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Analysis of dynamical systems and circuits is mostly done under the assumption that the system is linear and time-invariant. Powerful mathematical techniques are then available for analysis of stability and performance of the system, for example, superposition and frequency domain analysis. In fact, even if the system is nonlinear and time-varying, such assumptions can often be used to get a ﬁrst estimate of the system properties. The purpose of absolute stability theory is to carry the analysis one step further and get a bound on the possible inﬂuence of the nonlinear or time-varying components. The approach was suggested by the Russian mathematician Lur’e in the 1940s and has, since then, developed into a cornerstone of nonlinear systems theory. The basic setup is illustrated in Fig. 1, where the linear time-invariant part is represented by the transfer function G(s) and the nonlinear parts of the system are represented by a feedback loop w ϭ (v, t). The analysis of the system is based on conic bounds on the nonlinearity (Fig. 2): α ≤ φ(v, t )/v ≤ β for all v = 0 (1)
is exponentially stable. The name of this result comes from its graphical interpretation. The Nyquist plot, that is, the plot of G(iͶ) in the complex plane as Ͷ ʦ R, must not cross or circumscribe the circle centered on the real axis and passing through Ϫ1/ Ͱ and Ϫ1/ ͱ (Fig. 3). An important aspect of the circle criterion is that it demonstrates how frequency domain properties can be used in a nonlinear setting. It is instructive to compare with the Nyquist criterion, which states that the closed-loop system with linear feedback w(t) ϭ kv(t) is stable for all k ʦ [Ͱ, ͱ], provided that G(iͶ) does not intersect the real axis outside the interval [Ϫ1/ ͱ, Ϫ1/ Ͱ]. The circle criterion replaces the interval condition with a circular disk. As a consequence, the stability assertion is extended from constant feedback to nonlinear and time-varying feedback. The proof of the circle criterion is based on a quadratic Lyapunov function of the form V (x ) = x Px where the matrix P is positive deﬁnite. It can be veriﬁed that V(x) is decreasing along all possible trajectories of the system, provided that the frequency condition [Eq. (3)] holds. As a consequence, the state must approach zero, regardless of the initial conditions. THE POPOV CRITERION In the case that has no explicit time dependence, the circle criterion can be improved. For simplicity, let Ͱ ϭ 0 and hence 0 ≤ φ(v )/v ≤ β for all v = 0 (5)
This problem was studied in Russia during the 1950s. In particular, a conjecture by Aiserman was discussed, hoping that the system would be stable for all continuous functions in the cone [Eq. (1)], if and only if it was stable for all linear functions in the cone. This conjecture was ﬁnally proved to be false, and it was not until the early 1960s that a major breakthrough was achieved by Popov (1).
THE CIRCLE CRITERION Popov and his colleagues made their problem statements in terms of differential equations. The linear part then has the form
The Popov criterion can then be stated as follows. Theorem 2 (Popov criterion). Suppose that : R Ǟ R is Lipschitz continuous and satisﬁes Eq. (5). Suppose the system x ˙ ϭ Ax is exponentially stable and let G(iͶ) ϭ C(iͶI Ϫ A)Ϫ1B. If there exists ʦ R such that R e[(1 + iωη)G(iω)] > − then the system x ˙ (t ) = Ax(t ) − Bφ [Cx(t )] is exponentially stable. Note that the circle criterion is recovered with ϭ 0. Also the Popov criterion can be illustrated graphically. Introduce the Popov plot, where ͶImG(iͶ) is plotted versus ReG(iͶ). Then
x ˙ = Ax − Bw v = Cx
and the corresponding transfer function is G(s ) = C(sI − A )− 1 B
Theorem 1 (Circle criterion). Suppose that the system x ˙ ϭ Ax is exponentially stable and that : R2 Ǟ R is Lipschitz continuous and satisﬁes Eq. (1). If β G(iω) + 1 0 < Re α G(iω) + 1 ω∈R (3)
J. Webster (ed.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Copyright # 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
(a) Ͱ Ͻ 0 Ͻ ͱ. 0 –5 –10 –15 –1/α –1/β G(iω) –10 0 Re (b) 10 Figure 3. t) w v 15 10 5 Im –G(s) 0 –5 –10 –1/β –1/α Figure 1. The slope of the line corresponds to the parameter . Important aspects of the theory were summarized by Willems (5). The circle criterion proves stability as long as the Nyquist plot does not cross or circumscribe the circle corresponding to the conic bounds on the nonlinearity. 2 0 –2 –1/ β + w w= φ (v) ω Im G(iω) –4 –6 –8 αv v –10 –12 –5 0 5 Re G(iω) 10 15 βv Figure 2. for example. (b) 0 Ͻ Ͱ Ͻ ͱ. GAIN AND PASSIVITY In the results described so far. See the following example. Figure 4. Many types of nonlinearities were considered and stronger criteria were obtained in several special cases (2–4). G(iω) stability can be concluded from the Popov criterion if and only if there exists a straight line separating the plot from the point Ϫ1/ ͱ. The Popov criterion can be applied when there exists a straight line separating the Popov plot from the point Ϫ1/ ͱ.2 ABSOLUTE STABILITY φ (•. The theory of absolute stability had a strong development in the 1960s. The nonlinearity is bounded by linear functions. using the notions of dissipativity and storage function. Absolute stability deals with linear time-invariant systems in interconnection with nonlinear functions. A parallel theory was developed by Zames (6) avoiding the state-space structure and studying stability purely in terms of input–output relations. 4 then shows that the Popov criterion is satisﬁed for ͱ ϭ 1. . the results were stated in terms of differential equations. and various improvements to the circle and Popov criteria were generated. by Yakubovich. To apply the Popov criterion to the system x ˙1 = −5x1 − 4x2 + φ(x1 ) x ˙2 = −x1 − 2x2 + 21φ(x1 ) let –15 –10 0 Re (a) 10 15 10 5 Im −s + 82 G ( s ) = C ( iω − A ) − 1 B = 2 s + 7s + 6 The plot in Fig. Example.
Yakubovich. 10: 341–361. a system with a saturation nonlinearity: Ax + B x ˙ = Ax − Bsat(Cx ) = Ax + BCx Ax − B if Cx ≤ 1 if |Cx| < 1 if Cx ≥ 1 . 1964. if the input is a voltage and the output is a current. 1963. 1961. The map is said to be causal if two inputs that are identical until time T will generate outputs that are also identical until time T. the circle criterion can be interpreted this way. 1962. The map F is said to be bounded if there exists C Ͼ 0 such that T T The only property of saturation that would be exploited by the Popov criterion is that 0 Յ sat(v)/ v Յ 1 and. 5.) 4. if Ͱ ϭ 0 and ͱ is large. M. parts 1–3. 1977. One way to do this is to introduce so-called multipliers. General theory. C. the Popov criterion [Eq.ABSOLUTE STABILITY 3 For this purpose. Stability criteria can also be stated in terms of passivity. For example. On the input–output stability of nonlinear time-varying feedback systems—part 1. 6. consequently. It is worthwhile to make a comparison with the circle criterion. If F · G <1 then the feedback equations v = Gw + f w = Fv + e deﬁne a bounded causal map from the inputs (e. Zames. 1972.. A.. 11: 228–238. a dynamical system is viewed as a map F from the input u to the output Fu. and rate limiters. In principle. 1966. On an abstract theory of absolute stability of nonlinear systems. (English translation in Autom. all such constraints can be used computationally to improve the accuracy in stability and performance analysis. The factor 1 ϩ iͶ ϩ H(iͶ) is called multiplier. However. (Original in Russian. w). (8). 22: 857–875. Avtomaika i Telemechanika. Remote Control. not produce it. Conditions involving circles in the frequency plane and sector nonlinearities. The gain of F is denoted ʈFʈ and deﬁned as the minimal such constant C. V. Conditions derived using concepts of loop gain. Consider. Suppose that the input– output maps F and G are bounded and casual. V. time delays. 1982. 24 (3): 293–302. (2)]. Willems. Control. 1963. A unifying theory for this purpose has been developed by Megretski and Rantzer (8). August. Rational Mech. f ) to the outputs (v. for example. This makes it possible to state the following well-known result: Theorem 3 (Small gain theorem). T 0≤ |u|2 dt 0 w(t )[v(t ) − w(t )] dt |Fu|2 dt ≤ C2 0 0 for all T Ͼ 0. Popov. Stability of Nonlinear Control Systems. 25 (25): 601–612. various forms of hysteresis. Anal. V. time variations. The theory and applications of absolute stability have recently had a revival since new computer algorithms make it possible to optimize multipliers numerically and to address applications of much higher complexity than previously. New York: Academic Press. ∞] (8) for all w ϭ sat(v). A. T Ͼ 0. 24 (6): 717–731. (6)] can be replaced by the condition Re[(1 + iωη + H (iω))(G(iω) + 1 )]] > 0 ȍ w∈R (10) This is the same as Eq. Vestnik Leningrad Univ. The inequality [Eq. while several other authors have contributed with new IQCs that are ready to be included in a computer library for system analysis. Absolute stability of nonlinear control systems in critical cases. Arch. Dissipative dynamical systems. Remote Control. Autom. Yakubovich. 0≤ 0 u(t )y(t ) dt for all T and all y = Fu For example. part 2. Such constraints have been veriﬁed for a large number of different model components such as relays. (3)] becomes β |G(iω)| < 1 ω ∈ [0. Absolute stability of nonlinear systems of automatic control. Linear systems with quadratic supply rates.) 3. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. since ͱ is the gain of and maxͶ͉G(iͶ)͉ is the gain of the linear part [Eq. MULTIPLIERS AND INTEGRAL QUADRATIC CONSTRAINTS Less conservative stability criteria can often be obtained by exploiting more information about the nonlinearity. the inequality will remain valid even if some perturbation of amplitude smaller than one is added to the factor w in the product w(v Ϫ w). where h ءw is a convolution. part 2. (9)] is a special case of what is called an integral quadratic constraint. Then the condition [Eq. G. IQC. One way to ȍ do this is to introduce a function h(t) with the property ͐Ϫȍ ͉h(t)͉dt Յ 1 and replace the previous expression by (w ϩ h ء w) (v Ϫ w). 45 (5): 321–393. Autom. Lefschetz. The input–output map F is said to be passive if T where H(iͶ) ϭ ͐Ϫȍ eϪiͶ h(t)dt. Consider the case when Ͱ ϭ Ϫͱ. The integral inequality then becomes T 0≤ 0 (w + h ∗ w )(v − w ) dt (9) Using this inequality. then passivity property means that the system only can consume electrical power.) 2. Math. J. IEEE Trans. part 1. Another important notion closely related to gain is passivity. (Original in Russian. S.
Falb.4 ABSTRACT DATA TYPES 7. A. 6 (1): 89–108. Autom. 1968. . System analysis via Integral Quadratic Constraints. ABSORPTION MODULATION. Stability conditions for systems with monotone and slope-restricted nonlinearities. SIAM J. 8. 47: 819–830. Rantzer. Control. See ELECTROMAGNETIC FERRITE TILE ABSORBER. Zames and P. Megretski and A. ANDERS RANTZER Lund Institute of Technology ABSORBER. L. G. 1997. See ELECTROABSORPTION. Control. IEEE Trans.
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