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EE487 esson 31: pread pectrum

EE487 esson 31:

pread pectrum

Communication ystems Figure 1-2: A general model of all communication systems.

Communication ystems

Communication ystems Figure 1-2: A general model of all communication systems.

Figure 1-2: A general model of all communication systems.

Big icture n ystem nit ¨ Buffer verflow n etworking nit ¨ Data ransmission

Big icture

n

ystem nit

¨

Buffer verflow

n

etworking nit

¨ Data ransmission

¨ Data ecurity

n

ireless nit

¨ Data ecurity n ireless nit ¨ ropagation, easurement, ptimization ¨ Assuring

¨ ropagation, easurement, ptimization

¨ Assuring Availability

¨ ireless Attacks

pread pectrum n ideband odulation n Benefits ¨ Information ecurity ¨ Interference

pread pectrum

n

ideband odulation

n

Benefits

¨ Information ecurity

¨ Interference esistance

¨ Band haring

n

Frequency Hopping pread pectrum (FH )

¨ Data are constant

¨ Frequencies are randomized

n

Direct equence pread pectrum (D )

¨ Frequency is constant

¨ Data are randomized

History of spread spectrum n pread spectrum has its roots in the military’s need for

History of spread spectrum

n

pread spectrum has its roots in the military’s need for a communication system that is secure and immune to jamming.

n

Consider how spectrum is typically divided among multiple users.

Frequency 90.3 90.5 90.7 90.9 91.1 91.3 91.5 ( Hz) WHID WKHS WSDL WETA WHFC
Frequency
90.3
90.5
90.7
90.9
91.1
91.3
91.5
( Hz)
WHID
WKHS
WSDL
WETA
WHFC
WMLU
WBJC
Salisbury
Worton
Ocean City
Washington
Bel Air
Farmville
Baltimore
F pectrum n his system of frequency division allows multiple stations to share a portion

F pectrum

n

his system of frequency division allows multiple stations to share a portion of the F spectrum without interference.

¨ e.g., 100 F radio stations can be assigned to operate in the frequency range 88-108 Hz

n

n

ain advantage is simplicity.

hat are the implications of fixed frequencies for military applications?

88-108 Hz n n ain advantage is simplicity. hat are the implications of fixed frequencies for
88-108 Hz n n ain advantage is simplicity. hat are the implications of fixed frequencies for
ilitary F considerations n High-power, fixed-frequency transmitters make easy targets. ¨ Easy to jam ¨

ilitary F considerations

n High-power, fixed-frequency transmitters make easy targets.

¨ Easy to jam

¨ Easy to destroy

make easy targets. ¨ Easy to jam ¨ Easy to destroy AG -88 High-speed Anti- adiation

AG -88 High-speed Anti- adiation (HA ) missile

destroy AG -88 High-speed Anti- adiation (HA ) missile 90.9 WETA issile seeker head locks on
destroy AG -88 High-speed Anti- adiation (HA ) missile 90.9 WETA issile seeker head locks on

90.9

WETA

destroy AG -88 High-speed Anti- adiation (HA ) missile 90.9 WETA issile seeker head locks on

issile seeker head locks on to F transmitters

Frequency hopping n n n his dilemma was recognized prior to II. In 1942, Hedy

Frequency hopping

n

n

n

his dilemma was recognized prior to II.

In 1942, Hedy amarr and pianist George Antheil patented a “ ecret Communication ystem”.

heir scheme was for a frequency hopping remote control for torpedo guidance.

a frequency hopping remote control for torpedo guidance. Hedy amarr Actress and co-inventor of frequency hopping

Hedy amarr Actress and co-inventor of frequency hopping spread spectrum

First spread-spectrum patent By changing the transmitter frequencies in a ᾿random῀ pattern, the torpedo control

First spread-spectrum patent

By changing the transmitter frequencies in a ᾿random῀ pattern, the torpedo control signal could not be jammed.

Lamarr proposed using 88 frequencies sequenced for control.

n

signal could not be jammed. Lamarr proposed using 88 frequencies sequenced for control. n n Frequency

n

signal could not be jammed. Lamarr proposed using 88 frequencies sequenced for control. n n Frequency

Frequency switching pattern

Frequency hopping spread spectrum n In a frequency hopping spread spectrum system, the carrier frequency

Frequency hopping spread spectrum

n

In a frequency hopping spread spectrum

system, the

carrier frequency is switched in a pseudorandom

fashion.

n

he transmitter and receiver know the pattern and are synchronized.

Dwell time 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 f ( Hz) ime (ms)
Dwell time
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
f ( Hz)
ime (ms)
Frequency hopping transmitter n he binary data to be transmitted is applied to a conventional

Frequency hopping transmitter

n

he binary data to be transmitted is applied to a conventional two-tone F modulator.

n

A frequency synthesizer produces a sine wave of a random frequency determined by a pseudorandom code generator.

n

hese two signals are mixed together, filtered and then transmitted.

by a pseudorandom code generator. n hese two signals are mixed together, filtered and then transmitted.
Frequency hopping transmitter n ypically the rate of frequency change is much higher than the

Frequency hopping transmitter

n

ypically the rate of frequency change is much higher than the data rate.

n

he illustration below shows that the frequency synthesizer changes 4 times for each data bit.

n

he time period spent on each frequency is called the dwell

time (typically < 10 ms)

for each data bit. n he time period spent on each frequency is called the dwell
Frequency hopping spread spectrum n he resulting signal, whose frequency rapidly jumps around, effectively scatters

Frequency hopping spread spectrum

n

he resulting signal, whose frequency rapidly jumps around, effectively scatters pieces of the signal all over the band.

n

omeone else monitoring the spectrum would not recognize that a transmission is being made.

225 230 235 240 245 250 255 f ( Hz)
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
f ( Hz)
Frequency hopping receiver n he received signal is mixed using a local oscillator driven by

Frequency hopping receiver

n

he received signal is mixed using a local oscillator driven by the same pseudorandom sequence.

n

he output produces the original two-tone F signal from which the binary data can be extracted.

n

iming is extremely critical in frequency hopping systems in order to maintain synchronization.

be extracted. n iming is extremely critical in frequency hopping systems in order to maintain synchronization.
ractical Example: Bluetooth n 2.4 GHz – 2.4835 GHz perating ange n 79 Different adio

ractical Example: Bluetooth

n

2.4 GHz – 2.4835 GHz perating ange

n

79 Different adio Channels

n

Hops 1600 times per second for data/voice links

n

Hops 3200 times per second for page and inquiry scanning

n

1 bps = R b for Bluetooth er 1.1/1.2

n

3 bps = R b for Bluetooth er 2.1

n

Gaussian Frequency hift eying (GF )

ractical Example: Bluetooth n hat is the dwell time for data/voice links? age and inquiry

ractical Example: Bluetooth

n

hat is the dwell time for data/voice links? age and inquiry scanning?

n

hat is the bandwidth of an individual Bluetooth frequency channel?

ilitary spread spectrum examples n HA E IC is a frequency-hopping system used in aircraft

ilitary spread spectrum examples

n

HA E IC

is a frequency-hopping system used in

aircraft radios to provide anti-jamming.

n

Every radio is synchronized by a timing signal (usually G ) and steps through a pre-determined set of frequencies which is loaded into the radio daily.

through a pre-determined set of frequencies which is loaded into the radio daily. A C-210 HA
through a pre-determined set of frequencies which is loaded into the radio daily. A C-210 HA

A C-210 HA E IC

capable radio

ilitary spread spectrum examples n I CGA is a HF-F frequency-hopping system used by the

ilitary spread spectrum examples

n

I CGA

is a HF-F frequency-hopping system used

by the Army, avy, and C.

n

I CGA operates on any or all of the 2,320 frequencies between 30 and 87.975 Hz in 25 kHz increments.

n I CGA operates on any or all of the 2,320 frequencies between 30 and 87.975
n I CGA operates on any or all of the 2,320 frequencies between 30 and 87.975
n I CGA operates on any or all of the 2,320 frequencies between 30 and 87.975
pread pectrum n ideband odulation n Benefits ¨ Information ecurity ¨ Interference

pread pectrum

n

ideband odulation

n

Benefits

¨ Information ecurity

¨ Interference esistance

¨ Band haring

n

Frequency Hopping pread pectrum (FH )

¨ Data are constant

¨ Frequencies are randomized

n

Direct equence pread pectrum (D )

¨ Frequency is constant

¨ Data are randomized

seudorandom sequences n he spread of the “random” sequence of frequencies is determined by a

seudorandom sequences

n

he spread of the “random” sequence of frequencies is

determined by a pseudonoise

( ) sequence generator.

n

A generator outputs a stream of bits (1s and 0s) that appears random (has no apparent pattern).

n

sequence generators are easy to construct using simple logic components:

¨ gates, and

¨ a shift register, made up of flip flops

n

A sequence is not truly random (hence, “pseudo” ), but is periodic and repeats at a fixed interval.

sequence generator n n he sequence length number of 1s and 0s) before the sequence

sequence generator

n

n

he sequence length

number of 1s and 0s) before the sequence repeats.

he sequence length is determined by the:

is the number of iterations (the

number of flip flops, n, in the shift register

selection of feedback taps that are applied to one or more gates.

n

n

he sequence length can have a maximum value of:

maximumn

PN sequence length 21

have a maximum value of: maximum n PN sequence length 21 n u m b e

number of flip flops

A sequence that has this length is said to be a

maximal length sequence

.

sequence generator n For the sequence generator below, the number of flip flops, n ,

sequence generator

n

For the sequence generator below, the number of flip flops, n, is 3.

n

his generator will generate a maximal length sequence, and the length is determined by:

maximum length = 2 n – 1 = 2 3 –1 = 7

generate a maximal length sequence, and the length is determined by: maximum length = 2 n
Example Problem 1 Assuming the circuit below is a maximal length sequence generator, how many

Example Problem 1

Assuming the circuit below is a maximal length sequence generator, how many outputs (1s and 0s) would it produce before the sequence repeats?

is a maximal length sequence generator, how many outputs (1s and 0s) would it produce before
Example Problem 1 Assuming the circuit below is a maximal length sequence generator, how many

Example Problem 1

Assuming the circuit below is a maximal length sequence generator, how many outputs (1s and 0s) would it produce before the sequence repeats?

outputs (1s and 0s) would it produce before the sequence repeats? maximum length = 2 n

maximum length = 2 n 1 = 2 5 1 = 31

Evaluating a sequence n Given initial flip flop values (seed value) , we can determine

Evaluating a sequence

n Given initial flip flop values (seed value), we can determine successive states. Consider the 3-stage generator from earlier:

function using Q 1 and Q 2 contents sets up the value of D 0

     

C

D

0

Q

0

Q

1

Q

2

 

1

1

0

 

0

1

 

2

0

  2 0 1 0 0

1

  2 0 1 0 0

0

  2 0 1 0 0

0

 

3

1

0

 

1

0

 

4

1

1

0

1

 

5

1

1

1

0

 

6

0

1

1

1

 

7

0

0

 

1

1

 

1

1

0

 

0

1

 

2

0

1

0

0

initial values (given)

1 1 0   0 1   2 0 1 0 0 initial values (given) Every
1 1 0   0 1   2 0 1 0 0 initial values (given) Every

Every clock cycle, bits shift right

1 1 0   0 1   2 0 1 0 0 initial values (given) Every
Evaluating a sequence n e will consider the output of the sequence generator to be

Evaluating a sequence

n e will consider the output of the sequence generator to be simply the contents of the last flip flop, in this case Q 2 . ( ote that we could let any Q be “the output”.)

 

C

D

0

Q

0

 

Q

1

 

Q

2

 

1

1

0

 

0

 

1

 

2

0

1

 

0

 

0

 
 

3

1

0

 

1

 

0

 
 

4

1

1

 

0

 

1

 

5

1

1

 

1

 

0

 
 

6

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

7

       
 

1

1

0

 

0

 

1

 

2

0

1

 

0

 

0

 

sequence output: 1

0

0

1

0

1

1

time

0   0   sequence output: 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 time 1 0

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

.

.

.

equence length is 7

0   0   sequence output: 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 time 1 0
0   0   sequence output: 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 time 1 0
Example Problem 2 A sequence generator with 4 flip flops is depicted below. his generator

Example Problem 2

A sequence generator with 4 flip flops is depicted below. his generator will generate a maximal length sequence. How long is the sequence length? If the initial states of the flip flops are 0, 0, 0, and 1, determine the sequence.

How long is the sequence length? If the initial states of the flip flops are 0,
Example Problem 2  solution given initial states C D Q Q Q Q 1

Example Problem 2 solution

given initial states C D Q Q Q Q 1 1 \2 3 4 1
given initial states
C
D
Q
Q
Q
Q
1
1
\2
3
4
1
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
3
0
0
1
0
0
4
1
0
0
1
0
5
1
1
0
0
1
6
0
1
1
0
0
7
1
0
1
1
0
ince it is a maximal length sequence,
the length is given by:
8
0
1
0
1
1
9
1
0
1
0
1
10
1
1
0
1
0
length = 2 n – 1
11
1
1
1
0
1
12
1
1
1
1
0
= 2 4 – 1
13
0
1
1
1
1
= 15
14
0
0
1
1
1
15
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
repeats
sequence generator n In reality, the sequence generators used in practice contain numerous sequences. shift

sequence generator

n In reality, the sequence generators used in practice

contain numerous sequences.

shift registers to achieve very long

umber of flip flops (n)

equence

inputs from shift register

 

ength

3

7

stages

2, 3

4

15

 

3, 4

7

127

 

6, 7

8

255

4, 5, 6, 8

10

1,023

 

7, 10

16

65,535

4, 13, 15, 16

32

4,294,967,295

10, 30, 31, 32

pread pectrum n ideband odulation n Benefits ¨ Information ecurity ¨ Interference

pread pectrum

n

ideband odulation

n

Benefits

¨ Information ecurity

¨ Interference esistance

¨ Band haring

n

Frequency Hopping pread pectrum (FH )

¨ Data are constant

¨ Frequencies are randomized

n

Direct equence pread pectrum (D )

¨ Frequency is constant

¨ Data are randomized

Direct equence pread pectrum n Another method of realizing spread spectrum is called direct sequence

Direct equence pread pectrum

n

Another method of realizing spread spectrum is called

direct sequence spread spectrum

(D ).

n

In a D system the message bit stream is modified by a higher rate pseudonoise ( ) sequence (called a chip sequence).

a D system the message bit stream is modified by a higher rate pseudonoise ( )
Direct equence pread pectrum – D n In direct-sequence spread spectrum (D ), the serial

Direct equence pread pectrum –

D

n

In direct-sequence spread spectrum (D ), the serial binary data is ed with a pseudo-random binary code which has a bit rate faster than the binary data rate, and the result is used to phase-modulate a carrier.

chipping rate – bit rate of the pseudorandom code

the faster you change the phase of a carrier, the more B the signal takes up – looks like noise

UNMODULATED CARRIER SLOW SPEED PSK
UNMODULATED
CARRIER
SLOW SPEED PSK

many clock (chipping rate) pulses in one data bit time

HIGH SPEED PSK

like noise UNMODULATED CARRIER SLOW SPEED PSK many clock ( chipping rate ) pulses in one
D 1 1 0 1 time of one data bit carrier modulated by the data

D

1

1

0

1

time of one data bit
time of one data bit
time of one data bit

time of one data bit

time of one data bit
time of one data bit
time of one data bit
time of one data bit
time of one data bit
time of one data bit
D 1 1 0 1 time of one data bit carrier modulated by the data data

carrier modulated by the data

data

Pseudo Random Sequence

data PRS

“chip” carrier modulated by the data  UNMODULATED power CARRIER SLOW SPEED PSK
“chip”
carrier modulated by the data 
UNMODULATED
power
CARRIER
SLOW SPEED PSK
 “chip” carrier modulated by the data  UNMODULATED power CARRIER SLOW SPEED PSK HIGH SPEED

HIGH SPEED PSK

frequency

Direct equence pread pectrum (cont’d) bservations Ø A signal that would normally occupy a few

Direct equence pread pectrum (cont’d)

bservations

Ø A signal that would normally occupy a few kHz B is spread out 10 to 10,000 times its B .

Ø he fast phase modulation spreads the energy of the signal over a wide B – appears as noise in a conventional receiver.

Ø Also called CD A – Code Division ultiple Access

§ used in satellites many signals can use the same transponder

§ used in cell phones – many users in same B

Direct equence pread pectrum eceiver Ø eceiver must know the pseudorandom sequence of the transmitter

Direct equence pread pectrum

eceiver

Ø eceiver must know the pseudorandom sequence of the transmitter and have a synchronizing circuit to get in step with this pseudorandom digital signal.

Ø he receiver using an identically programmed sequence compares incoming signals and picks out the one with the highest correlation.

Ø ther signals using different sequences appear as noise to the receiver and it doesn’t recognize them.

rocessing gain n he measure of the spreading is called the processing gain , G

rocessing gain

n

he measure of the spreading is called the processing gain, G, which is the ratio of the D bandwidth, BW, divided by the data rate, f b .

bBWGf

n

he higher the processing gain, the greater the D signal’s ability to fight interference.

Example Information signal is 13 kbps, spread over 1.25 Hz of bandwidth (B ) 1.2596.1513

Example

Information signal is 13 kbps, spread over 1.25 Hz of bandwidth (B )

1.2596.1513bBWMHzGfkbps

G dB =10 og(96.15)=19.83 dB

he higher the gain, the greater the system’s ability to fight interference

D ignal he spread signal has the same power as the narrowband signal, but far

D ignal

D ignal he spread signal has the same power as the narrowband signal, but far more

he spread signal has the same power as the narrowband signal, but far more sidebands Amplitudes are very low and just above the random noise level ransmitter and receiver are using the same sequence, so signal will be recognized

Benefits of pread pectrum pread spectrum is being used in more and more applications in

Benefits of pread pectrum

pread spectrum is being used in more and more applications in data communications.

n

ecurity need a wide B receiver and precise knowledge and timing of the pseudorandom sequence

n

esistance to jamming and interference jamming signals are

usually restricted to one frequency

n

Band sharing many signals can use the same frequency band; but… many spread spectrum signals raise the overall background noise level

n

recise timing can be used in radar where accurate knowledge of transmission time is needed