1. The main difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.

This nucleus is bound by a double membrane. The presence of a nucleus serves an important purpose for DNA related functions and their efficiency in a big cell like that of a eukaryotic cell. 2. a) The nuclear envelope consists of two lipid bilayers which the outer layer continues with the surrounding endoplasmic reticulum. This allows for the transport of molecules across the nuclear membrane. b) The centriole aids in the mitosis and meiosis by allowing spindle fibres to appear during interphase of cellular division. It is composed of 9 groups of microtubules which are tubular in shape which allow for easy separation and formation of mitotic spindles. c) The nucleolus is a dense region of proteins and copies of genes for ribosomal RNA to construct ribosomal units. d) Plastids are membrane-enclosed organelles that are used for photosynthesis or storage in plants and algal cells. They contain pigments which function to allow for photosynthesis to occur. Pigments are substances produced by an organism that have a colour. 3. The nuclear envelope is a very complex organelle as it functions to allow interactions between the nucleolus and the rest of the cell. It is composed of two lipid bilayers that are folded together. The outer bilayer is continuous with the surrounding endoplasmic reticulum. Membrane proteins are embedded into the bilayer which works with the bilayer as a system to transport various molecules, including water and gases, around the nuclear membrane. Thus, this organelle that surrounds the nucleolus serves as the wall and gate that permits many different types of molecules between the nucleus and cytosol. 4. a) The endomembrane system produces lipids, enzymes and other proteins that are secreted out of the cell or become part of cell membranes. It is composed of multiple organelles that interact between then nucleus and the plasma membrane. b) Organelles that are in this group consist of: Nucleus, RER, SER, Golgi apparatus, and vesicles c) The function of each of the components: Nucleus; DNA instructions transcribed into RNA which moves to cytosol through nuclear pores, RER; RNA translated into polypeptide chains by ribosomes which enter the RER, Vesicles; Some carry new proteins to Golgi apparatus while some move through the interior of the RER then to the SER, SER; Package proteins into new vesicles and shipped to the Golgi while others become enzymes of the ER which assembles lipids or inactive toxins, Golgi Apparatus; Modify proteins into final form and sorted which new vesicles carry them to the plasma membrane or lysosomes, Plasma membrane; Fuses with Golgi and lipids/proteins of vesicle membrane fuse with the plasma membrane while the vesicle’s contents are released to the exterior of the cell. 5. The rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes and serves to: internal structural skeleton to support the cell's shape, as storage of the synthesised materials and minerals, such as calcium in myocytes, forming an internal network through which materials can be transported; and providing a large surface area on which chemical reactions can occur. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum packages proteins for transport, synthesizes membrane phosolipids, and releases calcium. 6. Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion. While peroxisomes inactivates toxins.

. c) They are referred to as the “power plants” of the cells because they provide energy to the cell in the form of ATP 10. 9. food. or metabolic waste. 11. a) Golgi Apparatus b) Modifies new polypeptide chains. The roles of plastids include photosynthesis and storage.7. 12. a) Mitochondria: An organelle that generates ATP (energy) and other molecules b) The structure of the mitochondria consists of many folds in the intermembrane space. Both vesicles and vacuoles serve as storage units for molecules inside the cell. specialized for photosynthesis. sorts then ships proteins and lipids 8. Both chloroplast and mitochondria have many folds which means the large surface area will help with the transfer of energy to neighbouring organelles. The green colour of the plastids indicates the presence of chloroplasts. Vesicles are much smaller in size when compared to vacuoles and thus serves to store or transport substances within a cell. Vacuoles mainly serve to store water. Microtubules and microfilaments are the building blocks for the structural components of many organelles.

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