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Tng Quan V MIB


1.1. nh ngha MIB C s Thng tin Qun L MIB c nh ngha nh l mt phn ca SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol - giao thc qun l mng n gin) - mt giao thc qun l mng dng trong mi trng TCP/IP. Vi mt h thng qun l mng tng thch SNMP, nh qun l mng c th theo di v qun l my tnh v nhng thit b khc kt ni vi mng. MIB l mt file d liu tp hp y cc i tng c qun l trong mng. y, i tng n gin l cc bin lu gi thng tin v trng thi ca mt vi qu trnh thc thi trn thit b hay nhng thng tin (dng text) v tn v m t thit b. Thng tin ny c nh ngha rt nghim ngt cho nhng h thng qun l khc c th truy cp v s dng. Mt thit b thng c nhiu i tng m t n. Mt SNMP con s c ci mi thit b qun l SNMP v c trch nhim cp nht cc bin i tng. H thng qun l s hi SNMP con ny nhng thng tin v h thng. Ngc li, SNMP con cng c th cnh bo vi h thng v nhng s kin c bit trn thit b. C nhiu nhm i tng nh h thng, giao din, IP, TCP. H thng l mt nhm MIB cha cc bin i tng lu gi thng tin nh tn thit b, v tr, v cc thng tin m t khc. Nhm giao din gi nhng thng tin v card mng v theo di nhng s liu thng k nh s byte truyn i v nhn c qua giao din. Nhm IP gm cc i tng theo di dng d liu, s phn on gi d liu v nhng thng tin tng t. Nhm TCP gm cc i tng theo di s kt ni. T mc lin quan Network Management; SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). 1.2 Cu trc v c im nhn dng ca thng tin qun l MIB Thng tin qun l h thng SMI (System management information) nh ngha mt c cu t chc chung cho thng tin qun l. SMI nhn dng cc kiu d liu trong MIB v ch r cch thc miu t v t tn cc ti nguyn trong c s d liu thng tin qun l MIB. SMI m phng su loi d liu, l b m, kiu (gauge), tch tc thi gian (time ticks), a ch mng , a ch IP v s liu m khng trong sut(opaque).

Vic gii hn cc loi d liu trong SMI v hn ch quy m cc hng mc s liu trong MIB lm gim nhiu phc tp ca vic t chc lu tr, m ha, v gii m s liu. SMI duy tr tnh n gin v kh nng m rng trong MIB. V th MIB ch lu nhng loi d liu n gin gm cc i tng v hng v cc mng 2 chiu ca cc i tng v hng. SMI khng cung cp cch to hoc truy xut cc cu trc d liu phc tp. Cc MIB s cha cc loi d liu do nh cung cp to ra. Thng tin qun l h thng h tr cho lin iu hnh trong qun l mng da trn cc c s thng tin qun l MIB, n c t v hin th cc thng tin ti nguyn MIB cng nh tiu chun k thut nh ngha cho cc i tng n l khc. cung cp cc phng php tiu chun biu din thng tin qun tr, SMI cn thc hin nhng cng vic sau: Cung cp k thut tiu chun inh ngha cu trc MIB c bit. Cung cp k thut tiu chun nh ngha cc i tng n l, bao gm c php v gi tr ca mi i tng. Cung cp k thut tiu chun m ha cc gi tr i tng. S m t cc i tng b qun l c SMI thc hin thng qua ngn ng m t ASN.1. Vic nh ngha loi i tng gm 5 trng: Object: tn ca i tng. Syntax: C php cho loi i tng. Definition: cc nh ngha m t ng ngha ca loi i tng. Access (truy nhp): Phng php truy nhp c th l: ch c, c ghi hay khng th truy nhp. Status (trng thi): c th l cng ch, ty chon hay khng cn hiu lc.

2. Cu trc MIB
Cc i tng qun l trong mi trng SNMP c sp xp theo cu trc hnh cy c th bc. L ca cy l i tng qun l thc, mi thnh phn trong i tng ny biu th cho ti nguyn, s hot ng hoc cc thng tin lin quan c qun l. SNMP tn dng cy ng k ca OSI nh l mt th mc thng tin b qun l. Cc cy con c s dng biu th ni dung logic, cn cc bin s b

qun l c lu tr ti cc l cy. Ngi ta s dng cc bin s ny biu din cc thi im ca thc th tng ng. Cu trc cy c s d liu ny c cc nh thit k MIB nh ra theo kiu tnh. Cn s thay i m rng ch c trong cc gi tr ca c s d liu v trong vic to ra hay xa i cc hng ca bng.

Hnh 1: Cy ng k ca OSI Mi dng i tng lin kt trong mt MIB l mt nhn din ca kiu ASN.1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER. Vic nhn dng phc v cho vic t tn ca i tng v cng phc v cho vic nhn din cu trc ca cc dng i tng. Nhn din i tng l mt nhn din duy nht i vi mt lot i tng c th. Gi tr ca n bao gm mt dy cc s nguyn. Tp cc i tng nh ngha c cu trc hnh cy vi gc ca cy l i tng da vo chun ASN.1 Hin ti, hai phin bn ca MIB c pht trin l MIB-I v MIB-II. Trong MIB-II l s m rng ca MIB-I. Vi mc tiu qun l cc nhm giao thc trong m hnh TCP/IP v mng Internet, mt m hnh cy c tn gi MIB II (RFC1213) c nhnh Internet c chia ra thnh 4 nhm ln: Th mc, qun l, thc nghim v vng ch s c nhn.

Hnh 2: Cu trc cy MB -II MIB-II a ra cc bin s qun l cc giao thc gm 11 cy chc nng con (Hnh 2.6). Cc cy con ny li tip tc c chia ra thnh cc cy con cp thp hn nh i tng h thng v cc bng con tng ng vi cc l. L c s dng nh du cc bin s b qun l thuc mt loi nht nh. Mt s l nh m t h thng sysDesc ch nh du mt thi im duy nht ca bin s bqun l v ch i hi mt phn t lu tr duy nht. Nhng l khc nh m t trng thi mt ng kt ni TCP tcpConnState c th ch dn nhiu thi im khc nhau. Cc thi im khc nhau ny c t chc thnh cc ct ca t bo. Cc ct ny to thnh mt bng m cc hng ca bng ny biu din nhng thi im khc nhau ca mt thc th Vic nh s theo th t hnh cy em li li th cho qu trnh truy nhp thng tin trng thi chnh xc nhng kh phc tp v mt ch dn do th

hin trng thi ca cng mt i tng ti cc thi im khc nhau l khc nhau V vy, phng php ch dn theo bng s h tr cc ch dn i vi cc i tng c s thay i

3. Nhng im hn ch trong MIB


3.1 M hnh thng tin b qun l Vn cng nhc trong MIB: s liu b qun l c xc nh ti thi im thit k MIB. S liu cn cho cc nh khai thc hoc phn mm ng dng c th khng sn sng mt cch trc tip cho MIB. V d, mt trng trnh ng dng i hi thng tin v nhng thay i trong t l li bit, trong khi MIB ch cha b li trc tip, nh qun l phi thc hin vic tnh ton cc thng tin cn thit. iu ny c ngha l h thng thng phi truy xut mt lng s liu th ln, thng l khng thc t. Cc thnh phn mm ng dng thng cn mc iu khin t l vi vic ly mu cc ng dng x l h thng, ch khng ph thuc vo cc quyt nh cng nhc ca nh thit k MIB. Vic thit k mt MIB gim st t xa cung nhm thc hin mt bc quan trng m bo s linh hot trong iu khin cc tin trnh gim st. Cc chu trnh gim st c t cc tham s mt cch linh hot thu thp s liu hot ng. Cc tham s iu khin nhng quy trnh ny c t chc trong mt MIB iu khin. Mt chng trnh ng dng c th t (SET) cc u vo trong bng iu khin MIB xc nh xem h thng s thu thp nhng s liu no v thoe phng thc no. Bn thn s liu c lu tr xtrong MIB s liu tng ng v c th truy xut bng lnh GET. Tuy nhin cn ghi nh rng bn thn cc th tc gim st c xc nh mt cch cng nhc ti thi im thit k MIB. 3.2 Cu trc MIB khng bao gm cc iu khon din t cc mi quan h phc tp gia cc thc th b qun l. Trong v d v tng i PBX, h thng i hi mt bng cho mi quan h gia cc cng v cc th mch thu bao. Nu mun truy xut s liu gn lin vi mt cng hoc mt th mch, th h thng cn truy xut tt c cc bng lin quan ti cng th mch v tp hp chng ti nh qun l. Mi ln, h thng ch c th c mt hnh ca bng, do vy vic so snh trng quan s liu n gin nht gia cc thc th b qun l khc nhau cng i hi phi truy nhp mt s liu ln.

4. ng dng MIB trong qun l mng MPLS

4.1 Gii thiu v cc gii php qun l MPLS Cc i tng trong qun l MPLS: Trong mc ny ta ln lt tm hiu v cc i tng qun l mng MPLS i tng nh tuyn r rang(ERO). Cc kho ti nguyn. ng hm v LSP. In-segment(giao din vo). Out-sgment(giao din ra). Cross-connect(chuyn mch). Cc giao thc nh tuyn. Cc giao thc bo hiu. Cc hot ng nhn: tra cu, y, trao i, xa. K thut lu lng. QoS.(cht lng dch v) Nh chng ta bit, cch kh khn nht ca qun l cc mng nh MPLS l vn khng s dng bo hiu thit lp cc LSP. Cc phn t mng NE trong MPLS c th h tr bo hiu. Mt nguyn nhn khc l vn iu khin tt c cc i tng, l mt vn lin quan ti qun l mng n gin SNMP gp kh khn. i tng nh tuyn r rng(ERO): Mt ERO l mt danh sch cc a ch lp 3 trong mt vng mng MPLS. Ging nh mt danh sch chuyn tip thit k(DTL) trong ATM. N m t mt danh sch cc node MPLS m mt ng hm i qua. Mc ch ca mt ERO l cho php ngi s dng nh r tuyn m mt ng hm a ra. Theo ngha khc n cho php ngi s dng cng bc mt tuyn. ERO c th hoc khng r rang hoc chnh xc. i tng nh tuyn r rang nh r tt c tt c cc hop trn ng. Mt ERO lu tr trong mt bng MIB trn node khi u, v c th c s dng bi nhiu hn mt ng hm khi u trn node MPLS . Cc ERO khng s dng trong phng php cu

hnh bng nhn cng ca cc LSP. Cc ERO s c s dng bi cc giao thc nh tuyn(ging nh RSVP TE) to cc ng hm. ng nh r trong ERO c th thc hin c( v d, cc lin kt phi tn ti gia cc node thit k) v bt k s ph thuc no nh cc ti nguyn bng tn Cc khi ti nguyn: MPLS cho php s ginh trc ti nguyn trong mng. iu ny cung cp phng tin cho nh vn hnh mng. Cc khi ti nguyn cung cp mt phng tin cho bn tin v s thit lp bng tn, v sau chng c th thit k cc LSP c trng. Cc thnh phn ca mt khi ti nguyn bao gm: Bng tn thu ln nht. Kch c lu lng ln di gi. Mt LSP c th c mt s kt hp u cui-u cui bng tn. LSP c thit k mang lung lu lng c theo cc tuyn c trng. ng hm v LSP: Cc ng hm MPLS miu t mt kiu xc nh cho cc tuyn ng xuyn qua mng bi cc node vi cu hnh giao din vo(insegment), chuyn mch(sross-connect) v giao din ra(out-segment). Gi tin MPLS i vo ng hm, i t bn ny sang bn kia mt ng thch hp, v c 3 c im quan trng a ra: Chuyn tip da trn c s tra cu nhn MPLS. Cch i x ti nguyn l c nh, da trn pha thu ti thi gian ca s to kt ni. Cc ng a ra bi lu lng l min cng bi ng ch trong s thn li bi ngi s dng. Cc ng hm v cc LSP cung cp cch tm cho lu lng vi cc a ch IP ch c trng. Cc giao thc nh tuyn gi cc gi trn c ng hm c trng v LSP theo th t tm c a ch IP thch hp. In-segment v out-segment(giao din vo ra): In-sgement trn node MPLS miu t mt im vo lu lng. Out-segment m t mt im ra cho lu

lng. Hai kiu i tng segment l c s phi hp hp l s dng mt crossconnect. Cross-connect( Kt ni cho): Cross-connect l i tng kt hp segment vo v ra vi nhau. Node MPLS s dng thit lp cross-connect quyt nh cch chuyn mch lu lng gia cc segment. Bng Cross-connect h tr cc kiu kt ni di y: im ti im. im ti a im. a im ti im. Mt thc t cross-connect c c 1 trng thi hnh chnh v trng thi hnh ng, cc trng thi hot ng ch th trng thi thc ca cross-connect trong node. Cross-connect hot ng th khng chuyn tip lu lng. MPLS hp thnh cc giao thc nh tuyn IP ging nh OSPF, IS-IS, v BGP. iu ny thc hin bi cc giao thc ny c s dng v cung cp qu nhiu nm, Hp nht chng sang cc chun MPLS ci tin cc c hi trin khai MPLS. K thut lu lng m rng s them vo cc giao thc nh tuyn v ti nguyn(e.g bng tn lin kt). y l quyt nh cho thit b v s to ra nh tuyn min cng LSP(ie: ng hm). iu cui cng cho php thit b ngi s dng tc ng a ra bi lu lng IP thng qua vng MPLS. Cc giao thc bo hiu: Nh chng ta thy, vic to ra LSP v ng hm c th t c hoc bng iu khin nhn cng hoc thng qua bo hiu. Cc kt ni bo hiu c ti nguyn c thu, cc nhn, phn phi, v cc ng c chn bi cc giao thc nh tuyn nh RSVP-TE hoc LDP. 4.2 c im ca MIB trong qun l mng MPLS bng SNMP 4.2.1 V tr v u im ca MIB MIB m t s phn chia khng gian tn gia cc agent SNMP v cc nh qun l mng. MIB hot ng tc ng thit b qun l c trin khai trn mng. bi v, n ng vai tr trung tm trong mng qun l. MIB cung cp vi nguyn tc trong c s gia tng iu khin NE.Nh vy, nu a ra cu hnh v hot ng trong mt mi trng. NMS, y l mt thun li to ln cho nh qun tr mng. Nu chc nng NE, thit lp(v d MPLS, Frame Relay) rt d truy

nhp(SNMPv3) sau i hi s tch hp v quyn s hu gim bt. Ngi s dng cui cng c nhiu thun li ging nh vic ci to hoc mua thit b mi. 4.2.2 Mt s vn i vi i tng ca MIB SNMP c to ra cc dng mi trong cc bng MIB. Vn nm y l hiu v ngha ca mi lin h gia cc ct bng.Nu mt bng(ging nh bng ng hm MPLS, gm c rt nhiu ct, khng phi tt c cc ct c th thit lp theo th t to ra thc th c hiu lc. S kt hp khng qu cht ch gia cc bng l 1 iu tt. y l mt cch tt kt hp cc khi ca i tng MIB cung cp nhiu bng(tng t vi s lin kt c s d liu thng thng). Mt cch rt c bit, khi cc c th dng li( v d , ging nh trong ng hm MPLS, bng hop cho EROS v ng hm MPLS, bng ti nguyn cho bng tn dnh trc. y c hai bng c th dng li bi nhiu ng hm). V vy khng bao gm cc i tng ca n trong bng ng hm, ch c d liu thch hp trnh d tha. Cc bng truyn thng, c th ssau lin kt ti bng chnh s dng ch mc s nguyn. Cc bng ngoi tr sau c th chia s. Ti ni ny mi lin h lin ct tn ti iu ny phi c ch th thng minh trong MIb s dng li ch gii. Cc ct c ngha trong bng MIB th ph thuc vo s phc tp m cung cp bi v phn cng NMS phi hiu v mi lin h gia cc ct. T khi NMS phi tm c mi lin h gia cc ct. T khi NMS phi tm c mi trng thi ca cc NE-NMS phi lu tr d liu NE thng trong c s d liu quan h cng phc tp v rc ri khi mi lin h gia cc ct phi sao li. Nu l gin cui cng th n thng ph thuc vo s sao li d liu MIB, lin ct MIB ph thuc vo vic to ra mt gin c s d liu phc tp hn Cung cp cc gi tr MIB mc nh: Cung cp cc gi tr mc nh cho tt c cc i tng bng MIB l hu dng to s d dng cho lp m cung cp. Ni cch khc, cuc gi cung cp gi tr c trng cho s ph thuc cc ct trong bng v da vo gi tr mc nh cho tr. Khi yu cu NMS n ti lp m cung cp, tt c cc d liu c th vit n l, ti i tng MIB NE kt hp vi vic kim tra nhanh. Mt gi tr mc nh nhn bit c cho mplstunnellncludeAffinity( v i tng kt hp ca n) c th l 0 ch th vic khng s dng i tng MIB

ny. T khi gi tr cung cp mc nh c chn khp vi gi tr mc nh MIB y khng cn cp nht gi tr trc khi cp nht MIB. S gim bt kich c ca lp m cung cp MIB mi s c vit ra cho cc gi tr mc nh yu cu ca tt c cc i tng. Tp trung MIB khp vi cc c trng phn t mng: Mt v d tt ca mt tnh nng tp trung l bng ng hm MPLS . s cha ng hu ht mi quan h ng hm c xc nh trong bng ny. Cc bng n l cho php cc ng hm c to ra sa i, qun l v xa. Mt cc ni khc, s qun l y s dng vi mi quan h bng MIB. iu ny gip cho m cung cp(v m khm ph kt ni) n l v trnh s cn thit s np vo ng thi nhiu trng MIB trong NMS. Cc trnh duyt MIB: cc trnh duyt MIB l cc cng c c bit kim tra cc gi tr ca cc trng hp i tng MIB trn mt Agent a ra. Mt trnh duyt c th l mt tch hp y GUI-da trn ng dng, hoc mt vn bn c s n l. Chng khng th thiu cho cc chuyn vin thit k NMS v rt hu dng cho vic hc v SNMP. in hnh mt trnh duyt MIB cho php mt ngi s dng kiu bin dch, mt phng php thit lp cc file MIB v sau thng k gi tr ca c trng hp i tng kt hp. Nu mt trng hp i tng a ra gi tr chuyn i(get) bi mt NMS. Sau trnh duyt MIB cho php ngi s dng thy (get) gi tr chuyn i trn mt thit b v tc ng ca n. 4.3 Qun l mng LPLS vi MIB 4.3.1 Phc tho cc chun LPLS vi MIB MIB c m t trong phc tho ca IETF gm c cc ni dung chnh: Qun l LPLS mc thp ging nh cc giao din,cross-connect,cc bng segment. S to ra cc LSP. Qun l cc i tng MPLS mc cao,ging nh cc k thut lu lng ng hm,EROS, v cc khi ti nguyn.cc i tng LSR MIB bao gm cc bng n m t: Cu hnh giao din MPLS In-segment Out-segment

Cross-connects Cc ngn xp nhn Cc gii hn lu lng Cc gii han thc thi Cc i tng ny s c m t trong cc phn di y.tng t cc i tng MIBTE bao gm cc bng n m t: ng hm k thut lu lng Cc ti nguyn ng hm Cc ng hm Cc b m thc thi ng hm. 4.3.2 Cc thit b MPLS Cc thit b MPLS l cc NE trong k thut MPLS c trin khai v chng c th bao gm: Ip router Cc chuyn mch ATM hot ng trn ch SIN Chuyn mch a dch v K thut MPLS c th thm vo ging nh mt s nng cp trng trnh c s ti nhiu thit b, n c th bao gm c cc chun sn xut thnh phn iu ny phn nh cc phng php tip cn s di ch chp nhn s trin khai MPLS.n c th chuyn mch tt /m v s dung trn c s cn thit.chuyn mch a dch v trong hinh 3.1 chuyn mch cho kiu dich v, ging nh Ethernet X.25,TDM,IP,FR v MPLS.r rng chuyn mch l mt phn ca mt mng rng ln h tr cc dch v ny.ging nh nhiu mng X c theer di ch ip v MPLS.v nguyn nhn ny chuyn mch a dch v l mt hng pht trin kh quan

Hnh 3: Mc tiu ca chuyn mch a dch v Mt trong cc l do l khng cn thay i phn cng.v vy MPLS NE thc hin cc gii php k thut MPLS trong chng trnh c s v truy cp n kin to dch v thng qua cc giao din mng. 4.3.3 Cc giao din ca MPLS v qun l ca MPLS Mt giao din MPLS l giao din trn MPLS c cu hnh v c th bao gm cc phn sau Mt giao din nh tuyn ip Mt giao thc nh tuyn IGP vi s m rng k thut luu lng ging nh OFPS-TE,IS-IS-TE.mt giao thc dnh tuyn IGP th khng iu khin bng nhn cng Cc nh tuyn tnh c th c s dng thay th C th mt giao thc EGP nu b mt ngoi node ca mt h thng t tri Mt giao thc bo hiu nh LDP hoc RSVP-TE

Hnh 4: LSP v ng hm trong mt mng MPLS ng hm hay LSP ci no s c s dng.iu ny s c quyt nh da trn lu lng ip t nhin nu n nh du s thu ht tt hn vic chuyn lu lng tt nht n c th a ra bi ng cung cp bi ng hm. vic quyt nh gin nhn cng c th to ra da trn bt k hoc cc yu t di y: Nm trong tiu ip trng ds a ch ip ch v ngun Cng ch v ngun 4.3.4 Cc tham s cu hnh ca MIB In-segments: l mt ng vo ca mt on LSP da trn s a ra MPLS NE,y l mt i tng n iu khin vic lu chuyn cc gi ti LSP. Out- segments: l ng ra ca mt segment LSP trn mt MPLS NE a ra.y l iu khin lu chuyn cc gi dc theo cc ng ca LSP. Cross-connects: c s dng gia segment v LSP. S kt hp sever ny ging nh s gii thiu cho MPLS NE chuyn mch gia cc segments nh r.LSR MIB h tr cc kt ni im-im,im ti nhiu im,nhiu imim.

Cc ngn xp nhn:MPLSlabelstacktable ch r cc ngn xp nhn c y trn mt gi . 4.3.5 To ra mt ng hm s dng TE MIB Mt ng hm MPLS l mt tuyn LSP r rng.cc ng hm c to ra s dng TE MIB c th thu ti nguyn tt nh di y.cc tuyn r rng lng lo hoc cht ch cc NE trong cu hnh ng hm thch hp c i tng MIB LER v LSR theo th t ph thuc cc rng buc. Cu hnh MPLSTUNENELRESOURCETABLE:ng hm c th kt hp vi mt b ti nguyn n cung cp cho ng hm vi kh nng mang lu lng y vo n. To ra cc LSP v ng hm s dng mt NMS: chng ta m t cc lung lm vic c th cho ng thi cc trng hp: M mt nh x cha cc node mpls trong hnh 3.2 Kch hai node bin,chon mt im cui kt ni. Chn kiu kt ni (lsp hoc ng hm) Nu kiu ng hm c la chn, sau GUI cho php to ra mtERO Khng bt buc mt ng tnh ton gia hai node cui Chn s ph thuc cc ti nguyn Tnh ton tng quan v chuyn i n nu cn Truy nhp ng v gi kt ni cho s cung cp. 4.4 Thc t qun l mngMPLS qua SNMP Tt c cc c im ca MIB chng ta xem trn y, chng phc v cc tiu bn tin qun l mng. S lu tr gim st trong MIB s dng cc quy tc lu tr v hnh ng, s gim st bao gm cc iu khin v hnh ng phi c a ra khi pht hin cc iu kin . Trong phn ny chngs ta nghin cu FTN MIB bi v n cung c cho s gim st lu tr c th s dng qun l lu lng IP v mng MPLS. 4.4.1 Cc s ph thuc lin ct kt hp vi nhau cht ch. Mt vng quan trng ca thit k l mt s ph thuc ct trong gi tr ct x, chng ta thy mt mng MPLS vi hai ng hm. Mt l s cp, mt l d phng. iu ny c th a ra bi vic to ra hai thc th tng MIB. Hai ng

hm c th c nh hnh chia s nhiu b ti nguyn ging nhau, ging nh bng tn, hoc chngc th nhn i ti nguyn ng hm s cp di y l ng {LED 1, LSR 1, LSR 2, LER2}, trong ng sao lu d phng theo sau {LER1, LSR3, LSR 4, LER2}. 4.4.2 Cc gi tr mc nh v cc lp m Sau c cc gi tr mc nh thng qua mnh DEFVAL. Cho rng chng ta c mt MIB ti c hai ct X v Y v chng co mi quan h vi nhau. Chng ta ni rng X khng mc nh gi tr v c th a ra gi tr 1 v 2 nhng chng ch c gi tr khi Y c mt gi tr khng bng zero. The mt t khc, nu Y c gi tr 0, sau chng ta khng th thit lp bt c gi tr no cho X. y l mt thit k MIB khng kh quan do vi nguyn nhn: Gi tr X khng c nh ngha nu Y bng 0. SNMP m phn mm iu khin trong NMS phi kim tra gi tr ca y trc khi thit lp X. Khng thit lp gi t ca X (VD: Khi Y bng 0 c th a ra vng trong MIB) Kim tra gi tr cho mc ch to ra m SNMP m khng phc tp. N to thnh cc hot ng xuyn lung, kh c th t c bi v d liu vo phi c cng nhn. iu ny xut hin ti giao din ngi s dng. N cng gii thiu cc trng hp c bit cho phn mm NMS. 4.4.3 Cc MIB v s thay i t l Vai tr ch yu ca MIB dng tng qun l mng l trng thi trong nhiu thi gian. Trn thc t MIB l phn ch yu lm n gin ha c cu trc NMS v s d dng vi mng trong s qun l. T l ca ni bt NE v SNMP c th tip cn mt gii hn vt l. S thit k MIB phi hp nht khuynh hng v cho php cc k thut c th ging nh d liu nn theo th t vn dng mt s lng ln d liu. Mt cch hiu qu, Cc PDU ln hn c th s dng bi v mi trng c th c nn iu ny c th lm phc tp iu khin PDU v lm chm hn s p ng bi s nn trn. y l s y thm quyt nh qun l to dung lng ti bn thn NE. 4.4.4 V d v vic s dng FTNMIB

y l v d v FTNMIB thit lp s ph thuc cho MPLS - m ha lu lng IP ti mt LSP khc trong mt ng hm. Mt ngun IP gi lu lng thoi/IP (VoIP) v giao thc khc l SNTP. Chng ta mun y lu lng SMTP thng qua LSP v lu lng VoIP thng qua ng hm. Lu lng VoIP c cc yu cu thi gian thc. Lu lng SMTP th khng yu cu thc nghim, v chng ta s dng mt LSP cho mc ch ny, vi khng c ti nguyn bng tn ch nh v mt QoS best effort ng hm theo cch ny c th mang d liu thoi thi gian thc, v vy chng ta cho rng ng hm l ti nguyn chuyn dng (V d: 640Kbps). LSP v ng hm c kh nng truyn ti MPLS - gi gn gi IP thng qua mng li v phn pht chng ging nh IP ch. Gateway SMTP ti a ch 10.81.1.131 v mt vic thit lp chng ta minh ha trong hnh 3.3 l theo mt phng hng duy nht. (Mt ng dng in thoi s ph thuc v cc kt ni hai chiu) hon thnh bc tranh VoIP chng ta cn ng hm khc (hoc LSP) hng lu lng theo hng i lp. Nhn MPLS ra c s dng bi router li thu c gi tr 0. Gi tr ny l mt gi tr null v c s dng theo th t ch th node MPLS k tip l d liu MPLS phi c lc b khi gi v thc hin mt vng lp IP bnh thng. Trong t khc gi tr nhn o ni cho node k tip rng cc gi phi c tr v trong min IP. V d i y min ha cch thc cc kiu lu lng LDP khc hoc ng hm. Gateway VoIP ti 10.81.1.132 hai a ch ny tch bit nhau.

Hnh 5: S thit lp STN MIB cho lu lng IP Thit lp MPLS FTN table cho s i hng LSP: Theo th t y lu lng IP ti LSP trong hnh trn, mt thc t ph thuc v MPLS FTNtable. LSP thit lp s ph thuc nh qun l mng bit thm thun li ca gi tr mc tiu di y ti mi hop. Bng ch dn giao din vo (khng cn thit ti LER vo). Nhn vo (nu thch hp khng cn thit ti LER vo). Bng ch dn giao din ra (khng cn thit lp ti LER ra). Nhn ra (nu xt v mt ng dng khng cn ti LER ra). Cc i tng minh ha cc i tng MIB cn cho s thit lp MPLS FTNTable.

Cc i tng ny ch ph thuc vo rout bin 1 v bao gm phn sau: Nhn vo th khng ng dng bi v lu lng IP t ti giao din vo (ni ny th khng tri buc cc nhn MPLS). Gi tr ch mc giao din buc cc nhn MPLS). Gi tr ch mc ch giao din ra l 6 (giao din ra). 30 l gi tr nhn bin.