h y feet Where thou and I henceforth may never meet. Viola. My lord, I do protest. Olizria. 0, do n o t swear. 16%
146 thy propriety thy identity. 149 that thou fear'st i.e. the Duke. 164 a grizzle gray hair. case sheath or skin, pnrticularly of a fox. 166 trip trickery N.

Hold little faith, though thou hrrst too much fear.

Enter Sir Andrew. Andrew. For the love of God, a surgeon. Send one presently t o Sir Toby. ln Olivin. What's the matter? Andrew. H'as broke my head across and has given Sir Toby a bloody coxcomb too. F o r the love of God, your help. I had rather than forty pound I were at home. 177 Olivia. W h o has done this, Sir Andrew? AncErew. T h e Count's gentleman, one Cesario. We took him f o r a coward, but he's the very dive1 incardinate. 181 Dulce. A4y gentleman Cesario? Andrsw. Od's lilelings, here he is. You broke my heaJ for nothing, and t h a t t h a t I did, I was set on 185 t o do't by Sir Toby. Viola. W h y do you speak t o me? I never hurt you. You drew your sword up011me without cause, 1813 I3ut I bespake you fair and llurt you not.
Enter [] Toby and Clown. Andrew. I f a bloody coxcomb be a hurt, you have h u r t me. I think you set nothing by a bloody coxcomb. Here colrles Sir Toby halting; you shall hear more. Rut if he had not been in drink, he would hare

tickl'd you otliergates than he did. Duke. H o w now, gel~tleluan? How is't with you?


170 Hold little f a i t . keep a little faith. 172 presently a t oncc. 174 H'as he has. 175 coxcomb head. 180 incardinate possibly a quibblo on 'incarnate,' ' i n the flesh,' and 'incardinate,' 'like a .ardinnll N. 183 O d ' s Lifelings 'God's little livcs'; a mild oath. 188 bespake you fair apoke to you politely. 191 halting limpirlg. 193 othergates otherwise.

Toby. That's all one. I-Ius h u r t me, and there's th' end on't. Sot, didst see Diclc Surgeon, s o t ? 190 Clown. 0, he's drunk, Sir Tobg, an hour agone. a s eyes were set at. eight i' th' morning. Toby. Then he's a rogue and rt passy measures [)""in. I h a t e a drunken rogue. 200 Oliuia. Away with him ! Who h ~ t h made this havoc w i t h them? rlndrew. I'll help you, S i r Toby, bccause we'll be ctress'd together. 204 Toby. Will you help an ass-head a n d a coxconlb alid a knave, a thin-fac'd knavc, a gull? Olivia. Gct him t o bcd and let his h u r t be look'd to. [Exeunt Cloron, Fabian, Sir Tobjy, and Sir dltdrew.
Enter Sebastian.
Sebastian. I a m sorry, rnnda~n,I have h u r t your kinsman ; n u t had it been the brother of my blood, I must have done no less wit.11 wit and safety. 210 You throw a strange regnrd upon me, and by t h a t I do perceive i t h a t h offended you. 3'~rdon me, sweet one, even for the vows We macle each other b u t so late ago. Dwke. One face, one voice, one habit, and two persons,

195 That's a l l one it makes no difference. 196 sot 'fool'; possibly 'hbitua1 drinker.' 197 agone ago. 198 set 'fixed' or 'gone d o n , ' i.c. 'closed.' 199-200 passy measures pavin an cight-bar doubleslow dance; F panyn N. 201 havoc N. 203-4 be dress'd have out wounds dressed. 205 a coxcomb a simpleton. 206 a gull a dupe. 210 with wit and safety with ictelligcnt regnrd for my safety, 211 a strange regard an estranged look. 215 habit drem.

A n a t u r a l perspective, t h a t is and is not. Sebasticrtz. Antonio, 0 nly dear Antonio,

Howr h a \ ~ e the llours rack'd and tortur'd me Since I have lost thee! Antonio. Sebastian a r e y o u ? Sebastian. l'ear'st thou that, Antonio? 220 Antonio. How have you made division of yourself? An apple cleft in two is not more twin T h a n these two cl-eaturcs. Which is Sebastian? Olivia. Most wonderful. 224 Sebnaf ian. D o I stand there? I never had a brother; Nor can there be tllnt deity in my nature Of liere and evcrywllere. I had a sister \1'11om the blind wares and surges have devour'd. 229 Of charity, what kin are you t o m e ? W h a t countl-ynian? W h a t name? W h a t parentage? Viola.. Of Riessaline ; Sebastian was rny father ; Such n Sebastian nrns my brother too. So went he suited t o his watery tomb. If spirits can assume both form and suit, You come t o fright us. Sebastian. A spirit I am indeed, 254 R u t nm in t h a t dirncnsion grossly clad, FFThiclifrom t,hc womb I did participate. n T c r c you a woman, as the rest goes even, I should m tears let fall upon your cheek ~ d And say, 'Thrice welcome, drowned Viola !' Viola. My father had a mole upon his brow. Sebastian. And so had mine. 216 A natural perspective, thtit is and is not N. 227 Of here and
everywhere of ornnipresencc. 229 Of charity in kindness. 233 suited dressed. 234 suit dress. 23G diniension form. grossly mrtkrially, in the flesh. 237 participate partake, inherit. 238 as the rest goes even N. 100


Viola. And died t h a t d a y when Viola from her birth H a d numb'red thirteen years. Sebastian. 0, t h a t record is lively in my soul! 245 I-Ie finished indeed his mortal a c t T h a t day t h a t rnnde my sister thirteen years. Viola. If nothing lets t o make us happy both B u t this my m;~sculine usurpyd attire, 250 D o not embrace me till each circumstance Of place, tirne, fortune do cohere and jump T h a t I am Viola; which t o confirm, I'll bring you t o a captain in this town, Where lie my maiden weeds ; by whose gentle help 255 I was preserv'd t o serve this noble Count. All t h e occurrence of my fortune since H a t h been between this lady and this lord. Sebastian. [ T o O l i ~ i a . ] So comes it, lady, you have been mistook. But nature t o her bias drew in that. 260 You would have been contracted t o n maid, Nor are you tllercin, bp my life, deceiv'd; You a r e betroth'd both t o a maid and man. Duke. Be not amnz'd; right noble is his blood. If this be so, as yet the glass seems true, 265 I shall have share in this most happy wrack. [ T o Viola.] Boy, thou hast said t o me a thousand tiines Thou never should'st love woman like t o me. Viola. And all those sayings will I over smear And all those swearings keep as true in soul
245 record memory !stressed - A). 248 lets hinders N. 251 jump agree completely. 254 weeds clothes. 259 But nature to her bias drew in that N. 262 a maid i.e. a chaste man. 363 amaz'd dazed. 264 the glass the perspective glass of 1. 216 abovc. 265 wrack wreck (the shipwreck). 2fB over swear swear over



As doth t h a t orbed continent the fire T h a t severs d a y from night. Duke, Give me thy hand And let me see thee in t h y woman's weeds. Viola. T h e captain t h a t did bring me first on shore Hath my maid's garments. I-Ie upon some action 275 IB nonr in durance at Mtxlvolio's suit, A gentleman and follower of my lady's. Olivia. EIe shall enlarge him. Fetch Malvolio hither. And yet alas, now I remember me, They say, poor gentleman, he's much distract.

Enter Clown, with a letter, nnd Fabian.

A most extracting frenzy of mine own


F r o m my remembrance clearly bnnish'd his. How does he, sirrah? Clown. Truly, madam, he holds Belzebub at the stare's end as well as a man in his case may do. Has here w r i t a letter t o you. I should have given't you today morning. B u t as n mndmnn's epistles are n o ~ o s p c l s so , i t sltills not n ~ ~ z c when h they are deliver'tl. 288 Olivin. Open't and read it. Clovn. Ilook then t o be well edified, when thc fool delivers the mudman. [Xcads.] 'Bv the Lord, madam.' 291 Olivia. How now, a r t thou mad? Clow,it. NO, madam, I do but rend madness. And
270 arbed continent N. 274 some action some legal charge. 275 in durmce imprisoned. 277 enlarge him free him. 279 distract dislrrtcted, insane. 280 extracting distmcting. 281 his my rcmembrancc of him (Malvolio). 282 sirrah 'sir,' used to an inferior. 283-4 he holds Belzebub at the stave's end he holds the devil off N. 287 it skills not much it ~nalres not much difference. 292 And if.

T W E L F T H N I G H T . V. l

your ladyship will have it as it ought t o be, you must allow vox. 295 Olivia. Prethee read i' thy right wits. Clown. S o I do, madonna; b u t t o read his right wits is to read thus. Therefore, perpend, my PG*. cess, and give car. 299 Olinia. [ T o Fabian.] Rend it you, sirrah. Fabian. (Rends.) 'By the Lord, madam, you wrong me, and the world shall know it. Though you hare p u t me into darkness and given your drunken cousin rule over me, yet have I the benefit of my senses as well a8 your Ldyship. I have your own l e t t e r t h a t induced me t o the semblance I p u t on; with the which I doubt not h u t t o do myself much right, o r you much shame. Think of me as you please. I leave my d u t y a little unthougllt of, and speak out of m j injury. 509 'The Madly Us'd Malvolio.' Oliviu. Did l ~ write e this? Clown.. Ay, madam. Duke. This savors not much of distraction. Olirda. See him deliver'd, Fabian ; bring him hither. [Exit Fabian.] My lord, so please you, these things further tllougllt on, 315 T o think me as well a sister as rr wife, One d a y shall crown th' alliance on't, so please you, Here at my house and at my proper cost. Duke. Madam, I am most a p t t'embrace your offer.
319 apt prone to, ready. 204 vox 'voice,' i.e. a loud voice or the voice o C a madman. 29G madonna my lady. 297 perpend ponder, considor. 307-9 I leave . my injury N. 316 a sister i.e. a siqter-in-law. 318 proper cost own expense.


1 0 1 ' 1



[ T o Viola.] Y o u r master quits you ; and for your

service done Iiim, S o much against the mettle of your sex, S o f a r beneath your soft ancl tender breeding, ,4nd since you call'd me master f o r so long, Here is my hand ; you sllull from this time be Y o u r master's mistress. Olivin. A sister: you a r e she.


Enter [Fabian with] nlalvolio. Duke. Is t,l~is the madman? Ay, my lord, this same. Olivia.
How now, Malvolio ?

wrong, Notorious wrong.


you hnvc done


Olivia. Have I, Mnlvolio? No. Jlalvolio. Lady, you have. P r a y you peruse t h a t
letter. 330 You must not now deny it is your hand. W r i t e from it if you can, in hand o r phrase, Or s a y 'tis not your seal, not your invention. You can s a y none of this. Well, g r a n t it then ; 334 Arid tell me in the modesty of honor, Why you have given me such clear lights of favor, Bade mc come smiling and cross-gnrter'd to you, T o p u t on yellow stocl<ings and t o frown Upon S i r T o b y and the lighter people ; And, acting this in a n obedient hope, 340 W h y have you silffer'd me t o bc iillprison'd,
320 quits you releases you. 321 mettle quality of temperament. 331 from it differently from it. 334 in the modesty of honor with regard for the propriety of (your) honor. 338 lighter lesser. 339 acting rcfers to Malvolio.
3 04



K e p t in a d a r k house, visited by the priest, And made the most notorious geck and gull T h a t e'er invention play'd on? Tell me why? OZiztin. Alas, bIalvolio, this is n o t my writing, 845 Though I confess much like the character ; B u t o u t of question, 'tis hiaria's Land. And now I do bethink me, i t was she F i r s t told me thou wnst mad; then cam'st in smiling, And in such forms which here were presuppos'd 350 Upon thee in the letter. Prethee be content. This practice hat11 most shrewdly pnss'd upon thee; B u t when we know the grounds and authors of it, Thou shalt bc both the plaintiff and the judge Of thine own cause. Fabian. Good madam, hear me speak, 358 And let no quarr-cl nor no brawl t o come, T a i n t the condition of this present hour, Which I have wond'red at. I n hopc it shall not, X o s t freely I confess myself and T o b y Set this device against Malvolio here, 3m Upon some stubborn and uncourteous p a r t s W e had conceiv'd against him. Mariu writ T h e letter a t S i r Toby's g r e a t importance, I n recompense whereof he hath married her. IIow with a sportful nialice it was follow'd 365 &lay rather pluck on laughter t h a n revenge, If t h a t the injuries be justly weigh'd T h a t have on both sides pass'd.
342 geck fool, dupe. gull dupe. 349-50 presuppos'd Upon thee put upon you beforehand. 351 shrewdly pass'd upon thee maliciously been put upon you. 355 nor no 'nor,' an emnphati:: negative. 360 Upon on account of. stubborn 11a.ughty. parts persoml attributes, chsrrtcteristics. 362 importance importunity 364 it the plot. 365 pluck on draw on, urge on.

P W E L P T H N I G H T , V. 1

Olivia. Alas poor fool, how have they baffl'd thee!

Clown. Why, 'some a r e born great, some achieve greatness, and Bome have greatness thrown upon them.' I was one, sir, in this interlude, one Sir Topns, s i r ; b u t that's all one. 'By the Lord, fool, I a m not mad.' B u t do you remember, 'R4adam, why laugh you a t such a barren rascal? And you smile not, he's gngg'd'? A n d thus the whirligig of time brings in his revenges. 370 Malvolio. 1'11 be reveng'd on the whole pack of you !

[Exit.] Olivia. H e h a t h been rnost notoriously abus'd. Dukc. Pursue him and entreat him t o a peace. 380 He h a t h not told us of the captain yet. When t h a t is lrnovn and goldcn time convents, A solemn combination shall be made
Of o u r dear souls. Meantime, sweet sister, We will n o t p a r t froin Ile~lce.Cesario, come (385 ( E o r so you shall be while you a r e a man) ; B u t when in other habits you a r e seen, Orsino's mistress ancl his fancy's queen. Excut~t Call but ths Clown]. Clow~6 sings.
W h e n tllat / was and a little tiny boy, W i t h hey, ho, the wind and the rain, A foolish thing was but a toy, For the rain it raineth every day.


363 baff19d thee diagraccd you publicly. 371 interlude an early form of dramatic comady or entertainment. 374 And if. 375 whirligig circling course. 380 the captain Antonio, in jail. 381 cotvents comes together, suits. 386 habits clothing. 383-407 When that I was to please you every day N. 388 and a rhc atut is superfluous N. tiny I ' line.



But when / came t o man's estate, W i t h hey, ho, the wind and the rain, 'Gainst knaves and thieves men shut their gote, For t h e rain i t raineth every day.


But when I came, alas, t o wive,

W i t h hey, ho, the wind and the rain, E y swaggering could l never thrive, For the rain i t raineth every day. But when 1 came unto my beds, W i t h hey, ho, t h e wind and the rain, W i t h tosspots still had drunken heads, For the rain it raineth every day.

A great while ago t h e world begun,

W i t h hey, ho, the wind and the rain:

But fhat's all one, our play is done,

And we'll strive t o please you every day.


392-402 But when I came to man's estate With tosspots still had drunken heads N. 393, 397, 401 With hey, ho, the wind and the rain P with hey ho, etc. 395,399,403 For the raic it raineth every day F fmthe raine, etc. 405 With hey, ho, the wind and the rain F hey h, etc. 407 And well strive to please you every day N.

.. .

[The Actors' nearby]: A list of characters and the lace tion of the scene do not appoar in the First Folio. Rome (1709) first gave the characters. Both thc names Orsino and Vabntine appear to have becn suggested by a visit of Don Valentine Orsino, Duke of Bracciano, to the English Court in January 1600. Tradition and, less certainly, the t.ext, make Sir Toby the uncle of Olivin. The name of Festc the clown is the contemporary form of feast, celebration, and is thus related t o tbo title of the play Twelfth Night or What You W i l l The Folio spells the title 'twelfe,' the old form and proniinciation of the ordinal. Twelfth Night is the night of Epiphany, January 6, the tmelfth day after Chfslmas. Traditionally comrncmorating tho Magi and the mnnifestation of Christ to the Gentiles, the holiday marked the end of the Christmas festivit.ies. The title may mean that the play was written for ono particular Twelfth Night celebration, perhaps a t court, or that the spirit of the play is consonant with the Christmas holidays. 'What You Will' simply enforcea the air of lightness of 'Twelfth Night.'
1-3 If music so die Lf music is the food for love, play on to excess so that love's appotito for music, having too much, may sicken and die. It is most improbable that the Duke is wishing that his love for Olivia mny also die. 9-14 0 spirit in a minute 0 spirit of love, how alive and fresh you are in that, dcspito your power of receiving, you still devour things aa does the sea. Nothing goes into love of whatever valuc and high esteem but that it falls into belittlement and low value a t once. Thc central idea of the passage is the lcveling power of love. 14 fancy In Shakespearean English the term has a number of s most commo~lly used in psychology and esthetics. meanings and i The most probable meaning hcrc is the hugination or the mind of the mnn in love.



Act I, Scene l




18 the noblest His noblest hurt (deer) and 'heart,' Olivia. 21 hart X second pun on hcrt and 'heart.' The specific reference fs to the story of Acteon who saw Diana bathing naked. As punishment., she transformed him into a hart and pursued him to his death with his own hound?. Shakespeare's most probable source is Ovicl's fifetamorphoses, Blt. 3, 11. 143-252 (Loeb ed.). 35 golden shaft Cupid had two arrows; one was of gold, had a sharp point, and kindled love; the other was of lead, had a blunt Blc. 1, point, and brought dislike. Sce the ~lfetamo~phoses, 11. 469-71 (Loeb ed.).

Act I , Scene 9
4 EIysium Viola picks a word that sounds lilte 'Illyria,' 15 Ation Orion of the Folio is either a phonetic spelling or a misreading of Shakespeare, the copyist, or the printer. The lines closely follow Ovid's account in the Fasti, 2, 113-16 (Loeb d . ) . Arion, a bard on a voyage, jumped overboard to escape the sailors who would have murdered him for his money. A d o l p h i ~ offered his back, and thereon the poet paid for his passage by playing on his lyre. 42 delivered Viola does not mish t o be delivered or disclosed +athe world; she is an unprotected woman in a strange country ~ n she d will remain in disguise until an opportune time for revealing her name and proper position in saciety. 61 to my wit The word has a large number of meanings in Shakespearean English. Here 'cleverness,' 'resourcefulness,' and 'intelligence' arc thc most probable sjmonynw

Act I , Scene 3
7 except before excepted The legalism, exceptis sxcipiendis, 'those things excepted which have been excepted,' was a phrase commonly employed in the writing of leases and allowed for condit.ions which had already been set up prior to the writing of the lease. 12 And Alternate form of 'an,' to mean 'if.' 'And' with this meaning is the standard spelling of the li'irst Folio. 'An' is more cornmon before 1600.

ZWE1.FTI-I N I G H T , I , S

22 ducat The silver ducat of I t d y was worth about h.6d. in Shakq>earc's tirnc. 29 almost natural A natural ia an idiot. Mmia is plmmng on the word. 42 parish top Towmhipa and p~rishcskept large tops which were made t o spin by being whippcd with eel &ins. The origin of thc practicc m a y be in religious ritual; a t any mtc, there wlls communal top-spinning. Scc U c e U. Gommc's The T~ditiotbnl Games of England (2 vols. 1804, 1598), g, 301-3. Evidence does not support Steevena' stalcmont that the purpose of the top W= 'that the peasants might be kept warm by exeicise, and out of mischief, while they could not work.' Nmes' Cflossnry (ed. 1859) lists references but without confirmation of Skevens. 42 wench The use here is fnmilirrr, not derogatory. 42-3 Castiliano vulgo Thc exnct mcauing is u n h o n n . Sir Toby wants Maria to be sobcrly polite to Sir A~ldrcw. ?'he Castilian people had rt special reputation for poli tcness. Hanmer elucndcd the phrase to Castiliano tlolta, which he glosses 'l~rbr most civil and worthy looks.' 49-55 Accost Accost Sir Toby tells Sir Andrew t o grcct k i n ; Sir Andrem does not know tho meaning of accost and thinlrs i t is blaria's namc. Maria is a chudermaid (1. 51) only in the aense of 'lady-in-waiting' to Olivia. 70 butt'ry bar The buttcry bar was the bar, ~~qually in t.he cellar, wherc the butts or bmrcls of liquor mere stored. The word is unrelated to 'butter.' 73 It's dry, sir hlaria begins R series of puns with several meanings for d q , namely, 'witty,' .in need of a drink,' ancl 'impotent' or 'old.' A moist hand m m believed to bc rr sign of youth and of liberdity in money and love. Sir Andrevr rni~scs the point, but Maris continuca thc pun with 'at my fingers' onds' and 'I am barren.' 85-G great wit Tha Englishrazn's diet wcta traditionally hen~y and the quantity of beef in it R ~ U Y supposed to make bim dull-wi tted. 93 bear-baiting An amusement in which a bear was tied or chained to a stake and unmuzzled dogs were set on it. The sport

. ..



wee extromely popular among all classea and w a s commonly wried on in the thcaters. 9&9 curl by nature Sir Toby is punning on 'art' acr oppoeed to 'natmo' and probably on 'tongs' (curling t o n g ) and 'tongues'

In 1. 97.
121 back-trick Minor verbal quibbles of an obacene sort p r o b ably occur in caper, mutton, and bacbtrick. 125 Mistress Mall's picture Attempts to identify Mall m Naria or as &ll Cutpurse, the criminal Mary Frith, born probably about 1584, arc not convincing. 128 sink-a-pace The obvious pun on tho word deponds on ' d e water.' 133 dam'd color'd There is no satisfactory explanation of the phrasc. 'PtoweJsemendation, flame-color'd, ~EIcommonly accepted. There i~ the possibility that datn'd may mean [dark' or ' b l a c k ' 133 sit The two verbs 'sit' and 'set' were confused in Shakespearean as in modern English. 'Sit' is from Old English Atfun; ' R C ~ ' is from Old English settan. 136 Taurus The twelve signs of tho Zodiac, named after astral co~~~itcllations .snd rclatod t o time, were upp posed t,o govcrn various parts of tho human body. By consulting an astrological almanac the physician might determine the proper treatment for disease in u pmticulnr part of Ihe body a t a particular tims of the year. The bull Taurus, according to some authorities, governed sides and heart; according to others, neck and throat. But Su Toby's spccch should not be taken seriously.

Act I , Scew $ . 16 doors The plural h perhaps derived from tho doora, commonly divided, of the Elizabethan house. 35 thy constellation According to cmtrological theory the c h r acter of a person wns determined a t the moment of hia birth by t,he 'constellation' or arrangement of stars a t that time. 41-2 woo woo would The quihblo depends on the fact that 'would' wae sometimes pronounced liko ' m d '

. ..

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in Modern English.

Act I, Scene 6
6 to fear no colors 31aria's interpretation of the proverbial phrase suggests that no colors msy have meant originally 'no flags,' and thus came from army usage. The clown is punnin on 'collar,' the hangman's sopc. 1&15 Well, God talents May God let those who are intelligent use their intelligence, and may fools (both professiond fools and foolish pcoplo) use their abilities. Talents means 'native abilities' and, by a pun on 'talons,' 'claws' or [guile.' In addition, if Feste is using thc nort,hern pronunciation of jook, there i;y a pun on 'fools' and 'fowls' to match 'talents' and 'talons.' 20 away There is the 1.ernot.e possibility of a quibble on 'a whcy,' that is, 'a turning sour' from the summer. 27-8 If Sir Toby Illyria If Sir Toby would stop chinking, you tvould make us clever 2s mil'c (for him) ar any in Illyria. 47-50 Anything virtue Anything that is cured ( a d patched) is but patched; virtue that sins is mixed with sin, and evil tohatreform is mixed with g o d . That is, all mcn are a mixturc of good and bad. The clown is parodj-ng formal logic. 51-2 As there flower Every man is married to luck; when his luck is bad, hc is betrayed, he is a cuckold. And beauty (Olivia's beauty) is transitory. The clown i s saying that all men and women must resign thcmsclves to fate. 58 motley The clown's motley was of pieces of cloth of different woven of threads of mked colors. colors, or of a ~ 1 3 t h 81 zanies The understudies, imitators and butts of the profcssional fools. The tern1 is also a synonym for 'clown' or 'fool.' 96 no slander in an allow'd fool A fool who is allowed or privilegcd to prnctice his foolcry (part of which is to insult people) cannot be guilty of slander. 122 A plague Sir Toby traditionally belches before these words. 150-1 sheriff's post supporter to a bench Carved and painted posts were put by the doors of t o m officials. Supporler is uuscd in thc sense of 'prop' or 'post.' 167 SD Enter Viola Thc First Folio reading of Enter Violcntcr ifi a possible reflection of 1t;alisn backgrountl for the narrrttivo but more probably a misreading by the compositor of 'Viola enter. '

.. .

. ..


. ..

. ..



173 if this be A typical example of the present subjunctive? now more restricted in use.
185 my profound heart hly deeply penetrating lady. 'Heart'
'3Ss a common form of address to a lady.

202-3 'Tis nat that time dialogue Tho moon has not now influenced me enough to make me a party to skipping over m d confusing a conversation. The moon was believed to produce lunacy, or moon-artduess. The common addition of so after in is unnecessary. 206 giant The traditional kuard of the lady in medieval romances. The word is applied ironically to hlaria who is small. Other references to her size are Penthilea vI.3.153) ; litt?~ villain (11.5.14); and youngest m e n of mine (111.2.66). 238 in grain The grain was rod dyestuff consisting of the dried W c s of the insect coccus cacli. 248 item The term, adverbial in origin, meant 'also,' 'likewise'; it was used for introducing a new article, fact, or statement h s formal list. 292 thou art Olivia in her soliloquy shifts horn the formal 'you' to the intimat,e 'thou' m she thinks of Ccsario and her love for him. 302 County's Words ending in t tended to keep the old plural and pomessivc in es. This fact resulted in the back formation, 'county.' 310 Mine eye mind My eye has taken too fctvorablo an impression (of Cesario) for my intcllcct to approve.


.. .

Act I I , Scene l
1-2 Nor not The double negative is an emphatic negain Old English and in modern tive in Shaltespearean English, dialectal English. 3-5 My stars distemper yours The arrangement of the stars a t the moment of one's birth was thought to determine one's future destiny. During one's life an examination of t.hose stars would tell whether the time was propitious. Thus SeSastian is saying: 'The rrstrological interpretation of my stars is bad; my bad fate might perhaps infect your fate.' >ls




3D Enter at several doors The scene SB near Olivia'e house. The etage direction means that Viola and Malvolio enter each by one of the different doors a t the rear of the Shakespearean utage. The wual stage had two doors, right and left, with a third possiblo entrance through the curtain under the balcony at the center of the back or inner stage. 28 Pregnant enemy 'Pregnant' to mean 'strong' is common bofore and during Shakespeare's time. In 1 1 . 29 and 30 there is the po,mible suggestion of Satan diiguised as a serpent to seduce Eve. 31-2 Alas such we be The First Folio is commonly emended as follows: 'Alas, our frailty k the cause, not we, For such as we are made of, such we be.' The alterations are attractive but unnecessary to a satjafactory meaning of tho pasaage: 'MW, 0, frailty is the muse, not wonlan; on account of the w ~ y that we women are made, since we are of that FIOP~.' The two final clauses are close to repeli.lious, and the repetition of such is s rhetorical trick which obscures the syntax.

.. .

Act 11, Scene fe


Acf II, Scene 3

2 diluculo surgere Diluculo s71,rgerc saluberrimu?n ost, 'To * ; I up s t dawn is most healthful.' The maxim is from the Latin grammar of William Lily and John Colet, first printed in 1549. The book came to be known as the Eton Latin Grammar, and in its numerous editions and revisions has been a standard t$ext for English schoolboys into the 20t,h contury. 9-10 Does not elements It was believed that life depended on the correct mi.uturo of the four elements of the universe, air, fire, earth, and water. Note the plural subject and singular verb. 17 the picture of We Three A picture or signboard at an inn with the lleads of two fools displayed, and the inscription: 'We three loggerheads be.' The onlooker is the third. 27-9 I did impeticos thy grntillity bottle-ale houses The meaning is obscure. By impeticos, the C l o m means 'put into the pocket of my long gown or petticoat.' Clowns frequently more long coats. Gratillily is simply an improvised diminutive 114

.. .



for -gratuity.' The following is n possible paraphrase of the pas'I did pocket your small gratuity, for Malvolio's nose can soon smell out money; my lady-love has elegant tastes, and the Myrmidons (where we drink) are no cheap drinking houses.' That is, the Clown is saying t b t he can use the money. W h i p stock is 'whip handle.' 40 0 mistress mine The Clown's song, either by Shakespeare or by an unknown author, was first printed in Thorns 1,Iorlcy's Comort Lessons (1599). 57 To hear contagion If me can henr with our noscs, the fuol's voice and breath are p l e w n t to listen to but bad to smell. 59-60 draw three souls out of one weaver Weavers were Isrnous for their singing and their love of song. 05-6 'Thou knave' The wor& of the catch are: 'Hold thy peace, thou lmzve; and I prithcc hold thy peace.' H. IT. Furness in A New TrcLrio~zm,p. 118, gives the words and music. The earliest printing which he reports i s in Deutcror~lia(1600). 77 Catayan Chinese, a person from Cathay. 'rhcy were believed to be dishones* and shiftless. 78 a Peg-a-Ramsey The reference appears to be to the coarse Peggy y Rzmscy,' and immorB heroine of an old ballad ' B o ~ ~ n the words and music of which arc reprinted in Thomas D'Vrfcy's W i t and Aiirth (6 vols. 1719-20), 6, 139. For a discussion of the music see William Chappell's Old English Popz~lar M z k c (2 vols. 1893), 1, 245. The ballad begins:


Bonny Peggy Ramsey that any Man m y m, h d bonny was her Face, 4 t , h a f n h freckel'd Eye


Sir Toby is thus saying ironically of Malvdio, who is about t o cuter, that he is hndsorne, coarse, and immoral. 78-0 'Three merry men be we' The words of the song p e r h p rtppcar in Creorge Peele's The 0 2 d Wives' Tale (1595), Act 11:

Three merry men, and three merry men, And t h e e merry meu be we; I in the wood, and thou on the ground, And Jack sleeps in the tree.
Fmnesrs in A New Van'onmt, p. 120, prints words and music. 116

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 3

80-1 'There dwelt a man' 'The Constancy of Susanm' le ballad on the story of Sumnna and the Elders:

There dwelt a man in Babylon, great by fame; of reputmation He tooke to wile a 1ai'ail.c woman, Susanm she was call'd by name; A woman fairc and vcrtuous: Lady, lady, Why should wee not of her learne thus to live godly?

It Is reprinted in the Roxburghs Ballads, ed. W . Chappell (9 vola

1871-99), 1, 190-3. 87 '0 the twelfe day of December9 The phrase is probably from a lost ballad. It is unlikely that Sir Toby is misquoting either 'fifusselburgh Field' (the suggestion of G. L. Kittredge) or 'Thc Twelve Days of Christmas' (the suggeslion of I. B. Cauthen, Jr.) 'Musselburgh Field' begins: 'On thc tenth day of December .'; I t is reprinted in F. J. Child's The English and Scottish Popular Bdlads ( 5 vols. 1882-94), S, 378-8. 'The Twelve Days of Christmas' begins: 'On the twelfth day of Chrise mas .'; it is reprinted in Cccil J. Sharp's and Charles L. Marson's Folk Songs from Somerset ( 5 vols. 1908-09), g, 5 2 6 , 74-5. l05 'Fairwell, dear heart' From 'Corydon's Fmewell to Phyllis,' a song in Robcrt Jones' First B o o h of Songes and A m (1600), ed. E. H. Fellowes (1925), pp. 24-5. Sir Toby and the Clown sing snatches from Lhe first two stanzas only:



Farewell, dear love, aince thou wilt needs be gon, Mine eyes do show my lire i s almost done. Nay, I will never die, so long as I can spy. There be many moe though that she do go. There be many moe, I fear not. Why, then, lct her go, I carc not!

i n d is true, Farewell, farewell, since this I f I mill not spend more time in mooi~lg you. But I will ~ e e k e elsewhcrc if I may find her there.


Shall I bid her go? What and if I do? Shall I bid her go, and spnrc not? 0 no, no, no, no, no, I dare not.
120 cakes and ale The traditional refreshment for holidays and

sttiuts' days.
121 St. Anne The mother of the Virgin Alary. The oath is dorless. Compare The Taming of the Shrew, 1.1.243. Unconvincing efforts have been made to connect the Clo~vn's use of the oath with St. Anne as the giver of 'wealth and living great' on the basis of an unidentified quotation in Robcrt Chambers' Book of Daps (2 vols. 1863-64), 2, 389. 121 ginger Used t o spice ale, ginger was believed to reduce drunkenness. Ginger w a s also esteemed as an aphrodisiac. 123-4 rub your chain with crumbs As steward of the house, Malvolio wears a chain with keys. The chain survives on the wine stoward in the modern restaurant. Toby tells Rlalvolio: 'Polish your chain with brcacl crumbs,' i.e. 'Get back into your proper place,' 'Mind your own business.' 130 as good a deed as to drink A traditional comparison. 144 a kind of Puritan hfaria means that 3lalvolio is oversolemn and overpunctilious, two characteristics associated with the modern use of the word 'Puritan.' Sir Andrem misunderstands her and thinks that she has said that blalvolio k of the reforming or dissenting party in the Church, that is, that hc is not a good Church of England mm. Sir Toby then protests the harshness of 6ir Andrew's judgment and Illaria (11. 152 ff.) explains that Nalvolio is not a Puritan but simply a conceited fool. 3lIklvolio has already (11.3.01-3) done something wMch no stage Puritan would have done: he has spoken slightingly of tinkcrs and coziera (cobblers), traditional mainstays of the dissenting sects. In point of fact, Malvolio does not conform to the type of the stago Puritan common in tlie drama of the period. Mnlvolio has the sobriety and the conccit of the stage Puritan, but in the further complexities of his character he goes as far beyond the stock figure m Falstaff goes beyond the miles gloriosus, the conventional braggart soldier of Roman comedy. 155 swarths A 'swarth' or 'swath' is the space covered by t h e sweep of the rnovicr's scythe in cutting one side of a field. 117

T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 8

180 let the fool make a third In the plot Fabian and not Fesh mskcv the third. The change m y be an oversight on Shskeepeare's part, or an indication o f revision.

Act II, Scene

34 worn IFann~er'semendation, won, b commonly accepted. 53 Fie, away Rowe's emendation, Fly away, is commonly accepted. 57-8 M y part share it My portion of death, no lover ao true did share (with me). TO pleasure will be paid The line is proverbial. See The Odord Dictionary of English Proverbs (1048),p. 507. 73 the melancholy god Po~siblySaturn, but moro probably the Clown is only saying that the Duke enjoys his melancholy. 76-8 I would have voyage of nothing I would have men of such fickleness make a voyage, that they might have business everywhere and intend to go evorywhcre; for that's what always bringa back a good cargo of nothing. 1.c. if you aim at everything, you achieve nothing. S9 I cannot The next line, 'Sooth, but you must [be so answer'd],' justifies the emcndnt,ion. 9&5 woman's sides Can bide Note the omission of the relative, common in early Modern English. 0%100 No motion and revolt No genuine movement of the liver, the seat of true love, but a mere physical sensation in the palate which is uubject to excess, satiety, and disgust. The singular subject with a plural verb is not uncommon in Shakospcarcan English. 114-16 And with smiling at grief Green and yellow are colors commonly msociated with sadness and decay. The sense of the passage is that Viola's sister sat calmly, like a statue of Patience, and smiled in tho midst of her grief. It is possible that the figure of Patience wna suggested by Chaucer's Parliament oj Fowls, 11. 242-3:

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Dame Pacicnce syttynge thcro I fond, With face pale, upon an hi1 of sond

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Both Viola's sister and Cbsucer's Patience aro pale and are

awted. I n addition, Griselda of Chaucer's 'Clerk's Tale' is 9. monum5ntaJ figure of patience in the h e of suffering similar to that of Viola's sister. 118 Our shows will Our display of love is more than our actual will to lovo.

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Act II, scene 6

2 a scruple Literally, one twenty-fourth of an ounce, apothecaries' weight. 3 let me melancholy The sense of the passage hinges on a pun. 'Boil' and 'bile' were pronounced alike, and black bile produced melancholy. The point may be that poisoners were boiled to death, but that melancholy was a cold and not s hot humor. 7-9 You know a bear-baiting here Malvolio's dislike of bear-baiting connects him with the sntiricd portrayals of Puritam. But the tzait does not make him a dissenter; it only ernph* sizes hh puritanical or 'precise' nlien. 14-15 my metal of India The East Indies were the fabled sourccb Tor gold in the pcriod. The Firsl Folio reads Mettle, 3 common variant of 'metal.' Therc is probably a pun on 'metal' and 'mettle.' 23 trout tickling I t was believed that trout could be caught by tickling them about ihe gills. 27 conlplexion The mix-turo of the four humors, blood, bile, black bile, and phlegm, in the body. The predomirlance of on-., humor produced a personality of that humor. Thus the Duke Owino might be said to be melancholic because of a predom~n~nco of black bile. 35 Toby This line m d Sir Toby's 'Peace, peace' (1.39) are cornnlonly as~igned to Fabian. 40-1 The Lady of the Strachy Her identity i s unlmom, and no e,ztisfactory cmendation of Styachy has bcen suggcvted. The nlettning of the passage is obvious: hlalvolio has in mind some story of a lady of high position who married one of the servants. The following arc the more important of the emendations which have been proposed: Trachy or Thrace (Warburton); starchy or l i e n (Stevens); Tragedt~(Bulloch); wuntu (Kinmar); IllalJi, or



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T W E L F T H N I G H T , 11. 6

the Duchcss of hlalfi (Dunlap nnd Luce). Howcvcr, Charles J. Sisson has discovered evidence suggesting that tllc reference is satirical nnd to the King's Revcls company, and that i t was interpolated after 1616. 42 Fie on him, Jezebel 'Fic' is an exclamation of disgust. Sir Andrcw says: 'Fic on h.Ialvolio, who is s Jezebel.' Jezebel was the haughty wife of Ahab. Sec 1 Kings 16 and 19 and 2 Icing- 9. 54 a demure travel of regard IIere and elsewhere IiIalvolio's English is pedantically heavy. 61 my- some rich jewel The dash is a necessary addition to the unpunctuated phrase in the First Folio. Mulvolio is about l;a my 'my chain.' 64-5 with cars The reference nppcars to bc to a method of torture or esecution in which the victim was hound to cars or carts which then went in oppositc directions. Compare '. but a team of horse shall not pluck that from me,' in Two Gentlemen of Verona, 111.1. 265, or the phrrtsc, current to the present, 'Wild horses cannot get that out of mc.' 84 woodcock gin The woodcock was proverbially a stupid bird which walked easily into the gin or snare. Gin is a shortened form of 'engine.' 85-6 the spirit to him May the spirit of whims suggcst t o him that he read it aloud. Numors here does not seem to have the usual medial meaning, nor does it mean 'wit' or 'merriment' 88-9 her very C's P ' s &lalvoliohappens to spell out two Elizabethan obscenities. There are no C's or P's in the address of thc lett,er ss he reads it. 93-4 By your leave, wax The letter would be folded upon itself and sealed, and would have no envclope. Malvolio apologetically asks the seal for permission to break it. The request is conventional. 94 Lucrece The beautiful and cl~astc wife of Tnrquinius Collatinus was raped by Sextus, son of Tarquin, king of Rome. Lucroce tolcl hcr father nnd her husband of what haci happened and then committed suicide. The story is the subject of Shakespeare's poem, The Rape o f Lztcrece (1594). 102-3 The numbers alter'd Ar~mbers may be a co~ltntction of 'number is.'


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105 brock The more common phase is 'stinking brock.' There n tradition that the badger is conceited and noisy. 110 fustian Originally a coarse cloth made of cotton and flax. 115 And with at it Thc falcon-here a stuniel or inferior kind cf hawk--checks when it leaves the pursuit of the gamc it has been sent after and fdlows other prey. Sir Tobg is saying: 'How quickly thc loo1 leaves tho truth and goes off on a false trail.' 12.1-5 Sowter fox The dog will bark on the trail, however, though the deception is as phi11 as the smell of a fox. .Souterl or 'sowter' means 'maker or mender of shoes' and is used of any bungler, botcher, or ignorant workman. Sowter is here the name of the bungling dog. 129 faults Fabian is punning. He means not only 'breaks in the scent' but also that Malvolio is cxccllent a t getting himself into faults or difficulties. 130-1 But then probation But there is no consistency in what follows. I t becomes strained under testing. 133 And 0 shall end And the trick ~ i l end i with l\lalvolio's exclaiming '0' in disgust. Obscure verbal quibblcs of an indecent sort occur from 1.131 through 136. 136 any eye behind you Lt is unlikely that there is here any reference, as some editors have supposed, to Chaucer's figure of Prudence nith three cyes (Troihs and Creasida, bk. V, 11. 74&5) :
i_s also


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Prudence, allas, oon of thyne eyen thro Me lakked alwey, ere that I come here1
140-1 and yet bow to me And yet, if I wero to force the meaning of this 'M. 0. A. I' a little, it would indicate me. 145 born achieve The cmcndations make the passage consistent with 111.4.43 and 45, and with TT.1.369, 148-9 cast fresh Cast off your humble manner as a snake casts off his old skin, and appear ncm. 151 tang state Sound out with theorics of statecraft. Tang also means 'to taste,' 'to smack.' 154 cross-garter'd The garters held up the stockings or attached the breeches to the stockings. Cross-gartering was an


... ... ...


r W L L P T E i N I G H T , XI. m

eccorltric fashion in which thc garters were crossed both above and below thc knee. 158 alter services I n sdditdon to tbc 'services' of tho steward, it may be that Maria has cleverly suggested the 'serviwa' of tho courtly lover to his lady. 15SGl Fortunate-Unfiappy Compare 'Fortunatus Infelix,' a conunon pwy or short motto used as an inscription for a ring, picture, poem, or emblem. 162 politic authors The poUticke of the Polio possibly indicates the pronunciation. 173 Jove The uso of the word here and elsewhere s u a e ~ t alters stions in the text after 1006 and that, consequently, the text of the First Folio is later than 1WG. A statute of lGOG forbade the profane use of God's name on ithestage. ?'he Clown Peste speaks of Jove in 1.5.115 and 111.1.46, but the reference is appropriah to his intelligence and character. Mnlvolio's use of Jove and its use in sovcral 01 her places in 1110 play (11.5.179; III.4.70,87; and particularly IV.2.12) sound st,rangc or unnatural. It is probable that the origins1 text read God. 18'2 the Sophy The brothers Sir Itobert and Sir Anthony Shirley hsd go110 in 1599 on an expedition to Persia. Sir Anthony hr~d left Persia after five months; Sir Rohert had stayed. An rtccowlt of the trip appeared in Sir A. ,5'hi.erliea J o u m y Overland to 7'cnicc: (1600). The 'pension of thousands to be paid from tlle Sophy' may refer to reports of fab~dol~s waalth to be bad from thc shah. l89 Wilt neck Sir Toby offers to submit utterly to BIsria's wit in the fashion of vicltims of military conquest.. 108 Like aqua-vite with a midwife There is no cortnin rqlanlttion of the phrase. Either nlidwive~ used distilled liquor to induce labor, or midwives by tradition drank excessively.


Act 111, Scene l

20 wanton There is the remote possibility of a quibble on 'want one,' i.e. 'want a name.' 21-2 since bonds disgrac'd thein 1.c. since a man's word is no longer EM good as his bond, manlrind has been disgraced or put to shame by the formal and necessary pledgoa (bonds) imposed by law.


41 I would Shakespearean English, like modern American Englhh, is not strict in the use of 'would' and 'should.' 43 your wisdom An ironic variation on the conventiod title of addrcss, 'Your worship.' 53-4 Pandarus Cressida Troilus Troilus, a son of Priam, ling of Troy, loved Cressida of Troy. Cressida's uncle, Pundarus, acted as a go-between and Cressida returned Troilus' love. In an exchange of prisoners between the Greeks and the Trojnw, Cressida was sent to the Greek camp to join her father CalchacJ who bacl fled to the Greeks. In the Greek camp Diomede courted Cressida and supplanted Troilus in her affections. Troilus and 1)iomede fought inconclusively, and finally Troilus was tslled in battle by Achilles. Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressidrr was produced about 1602; he was familiar with a number of version5 of thc story, most notably Chaucer's. 57 Cressida was a beggar Robert Henryson (d. 1506) continued the story of Cressida in The Testament of C r c s d . Diomede d o sorted Cressida who became a harlot in tho Greek camp. 'l'hc gods afflicted hcr with leprosy m d she had to beg by the roadside. The victorious 'I'roilus rode by, but he did not recognize her. Slm loarned who he was and, after having sent him a ring he h d givcn her, died. 76 encounter Here and with dash ( l . 80) S WToby is playing pedantically with his words. S5 gait The gale of the Folio suggests that a pun was possibly Intended. 101-2 "Jhvas never compliment Tho world hsa nover h e n a happy one aince the pretense of humility (with the word servant) came to be a convention of polite behavior. The phrase 'merry world' has the force of 'good old days.' 113 music from the spheres It was believed that the universe comistod of a series of spheres, one inside the other, and all centcrcd on the earth. The spheres revolved, carrying within them the various heavenly bodies, and giving off a divine harmony inaudible to man. 11W20 To force none of yours That I forced on you by u ~h~nefu trick l a ring which you knew w a s not yours at ail. 121-2 at the stake unmuzzled thoughts The figure is an123

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T W E L F T H N I G I I T . 111. 1

other reference to the popular sport of bear-bdting. The verb 'to bait' means 'to cause to bite.' 123 The line is irregular: it consists of an alexandrine (twelve syllables of six iambics) ~ 4 t an h extra unaccented syllable at the end. J. Dover Wilson in his edition (1930) rearranges the lines: T o one of your receiving enough is shown, A cypress, not a bosom, hides my heart: So let me hear you speak. Viola. I pity you Oliwia. That's a degree to love, Vwla. No, not a qise; For 'tis o. vulgar proof, That very oft we pity enemies.

125 Hides speak The f i s t syllable is accented and ie followed by four iambics, n total of nine syllables. This type of headless line is common in the earlier drama and there is no compelling reason for regularizing it by emending Hides to 'Hideth.' 129 'tis time to smile agen I,@. it is timc for me to smile once more and to forget you, if you arc my enemy or if you can only pity me. 132 the lion the wolf The lion is the noble Duke Orsino; the wolf is the cruel Cemrio. 137 due west. Then westward ho Olivia's implication in the phrase 'due west' is that she b dismissing Cesario forever from her favor; she sends Cesario toward thc setting sun. Cesario (Viola) answers with a more cheerful phrase, 'Westward ho!' The Thames boatmen cried 'Westward hol' and 'Eastward hof' to prospective pamengers to indicate the direction of the next trip on the river. 142-3 That you do think the same of you Viola says that Olivia thinks she is in love wittha man, and that she is not. Olivia, not understanding the statement, rtnd thinking that Viols has meant either that Olivia is not really in love, or thnt she is mad, answers that she (Olivia) believes the same thing of Viola ('you do think you are not what you are'), that is, that Viola really does love Olivia, or that Viola is mad t o reject Olivia's love. 156-9 Do not extort better Do not extract by force your

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arguments from the fact that, because I woo you, you have no reason to accept. But rather make your logic firm with this re* sonable proposition: love which is sought is good, but love which b given unsought is better.

Act 111, Scene ! l ?

2 venom Here and elsewhere Sir Toby plays with words by using them out of their ordinary context. 7 orchard From Old E ~ g l i s h ortyeard. The first element ort- is probably from the Latin [hlortz~s, 'garden'; -yeard is the nlodern 'yard.' 8 see The Folio is commonly emended to sec thee. 18 dormouse The dormouse was traditionally a sleepy animal. 24 double gilt The double gilt or gilding (a double dipping or plating of an object by a goldsmith) was the opportunity, doubly golden, t o prove superiority both as a lover and as a fighter. 26-7 an icicle on a Dutchman's beard The phrase may be connected with the voyages, farnous mound 1600, of the Dutchman Barenta to the Arctic regions in 1596. An account by Gerritt de Veer had appeared in Amsterdam in 1598 and w a s entered in English in the Stationers' Register in 1598 (cd. E. Arber, S, 118): '. A true description of Three voyages by sea and of the fcirce Beares and other Sea monsters, and marveylous could, and howe in the last voyage, the shippe is bcsetqtin Iyce by Jerrett De Veer .' 30 Brownist A mcmbcr of the religious sect founded by Robert and Browne (1550?-1633?). Browne opposed both the Episcop~l tho Presbyteristn forms of church government and advocated the lndepcndent or Congrcgstionalist form. EIe preached separation around 1578-80, but he later submitted to the Church of England and for forty years was n rector in Northamptonshire. 44 If thou thou'st him 'Thou' corresponded to the French tu acd German du, proper for addresing children, close relatives, friends, and inferiors, hut an i ~ u u l t when used with strangers. 47 the bed of W a r e The great bed of Ware is a 16th-century carved oak bed, ten feet nine inch- square. It was one of the sights of Shakespearc'a time and is referred to in a number of



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f WELFTIZ N I G H T . 111,

contemporary plays. The bed h now h the Victoria and Nbert Museum, London. 48 gall An excrescence produced on the oak by the action of insects. Oak galls were used in tha manufacture of i n k Tha pun is on gall 'bitterness.' 49 goose-pen The implication B that Sir Androw's stgle will be silly. 53 dear manikin In the phwo there is the suggestion of 'puppet' or artist's lay figure tc, be twisted and nlanipulnted at &ill. 61 blood in his liver It was believed that the liver a m the scat of courage; blood in the liver produced courage. Compare 'lilylivered, ' meaning 'cowardly.' 66 youngest wren of mine Sir Toby means that &ria is young and s m l l in st9ture; the wren is a particularly small bird. 'My youngest little birdJ i t an adaquatc rendering of the phrase. ?Ire common emendation of m i n e of the Folio to nine involves the explanation that wrens lay from lliue to ten eggs and that the last of the brood is supposed to be the smallest. 67 Iyou desire the spleen The spleen was believod to be the source of, among other things, laughter. G9 renegatho The spclling ~~ossibly represents sn attempt t.o produca in the pronunciation the Spanish voiced spirant d. 78-9 new map Indies The new map of tho East Indics and North America was done in 1600 by Edward Wright with the assistance of Richard Hakluyl , author of the various F'ouages, and John Davis, navimtor. It is described and reproduced in Shakespeare's EngEand (Oxford Press ed., 2 vols. 19lii), 1, 173-4. The lims which hiaria s p e n h of arc those of hfcrcator's projection, a system new to English maps of the period.


Act I I I , Scene 3 15 And thanks tarns The sllort line is commonly c~neudcd for scansion. The compositar or the copyist may have chopped part of the speech. 39 the Elephant A. C. Southern in the T i n w Litcror?~ Sul)]Jemerit, Juno 12, 1953, has ~ h o m u t h t in 1598 'there wns sn inn known as The E3ephant on the Bankside' and tlust txn inn with 125



thrct name probably was there at least until 1605. The common London inn sign, The Elephant and Castle, survives notably in the underground station south of Waterloo,

Act I I I , Scene

20 this cross-gartering hlalvolio now has his garters crossed hot,h above and bclom toheknee. 22-3 'Please one and please all' The phrase i s common. However, Xalrolio may be quoting specifically from a ballad entered 602): '. in the StationersJ Register in 1592 (ed. E. Arber, the Crowe shcc, sittes uppon the wall: please One and plcall.' The ballad w a s signed 'R.T.,' possibly for Richard Tarlton, actor and clown. I t is reprinted in A Colledion o f Seventy-nine Black-letter Ballads,ed. Joscph Lilly (1867), pp. 255-9. The first stuma follows: Please one and ploase all, Be they great be they small, Be they little be they lowe, So pypeth the Crowc, sitting upon a wall: plense one and please all, please one and please all.


29 Roman hmd There wore two styles oi handwriting in use around 1600. The old secretary hand, almost illegible to modem readers, mrii.s common. The Italian style (Romanhand), fairly close to modern script, was being used increasingly and nrasparticularly popular with women. 36-7 At your request daws The speech is ironic. 3Talvolio says: .Should I answer tohe request of my inferior, Maria? Of coumc. Kightingales answer the calls of jackdaws or crows.' 55 made IIera and in the Iollowing lines there is possibly a verbal quibble on 'made' and 'maid,' (servant). In adclition, madness ( l 59) . may have been pronounced almost like 'rnaidness.' 59 midsummer madness It was believed that midsummer produceci insanity. Compare 'dog-days.' June 23, Midsummer Eve, was a time of magic.



T W E L F T H N I G H T , 111. 4

74 tang with The langer of the First Folio is not recorded 8s a verb in the NED; and iung is in the letter which Malvolio is quotling from 11.5.151. 76-5 And consequently and so forth Mslvolio stops quoting from the letter and seemingly explores its implications as to his future conduct for ninning Olivia. There is the slight possibility that the sentence is a laler interpolation. 78 lim7d Birds merc caught by spreading birdlime, a sticky substai~ce, on twigs or on trecs. 90 drawn in little I t is unlikely that the figure has the force of 'portrayed in miniature.' Devils were notorious for their ability to contract into a, small space. Thc phrase would thus mean 'contracted.' 90 Legion Mark 553-9: 'For he [Jesus] said unto him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit. And he tlskcd him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion: for we are many.' 93 How is't w i t h you, man? Wright assigned the line to Sir Toby. 106 bewitch7d Possession by a witch's spell and possession by the devil are two different things; in populrwr usage the two are interchangeable. hIaria combincs the two. 107 Carry woman 'Talte h i s urine t o the wise woman for diagnosis.' A 'wise woman' pretended to cure disease, bewitchment, and possession by devils. In addition, she usually told fortunes. 121 cherry-pit A child's game in which the players throw cherry stones into a small hole. Sir Tolny means that it is below Malvolio's dignity to bc intimate with Satan. 122 collier The devil is associated with coal because of his blackness and possibly becatwe of the traditional flames of hell. 140-1 in a dark room and bound The standard treatment for insanity. Whipping was also bclieved to be beneficittl. Insanity was commonly regarded as amusing. 158-9 A good note , law h clever remark (since s c u m Is vague) ~ h i c h keeps you from being legally liable. 203 cockatrices Fabulous reptiles hatched by serpents from cocks' cggs. Both the breath and glance of a cockatricc were fatal.

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214 Goes griefs Note the: disagreement of subject and verb in the inverted sentence. 242-3 with unhatch'd rapier carpet consideration w i t h an unbclred rapier and for affairs of peace rather than of war. T h t is, when Sir Andrem was dubbed a knight his sword had never been used in bnttlc, and he got his hoilor perhaps through influence, favor, or service a t court (carpet consideration) rather than for fighting. Thc term 'carpet knight' is common in this derogatory sense. Unhatch'd is 'unhacked,' 'undented.' answer him Unless you 257-8 unless you undertake undertake a duel with me, which with as much safety you might undertake with him in answering his challenge. 283 firago The substitution of initial f for v indicates a hypercorrect pronunciation, particularly common among speakers of southern English, some of whom tended to use, incorrectly, initial v in place of f. 286 hits Feet is perhaps regarded collectively; but 16th- and 17th-century grammar is frequently loose. 289 Pox on't The curse is a common one and refers to the great pox, or syphilis, rather than to thc smallpox. 205 Capilet Diminutive form of caple or capul and derived probably from Latin, caballus, 'horse.' The word is common to Middle English and Icelandic. 314 the duello A standard work on the subject was Vincenlo Saviob His Practice (1595). 370 image Image here means 'ideal representation' or 'ideal appearance' to be worshiped within the friendship code of courtly love. 373 vild Therc is commonly an excrescent d in words ending in L and n. Compare French son, English 'sound'; or the substandard 'dromded.' 378 empty trunks, o'erflourish'd The sense of the passage is that the devil deceitfully 'overflourishes' or decorates the cmpty bodies to give them a beautiful appearance. It is unlikely (hat trunks rcfcrs to ornanlented chests for clothing. Trunks as 'bodies' continues the figure of the mind and the body from the lina Smmcdiately precccling. 394 hare The hare was traditionally a cowardly animal.



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T W E L P T H N I G H T , IV. 1

Act Itr,


15 a cockney The term seems to come from Middle English cockm~-ay, 'cock's egg,' or a small and malformed egg. The variom attached meanings are 'milksop,' 'a townsman,' and 'a Londo~rer.' 23 after fourteen years' purchase A norms1 purchase price for land was the amount of rent which would bc collcctcd from it in twelve years. Thus, jourtem years' purchase would bc a high price. 39 You are well flesh'd is to give a taste of the game M l l e d to a hawk or hound in order to incite it further to the chaso. 69 started heart 'To start' is the hunting term for forcing an glllirnal to leave its lair.

o of flesh'

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Act IV, Scen,e 2?

2 Topas The topaz stone m m believed to cure insanity; Shakcspeare Inay have had in Islind Chsuccr's comic l d g h t of 'The Tale of Sir Thopas.' 16 King Gorboduc A legendary Icing of Britain, Gorboduc's story is told by Geoffrey of Blonrnouth. The king is a leading fi y ro in an car1y blank-verso tragedy by Thomas Sackville a~rd Thomas Norton, Gorboduc, o r Pwrm and Porrcx (llj(i%), 'l'hc 'niece of King Gorboduc' is an invention of the clo~m. 20 SD Malvolio within The stage direction incliratcs that hialvolio is either inside the inner stage, n small exlcloscd arca a t the ccnter and rear of t h e Elizabetlmn stage, or a t the m<clrct of one of the doors a t cithcr side of the inner stage. The latter is improbable since he is the focal point of the sccnc. In a court performance he would probably be in n s m l l housc or 'mansion' made of canvas on a frame and set out on the stagc. 45 the Egyptians i n their fog Exodus 10:22 'And Moses stretched forth his hand toxard heaven; and thcrc was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three day.' 51 Pythagoras The Greek philosopher of the 6th century 2 3 . C . waa believed to have hecn the originator of the doctrine of tllc trammigration of souls. The doclrine v a s common knowledge, but Shakespeare might havc had it from Ovid, specifically from the :Iletamorphoses. 73 this sport to the upshot Thc tlpslwt is the final hot in a


m t c h at; archery. To, Rowe's emcr~dntion,was either dropped from the copy or merged with the preceding t of sport. 75 Hey Robin Thc song has been attributed doubtfully t o Sir Thornas Wyatt. It is reprinted in Percy'~ Reliqves (od. 1847), 1, 1 9 6 9 . The song begins:
-4 Robjrn,

Jolly Robjm, Tell me how thy leman [lady-love] doeth, And thou shalt knowe of myn. 'My Lady is unkynd, perde,' Alack! why is she so? 'Shc loveth an other better then me; ,find yet she will say no.'

89 five wits The wits or powers of the mind were numbered five, by analogy with the five semes, and were common wit, imagination, fantasy, estimation, and memory. 103 God buy you The modern 'goodbye' i~ from 'Cod be 1vit.h you.' Some variants are the following: 'God bu'y you,' 'God buy ye,' 'God buy to ye,' and 'God bu'y.' 104 Marry It is unlikely that the exclamation retains any of its original meaning of 'the Virgin hhry,' even in its use here with mwn. 123-5 I am gone, sir again The 1ine.v are possibly a fragmcnt, From a lost song. E. W. Naylor in Shalcespcare and illusic (1896), p. 190, nssigm mi~rricto them. 137-33 Like to the old Vice 'Pate thy nails, dady T h e Vice was the comic character in the morality plays and stood either for a particular vice or for sin in general. 130 would sometimes sustain the need of the hero by helping him in his contest with the dc,vil. The Vice traclitiomlly carried a dagger of lath. with which he would offer to pare Satan's nails. Shakespeare'a fools are in a number of respect8 tohedcscendanta of the Vice. 134 Adieu, goodman dive1 An insulting and even dangerous way to take leave of the devil, since goodman w a s the form of address for a person below the rank of gentleman.





Act IV, Scene 3

24 the chantry by A chantry is properly a chapel devoted to the celcbration of masrres for the dead and supported by a n

endowment for that purpose. The term i s used here in the more general sense of 'small church.' 26 Plight me your faith 'Pledge me full promise of your fidelity [in the betrothal ceremony a t church].' The actual marriage ceremony was frequently preceded by a sepnr8t.e betrothal ceremony which was regarded very seriously both by the betrothed and by the church. The marriage ceremony of the Anglican Church consists of a betrothal followed by a marriage.


Act V , Scene l
6 This is to give a dog The following entry, for March 26, 1603, is in John ManninghamJsDiary, cd. John Bruce (Ca~nden Society, 18Ci8), pp. 148-9: 'Mr. Frsncis Curle told me home one Dr. Bullein, the Quecnes kinsman, had a dog which ho doted one,
me much that the Quecne lindcr,zlanding of it reque~t~cd he would

graunt hir one desyre, and he should have what socvcr he would
d e . Shcc dcmnuncled his dogge; he gave it, and "Nowc, Mad-

ame," quoth he, "you p~omisecl to give me my desyre." "I will," quothe shc. "Then I pray you give me my dog agtdne." ' 10 doest The form is correct, but unusual in tho First Folio which generally prints dost. 20-3 So that conclusions for my foes The best of many explications of the piissage is by J. Dover Wilson and LIardin Craig. Thc mock logic hinges on the fact that a lriss is made of four lips which are negatives. The lips are joined by two mouths which arc the two agimzatiues. The clown says that if conclusions are like this, then the conclwion that he i s not an ass has only that he is one. In addition to the half t.he value of the conclusio~l obvious juggling of the words negatives and agir~nalivesin the parody of logic, there is n play on ass in the sense of 'professional clown' and ass in the ordinary sense of 'fool.' 36 Primo, secundo, tertio The term appears to come either from a game of dicc (sec l. 41) or from an undefined child's m , the philosophcrs1 table.

. ..



of English Prmmbs (1948),p.

37 The third pays for all Proverbial. See l'he Oqford Didbniq 651. The meaning is probably: 'Tho third time wins all.' Compare 'The thud time never fails,' 'The third is a charm,' and 'The third time's lucky.' 38-9 St. B e ~ e Any t church dedicated to St. Benedict (4805 4 3 ) . There was a St. Bennet Hithe, Paul's Wharf, near the Globe theater. The church was burned in the fire of London in 1666. 70 dear I n Shakespearean English the word is frequently no more than an intensifying adjective with the meaning of 'extreme,' '~erious,' or 'grievous.' 88-9 And grew would wink And became as strange as aomeone who had not seen me for twenty years in the time it would take one to wink. 93 three months The fact that this is impossible by any time scheme that can be devised for the play is unimportant. 113 M y soul have breath'd Irregular grammar is common in Shakespearean English when the object precedes the vcrb. 117 t h ' Egyptian thief In the story of 'Theagencs and Ca.ricliaJ from the Ethiopica of the Greek IIeliodorus, possibly of the 3d century A.D. Thcrc was an English version by Thomas Underdowne, An Bthiopian Hisiorie, published in 1569 (ed. C. Whibley, The Tudm Translations, 1805). Thyurnis, an Egyptian robberchief in danger of capture, intends to kill his beautiful prisoner, Cariclia, with whom he is in love. In the darlcness of the cave he slays another woman by mistake. 'And if the barbarous people be once in despairo of their ow-ne ssfctie, they have a custome to kill all those by whome they set much, and whoso companie they desire aftcr death, or els mould keepe them from the violence and wrong of their enemies.' (FVhibley, p. 3 8 . ) 142 htisband The word is used here and below in the sense that the betrothal ceremony in the chantry m m the legal equivalent of marriage. There were two sorb of betrothal ceremonies, 5 p m s u l k per vertnz de futuro, and spol~qaliaper verba de praesenti. Uncler the betrothal de p m e u t i , the more binding of the two, thc couple pledged themselves a s man and wife from the moment of the betrothal-the agreemen1 is of the present. That a betrothal do praesenti has takcn place is indicated bp the use of the word htdund. The couple arc husband and wife although


.. .


T W E L F T H N I G H T , V. 1

they will not acfually be married in the church until the marriage ceremony takes place a t n later date. Edward R. Hardy, Jr., has observed to the editor that the priest in his speech, 1 1 . 155-60, seems to echo the proclamation of tho marriage from the Book of Common Prayer with the phraeg 'joinder of your hands' nnd 'interchangement of your rings.' I ( b l l y , Sebastinn saya betroth'd in 1. 262; and Olivia in 1 1 . 317-18 clearly speaks of the double marriage ceremony to be performed a t her house in the future. For an account of the two kill& of betrothals and the canon law on each, see George E. lIowardJs A IIistory of nlafn'monial Inatiiutions (3 vob. Chicago and London, 1004), l , 313-20, 337-63. 16G trip The sense is 'you will trip yourself up.' The term is perhaps from wrestling. 180 incardinate I t seems unlikely that tho word is a poilltless verbal blunder from Sir Andrem. If there is n quibble on inca~dinate, 'to institute to a cardinalship' and 'devil incarnate,' the line is an example of the anti-Roman Catholic jest, common in the English drama of thc period. 199-200 passy measures pavin The pan7jn of the I'olio rtppeam to be a misprint for pizvin. The clown has jwt said that the 'eight i' th' morning.' 8ir Burgeon is drunk and has been B ~ I ~ C O Toby's phrase 'a paasy measssurcs pavin' is a reference to dancing, perhaps suggested by t-hcword eight from the clown. 'Passy mcasures' is S i r Toby's variant on 'passemensure' from tho Italian passernezzo, a slow dance. The tune consists of 'straim' which mntain an even number of bars, xnost commonly eight. Tho wme structure holds for the 'pavin' or, as i t is more commonly spelled, 'pavan.' The pavan is a slow dance of Italian or Spanish origin. The name is perhaps from the Spanish pavo, 4peacock.' Thus, when the clown tells Sir Toby t h ~the t surgeon waa drunk a t 'eight i' th' morning,' Sir Toby answers: 'Then he's a rogue, ' and he's an eighbbar doublc-alow dance.' I.e. he's a laggard and should hurry up. 201 havoc Originally the signal to an army for the seizure of spoil and for pillage. 216 A natural perspective, that is and is not A perspective or 'prapective' was a glass &c so as to produce an optical illusion or distort.ion from nature. By 'a natural perspotive' the Duke


means that here nature haa produced the illusifin and not art. The phrase 'that ie and is not' rueans that although the t v o people are real, they are not really one and the same person m the various chsracters in the play have supposed. 238 as the rest goes even As the other facts (which you hizvr. just told me) make you my sister. Compare the phrase 'calncs out even,' i.e. i s consistent, logical, right. 248 lets 'Let,' 'to allow,' is from Old English &an; 'let,' 'to hinder,' is from Old English lettctn. The second survives in the phrase 'without let or hindrance.' 259 But nature to her bias drew in that But nature drew in10 natural course or linc of inclinalion (h), and corrected, that mistake which you made of falling in love with a The figure, a common one in Shakespeare, is from bowling; the balls were loaded so that they rolled in s curved line or 'bias.' 270 orbed continent Probably 'the mm.' 'As the sun k e e p Ihc fire that severs day from night.' But 'orbed continent' may also mean the curved path or sphere which, under the Ptolomnic system, is the course of the sun around the earth, the center of thc universe;b,The meaning would tahcnbe: 'Asthe sphere of the sun keeps in place the fire of the sun that severs day from night,.' 2 8 3 4 he holds Belzebub at t h e stave's end Belzebub or Beelzebub is loosely a synonym for Satan. The figure j~sfrom thc game of dueling with staves or heavy sticks. 30'7-9 I leave my injury I leave my duty of respect to you somewhat out of 111ind and instead speak from the comc*iousness of 1 1 1 ; ) . injury. 3SS-407 When that I was To please you every day Critical opinion of the Clown's song has varied from Wttrburton's 'This wretched stuff . . to Knight's 'We hold t.his song to be Lhe most philosophical Clown's song upon record . It is t.hc history of a life .' For a survey of the pronouncements, see Furncss, A New V a n ' m m , pp. 313-14. No earlier ve15ion of the song i s known. 388 and a Furncss states that the redundant and is cornrnop in ballads; J. Dover Wilson, that i t is an insertion by the 3:house musician; Zttredge, that and carried a note of music. 392-402 But when 1 came to man's estate . . With tosspots


. ..





r W E L F T H N I G I I T , V. 1

atill had drunken heads I t is impossible, as well as unnecessary, to extract precise meaning from these lines. home^-er, i t can be argued that the following is the general meaning. The second stanza, beginning 'But when I came to man's estate,' says that his foolishness, which was of no account while he was 'a little tiny boy,' caused men to shut their glztcs ngainst him, becausc they sh11L their gates against fools and knaves. The third stanza, beginning 'But when I came, alas, to wive,' says that after he got married he did not prosper because he was still a swaggerer. The fourth stanza, beginning 'But when I came unto my beds,' might mean: '\When I went to bed, like other tosspots, I kept interpretation necessitates the having drunken heads.' But lhi~ia insertion of 'I' before 'had drunken heads,' and a strain on the use of the plural .heads.' It is necessary to accept the song for what is ; like much popular poetry, it lacks precise meaning, but it is roughly intelligible and s perfectly appropriate ending for the comedy. 407 And we'll strive to please you every day 4convzntional pronlisc from thc acting conlpttny to thc audience, which mighL consist largely of regular patrons.


T e x t and Da.te
The earliest text 3f Tweljth Night, that of the First Folio (13231, k excellent: the spelling and punctuation are generally clear, and the lines offer few difficulties of meaning. The compositor has several times encountered words or passages which he did not understand, such as stand (11.5.115) and pavin (V.1.200), and he f a h to realize that Malvolio is reading from a letter in 11.5.143 ff. The text appears to have been sct up from a pnrticularly accurate and complete promptbook; this conclu~ionSs supported by the survival of a number of careful instructions: 'Enter Viola and lV1alvolio a t several doors' (II.2.1), and 'Malvolio within' (TV.2.20), both of which indicate the construction and enlployment of the stage on which the play would have been produced. In addition the scene divisions, entrances, and exits are unusually complete. The copy is in all ways among the bcet a d Shakcspearc's plays. John Manningham from the hfiddle Temple recorded in hie diary for February 2, 1602, a performance which he hacl seen: At our feast wee had a play called "Twelvc Night, or What you Will," much like the Commedy of Errores, or Menechml in Plautus, but most like and neero to that in Italian called Inga.nni


Within the play itself, the evidence supports Mamingham, The 0Jlistress Mine' (11.3.40 ff.) was printed in 1599 in Morsong ' ley's Consort Lessons; and 'Corydon's Farewell to Phyllis,' from which Sir Toby sings the first line (II.3.105), appeared in Jones' First Boolce of Songes in 1600. Fabian'a (penaion of thousands t o bc paid from the Sophy' (11.5.182) seems l;o be a reflection of rumol.Ej of the momerlt concerning the fabulous wealth of the shah of Persia; the stories had started with the published report of Sir Robert Shirley's trip to Persia in 1599. The 'icicle on a Dutchman's beard' (111.2.27) sounds like a referenca to the

I N B 1 , P T H NIG'HT

Arctic voyagee of Bments, an n w u n t o f which wae entered in the 8tattionersJ Register in 1598. The 'new map with t h o augmcntatiorl of the Indies' (111.2.78) sooma to lutve been Edward Wright's, done in 1600; Wright n m l the Mercstor projection (Marin's lines), then new to Ehglr~nd.Finally, Valentine Orsino, duke of Bncciano, visited tha English court in January 1600; and tho Lord Chamberlain's men (Shakespeare's company) performed before the court on January 6, or Twelfth Night. The presence of Oraino's name in the play suggests t h t the f i s t performnance may have been on Twelfth Night 1600. However, it appears that the text underwent revisions of an undetermined extent in tho years immediutely after 1600. In 1606 a atatute was passed against the profane use of God's name on the stage; and Jme occurs in a number of placea where 'God' would be much more natural. Sir Toby 'S 'Jove bless thee, &I aster s h i n e d ; indeed, it sounds as Parson' (IV.2.12) is ext~~cmoly t.hougL the reviaions were il~t~oritied to make the rule on profsnity ridiculoue. And htalvolio's 'Jovc, not I, is the doer of this' (111.4.87) is inappropriate to the steward's character. Again, there is an indication of revision when the Duke a ~ k a Cesario t o c3ing (11.4.2) and is told that Feste the Jester is not there. The song was probably first assigned to Cesario and, in a later pcrforrn,znce, to Feste; the revisions of the script did not include the elimination of thc old speech in which the Duke aslted Cesario to sing.


The romantic plot of TwdfIh Night-the story of the Dukt! Orsino, Olivia, and Viola-ie derived from a large number of sources; it is not possible to name a single direct ancestor. H. H. Furness' variorum edition (1901) and Moi-ton Lucele Rich's 'Apolonius and Silla' (1912) contain the most completo accounts of the versions, dramatic and nondramatic, from which Shakespeare might have d r a m . Shakespeare's immetliate source for the narrative is unknown, not through lack of m earlier telling but because of the multiplicity of versions, n number of which seen1 to b v e furnished him with various details, ranging from bits of narntivo t o names of characters and, poesibly, verbal elementa for his line&. The mcntion, quoted above, in iManrlinghamls diary of 'that iu Italian called In(lanniJ ia extremely a~nbiyous:he ~na.yhave been referring to a single play which he mistakenly regarded ' W the immediute source of P'welffh iVighf: ho may havc been rcfzrring to s group of plays loosely known as the Ingattni; or he may simply havc been referring to the common dramtic themo of the inganni, that is, 'deceits' or 'tricks.' Finally, it iu p o ~ i b l e that he confused the word ingclnni with inga~mati,'dccciv~d,' 'tricked.' There are tJlreo Ttalhn plays with the name (31' Inganni: the authora and t h e dates of printing are Nicolo Secchi, 1562; Curzio Gonzags, 1592; and Donlico Cornnccini, 1604. All three havc plots which resemble the central plot of Tza~lfllc Night, but it is unlikely that they are Shakespeare's sources. It might be noted that Gonzsga's play docs have the name Cesa1.e for the lady in disguise. The data of printing of the Carnaccini would pcrhaps have made it too laic. The probability is much gmnter that Shakeapean, got clemwts for his story of the Duke Orsino in love with the Countea~ Olivia, and Viola, the disguised page in love with, and in the service of, the Duke, from the anonymous play, Gl' Ingannuti. The title 5s sufficiently clto Manninghamls Inganni. C l ' Ingannuti waa fir& aoted in 1531 and wns published six year8


later a s part 01 the rolume II Sacn'ficio, a collection of assorted works cleclicated to fnithless mistsesses nnd written by members of rt Sienese literary cotcrie, the Inlronati. One of the deserted lovers is mentioned by name, Agnol hlalevoli, which might have suggested either Malvolio or Aguecheek. T h e action of Gl' Ingannuti includes a brother ancl sister who look alike, and a trick of disguise by means of which the sister remains unknown near the man she loves. The ending is comic, TTifh the proper transfer of affections and the solving of the mystc~*y of the brother and sister. tlmong the chsractera there are s pretentious pedant, a dupe, and a nurse, possibly suggestions for Malvolio, Sir Andrew, and Naria. The lady in disguise t a k a the name of Fabio, certainly close t o Shakespertre's Fabian, and in the prologue there ls a meation of 'In notte cli Beffana' or Twelfth Night. I n ehort, the resernbl~tnces between the two plays are too numerous to allow the dismissal of G1' Ingann,ali as a remote antecedent of Twelflh Night. However, the connection between the two is not compelling &ply because there existed in Italian, French, and English a number of versions of the same story; and Shakespeare is known t o havc bcen familiar with other writings of the authors of several of the versions. Hc had read, for example, thc prose stories of Geraldo Cinthio, and in his IJecadmnmithi (1665) there is a retelling of the plot of Gl' Ingunnati. Cinthio begins his version with a shipwreck, an event added to the cframatic version, and Shakespeare tnkcs over the shipwreck, probably not directly, in Tweljth Night. Story 36 of the second part of NIatlco Bandello7a Novelle (1554) is again t h c sl,ory of the lady in love who disguises herself as a man, and of her brother who looks like her. Bandello h m changed the names, but the narrative rcmains that of G1' Ingannati. I n Bandcllo there may be some verbal anticipntions of Shalrespesre. For instance, 'L'amoroso verme voracement con grandissimo cordoglio rodevs il cuore' perhaps suggest Viola's 'But let concealment, lilic n worm i' the bud, Feed on her damask cheek' (11.4.112-13). IIowcver, verbal similarities prove little about Bandello as a source for Shakespeare, since he is known to have been familiar with o, French translation of Bandello. In Frangois de Belleforest's Hisbircs Tragiques, vol. Q (1570), there


Is another version of Bandello's retelling of GIP Jnganndi; and in the same collection there are other naimtives which Shakeepmre used for his plots. Belleforest keeps the names of the cl\aracters from Bmdello, but omits and adds details to point up his narrative. A number of other rewritings of G1' Inganndi, all less nobble, survive. Shakespeare may have been acquainted with the French play by Charles Estienne, Les Abush (1543); but i t is more probable that Shakespeare saw or knew about the production of a Lntin adaptation, Lalk, presented a t Queens' College, Csmbridge, about 1595. Two Spanish plays are similar t o Gl' Inpantaati. They are Los EngaWs (1567) by Lope de Rueda and the anonymous and undated La Espa5olrr de Plorencia Rut the ve~sionof Gl' Inganstali most easily available to Shakespeare was an English retelling in s collection of prose o Afililark narratives by B m a b i e Riche, Riche his I"arewe1t t Profession (1581). The story, the second in the voiume. iR titled 'Thn Iiistorio of Apolonius and Silla.' i n Cypnis the young a d noble Silla fell in Iove wit11 the 3311.h Apoloniue, a guest of her father. Apolonius did not return her love and went; to his home, Canstantinople. Siiia det(2rmined to follow him; accompanied by her devoted senrnnt Pcdro, who passed its her brother, she boarded a ship. The voyago ended in a shipwreck; all were lost except Silla, but she was thus freed from tho unwelcome lovc+mking of the captain. Silla saved her life by clinging to a chmt which turned out to be filled with the captain's clothing and money. So she dressed herself as a mm, called herself Silvio, the name of her brother with whom she was identicnl in appearance, and went unknown into the service of the Duke Apolonius in Constantinople. He sent her s number of times as messenger to the widow Julina with whom he was in love. Julina refwed the attentions of the Duke, but fell in love with the young man Silvio and confessed her love to him. hIenntime, the real Silvio, the brother of Silla in disguise, had arrived in Constantinople in search of his sister. Julina saw him, m i ~ took him for the servant, and was betrothed to him; but he then left still in search of his sieter. Julina presently found t b t ahe was to have a chilcl by him.


When Apolonius 1enr1m.l that Sie ~ w m Silvio t luad sccfuced Julina he threw Silvio in u dungeor~.Lntor Apolonius tittempted to compel Silvio t o nlarry .Julinr~;but Silvio revertled to Julit~a the disguise and her (Sills's) love for Apolonius. Zft~vinghcsrd the story from Julina, Apolonins decided that he was really in love with Silla and they were married. The story of thair Iovz got to tfie brother Silvio, and he returned to Con~tantinopleto see his sister. Apolonius tooli the real Silvio to Julina and they were married. In IZiche's version, a prose Ble centered on narrative, tl~erc is very little characteriztttion, and the events move with a looseneas which would be impos~iblcj for the stage. Shakespeare has added details of character and n tighter plot t o procluco from the leisurely 'bi~tory' a drarnstic unit of swiftncsu and point. In essence, the narrative consista of two combined themes of deception. Tlle firat is the story of tllo ~ i b l i n g who ~ loolc alike and who cause a series of ironic complicnl,iona on the stage until the final scone in which they appear together snd solve the mystery for the other cheracters in the play. (The audience is a t no point mystified.) This device Lntin comedy had taken from Greek, and Shakespare had used it i11 'rhe Cm& of .&?To~s. The secas a mall and aerving ond device, the trick of the Iacly in di~guhe her beloved without his knowledge, Shakespeare had wed in Tloo Qentlmm of Verona. Within the more conlplex pattern of the narrative of Gl' Ingnnnnli (and Riche's retelling), the two themes of deception are cornl~i~~cd; in addition, the beloved of the lady in dhguise loves nuothcr woman and sends hb pagc, really the lady who loves him,as a messenger to his lady. Thinking the page is a man, the woman fells in love with him. Finally, the complications &re resolved and the page, rcvealed m a womm, wins the love of her master. Both the trick of disguise and the ~ h i fin t sex were peculiarly plawible to the Shakespcareuu audience, accustomed to boy-nctore in famale roles. No source is known for thc comic subplot of hlnlvolio and hia tormc~ltor~, Maris, Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, F a t e , ancl Fabian. But thc subplot has pleased audience5 more than the main plot; and the play h n s becn know11 commonly by the false title of ,?fuluolio. 'fie two plots arc connected by more than mere events. 1C%


30th hfnge upon tho original theme of G Z ' Ingmtnati, 'the deceived.' If the lover, the Duke Omino, is deceived, EO is the ?over, Malvolio; and so are, h one way or another, most o f the
9 t h ohrtrrtcters o f the



Reading Liat
Shakespeurian Cmnedy, London, 1938. An ~nterpretation of Shakespeare, New lork, 1948. Jons W. DRAPER, The fieljth Night of Shakespeare's Audience, Slnnford, Calif., 1950. a . II. FURNESS, ed., Twe& Night, A New Cam'orum, Philadelphia, 1901. ~ESLIE I I O T S O N , The First Night of 'T~odjth Night' (1954?). GEORGE L. lWT"T'REDCE, ~ d . ,Twclfllr, lvigl~t, Bost,on, 1 x 1 . ~ I O R T O N LUCE, cd., Rich's 'dpolmius & Silla,' an Original o f Shakespeare's '1'we(fthAjight,' London, 1912. MORTON LUCE, ~ d . Twcl~% , ,Vight, The Arden Shakespeare, London, 1918. I-TOMAS M. PARROTT, Shakespearean Contedy, New York, 1949. G. c . Moonn SMITH, pd., Lallia., Cambridge, Englaud, 1910. S. DOVER W I L S O N , d., Twelflh Aright, The Ca~nbridye Shal;~.veate, Cambridge, England, 1030.

n .