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THE YALE SHAKESPEARE

Revised Edition

Qenernl Editoro Helgo KICiilieritz aud Charles T . Prouty

Published on the fund given t o the Yale Uniz*ersify Pross i 7 a 1927

by the n~omber.qof the

Kingsley Trust Aasociatiota

(Scroll nird R e y SocEet!/ o f Yale Collogo)

t o comnze?norclte the saventy-fif t h amnioarsnry


of the founding of ths society

T H E YALE BHAPESPEARE

MEASURE FOR MEASURE


Edited by Dwis Harding

N E W

H A V E N

: YALE UNIVERSITY PEE88


CTn;rcraity I'rt-ss

London: OzjorJ

Copyright 1926, 1954 by Yale Gnicersity Press. Printed i n the Unitod Stalos of An~el-icu
All rigllls rescrztad in the ec?itorial contribn-

liolzs to this edition, which may not be reprinted, b wd~oleor irb part, sxcept by written p e r ~ ~ t i s s i o n of the publishera. Library of Congress catalog card number: 54-6288
F I R S T P U U L I S I I E D , OCTOBER, REVISEI) EDITIOX, OCTOBER,

1926

1954

Prgace o f the General Editors


practically all modern editions of S~nnliespenre a r c 18th-century versions of the plays, bzsecl on the additions, alterations, and emendations of editors of t h a t period. It has been our purpose, as it nrns P r o fessor Brooke's, t o give the modcl-n reader Shakespeare's plays i n the approximate forin of their original appearance. About half the p l q s appeared in q u a r t o folm before the publication of the F i r s t Folio in 1623. Thus f o r ,z large number of plays the only available t e s t is t h a t of the Folio. I n the case of q u a r t o plays opr policy has been t o use t h a t text as the basis of the edit.ion, unless it is clear t h a t t.he t e s t has been contarnillated. Interesting f o r us today is the f a c t t h a t there a r e no a c t o r scene divisions in the Quartos with the esception of Othello, which does mark Acts I, 11, IV, and V b u t lacks indications of scenes. Even in the Folio, althougll a c t divisions a r e generally noted, onlp a p a r t of the scenes a r e divided. I n no case, either in Quarto o r Folio, is there any indication of the place of action. T h e manifold scene dirisions f o r the battle in such a p l a y a s A n t o n y a.nd Cleopatra, together with sucll locations a s "Another p a r t of the field," a r e the additions of the 1 8 t h century. \Ye have eliminated all indications of the place and time of action, because there is no authority f o r them in the originals and because Shakespeare gives such information, when i t is requisite f o r understanding the play, through the dialogue of the actors. We have been s p a r i n g in o u r use of added scene and, in some
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S the l a t e Professor Tucker Broolce has observed,

PREFACE OF THE G E N E R A L EDITORS

cascs, a c t divisions, because these frequently impede the flow of the action, which i n Shakespeare's time was curiously like t h a t of modern films. Spelling has been modernized except when the original clearly indicates a pronunciation unlike our o r n , e.g. desa.rt (desert), dive1 (devil), ba?~ket (banquet), and often in such Elizabethan syncopations a s ere (e'er), stolne (stol'n), and tane (ta'en). I n reproducing such forms we have followed the inconsistent usage of the original. W e have also preserved much more of the original capitnlization t h a n is usual, f o r often this is n p a r t of the meaning. I n like manner we have tended t o adopt the lineation of the original in ~ n a n ycascs where modern editors print prose as verse o r verse as prose. W e have, moreover, followed the original punctuation wherever i t was practicable. I n verse we p r i n t a final -ed t o indicate its full syllabic value, otherwise 'd. I n prose we have followed the inconsistencies of the original in this respect. Our general practice has been t o include in footnotes all information a reader needs f o r immediate understanding of the given page. I n somen7hat empiric fashion we repeat glosses a s we think the reader needs t o be reminded of the meaning. F u r t h e r information is given in notes (indicated b y the letter AT in t h e footnotes) t o be found a t the back of each volume. Appendices deal with the t e x t and sources of the play. Square brackets indicate material not found in the original text. L o n g emendations o r lines taken from another authoritative t e s t of a p l a y a r e indicated in the footnotes f o r the information of the render. We heye silently corrected obvious typographical errors.
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CONTENTS

Preface of the General Editors

v
1
111

The Text
Notes
A P P E N I I I X A:

Text and Date


Sources

126

APPLNIIIX B :

126 13'1

ArPENnIx

c: Reading List

T h e scene: P'ien7ca

The Names of A l l the Actors


VINCENTIO,

the Duke the deputy ESCALUS, a n ancient lord CLAUDIO, a you?zg getttleman LUCIO, a fantastic Z'w*o o t l ~ e rlilce Gentlemen [vann~us, a gentleman attending on the D u k e ] Prooost
AXGELO,
THOMAS PETER

t W O friars

[ A Justice] a simple constable FROTH, a foolish gentleman Clown [ I > O ~ ~ P E Y tapster , t o &fistress Overdone] A B H o n s o N , an executioner BaRNannINE, a d.issolute prisoner
ELBOW,
ISABELLA,

sister to Claudio

araRIaNa,
JULIET,

betrothed t o Angelo beloved of Clazcdio


a
7LU.n

FRAS-CISC.4,

MISTRESS OVERDONE,

a bawd

[Lords, Ojiczrs, Citizens, Boy, and Attendants] [TheActors' names] N.

M E A S U R E F O R DIEASURE

Act I
SCENE

E n t e r Duke, Escalus, L o r d s [ a n d At tendan t s ] .

Dzcke. Escalus. Escalus. Rly lord. Duke. Of government the properties t o unfold,
Would scem in me t' affcct speech and discourse, e Since I am p u t t o know t h a t your own science Exceeds, in that,, the lists of all advice My strength can give you. Then no more remains, B u t t h a t , t o your sufficiency, a s your worth is able, And let then1 work. T h e nature of our people, 10 Our city's institutions, and the terms F o r corn~nonjustice, yv' are a s pregnant in As a r t a n d practice hat11 enriched a n y T h a t we remember. There is our commission, t you warp. Call hitlier, From which \re would n ~have 1s l say, bid come before us Angelo. [Erzrit an Attendant.] W h a t figure of us think you he mill bear? F o r you must know, we have with special soul Elected him our absence t o supply,
Act I N. (N refers throughout to the corresponding note given at the end of the text,.) 3 to unfold read 't'unfold.' 4 t' affect to love. 5 put made. 6 lists limits. 8-9 But work N. 11 pregnant expert. 14 warp deviate. 16 figure representation. 17 soul affection. 1

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M E A S U R E F O R MEASURE:,

I. 1

L e n t hixn our terror, drcss'd him with our lore, And given his deputation all the organs Of our own power. W h a t think you of i t ? Escaltia. If any in Vfeilna be of worth T o undeisgo such ample grace and honor, It is L o r d Angelo.
Enter

Angelo.

Look where he comes. ns A n g ~ l o Always . obedient t o your Grace's will, I come t o know your pleasure. Duke. Angelo, There is r t kind of c l ~ a r a c t e r in thy life, T h a t to th' observer doth tliy history Fully unfold. Thyself n11d thy belongings SO Are not thine own so proper, xis t o waste Thyself upon t h y virtues, they on thee. Heaven dot11 with us as we with torches do, Not light them for themselves ; for if our virtues 34 Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike As if we had them not. Spirits a r e not finely touch'd B u t t o fine issues, nor Nature never lends T h e stnallest scruple of her excellence, But, like a t h r i f t y goddess, she determines Herself the glory of a creditor, 40 Both thanlis and use. B u t I do bend my speech T o one t h a t can my p a r t in him advertise.
19 terror i.e. author it,^ to punish. 20 deputation vice-regency. 27 character hidden meaning (literally, cipher for secret corresponclence). 29 belongings qualities. 30 proper excluively. 30-1 as to thee N. 32-3 Heaven themselves N. 35 Spirits one syllable here, either 'spir'ts' or 'sprites.' heIy touch'd nobly endowed. 36 issues purposes. 3 6 4 0 Nature nse N. 37 scruple thirrl part of a dram. 38 determines decrees for. 40 use interest. 41 one advertise (stressed -) N.

D u.7ce.

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M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , I. 1

Hold therefore, Angelo :

I n our remove be thou a t full ourself.


Mortality and mercy in Vienna Live in thy tongue and heart. Old Escalus, Though first in question, is t h y secondary. Take t h y commission. ~~r~elo. Now, good my lord, Let there be some more test made of my mettle, Before so noble and so g r e a t a figure Be stamp'd upon it. Duke. No more evasion. W e have with a lesven'd and prepared choice Proceeded t o you ; therefore take your honors. Our haste from hence is of so quick condition T h a t it prefers itself, a n d leaves unquestion'd tur Mutters of needful value. W e shall write t o you, As tirne and our concernings shall importune, How i t goes with us, and do look t o lrnow W h a t cloth befall you here. S o f a r e you well: T o t11' hopeful execution do I leave you Of your commissions. A ngelo. Y e t give leave, my lord, a> hat we may bring you something on the way. Duke. My haste may not admit it; N o r need you, on mine honor, have t o do W i t h a n v scruple. P o u r scope is as mine own, BJ So t o enforce o r qualify the laws As t o your soul seems good. Give me your hand. 1'11 privily away. I love the people, 42 Hold N. 43 remove absence. 44 mortality death. 4G question
appointment. secondary subordinate. 48 mettle essential worth; a quibble on 'metal.' 51 We have read 'We've.' leaven'd wellconsidered. 53-5 Our value N. 56 concernings busir.~ese. 61 bring you something escort you a short distance. 64 scope liberty to act.

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M E A S U R E FOR MEASURE, I. 1

R u t do n o t like t o stage 111e t o their eyes. Though i t d o well, I do not relish well Their loud applause and Arcs vehement, No]. do I think the man of safe discretion T h a t does affect it. Once more, fa.1.e you well. Angclo. T h e heavens give safety t o your purposes! Escalus. Lead forth and bring you back in hnppiness ! 74 Duke. I thank you. F a r e you well. Exit. Escall~s. I shall desire you, sir, t o give ine leave T o have free speech with you ; and i t concerns me T o look into the bottom of my place. G power I have, but of what strength and nature 80 I a m not yet instructed. Angelo. 'Tis so wit11 me. Let us withdraw together, And we Inay soon our satisfaction havc Touching t h a t point. I'll wait upon your FIonor. Escalus.
Exeunt.

SCENE 2

Enter Lucio and two other Gendlenzen.


Lucio. I f the Duke, with the other dukes, come n o t t o composition with the king of Hungary, why then all the dukes fall upon the king. 1. Ge~ntlenza~2. Heaven grant us its peace, but not 5 the king of Hungary's !
68 stage me exhibit myself. G 9 do w e l l be fit. 70 Aves acclamutions. 76 bottom of my place full extent of my authority. 2 composition agreement.
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M E A S U R E FOR M E A S U R F . I. e

g. Gentleman. Amen.

Lucio. T h o u conclud'st like the sanctimonious pirate, t h a t went t o sea wit11 the T e n Commandments, but scraped one out of the table. 2. Genfle7nang. 'Thou shalt not steals? 10 Lz~c~o Ay, . t h a t he razed. l. Genflewzan. Why, 'twas a commandment t o command the captain and all the rest from their functions: they p u t forth t o steal. There's not a soldier of us all that, in the thnnksgi~ingbefore meat, do 16 relish the petition well t h a t prays for peace. 2. Gentleman. I never heard a n y soldier dislike it. Lucio. I believe thee, for I thinli thou never wast where grace was said. B. Gen.tleman. N o ? A dozen times at least. 20 l. Gentleman. W h a t ? I n meter? Lucio. I n any proportion o r in a n y language. l. Gentleman. I think, o r in any religion. Lucio. Ay, why not? Grace is grace, despite of all controversy: as, f o r example, thou thyself a r t a 26 wicked villain, despite of all grace. 2. Gentleman. nTell, there went but a pair of shears between us. L ~ L c ~I og . r a n t : a s there may between the lists and 30 the velvet. T h o u a r t the list, I . Gerttlenzan. And thou the velvet. T h o u art good ~ e l v e t :thou'rt a three-pil'd piece, I warrant thee. I llud as licf be a list of a n English kersey as be pil'd, H S thou a r t pil'd, f o r a French velvet. D o I speak 35 feelingly now?
16 petition peace N. 22 proportion N. 27-8 there us nrewere cut from the same cloth. 29 lists the outcr edging made of plain material, pileless. 32 three-pil'd N. 33 kersey stout coarse cloth. 34 velvet courtesan. 35 feelingly to the purpose. 6:

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M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 1. %

Lucio. I think thou dost; and indeed with most painful feeling of t h y speech. I will, out of thine own confession, learn t o begin t h y health; but, whilst I 39 live, forget t o drink after thee. l . Genf.le,man.I think I have done myself wrong, have I n o t ? W. Gentleman. Yes, t h a t thou hast, whether thou art tainted or free. Enter Bawd [.Mistress Overdone]. Lucio. Behold, behold, where Madam Mitigation 45 comes ! l. Gentleman. I have purchas'd as many diseases under her roof as come tog. Ge~ztEenza7a.T o what, I p r a y ? Lucio. Judge. 49 2. Gen,tleman. T o three thousand dolors a year. l. Gent1ema.n.. Ay, and more. Lucio. A Frcncll crown more. I. GenfZen~an. Thou a r t always figuring diseases in 54 me; but thou a r t full of error. I am scund. Lucio. Nay, not-as one would say-healthy, but so s o ~ i n das things t h a t are h o l l o ~ .Thy bones a r e hollow ; impiety has made a feast of thee. l. Gentleman. [ T o Illistress Overdone.] How now ! Which of your hips has the most profound sciatica? Mistress 0uerdo.ne. MTell, well; there's one yonder arrested and carried t o prison was worth five thousand of you all. fZ. Gentleman. Who's that, I p r a y thee?
36-9 and thee N. 40 done myself wrong given myself away. 46-7 I to N. 50 dolors pun on 'dollars.' 52 French crown a gold coin, a bald head. 59 sciatica regarded ae a symptom of venereal disease.
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M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , L.

.J

Mistress Overdone. Marry, sir, that's Claudio, Signior Claudio. 65 l. Gentleman. Claudio t o prison? 'Tis n o t so. &i.istress Overdone. Nay, but I know 'tis so. I saw him arrested, saw him carried away, and, which is more, within these three days his head t o bc chopp'd off. 70 Lucio. But, after all this fooling, I would n o t have i t so. A r t thou sure of this? Illistress Overdone. I am too sure of it; and i t is 74 for getting Madam Julietta with child. Lucio. Believe me, this may be. H e promis'd t o meet me two hours since, and he was ever precise ifi promise-keeping. 9. Gentleman. Besides, you know, it draws something near t o the speech me had t o such a purpose. l. Gentlerna7~ B u t most of all agreeing with the 81 proclamation. Lucio. Away! Let's g o learn the t r u t h of it. Exit [ h c i o with the Gentleme?t]. Mistress Overdon,e. Thus, what with the war, what with the sweat, what with the gallows and what with poverty, I am custom-shrunk. 85 Enter Clozfn [Ponapey l.
Horn now? What's the news with you?

Ponzpey. Yonder man is carried t o prison. ilfistress Overdone. Well, what has he done? Pompey. A woman. 90 Mistress Overdone. R u t vhat's his off ense? Po,m.pey. Groping for trouts in a peculiar river.
84 sweat the plague. 85 custom-shrunk reduced to fewer cmtamers. 89 woman N. 91 Groping river N. 7

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MEASURE FOR MEASURE, I. 2

JIistress Overdone. W h a t ? Is there a maid with cliild by him? Pompez~. No, b u t there's a woman with maid by him. You have not heard of the proclamation, have SOU? 96 Mistress Overdone. What proclamation, man? Pompcy. All houses in the suburbs of Vienna must 99 be pluck'd down. .illistress Overdone. And what shall become of those in the city? Pompey. T h e y shall stand for seed: they had gone down too, b u t t h a t a wise burgher p u t in f o r them. illistress Overdone. But shall all our houses of 105 resort in the suburbs be pull'd down? Pompey. T o the ground, mistress. Xistress Overdone. Why, here's a change indeed in the commonwealth ! Whab shall become of me? Pompeg. Come, fear ncE you ! Good counselors lack no clients. Though you change your place, you need not change your trade. I'll be your t a p s t e r still. Courage! There will be pity taken on y o u ; you t h a t have worn your eyes almost o u t in the service, you will be considel-ed. 114 Mistress Overdone. What's t o do here, Thomas T a p s t c r ? Let's withdraw. Posnpey. Here comes Signior Claudio, led by t h e provost t o prison; and there's Madam Juliet. Exeunt. Enter Provost, Claudio, Juliet, Oficers, Lucio, and two Gentlemen.
94 maid N.98 suburbs N. 102 had gone would have gone. 103 put in interceded. 115-6 Thomas Tapster N. l18 provost jailor.

SD E ~ t e r Provost Gentlemen N. (SD is used throughout to indicate stage direction,)


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MEASURE FOR MEASUItE, I . 2

Claudio. Fellow, why dost thou show me thus t o th' world? 120 t o prison, where I am committed. Bear ~ n e Provost. I do it n o t in evil disposition, But from L o r d Angelo by special charge. Clnuclio. T h u s can the demigod Authority Make us p a y down f o r our offense by weight 125 T h e words of heaven; on whom i t will, i t will; On whom i t will not, so: yet still 'tis just. Lucio. W h y how now Claudio? Whence comes this restraint? Claudio. F r o m f o o much liberty, my Lucio, liberty. As surfeit is the father of much fast, 130 So every scope by the immoderate use T u r n s t o restraint. Our natures d o pursue, Like r u t s t h a t ravin down their proper bane, A thirsty evil, and when we drink we die. Lucio. I f I could speak so wisely under a n arrest, I would send f o r certain of my creditors. And yet, t o s a y t h e t r u t h , I h a d as lief have the foppery of f reedorn a s the mortality of imprisonment. What's thy off ense, Claudio? Clazhdio. V7hat b u t t o speak of would offend again. Lucio. W h a t , is't murder? 140 Cla.udio. No. Lucio. Lechery? Claudio. Call it so. Provost. Away, sir! You must go. Claadio. One word, good friend. Lucio, a word with
YOU.

145

Lucio. A hundred, if they'll do you a n y good.


125 words of heaven N. 132 ravin smallom greedily. proper bane poison peculiar to them. 136 foppery lolly. 137 mortafitg state of being subject to decay or death N.
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M E A S U R E FOR MEASURE. I. B

I s lechery so look'd after? CZaudio. T h u s stands it with me: upon a true contract I g o t possession of Julietta's bed. 150 You know the lady ;she is fast my wife, Save t h a t we d o the denunciation lack Of o u t ~ v a r dorder. This we came r o t to, Only for propagation of a dower 154 Renlaining in the coffer of her friends, From whom we thought i t meet t o hide our love Till time had made them f o r us. But i t chances The stealth of our most nlutual entertainnlent W i t h character too gross is writ on Juliet. LZLC~O. W i t h child, perhaps ? CZau.dio Unhappily, even so. 180 And tllc new deputy now for the DukeWhether i t be the fault and glimpse of newness, Or mhctl~ert h a t the body public be A horse ~vherconthe governor doth ride, Who, newly in the sent, t h a t it may know H e c m command, lets i t straight feel the s p u r ; I ~ ; S Whctlier the tyranny be in his place, Or in liis eminence t h a t fills it up, I stagger in-but this new governor 109 Awnlics me all the enrolled penalties Which h a w , like unscour'd nrmor, hung by th' wall S o long t h a t nineteen zodiacs have gone round, And none of them been worn ;and for a naiile
148 contract stressed - 2 . 150 she . wife N. 151 denunciation proclamation of banns by the church. 153 propagation increase. 154 friends kinsfolk. 161 fault newness N. 166 place office. 168 stagger in am in doubt about. 169 the enrolled read round years 'th' enrolled.' 170 unscour'd rusty. 171 zodiacs have pmscd. 172 for a name to acquire a reputation.

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M E A S U R E FOR M E A S U R E , I . 9

Wow p u t s the drowsy and neglected a c t 174 Freshly on me: 'tis surely f o r a name. Lucio. I warrant i t is. And t h y head stands so tickle on t h y shoulders t h a t a milkmaid, if she be in love, may sigh it off. Send after the Duke and appeal t o him. Clnudio. I have done so, but he's n o t t o be found. I prithee, Lucio, do me this lrind service. 180 This d a y my sister should the cloister enter, And there receive her approbation. Acquaint her with the danger of my state, Implore her, in my voice, t h a t she make friends T o the strict deputy. Bid herself assay himI85 I have g r e a t hope in t h a t ; for in her youth There is a prone and speechless dialect, Such n s move men ; beside, she hnth prosperous art When she will play with reason and discourse, 190 And well she can persuade. Lucio. I p r a y she may: as well f o r the encouragement of the like, which else would stand under grievous imposition, a s for the enjoying of t h y life, who I would be s o r r y should be thus foolishly lost at a 19.5 game of tick-tack. I'll t o her. Claudio. I thank you, good friend Lucio. L'ILC~O. Within two hours.

Claudio

Come, officer, away!

Exeunt.
176 tickle unstabie. 182 receive her approbation (five syllables here) enter upon her novitiate. 184 voice name. 185 assay a t tempt, accost. 187 prone enticing. prone and speechless dialect N. 188 she hath prosperous read 'she'th prosp'rous.' 195 ticktack a kind of backgammon in which pegs were fitted illto holes.
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MEASURE ZOB MEASURE, I. S

SCENE

Enter Duhe an,d Friur Thomas.


Dake. No, holy Father, throw away t h a t thought: Believe n o t t h a t the dribbling d a r t of love Can pierce a complete bosom. W h y I desire thee 4 T o give me secret harbor h a t h a purpose J l o r e grave and wrinkled t h a n the aims and ends Of burning youth. %fay your Grace speak of i t ? Friar. Dulic. My holy sir, none better knows t h a n you How I have ever lov'd the life remor'd And held in idle price t o haunt assemblies 10 Wherc youth and cost, witless bravery keeps. I have deliver'd t o L o r d AngeloA man of stricture and firm abstinenccMy absolute power and place here in Vienna, And he supposes me travel'd t o Poland; 15 F o r so I have strew'd it in the common ear, And so i t is receiv'd. Now, pious sir, You will demand of me why I d o this? Friar. Gladly, my lord. Duke. We have strict statutes and most biting 19 lawsT h e needful bits and curbs t o headstrong steedsWhich f o r this fourteen years we h a r e let slip; Even like a n oregrown lion in a cave,
-) perfect. 9 in idle 2 dribbling feeble. 3 complete (stressed price as valueless. 10 cost extravagance. bravery ostentation. 12 stricture strictness. 15 I have read 'I've.' 17 demand mk 20 steeds N. 21 slip N. 22 Even read %'en.' oregrown grown fat or old.
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M E A S U R E FOR M E A S U R E , I . 9

T h a t goes not out t o prey. Now, as fond fathers, Having bound up the threat'ning twigs of birch, 25 Only t o stick it in their children's sight F o r terror, not t o use, in time the rod Becomes inore mock'd than fear'd; so our decrees, Dead t o infliction, t o themselves are dead, And Liberty plucks Justice by the nose; SO T h e baby beats the nurse, and quite athwart Goes all decorum. Friar. It rested in your Grace T o unloose this tied-up justice when you pleas'd; And it in you more dreadful would have seem'd T h a n in Lord Angelo. D~lie. I do fear, too dreadful: 3s Sith 'twas my fault t o give the people scope, 'Twould be my tyranny t o strike and gall them F o r what I bid them do: for we bid this be done, When evil deeds have their permissive pass And not the punishment. Therefore, indeed, my Father, 40 I have on Angelo impos'd the office, Who may, in th' ambush of my name, strike home, And yet illy nature never in tlic sight T o d o it slandel-. And t o behold his sway, 44 I will, a s 'twere n brother of your order, Visit both prince and people. Therefore, I prithee, Supply me with the habit, and instruct me How I m a y formally in person bear

23 fond foolish. 27 Becomes F omits. 28 infliction execution. 29 Liberty license. 32 To unloose read 't' unloose.' 35 Sith since. 36 gall hurt. 37-9 f o r . punishment N. 42-3 And. slander N. 47 bear conduct myself.

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MEASURE FOR MEASURE, I , 3

Like a t r u e friar. Moe reasons f o r this action A t our more leisure shall I render you; Only this one: L o r d Angelo is precise, Stands a t a g u a r d with envy; scarce confesses T h a t his blood flows, or t h a t his appetite Is more t o bread t h a n stone. Hence shall me see, I f power change purpose, what our seerners be.

Exit [with Friar].

Enter IsabeE and Francisca, a Nun.


Isabella. And have you nuns no f a r t h e r privileges?
Nu,n. A r e n o t these large enough?

Isabella. Yes, truly. I speuk n o t a s desiring more, B u t r a t h e r wishing a more strict restraint Upon t h e sisterhood, the votarists of S a i n t Clare. 5

Lz~ciowithin. Lucio. H o ! Peace be in this place !


Isn.bella.
Who's t h a t which calls ?
Nun. It is a man's voice. Gentle Isabella,

T u r n you the key, and know his business of him. 9 You may, I may not. You a r e yet unsworn. When you have vom'd, you must not speuk with men B u t in the presence of the prioress ; Then, if you speak, you must not show y o u r face, Or, if you show your face, you must n o t speak. H e calls again. I p r a y you, answer him. [Exit.] Isabella. Peace and prosperity ! W h o is't t h a t calls ?
48 Moe more. 49 more greater. 50 precise puritanical, 51 Stands envy guards against malice. 53 to inclined to.

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MEASERE FOR MEASURE, I. 4

[Enter Lucio.] Lucio. Hail, virgin, if you be, as those cheek-roses Proclainl you are no less! Can you so stead me As bring me t o the sight of Isitbclla, A novice of this place, and the fair sister 20 T o her unhappy brother, Claudio? Isa.bella. Why 'her unhappy brother'? let me ask, The rather for I now must make you know I am that Isabella, and his sister. Lucio. Gentle and fair, your brother kindly greets you. 23 Not t o be weary with you, he's in prison. Isnbelia. Woe me! for what? Lucio. F o r that ~ h i c h if , myself might be his judge, H e should receive his punishment in thanks. 29 H e hath got his friend with child. Isnbella. Sir, make me not your story. Lucio. 'Tis true. I would not, though 'tis my familiar sin With maids t o seem the lapwing and to jest, Tongue f a r from heart, play with all virgins so. I hold you as a thing enskied and sainted, 35 By your renouncenlent an immortal spirit, And t o be talk'd with in sincerity, As with a saint. Isabella. You do blaspheme the good in mocking me. Lucio. Do not believe it. Fewness and truth, 'tis thus : 40 Your brother and his lover have embrac'd. As those that feed grow full, as blossoming time
17 stead help. 25 weary tedious. 29 friend sweetheart, mistress. 30 make story tell me no tales. 32 lapwing N. 34 enskied heavenly. 39 Fewness and truth briefly and truly.

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15

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E . 1. 4

T h a t from the seedness the bare fallow brings T o teeming foison, even so her plenteous womb Expresseth his full tilt11 and husbandry. Isa,bedba. Someone with cllild by him? My cousin Juliet ? 45 Lucio. I s she your cousin? Isabella. Adoptedly, as schoolmaids change thejr names B y vain though a p t affection. Lucio. She i t is. Isabella. 0, let him marry her! Lucio. This is the point. 50 T h e Duke is very strangely gone from hence; Bore many gentlemen-myself being oneI n hand and hope of action; but we do learn By those t h a t know the very nerves of state, His givings-out were of a n infinite distance 55 From his true-meant design. Upon his place, And ~ v i t hfull line of his nuthority, Governs L o r d AngeIo, n Inan whose blood Is very snow-broth; one w21o never feels T h e wanton stings and nlotions of the sense 60 B u t doth rebate and blunt his natural edge \%'it11 profits of the mind, study and fast. He-to give fear t o use and liberty, TVIlic11 have for long run by the hideous law, As mice by Lions-hath picli'd out an act, 65 Under whose heavy sense your brother's life Falls into forfeit; he arrests him on it,
42 seedness seeding. 43 foison rich harvest. 43 even rend 'e'en.' 44 tilth tillage. 49 mwry N. 51-2 Bore in hand kept t.hem in e.xpectation. 53 nerves sinews. 54 givings-out announced plans; F giving-out. 56 Line scope. 5s snow-broth melting snow. 59 motions impulses. sense sexual desire. 60 rebate dull. 62 use and liberty licentious custom. 16

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M E A S U R E IJOR M E A S U R E , I , 4

And follows close the rigor of the statute, T o mnlie him an example. All hope is gone, 69 Unless you have the grace by your fair prayer T o soften Angelo. And that's my pith of business 'Twist you and your poor brother. Isabella. Doth he so seek his life? Lucio. I-Ins censur'd hum Already and, as I hear, the provost llath A warrant for his execution. 75 Isnbelln. Alas ! W h a t poor ability's in me T o do lzim good? Assay the pover you hare. Lucio. Isabella. M y power ? Alas ! I doubtLucio. Our dotibts are traitors, And make us lose the good we oft might win, By fearing t o attempt. Go t o Lord Angelo, ro And let him learn t o know, when maidens sue, Men give like gods ; but when they weep and kneel, A11 their petitions are as freely theirs As they themselves would owe thern. Isabella. I'll see what I can do. Lucio. B u t speedily. 85 Isabella. I will about it straight, No longer staying but t o give .the Jlother Notice of my affair. I humbly thank you. Commeild me t o my brother. Soon a t night 89 I'll send him certain word of my success. Lucio. I take my leave of you. Isabella. Good sir, adieu. Exeunt.
72-6 Doth have N. 72 censu'd sentenced. 74 execution five s~llables here. 78 make F makes. 82 as freely theirs as rrecly granted them. 83 owe possess. 86 Mother the abbess or prioress. 8s Soon at night early tonight. 89 success tho consequence, good or bad.
l f7
A .

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Act 1 1
SCENE

Enter An.gelo, Esca.lus, and Servants, Justice.

Angelo. W e must not make a scarecrow of the law, Setting i t u p t o fear the birds of prey, And 1ct i t keep one shape, till custom make i t Their perch and not their terror. Escalus. Ay, but yet 8 Let us be keen and rather cut a little, T h a n fall uncl bruise t o death. Alas ! This gentleman, Whom I would save, had ct most noble father. Let but your Honor knowWhorrl I believe t o be 9 o s t strait in virtue10 T h a t , in the working of your own affections, H a d t h e coher'd with place or place with wishing, Or t h a t the resolute acting of your blood Could have attain'd th' effect of your onrn purpose, IVhetller you had not sometime in your life Err'cl in this point which now you censure him, 15 And pull'd the law upon you. Angelo. 'Tis one thing to be tempted, Escalus, Another thing t o fall. I not deny, Thc j u r y , passing on the prisoner's life, 20 May in the sworn twelve have a thief or two
2 fear frighten. 6 fall let fall, as an executioner's as. 8 know consider. 11 coher'd agreed. 12 your F our. lS

MEASURE FOR bIEhSUIIE, I 1

Guiltier t h a n him they t r y ; what's open tnnde t o j usticc, T h a t justice seizes: what knows the laws T h a t thieves do pass on thieves? 'Tis very pregnant T h e jewel t h a t we find, we stoop and tak't 23 Because nre see it; b u t what we do not see W e tread upon, a n d never think of it. You may not so extenuate his offense F o r I have had such faults; b u t r a t h e r tell me, When I, t h a t censure him, do so offend, W L e t n i n e own judgment pattern out my death, And nothing come in partial. Sir, he must die.

Enter Provost. Esca.Eus. Be it as your wisdom will.

A ngelo.

PCThereis the provost?

Provost. Here, if it like your Honor. A ngelo. Sec t h a t Claudio


Be executed by nine tomorrow morning: Bring hi111 his confessor, let him be prepar'd: F o r that's the utmost of his pilgrimage.
35

[ E x i t P T O ' O O]S ~ . Escalus. TVell, heaven forgive him, and forgive ua all ! Some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall :
Some run from brakes of vice, and answer none, And some condemned for a fault alone.
40

Enter Elbou, Froth, Clown [ P o m p a y ] , Oflicers. Elbozcr. Come, bring them amny. I f thesc be good
22-3 what thieves N. 23 pregnant evident. 25 For becau!e. 31 come in partial intervene. 35 confessor utressed 36 utmost of his pilgrimage limit, of his earthly life. 39 brakes of vice N. brakes thicketa. vice F ice.

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19

M E A S U l Z E F O R M E A S U R Z , 11. 1

people in a cornmonwenl t h a t do nothing but use their abuses in common houses, I know no law. Bring 44 thern away. Angelo. How now, sir! What's your name? And what's the m a t t e r ? Elbow. I f it please your Honor, I am t h e poor Duke's constable, and my name is Elbow. I do lean upon ,justice, sir, and do bring in here before your good I-Ionor two notorious benefactors. 50 Angelo. Benefactors! Well, what benefactors a r e they? A r e they not malefactors? Elboro. I f i t please your Honor, I know n o t well what they a r e ; b u t precise villains they arc, thst I am sure of, and void of all profanation in the world t h a t good Christians ought t o hare. 56 Escalt~s.This comes off well: here's a wise officer. Angelo. G o t o : what quality a r e they o f ? Elbow is y o u r name? ' O V h y dost thou not speak, Elbow? 80 Pompcy. H e cannot, sir. He's out a t elbow. Angclo. W h a t a r e you, s i r ? Elbow. He, s i r ! A tnpster, s i r ; parcel-bawd; one t h a t serves a bad woman, whose house, sir, was, as they say, pluck'd down in the suburbs; and now she professes a hot-house, which I think is a very ill house too. 66 Escalus. How know you t h a t ? Elbow. My wife, sir, whom I detest before heaven and your HonorEscalus. How! T h y wife? 70
43 common houses brothels. 54 precise precious, arrant. 55 profanation for 'profession.' 58 quality occupation. 62 parcel-bawd part bawd, part tapster. 65 hot-house properly a bathhouse, but commonly a brothel. 68 detest for 'protest' or 'attest'
20

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E . 11. 1

Elbow. Ay, sir; wllom I thank heaven is a n honest wornanEsca.lus. Dost thou detest her therefore? Elbow. I say, sir, I will det.est myself also, as well as she, t h a t this house, if it be not a bawd's house, it is p i t y of her life, f o r i t is a naughty house. 76 Esca.1~~ I-IOW ~ . dost thou know that, Constable? Elbow. M a r r y , sir, by in7 ~ i f e who, : if she had bin a woman cardinally given, might have bin nccus'cl in fornication, adultery, and all uncleanliness there. B1 Escaltbs. By the woman's means ? Elbow. Ay, sir, by &listress Overdone's means; but as she spit in his face, so she defied him. Pompey. Si;., if i t please your Honor, this is not so. Elbo:~. Prove i t before these varlets herc, thou honorahle man, prove it. 88 Escnlus. D o you hear how he misplaces? Pompey. Sir, she came in, great with child, and longing-saving your Honor's reverence-for stew'd pruncs. Sir, we had but two in the house, which a t t h a t very distant time stood, as i t were, in a fruit dish, a dish of some threepence; your Honors have seen such dishes; they are not China dishes, b u t very good dishes54 Esca1u.s. G o to, g o t o : no matter f o r the dish, sir. Pompey. No, indeed, sir, not of a pin; you a r e therein in the right: but t o the point. As I say, this Mistress Elbow, being, a s I say, with child, and being great-bellied, and longing, as I said, for prunes, a n d having but two in the dish, as I said, Master F r o t h herc, this very man, having eaten the rest, as I said,
79 cardinally for 'carnally' and uswlly EO pronouncecl. 87 mjsplaces i.e, words. 89-90 stew'd prunes N. 91 distant for 'inatarr.t,.'
21

M E A S U R E P O R M E A S U R E , 11. 1

and, a s I say, paying for them very honestly; for,


as you know, Master Froth, I could not give you

threcpcncc again. Froth. No, indeed. 105 Pompey. Very well: you being then, if you be remcmb'red, cracking the stones of the foresaid prunes109 Froth. A y , so I did, indeed. Ponzpey. \q7hy, very ~vell:I telling you then, if you be rcn~cmb'red, t h a t such a one and such a one were p a s t cure of the thing you wot of, unless they kept very good diet, as I told youFroth. All this is true. 115 Poenlpey. \JThy, very well thenEscrtlus. Come, you are a tedious fool: t o the purpose. W h a t was done t o Elbow's wife, t h a t he hath causc t o complain o f ? Come me t o what was done t o 119 her. Pompey. Sir, gour Honor cannot come t o t h a t yet. Escalus. No, slr, nor I mean it not. Pompey. Sir, but you shall come t o it, by y o u r Honor's leave. And I beseech you look into Master F r o t h hcre, s i r : a man of fourscore pound a year, whose father died at Hallowmas. JTTas't not at Hallowmas, Master F r o t h ? 126 Froth. Allhnllond-Eve. Ponzpey. RThyvery well: I hope here be truths. He, in sir, sitting, as I say, in a lower chair, sir-'twas the Bunch of Grapes, where indeed you have o. delight 131 to sit, have you not?
118 Come me come (me so-called ethical dntive). 127 AllhallondEve I-Iallome'en. 129 lower easy or reclining. 130 Bunch of Grapes

N.
23

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , LJ. 1

Froth. I have so, because i t is a n open room and good f o r winter. Pompey. Why, very well then: I hope here be trutns. 13s Angelo. This mill l a s t out a night in Russia, When nights a r e longest there. I'll take my leave, And leave you t o the hearing of the cause, I-foping you'll find good cause t o whip them all. Escalus. I think no less, Good morrow t o y o u r 1-ordship. 140

Exit [Angelo] .

Now, sir, come on: what was done t o Elbow's wife, once more? Pon~pey.Once, s i r ? There was nothing done t o her once. Elbow. I beseech you, sir, ask him what this man did t o my wife. 146 Pompey. I beseech your Honor, ask me. Escalus. Well, sir, what did this gentleman t o h e r ? Pompey I beseech you, sir, look in this gentleman's face. Good Master F r o t h , look upon his H o n o r ; 'tis f o r a good purpose. Doth your H o n o r mark his face? Escalus. Ay, sir, very well, Pompey. N a y , I beseech you, mark it well. 154 Escnlu8s. Well, I do so. Pompey. D o t h y o u r Honor see a n y h a r m in his face? Esca.lus. Why, no. Pompey. I'll be suppos'd upon a book, his face is the worst thing about him. Good, then : if his face be the worst thing about him, how could Master F r o t h do the constable's wife any harm? I would know t h a t of your Honor.
132 open public. 158 suppos'd for 'deposed' (under oath).
28

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11.

EscnIus. He's in the right. Constable, what s a y you to it? 164 Elboro. First, and i t 1il;e you, the house is a respected house ; next, this is h respected fellow ; and his mistress is a respected woman. * Po7n.pey. B y this hand, sir, his wife is a more re189 spected person than any of us all. EEbow. Varlet, thou liest: thou liest, wicked varlet.. T h e time is yet t o come t h a t she was ever respected with man, woman, or child. Pompey. Sir, she was respected with him before ile married with her. 174 Escnlus. l17hich is the miser here? Justice or I n iquity? I s this true? Elbow. 0 thou caitiff ! 0 thou varlet! 0 thou wiclied Hannibnl! I respected with her before I was inarried t o her? If ever I was with her, o r she with me, let n o t your Worship think me the poor Dulie's officer. Prove this, thou wicked Hannibal, o r I'll have my action of battery on thee. Escnlus. If he took yr:u a box o' th' ear, you might have your action of slander, too. 184 Elbow. Marry, I thank your good Worship for it. What is't your Worship's pleasure I shall d o with this wicked caitiff? Escalus. Truly, officer, because he hath some offenses in him t h a t thou wouldst discover if thou couldst, let hirn continue in his courses till thou know'st what they are. Elbow. Marry, I thnnlr your IVorship for it. Thou seest, thou wicked varlet, now, what's come upon
165-6 respected for 'suspec1;ed.' 175-6 Justice or Iniquity? 178 Hannibal, for 'cannibal.' 183 took struck. 24

N.

H E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E . 11, 1

thee:

thou art t o continue now, thou varlet, thou a r t 19!1 t o continue. Escalus. Where mere you born, friend? Froth. H e r e in Vienna, sir. Escalus. A r e you of fourscore pounds n y e a r ? Froth,. Yes, a n y t please you, sir. Escalus. So. [ T o Pompey.] W h a t t r a d e a r e you of, 201 sir? Pompey. A tapster, a poor widow's tapster. Escalus. Y o u r mistress' name? Ponspey. Mistress Overdone. 204 Escalz~s. Hat11 she had any more t h a n one llusband? Pompey. Nine, sir: Overdone by the Inst. Escalus. Nine! Come hither t o me, &luster Froth. Master F r o t h , I would not hare you acquainted with t a p s t e r s ; they will draw you, Mast4er F r o t h , and you mill h a n g them. Get you gone, and let me hear no more of you. Froth. I t h a n k y o u r RTorship. F o r mine own p a r t , I never come i n t o any room in a taphouse, b u t I a m
drawn in. 214 Escalus. Well, no more of it, RIastcr F r o t h . F a r e -

[Exit Froth.] well. Come you hither t o me, Master tapster. What's your name, Master t a p s t e r ?
Pornpey. Pompey. Escalus. W h a t else? 220 Pompey. Rum, sir. Escalus. T r o t h , and your bum is the greatest thing
about you so t h a t , in the beastliest sense, you a r e Pornpey the Great. Pompey, you a r e p a r t l y a bawd, Pompey, howsoever you color i t in being a tapster,
209 draw you N. 222 bum N.
26

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U r Z L , I:'. 1

a r e you not? Come, tell me true: it shall be the better for you. Po?rzpey. Truly, sir, I am a poor fellow t h a t would live. 229 E s c n l u s .How would you live, Pompey? By being a bawd? W h a t do you think of the trade, Pompey? I s i t a lawful trade? Pompey. I f the law would allow it, sir. Escalus. But the law will not allow it, Pompey; nor i t shall not be allowed in Vienna. 235 Pompey. Does your Worship mean t o geld and splay all the youth of the city? E s c a E u r s . No, Pompey. Pompey. Truly, sir, in my poor opinion, they will to't then. I f your Worship will take order for the drabs and the knaves, you need not t o fear t h e bawds. Escalus. There is pretty orders beginning, I can tell you : i t is but heading and hanging. 244 Po.mpey. I f you head and hang all t h a t offend that way but for ten year together, you'll be glad t o give f this lam hold out a coinmission for niore heads. I in Vienna ten year, I'll rent the fairest liouse in i t f you live t o see this come after threepence ~ 1 ,bay. I 250 to pass, say Pompey told you so. E s c a E w s .Thank you, good Pompey ; and, in requital of your prophecy, hark you: I advise you, let me not find you before me again upon any complaint whntsoever; no, not for dwelling where you do. I f I do, Pompey, 1 shall beat you to your tent, and prove a shrewd Caesar t o you. I n plain dealing, Pompey, I
236 geld caatrate. 237 splay spay. 244 take order take measures. 241 drabs whores. 244 heading beheading. 240 after at the rate of. bay N. 255-6 I shall you N.

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26

M E A S I T R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. 1

shall have you whipt. So, for this time, Pompey, f a r e 258 you well. Pompey. I thank your Worship for your good counsel. [riside.] B u t I shall follow it a s the flesh and fortune shall better determine. W h i p me ! No, no, let carman whip his jade. T h e valiant heart's n o t whipt out of his trade. Exit. Escalus. Come hither t o me, &!faster Elbow; come hither, Master Constable. How long have you been %G in this place of constable? Elbow. Seven year and a half, sir. Escalu,~.I thought, by the readiness in the oflice, you had continued in it some time. You say, seven years together? 270 Elbow. And n half, sir. Escalus. Alas, i t h a t h been great pains t o youJ They d o you wrong t o p u t you so o f t upon't. Are there not men in your ward sufficient t o serve i t ? Elbow. Faith, sir, few of a n y wit in such matters. As they a r e chosen, they are glad t o choose me f o r them. I d o it for some piece of money, and g o through with all. Escalus. Look you bring me in the names of some six o r scvcn, the most sufficient of your parish. 280 Elbo'io. T o your Worship's house, sir? Escalus. T o my house. F a r e you well. [ E x i t Elbow. J What's o'clock, think you? Justice. Eleven, sir. Escalz~s. I p r a y you home t o dinner with me. 285 Jz~stice. I humbly thank you.
'562

carman teamster. jade poor-spirited horse. 273 put upon't impose the office upon you N. 274,280 sufEcient able.

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27

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U I L E , 11. 1

Escalus. It grieves me f o r the death of Claudio. B u t there's no remedy. Justice. L o r d Angelo is severe. It is b u t needful. Es ca h s . a00 Mercy is not itself, t h a t oft looks s o ; Pardon is still the nurse of second woe. B u t yet poor Claudio! There is no remedy. Exewnt. Come, sir.

SCENE

Enter Provost, [and a ] Servant. Servant. He's hearing of n cause. He will come straight. I'll tell hirn of you. P r a y you, do. [ExitServant.] 1' 11 know Provost. His pleasure; maybe he will relent. Alas ! H e hat11 b u t as offended in a dream. S All sects, all ages smttcli of this v i c e a n d he T o die f or't ! Enter Anyelo. Angelo. NOW, what's the matter, Provost? Provost. I s it your will Claudio shall die tomorrow? Angelo. Did I not tell thee, yea? H a d s t thou not order? Why dost thou ask again? Lest I might be too rash. Provost. 10 Under your good correction, I have seen,
291 still alwaye. 5 sects classes of people. 10 Under tion begging your pardon.
28

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M E A S - U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. t

When, a f t e r execution, Judgment h a t h Repented o'er his doom. Go t o : let t h a t be mine. Angelo. D o you y o u r office, o r give u p your place, And you shall well be spur'd. I crave your Honor's pardon. Provost. W h a t shall be done, sir, with the groaning Juliet? She's very near her hcur. Angelo. Dispose of her le T o some more fitter place; a n d t h a t with speed.

[Enter Servant.] Servant. H e r e is the sister of the man condemn'd Desires access t o you. Angelo. H a t h he a sister? IQ Provost. Ay, my good lord, a very virtuous maid, And t o be shortly of a sisterhood, I f not already. Well, let her be admitted. A ngelo. [ E x i t Servi~nt.]
See you t h e fornicatress be remov'd. Let her have needful, but not lavish, means ; There s'fiall be order for't.

Enter Lucio and Isabella.

Provost. 'Save your N o n o r ! 25 Angelo. S t a y a little while. [ T o Isabella.] Y' a r e welcome: what's your will? 29 Isabella. I am a woeful suitor t o your Honor, Please b u t y o u r H o n o r hear me. Angelo. Well: what's your s u i t ? Isabella. T h e r e is a vice t h a t most I d o abhor, 30 And most desire should meet the blow of justice,
29

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , Ili. fi

F o r whiclr I would not plead, but t h a t I must; For which I must not pleacl, but t h a t E am A t war 'twixt will and will not. Anyelo. Well : the matter ? Isabella. I have R bruther is condemn'd t o die. 35 I do beseech you, let i t be his fault, And n o t my brothcr. Provost. [Aside.] Heaven give thee moving graces ! Angelo. Condemn the fault, and not the actor of it? FV!1y, every fault's condcmn'd ere i t be done. Mine were the very cipher of a function, 40 T o fine the faults whose fine stands in record, And lct g o by the actor. IsabeUa. 0 just, but severe lam! 1 had a brother then. Heaven keep your Honor! L2~ci.0.[Aside t o Isabella.] Give't not o'er so: t o him again, entreat him, Kneel down before him, hang upon his gown; 45 You a r e too cold. I f you should need a pin, You could not with more tame a tongue desire it. T o him, I say! Isabella. Must he needs die? Angelo. hhiden, no remedy. Isabdla. Yes: I d o think t h a t you might pardon Ilim, 49 And neither heaven nor rnan grieve n t the mercy. A~zgeZo.I 1,vill not do't. Isnbella. B u t can you, if you mould? Angelo. Look, what I will not, t h a t I cannot do. Isabella.. B u t might you do?, and do the world no wrong,
35-6 let brother let the fault die and not my brother. 39 cipher zero, a ?ere nothing. 40-1 T o fine actor N. 40 record stressed 46 tame spiritless. 30

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M E A S U R E FOR M E A S U R E , 11, 9

If so your h e a r t were touch'd with t h a t remorse


As mine is t o l ~ i m ! 55 AngeZo. I'e's sentcnc'd: 'tis too late. Lucio. [Aside t o Isabella.] You a r e too cold, Isa,bella. T o o l a t e ? W h y , no: 1 t h a t do speak a word, &lay call it back again. Well, believe this, N o ceremony t h a t t o great ones 'longs, GO N o t the king's crown, nor the deputed sword, T h e marchal's truncheon, nor the judge's robe, Become them with one half so good a grace As mercy does. 69 If he h a d been as you, and you ns he, You would have slipp'd like him; b u t he, like you, Would n o t have been so stem. Angel o. P r a y you, be gone. Isabella. I would t o heaven I h a d your potency, And you were Isabel! Should it then be thus? N o : I mould tell what 'twere t o be a, judge, And what a prisoner. Lzhcio. [Aside to Isabella.] Ay, touch him; there's the vein. 70 Angdo. Y o u r brother is a forfeit of the law, And you b u t waste y o u r words. Isabella. Alas, alas. Why, all t h e souls t h a t were were forfeit once, And H e t h a t might the vantage best have took, 75 Found o u t t h e remedy. IIow would you be, I f He, which is the t o p of judgment, should
54 remorse pity. 58 back, not in P. 59 ceremony aymbol of greatnem. 'longs belongs. 61 truncheon staff of office. 67 potency power. 74 vantage advantage (to punish mankind). 76 top of judgment mpreme judge. 31

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. 2

B u t judge you a s you are? 0 think on that! And mercy then will breathe within your lips, Like man new made. Be you content, f a i r maid. Angelo. 80 It is the law, n o t I, condemn your brothel*. W e r e he my kinsman, brother ox my son, It should be thus with him: he must die tomorrow. Isnbcllcr . Tomorrow? 0, that's sudden, S p a r e him, s p a r e him! 84 He's not prepar'd for death. E ~ e n f o r our liitchens W e kill the fowl of season. Shall me serve heaven W i t h less respect t h a n we do minister T o our gross selves? Good, good my lord, bethink you : W h o is it t h a t h a t h died f o r this offence? There's many have committed it. [Aside t o Isabella.] Ay, well said. LPLC~O. Angelo. T h e law h a t h not been dead, though it hath

slept.
Those many h a d not dar'd t o do t h a t evil, I f the first t h a t did th' edict infringe H a d ansmer'd for his deed. Now 'tis awake, Talies note of what is done, and like a prophet Looks in n glass t h a t shows what future evils, E i t h e r new, o r b y remissness new-conceiv'd, And so in progress t o be hatch'd and born, Are now t o have no successive degrees, But, ere they live, t o end. Isnbella. Y e t show some pity.

91

QS

loo

'79 new made regenerate, hence in his original innocence. 85 Even read 'E'en.' 86 of season when it is in season. 93 edict stressed ' . 9 6 glass crystal glass,of the kind used in divination. 97 new F now. 99 successive (stresued - 2) degrees descendants. 100 ere F here.
82

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. #

Angelo. I show it most of all when I show justice, F o r then I p i t y those I do not h o w , Which a dismiss'd offense would after gall, And d o him right that,, answering one foul wrong, 105 Lives not t o act another. Be satisfied. Your brother dies tornorrow. Be content. Isabelln. So you must be the first t h a t gives this sentence, And he, t h a t suffers. 0, i t is excellent T o have a giant's strength, but i t is tyrannous T o use i t like a giant ! 1x0 Lucio. [Aside t o I s a b e l h . ] That's well said. Isabella. Could g r e a t men thunder As Jove himself does, Jove would nere be quiet, F o r every pelting, p e t t y officer IVould use his heaven for thunder, l~ti Nothing b u t thunder! Merciful heaven! T h o u ra.ther with thy s h a r p and sulphurous bolt Splits the unwedgeable and gnarled oak T h a n the s o f t myrtle; but man, proud man, Dress'd in a little brief authority, 120 B5ost ignorant of wllat he's most assur'dHis glassy essence--like a n angry ape, Plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven AYmakes the angels weep; who, with our spleens, \trould all themselves laugh mortal. Lucio. [/Iside t o Isabella.] 0, t o him, t o him, wench! I3e will relent. 1 2 ; Me's corning. I perceive't.
112. nere never. 113 pelting paltry. 117 Splits splitat. unwedgeable not to be split evcn with wedges. 121 glassy essence fragde being. 123 spleens thc spleen was the organ once regarded ae. the seat of the emotions. 124 laugh mortal laugh themselvee to death. 126 coming on the verge of relenting.
83

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E . 11.

P r a y heaven she win him! Provost. [Aside.] Isabella. We cannot weigh our brother with ourself: Great men may jest with saints: 'tis wit in them, But in the less foul profanation. Lucio. [Aside t o Isabella.] Thou'rt i' th' right, 130 girl: more o' that. Isabella. T h a t in the captain's but a choleric word, Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. Lucio [Aside t o Isabella.] A r t avis'd o' t h a t ? More on't. Angelo. W h y do you put these sayings upon me? Isabella. Because Authority, though i t err like others, 135 H a t h yet a kind of medicine in itself, T h a t skins the vice o' th' top. Go to your bosom : Knock there, and ask your heart what i t doth know That's like my brother's fault. If i t confess 140 A natural guiltiness such as is his, Let i t not sound a thought upon your tongue Against my brother's life. She speaks, and 'tis Angelo. [Aside.] Such sense t h a t my sense breeds with it. [Aloud.] F a r e you well. 144 Isabella. Gentle m y lord, turn back. Angelo. I will bethink me. Come again to~rorrow. Jsabella. H a r k how I'll bribe you. Good my lord, turn back. Angelo. How ! Bribe me? Isabella. A y , with such gifts t h a t heaven shall share with you.
127 weigh ourself judge others by ourselves. 129 less leeser men. 133 avis'd informed. 137 skins covers the sore without healing it. 140 natural read 'nat'ral.' 142-3 She it N.

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84

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. 9

Lucio. [Aside t o Isabelln.] You had m u r ' d all else. Iscsbella. N o t with fond sickles of the tested gold,
151 O r stones whose rates a r c either rich o r poor As fancy values them ;but with t r u e prayers T h a t shall be u p a t heaven a n d enter there E r e sunrise : prayers from preserved souls, 155 F r o m fasting maids whose minds a r c dedicate T o nothing temporal. Well: come t o me tomorrow. Angelo. ~ & i o . [Aside t o Isabella.] Go t o : 'tis well. Away! Isabella.. Heaven keep your H o n o r safe ! Angelo. [Aside.] Amen. F o r I a m t h a t way going t o temptation, Where p r a y e r s cross. Isnbella. At what hour tomorrow IM Shall I attend your lordship? A t a n y time 'fore noon. An.gelo. Isabella. 'Save your Honor !

[Exeunt Isabella, Lucio, and Provost.]


From thee: even from t h y virtue. What's this? What's this? I s this her f a u l t o r mine? T h e tempter, o r the tempted, who sins most?

Angelo.

Ha!

16s

N o t she; n o r doth she tempt. B u t it is I T h a t , lying by. the violet in the sun, D o a s the carrion does, n o t as the flower, C o r r u p t with virtuous season. Can it be 178 T h a t modesty may more betray our sense T h a n woman's lightness ? Having waste ground enough,
150 sickles shekels. 151 rates F rule. 160 prayers cross N. 162 season N. 170 sense B e r m ality. 171 lightness wantonness.

'Save God save. 169 Corrupt

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86

M E A S U R E F O R M E t l S U R E , 11. 2

Shall we desire t o raze the sanctuary, And pitch our evils there? 0, fie, fie, fie! W h a t dost thou? O r wh.nt a r t thou, Angelo? 175 Dost thou desire her foully for those things T h a t make her good? 0, let her brother live! Thieves for their robbery have authority When judges steal the~oselves.W h a t ! do I love her, That I desire t o hear her speak again, And feast upon her eyes? W h a t is't I dream on? I80 0 cunning enemy that, t o catch a saint, W i t h saints dost bait thy hook! Most dangerous I s t h a t temptation t h a t dot11 goad us on T o sin in loving virtue. Never could the strumpet, 185 With all her double vigor, art and nature, Once s t i r my temper; but this virtuous maid Subclues me quite. Ever till now, When men were fond, I smil'd and wonder'd how. Edt.
SCENE

Enter Duke [disguised as o friar] and Provost. Dulce. Hail t o you, Provost ! So I think you are. Provost. I am the provost. What's your will, good Friar ? Duke. Bound by my charity and my bless'd order, I: come t o visit the afflicted spirits 6 Here in the prison. D o me the common right 'To let me see them and to make me know The nature of their crimes, t h a t I may minister T o them accordingly.
173 evils N. 188 fond doting. 1 So euch.
86

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U B E , IT. S

Provost. I would d o more than that, if more were needful.


Enter Julietta. 80 Look, here comes one: a gentlewoman of mine, Who, falling in the flames of her own youth, H a t h blister'd her report. She is with child, And he t h a t g o t it, sentenc'd: a young man More fit t o do another such offense, T h a n die f o r this. 15 Dulce. When must he die? As I do think, tomorrow. Provost. [ T o Julietta.] I have provided for you. S t a y a while, And you shall be conducted. Duke. Repent you, fair one, of the sin you c a r r y ? Julietta. I do, and bear the shame most patiently. Duke. I'll teach you how you shall arraign your eI conscience, And t r y your penitence, if it be sound, Or hollo~vly p u t on. J d i e t ta. I'll gladly learn. Duke. Love you the man t h a t wrong'd you? Julietta.. Yes, as I love the woman t h a t wrong'd him. S Duke. S o then it seems your most offcnseful a c t Was mutually committed? Juliet ta,. Mutually. Duke. Then was your sin of heavier kind than his. Julietta. I do confess it, and repent it, Father. Dake. 'Tis meet so, daughter: but lest you d o repent, 30 As that the sin hath brought you t o this shame,
11 flames F flawes. 12 blister'd her report besmirched her reputation. 23 hollowly insincerely. 30 meet proper. 87

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U R E , 11. S

Which sorrow is always toward ourselves, n o t heaven, Showing we would not spare heaven a s we love it, B u t a s we stand in fear35 Julietta. I d o repent me, as it is a n evil, And take t h e shame with joy. Duke. There rest. Y o u r partner, as I hear, must die tomorrow, And I a m going with instruction t o him. Exit Grace go with you, Benedicite. Julietta. Must die tomorrow ! 0 injurious love, 40 T h a t respites me a life, whose very comfort I s still a dying horror ! P~ovost. 'Tis p i t y of him. Exmmt.
SCENE 4

Enter Angelo.

Angelo. When I would p r a y and think, P think and


Pray T o several subjects. Heaven h n t h my empty words, Whilst my invention, hearing n o t my tongue, Anchors on Isabel: heaven in my mouth, 8; As if I did b u t only chew his name, And in my heart the strong and swelling evil Of my conception. T h e state, whereon I studied, I s like a good thing, being often read, Grown sear'd and tedious ; yea, my gravity, 10 Wherein, let no man hear me, I take pride,
32 sorrow is read 'sorrow's.' 33 spare heaven as refrain from offending heaven because. 40-2 0 horror N. 2 several different. 3 invention imagination. 7 conception thought. 9 sear'd dry; F feard.

...

88

M E A S U l t E F O R M E A S U R E , 11.

<I

Could I, with boot, change for an idle plume, Which the a i r beats f o r vain. 0 place ! 0 form ! How often dost thou with t h y case, thy habit, Wrench awe from fools, and tie the wiser souls T o t h y false seeming! Blood, thou a r t blood: Let's write 'good Angel' on the devil's horn, Is't n o t the devil's crest? How now! who's there?

15

Enter Servant. Servant. One Isabel, n sister, desires access t o you. Angelo. Teach her the way. [Edt Servant.] Q heavens ! 2c W h y docs my blood thus muster t o my heart, Making both i t unable f o r itself, l l my other p a r t s And dispossessing a Of necessary fitness? So play the foolish throngs with one t h a t swounds : M Come all t o help him, and so s t o p the air By which he should revive; and even so T h e general, subject t o o, well-wish'd king, Quit their own p a r t , a n d in obsequious fondness Crowd t o his presence, where their u n t a u g h t love Must needs appear offense.

Enter Isabella.
How now, fair maid! Isabella. I am come t o know your pleasure. Angelo. T h a t you might know it, would mucl1 better please me

11 boot advantage. plume a feather or panache, emblematic: of frivolity. 12 vain quibble on 'vane.' 13 case external shorn. habit dress. 16-17 Let's write crest N. 21 unable weak. 24 swounds swoons. 27 general common people, 28 obsequious dutiful. 32 know N.

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89

Y E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. 4

T h a n t o demand what %is. Your brother cannot live. Isabebla. Even so. Heaven keep your H o n o r ! Angelo. Y e t may he live n while ; and, it may be, 3s As long as you o r I. Yet he must die. Isabelln. Under your sentence? Angelo. Yea. Isabelln. When, I beseecli you? t h a t in his reprieve, 40 Longer o r shorter, he may be so fitted T h a t his soul sicken not. Angelo. H a ! fie, these filthy vices ! It were a s good T o p a r d o n him that llath from nature stolne 44 h man already made, as I;o reinit Their saucy sweetness t h a t do coin heaven's image I n stt~~rnps t h a t a r e forbid: 'tis all as easy Falsely t o take away a life t r u e made, As t o p u t metal in restrained meanes T o make a false one. Isabella. 'Tis set down so in heaven, but not in earth. 50 AngeZo. S a y you so? Then I shall pose you quicldy. Which h a d you rather, t h a t the most j u s t law Now took your brother's life; or, t o redeem him, Give up your body t o such sweet uncleani~css As she t h a t he h a t h stain'd? Isabella. Sir, believe this, 59 I had r a t h e r give my body t h a n my soul. Angelo. I talk not of your soul. Our compell'd sins

40 fitted prepared for death. 43 stolne stolen. 44 remit padon. 45 saucy lascivious. 46 stamps dies for making c o h . a l l quite. 46-9 'tis one N. 47 Falsely illegally. 48 restrained forbidden. meanes mints. SO 'Tis earth N. 51 pose you put &,hard question to you. 56 I had read 'I'd.' 57 compell'd stressed -

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40

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. 4

Stand more for number than for accompt. Isabella. How say you? Angelo. Nay, I'll not warrant t h a t ; for I can speak 60 Against the thing I say. Answer t o this : I, now the voice of the recorded law, Pronounce a sentence on your brother's life. Might there not be a charity in sin T o save this brother's life? Isabella. Please you t o do't, 63 1'11 take it as a peril to my soul. T t is no sin a t all, but charity. 4n.gelo. Pleas'd you t o do't, a t peril of your soul, Were equal poise of sin and charity. Zuabella. T h a t I do beg his life, if i t be sin, Heaven let me bcar i t ! You granting of my suit, 70 If that be sin, I'll make i t my morn prayer T o have i t added t o the faults of mine And nothing of your answer. Nay, but hear me. A ~ g eo. l Your sense pursues not mine: either you are ignorant, 79 Or seem so craftily; and that's not good. Isabella. Let me be ignorant, and in nothing good, But graciously to know 1am no better, Angclo. Thus ~ i s d o r n wishes t o appear most bright When i t doth t a x itself, as these black rnasks 60 Proclaim a n enshield beauty ten times louder Than beauty could, display'd. But mark me. T o bc received plain, I'll speak more gross :
58 for accompt (pronounced 'account') N. 59 that i.e. Angelo'a ugumcnt in 11. 57-8-73 nothing of your answer nothing for which you can be held accountable. 75 craftily F m f i y . 76 me F omits 79 tax reprove. 80 enshield concealed N. 82 gross plainly.
41

M E A S U R E FOB M E A S U R E , 11. 4

Y o u r brother is t o die.

Isabella,. So. 85 Angelo. And his offcnse is so, as it appears, Accountant t o the law upon t h a t pain. Isabella. 'rrue. Angclo. Admit no other way t o save his lifeAs I subscribe n o t t h a t , nor a n y other, B u t in the loss of question-that you, his sister, 90 Finding yourself desir'd of such a person, Whose credit with the judge, o r own grcnt place, Could fetch your brother from the manacles Of the all-building l a w ; and t h a t there were Noearthlymeantosavehirn,butthateither Q5 You must lay down the treasures of your body T o this suppos'd, o r else t o let him suffer, you ~ do? What R O U ~ Isabella. As much for my poor brother a s m ~ s e l f : 100 T h a t is, were I under the terms of death, T h ' impression of keen whips I'ld wear as rubies, And s t r i p myself t o death, as t o a bed T h a t longing have been sick for, ere I'ld yield My body up t o shame. Then must your brother die. Angelo. 105 IsabeEla. And 'twere the cheaper m a y : Better i t were (I brother died a t once, him, T h a n t h a t n sister, by redeen~ing Should die f o r ever. Angelo. W e r e not you then as cruel a s t h e sentence 110 T h a t y o u have slander'd so?

86 pain punishment. 89 subscribe admit. 90 in question in ldle convemation (7). 92 place official position. 94: all-building upon which all is founded. 95 mean means. 103 have I have.
42

.. .

M E A S U R E F O R X E A S U R E , 11. 4

Isabella. Ignomy in ransom mld free pardo11 A r e of two houses: lawful mercy I s nothing kit1 t o foul redemption. Angelo. Y o u seem'd of late t o make the law a tyrant, 115 .And r a t h e r prov'd the sliding of your brother A merriment t h a n a vice. IsabelZa. 0 , pardon me, my lord! It o f t falls out, T o have what me would have, we spcalr not what we mean. I something do excuse the t l ~ i a g I hate, 1 % F o r his advantage t h a t I dearly love. Angelo. W e a r e all frail. IsabelZa. Else let my brother die, I f not ft fedary, b u t only he Owe a n d succeed t h y weakness. Angelo. Nay, women a r e frail too. Irabella. Ay, a s the glasses where they view themselves, 125 Which a r e a s easy broke as they make forms. Women ! H e l p heaven ! Men their creation m a r I n profiting by them. Nay, call us ten times frail, F o r we a r e soft a s our complexions are, And credulous t o false prints. Angelo. Ithinkitwell: 130 And from this testimony of your own sexSince I suppose we a r e made t o be no stronger T h a n faults may shake our frames-let letne be bold. I d o a r r e s t y o u r words. Be t h a t you are,
111 Ignomy ignominy. l15 sliding backsliding. 122-3 If weakness N. 122 fedary associate. 123 owe possess. succeed inherit. 126 forms images, reflections. 127-8 Men them N. 130 credulous susceptible. prints impressions. 134 I words I take them as security.

...

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43

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. 4

Is5 T h a t is, rt woman; if you be more, you're none. I f you be one, a s you a r e well express'd By all external warrants, sho~sri t now, By p u t t i n g on the destin'd livery. Isnbella.. I have no tongue b u t one. Gentle my lord, L e t me entreat you speak the forrner language. 140 Angelo. Plainly conceive, I love you. Isabella. My brother did love Julict. And you cell me t h a t he shall die for't. Angelo. H e shall not, Isabel, if you give me love. Isabella.. I know your virtue h a t h a licence in't, 145 Which seems a little fouler t h a n i t is, T o pluclr on others. Believe me, on mine honor, Angelo. My words express my purpose. Isabella. H a ! little llonor t o be much believ'd And most pernicious purpose ! Seeming, seeming ! 1.Q I will proclaim thee, Angelo; look for't ! Sign me a present pardon for my brother, O r with an outstretcli'd t h r o a t I ' l l tell the world aloud W h a t rnan thou art. Who will believe thee, Isnbel? Angel0 . 1*s BIy ~lnsoil'dname, th' austereness of my life, My vouch against you, and my place i' th' state, Will so your accusation overweigh, T h a t you shall stifle in your own report And smell of calumny. I have begun, 1m And now I give my sensual race the rein. F i t t h y collsent t o my sharp appetite;

138 destin'd livery i.e. the frailty of your eex. 138 tongue language. 140 former language i.e. the ~mambiguoualallyage employed earlier. 145-7 I others N. 156 vouch testimony. 1W race nature, with a quibble.

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44

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11.

Lay by all nicety and prolisious blushes, T h a t banish what they sue for: redeem t h y brother By yielding u p t h y body t o my Rill, 165 O r else he must not only die the death, But t h y unkindness shall his death draw out T o ling'ring sufferance. Answer me tomorrow, Or, by the affection t h a t now guides me most, les I'll prove a t y r a n t t o him. As f o r you, S a y what you can, my false oreweighs your true. Ezi t . Isabella. T o whom should I coinplain? Did I tell this, Who would believe me? 0 perilous mouths ! T h a t bear in them one and the selfsame tongue, Either of condemnation o r approof, 175 Bidding the law make curtsy t o their will, Hooking both right and w r o ~ l g t o th' appetite, T o follow as it draws. I'll t o nly bro-thcr. Though he h a t h falne by prompture of the blood, Yet h a t h he in him such a mind of honor, 180 T h a t , had he twenty heads .to tender down On twenty bloody blocks, he'd yield thcm up, Before his sister should her body stoop T o such abhorr'd pollution. Then, Isabel, live chaste, and, brother, die: 185 More t h a n our brother is our chastity, 1'11 tell him yet of Angelo's request, Exit. And fit his mind t o death, for his soul's rest.
162 nicety coyness, reserve. prolixious superfluous. 167 sufferance pain. 168 affection lust. 174 approof approbation. 178 falne fallen. prompture instigation.

Act 1 1 1
SCENE

Enter Duke [as a friar], Claudio, and Provost.


Dulze. S o then you hope of pardon from Lord Ang e l? ~ CZaudio. T h e miserable have no other medicine B u t only hope: 4 I have hope t o live, and am prepar'd t o die. Duke. Be absolute for death. Either death o r life Shall thereby be the sweeter. Reason thus with life: If I d o lose thee, I do lose a thing T h a t none but fools would keep. A breath thou art, Gervile t o all the sk-yey influences, 10 T h a t dost this habitation, where thou keep'st, Hourly afflict. Merely, thou a r t Death's fool, F o r him thou labor'st by t h y flight t o shun, And yet run'st toward him still. Thou a r t not noble, 14 F o r all th' accommodations t h a t thou bear'st Are nurs'd by baseness. Thou'rt b y no means valiant, F o r thou dost fear the soft and tender fork Of a poor worm. T h y best of rest is sleep, And t h a t thou oft provok'st ; yet grossly fear'st T h y death, which is no more. Thou a r t not thyself, 20 F o r thou exists on many a tIlousand grains T h a t issue out of dust. H a p p y thou a r t n o t ; F o r what thou hast not, still thou striv'st t o get,

. . . baseness N. 16-17 For . .. wonn N.


Q6

5 absolute wholly determined. 9 skyev influences N. 14-15 For

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 111. I

And what thou hast, forget'st. T h o u a r t not certain, F o r t h y complexion shifts t o strange effects, After t h e moon. If thou a r t rich, thou'rt p o o r ; M F o r , like a n ass whose back with ingots bows, Thou bear'st thy heavy riches b u t a. journey, And D e a t h unloads thee. Friend h a s t thou none, F o r thine own bowels, which do call thee sire, SO T h e mere effusion of t h y proper loins, D o curse the gout, serpigo, and the rheum, F o r ending thee no sooner. T h o u h a s t nor youth nor But, us it were, a n after-dinner's sleep, Dreaming on both; for all t h y blessed youth ss Becomes a s aged, and doth beg the alms Of palsied E l d : and when thou a r t old and rich, T h o u h a s t neither heat, affection, limb, nor beauty, T o make t h y riches pleasant. What's yet in this T h a t bears the name of life? Yet in this life Lie hid moe thousand deaths; yet death we fear, 40 T h a t makes these odds all even. Claudio. I humbly thank you. T o sue t o live, I find I seek t o die, And, seeking death, find life: let it come on.

age,

Enter Isabella. Isa.bella. W h a t , ho! Peace here. Grace a n d good company ! P r o v o s t . Who's there? Come in, the wish deserves a
welcome.
23 certain constant. 24-5 For moon N. 29 bowels offspring. 30 effusion pouring-out. 31 serpigo spreading s k i . disease. F Sapego. rheum excessive moisture in the body, causing catarrh. 32-4 Thou both N. 34-6 for Eld N. 36 thou art read 'thou'rt.' 37 limb vigor. 40 moe i.e. more than those mentioned. SD Enter Isabella N.

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45

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47

MEASURE FOB MEASURE, III. 1

Duke. Dear sir, erc long I'll visit you again. CEaudio. Most holy sir, I thank you. IsabeUa. My business is a word or two with Claudio. Provost. And very welcome. Loolr, Signior; here's your sister. 50 Duke. Provost, a word with you. Provost. As many as you please. Duke. Bring me t o hear them speak, where I map [Duke and Provost withdraw.] be conceal'd. Claudio. Now, sister, what's the comfort? Isabella. Why, 55 As all comforts are: most good, most good indeed. Lord Angelo, hating affairs t o heaven, Intends you for his swift ambassador, Where you shall be an everlasting leiger. Therefore, your best appointment make with speed: Tomorrow you set on. Claudio. I s there no remedy? 81 Isabella. None but such remedy as, t o save a head, T o cleave a heart in twain, Claudio. B u t is there a n y ? Isa#bella.Yes, brother, you may live. 6 4 5 There is a divelish mercy in the judge, I f you'll implore it, t h a t will free your life, B u t Pettcr you till death. Claudio. Perpetual durance ? Isabella. Ay, jus t-perpetual durance, a restraint, Though all the world's vastidity you had, T o a dctermin'd scope. ClnuEio. But in what nature? 70
53 me to hear them F them to hear me. SD Duke and Provost withdraw N. 59 leiger resident ambassador. G0 appointment preparation. 65 divelish F devilish. 67 durance imprisonment. 68 just esactly. 69-70 Though scope N. 69 Though F through. vastidity immensity.

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48

M E A S U R E F O R M I S A S U i t E , 111. 1

Isabella. I n such a one as, you consenting toyt, Would bark your honor from t h a t trunk you benr, And lcnve you naked. Let me know the point. Claudio. Istz.bella. 0, I do fear thee, Claudio, and I quake, 73 Lest thou a feverous life shouldst entertain, .And six o r seven winters more respect T h a n a perpetual honor. Dar'st thou die? T h e sense of death is most in apprehension, And the poor beetle t h a t me trend upon 80 In corporal sufferance finds a p a n g as g r e a t As when a giant dies. W h y give you me this shame? Claudio. Think you I can a resolution fetch Fro111 flow'ry tenderness? If I must die, I will encounter darkness as a bride, 85 And h u g it in mine arms. t'sabella. There spakc my brother :there my father's grave Did utter f o r t h G voice. Yes, thou must die: Thou art too noble t o conserve a life I n base appliances. This outward-sainted deputy, 90 % )h o 's e settled visage and deliberate word Nips youth i' thy head, and follies doth enew As falcon doth the fowl, is yet a divel. His filth within being cast, he would a p p e a r A pond as deep a s hell. Claudio. T h e prenzie Angelo !
72 bark strip. 75 feverous read 'fev'rous.' entertain maintain. 80 corporal sufferance read 'corp'ral suff'rance.' 80 finds experiences. 82 a resolution fetch derive courage. 89 in base appliances by base means. W settled cornposcd. 01 enew dri7.e into the water (a term from falconry). F entmau. 93 cast emptied, as a pond of mud 8;nd refuse. 94 prenzie puritanical (1) N. 48

M E A S U R E F O R L X E . i S U R E , 111

Isabella. 0, 'tis the cunning livery of heU, The damned'st body t o invest and cover I n prenzic guards! Dost thou think, Claudio? I f I would yield him my virginity, Thou mightst be freed. 0 heavens ! it cannot be. Claudio. Isabella. Yes, he would give't thee, from this rank offense, 100 So t o offend him still. This night's the time T h a t I should do what I abhor t o name, O r else thou diest tomorrow. Claudio. Thou shalt not do't. Isabella.. 0 ! were i t but my life, 105 I'd tlirow i t down for your deliverance As frankly as a pin. Claudio. Thanks, dear Isabel. Isabella. Be ready, Claudio, for your death tomorrow. Claudio. Yes. Has hc affections in him, T h a t thus can mak2 him bite the law by th' nose, 110 When he would. force i t : Sure i t is no sin; Or of the deadly seven it is thc least. fsabella. Which is the least? Clau.dio. I f it were damnable, he being so wise, 114 W h y would he for the momentary trick Be perdurably fin'd? 0 Isabel ! Isabelta.. What says my brother? Claudio. Death is a fearful thing. Isabella. And shamed life a hateful. Claudio. Ay, but t o die, and go we know not where,
97 guards trimmings. 101 still always. 108 affections passions. 109 bite by th' nose treat with contempt. 110 force enforce 115 perdurably h ' d eternally punished.
60

M E A S U B E F O R M E A S U R E , 111. 1

T o lie in cold obstruction and t o rot, This sensible warm motion to become A kneaded clod ; and the delighted spirit T o bathe in ficry floods, or to reside I n thrilling region of thick-ribbed ice, T o be imprison'd in the viewless winds, l25 And blown with restless violence round about The pendent world; or t o bc worse than worst Of those that lawless and inccrtain thought Imagine howling : 'tis too horrible ! The weariest and most loathed worldly life 130 T h a t age, ache, penury and imprisonment Can lay on nature is a paradise T o what we fear of death. Isabella. Alas ! alas ! Sweet sister, let me live. Cla.udio. What sin you d o to save a brother's life, 135 Nature dispenses with the decd so far T h a t i t becomes a virtue. Isabella. 0 you beast ! 0 faithless coward! 0 dishonest mretch ! Wilt thou be made a man out of my vice? 139 Is't not a kind of incest, t o take life From thine own sister's shame? W h a t should 1 think? Heaven shield my mother play'd m y father fair, F o r such a warped slip of wilderness Nere issu'd from his blood. Take my defiance, Die, perish ! Might but my bending down Reprieve thee from thy fate, it should proceed. 145 I'll pray a thousand prayers for thy death,
119 obstruction stagnation (of the blood). 121 knezdcd i.e. like dough. delighted accustomed to delight. 123 +tilling piercing (with cold). region tract N. 124 viewless invisible. 133 dispenses with pardons. 141 shield forbid. 142 slip of wilderness worthlees dip or scion. 145 proceed take place.
61

M E A S U R E F O B MEASUPEE, 111. 1

N o word t o save thce. Clnudio. Nay, hear me, Isabel. lsabdla. 0, fie, fie, fie! Thy sin's not accidental, but a trade. 150 Mercy t o thee would prove itself a bawd. 'Tis best t h a t thou diest quickly. [Going.1 Claudio. 0 hear me, Isabella. [Duke comes forward.] Duke. Vouchsafe a word, young sister, but one word. IsabelEa. \17hat is your ul~ll? Duke. Might you dispense wit11 your leisure, I would by and by have some speech with you: the satisfaction I would require is likewise your own benefit. l56 Isabella. I have no superfluous leisure: my s t a y must be stolen out of other affairs ;but I will attend 159 you n while. Duke. [AsiGe t o Claudio.] Son, I have overheard what pass'd between you and your sister. Angelo had never the purpose t o corrupt her ; only he h a t h made a n assay of her virtue to practice his judgment with the dispositio~lof natures. She, having the t r u t h of honor in her, h a t h made hirn t h a t gracious denial which he is most glad t o receive. I a m confessor t o Angclo, and I know this t o be t r u e ; therefore prepare yourself t o death. D o not satisfy your resolution wit11 hopes that arc fallible: tomorrow you n ~ u s t die. Go t o your knees and make ready. 170 Claud,io. Let me rtsli my sister pardon. T am so out of love with life t h a t I will sue t o be rid of it. Du7~e.Hold you there: farewell. [Exit CEawEia.1
155 by and by immedintely. 163 practice his judgment esperimcnt. 164 disposition of natures evaluation of character. 168-9 saticfy your resolution fortify your courage. 173 Hold you there persist in that course.
62

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 111. l

[Enter Provost.] Provost, a word with you. 17s Provost. What's your will, Father 3 Du7;e. T h a t now-you a r e come, you will be gone. Lcavc me a while with the maid. My mind promises wit11 my habit no loss shall touch her by my ~0111panyo 179 P ~ o v o s tI . n good time. Exit. Duke. T h e hand t h a t h a t h made you fair h a t h made you good. T h e goodness t h a t id cheep in beauty makes beauty brief in goodness; but grace, being the soul of your complesion, shall keep the body of it ever fair. T h e assault t h a t Angelo h a t h made t o you, fortune h a t h convey'd t o my understanding; and, but t h a t frailty h a t h examples for his falling, I should wonder a t Angelo. How will you do t o con189 tent this substitute, and t o snye your brother? Isabella. I a m now going t o -resolve him. I had rather my brother die by the l a w than my son shoulcl be unlawfully born. B u t 0, how much is the good Duke deceived in Angelo! I f ever he return and I can speak t o him, I will open my lips in vain, o r dis195 cover his government. Du.ke. T h n t shall not be much amiss: yet, as t h e matter now stands, he will avoid your acehsation : he made trial of yo1.1 only. Therefore, fasten your eizr on my advisings: t o the love I have in doing good n remedy presents itself. I do make myself believe t h a t you may most uprighteously do poor wronged ladjr a merited benefit, redeem your brother from tlie an1'78 loss harm. 180 In good time well and good. IS2 cheap lightly esteemed. 185 assault love-proposal. 189 substitute i.e. Amgelo. 190 resolve free from uncertainty. 194-5 discover reveal. 195 government conduct. 197 avoid make void, refute. 63

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 111. 1 '

g r y law, d o no stain t o your own gracious person, and much please the absent Duke, if peradventure he shall ever return t o have 11earing of this business. Isabella. L e t me hear you speak farther. I hare spirit t o do anything t h a t appears not foul in the t r u t h of my spirit. 208 Dulcc. Virtue is bold, and goodness never fearful. Have you not heard speak of Mariana, the sister of Fredcrick, the g r e a t soldier who miscarried a t sea? Isabelln. I have heard of the lady, and good words went with her name. 213 Dulce. She should this Angelo have married, was affianced t o her by oath, and the nuptial appointed: between which time of the contract and limit of the solemnity, her brother Fredcrick was wrack'd n t sea, having in t h a t perished vessel the dowry of his sister. B u t mark how heavily this befell t o the poor gentlewoman : there she lost rt noble and renowned brother, in his love toward her ever most kind and n a t u r a l ; with him the portion and sinew of her fortune, ller marriage dowry ; with both, her combinate husband, this well-seeming Angelo. 224 Isabelln. Can this be so? Did Angelo so leave her? Duke. Left her in her tears, and dried n o t one of them with his comfort; swallowed his vows whole, pretending in her discoveries of dishonor: i n fex, bestowed her on her own lamentation, which she yet wears f o r his snke ; and he, n marble t o her tears, is washed with them, but relents not. 2s1 a merit were it in death t o take this IsabeUa.
2165 was affianced i.e. Angelo. 215 by F omita. 216-7 between solemnity N. 223 combinate betrothed. 228 i n few in a few words. 229 bestowed her on i.e. abandoned her to. 230 marble i.e. hard-hearted.
64

...

M E A S U R N P O R M E A S U R E , 111. I

poor maid from the world! W h a t corruption in this life, t h a t it will let this man live! B u t how out of this call she avail? 235 Dzdce. It is a rupture t h a t you may easily heal ; and the cure of i t not only saves your brother, but keeps you from dishonor in doing it. 239 Isabella. Show me how, good Father. Duke. This forenamed maid h a t h yet in her the coatinuance of her first affection :his unjust unkindness, that in all reason should have quenched her love, hath, like a n impediment in the current, made it more violent and unruly. Go you t o Angclo: answer his requiring with a plausible obedience, agree with his demands t o the point. Only refer yourself t o this advantage: first, t h a t your stay with him may not be long, t h a t the time lnag have all shadow and silence in it, and the place answer t o convenience. This being granted in course-and now follows all-we shall advise this wronged maid t o stead u p your appointment,. g o in your place. I f the encounter acknowledge itself hereafter, i t may compel him t o her recompense; and here, by this is your brotsher aaved, your honor untainted, the poor hlnriana advantaged, and the corrupt deputy scaled. T h e mi~id will I f r a m e and make fit for his attempt. I f you t l d c well t o carry this, as you may, the doublencss of the benefit defends the deceit from reproof. W h a t 2 60 think you of it? Isabella. T h e image of it gives me content already,
235 avail benefit. 245 plausible fair-aeemlng. 246 refer yourself to have recourse to. 248 shadow dai*lcness.250 in course as a matter of course. 251 stead up assume. 256 scaled weighed, as by scales. 257 frame instruct. 261 image mental picture.
&l5

M E A S U B E F O R M E A S U R E , 111. l

and I trust it w i l l grow t o a most prosperous perfection. .&lie. It lies much in your holding up. Haste you speedily t o Angelo. If for this night he entreat, you t o his bed, give him promise of satisfaction. I mill presently to St. Luke's ;there, a t the moated grange, resides this dejected Mariana. A t t h a t place call upon me, and dispatch with Angelo, that it may be quickly. 270 lsabella. I thank you for t h i s comfort. P a r e you well, good Father. Exit.

Enter Elbow, Clown [Pompey, and] Officers. Elbow. Nay, if there be no remedy for i t but that you u7ill needs buy and sell men and women like beasts, we shall have all the world drink brown and white bastard. 276 Dulie. 0 heavens! W h a t stuff is here? Po~npep.'Twcts never nlerry world, since, of two usuries, the merriest was p u t down, and the worser allow'd by order of law a furr'd gown t o keep him warm ; and furr'd FFitli fox and lamb skins too, t o signify t h a t craft, being richer than innocency, stands for the facing. 283 Elbow. Come your way, sir. Bless you, good Father Friar. Duke. And you, good brother father. W h a t offense hath this man made you, sir? Elbow. Marry, sir, he hat11 offended the l a w ; and, sir, we take him t o be a thief too, sir, for we have
267 grange a secluded country house. 268 dejected rejected, d i e spirited. 269 dispatch come to an agreement. SD Exit N. 276 bastard a sweet Spanish wine. 278-9 two usuries N. 28Z facing trimming. 286 brother father N,
56

M E A S U R E FOR M E A S U R E , 111. l

found upon him, sir, a strange picklock, which we 291 have sent t o the deputy. Duke. Fie, sirrah ! A bamd, a wicked bawd! T h e evil t h a t thou causest t o be done, T h a t is t h y means t o live. D o thou but think 295 W h a t 'tis t o cram a maw or clothe a back From such a filthy vice. S a y t o thyself, From their abominable and beastly touches I drink, I eat, a r r a y myself, and live. Canst thou believe thy living is a life, 300 So stinkingly depending? Go mend, g o mend. Pompey. Indeed, i t does stink in some sort, s i r ; but yet, sir, I would proveDuke. Nay, if the dive1 have given thee proofs for sin, Thou wilt prove his. T a k e him t o prison, officer. 305 Correction and instruction must both work E r e this rude beast will profit. Elbow. I-Ie must before the deputy, s i r ; he has given him warning. T h e deputy cannot abide a whoremnster: if he be a whoremonger, and comes before him, he were as good g o a mile on his errand. 310 Duke. T h a t we were all, as some would seem t o be, Free from our faults, as faults from seeming, free! Enter Lucio. Elbow. H i s neck will come t o your waist-a cord,
sir.

Pompey. I spy comfort: I cry bail. IIere's a gentleman and a friend of mine. 316 Lucio. How now, noble Pompey! What, a t the
290 picklock skelet,on key. 298 array F away. 300 stinkingly depending depending upon such a stinlcing means of support. 310 go errand i.e. give himself up for lost. 312 Free F omits. 313 His waist N.

...

...

67

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 111, 1

wheels of Caesar? A r t thou led in triumph? What, is there none of P y p a l i o n ' s images, newly made woman, t o be had now, for putting the hand in the pocket and extracting it clutched? W h a t reply? h a ? W h a t say'st thou t o this tune, matter and method? Is't not drowned i' th' last rain, h a ? W h a t say'st thou, T r o t ? Is the world as i t was, man? Which is the way? I s it sad, and few words, o r how? T h e trick of i t ? 326 Duke. Still thus, and thus, still worse ! Lucio. How doth my dear morsel, t h y mistress? Procures she still, h a ? Pompey. Troth, sir, she h a t h eaten up all her beef, and she is herself in the tub. Lucio. Why, 'tis good. It is the right of it; it must be so. Ever your fresh xhore and your pomder'd bawd: a n unshunned consequence, it must be so. A r t going t o prison, Pompey? Pompeg. Yes, faith, sir. ~ u c i birihy,~'tis . not amiss, Pompey. Farewell. Go, say I sent thee thither. F o r debt, Pompey? o r how? Elbozer. F o r being a bawd, for being a bawd. Lucio. MTell,then, imprison him. I f imprisonment be the due of a bamd, why, 'tis his right. Bawd is he, doubtless, and of antiquity too: bawd-born. Farewell, good Pompey. Commend me t o the prison, Pompey. You will t u r n good husband now, Pompey, you will keep the house. 345 P o n p e y . I hope, sir, your good Worship will be my bail.
318 Caesar the conqueror of Pompey. 319 Pygmalion's images N. 321 it F ornih, clutched i.e. full of money. 322 tune temper, humor. 324 Trot contempt,uous term for an old woman. 325 sad tub N. 334 unshunned serious. trick fashion. 330-1 she inevitable. 344 husband in ita etymological sense, housekeeper.

...

68

M E A S U R E FOB M E A S U R E , 111. 1

Lucio. N o , indeed will I not, Pompey; it is not the wear. I will pray, Pompep, t o increase y o u r bondfrge: if you t a k e i t not patiently, n;h, y o u r mettle is the more. Adieu, t r u s t y Pompeg. 'Bless you, Friar. Dzlke. A n d you. 352 Lucio. Does Bridget paint still, Pompey, ha? Elbozw. Come your ways, sir. Come. Pompey. You will not bail me then, s i r ? Lucio. Then, Pompey, nor now. W h a t news abroad, F r i a r ? \17hat news? Elbow. C o a e your ways, sir. Come. Lucio. Go t o kennel, Pompey. Go.
[Exeunt Elbow, Pompey, and Officers.] 360 What news, F r i a r , of the Dulte? Duke. I know none. Can you tell me of a n y ? Lwcio. Some say he is with the emperor of Russia; other some, he is in Rome, B u t where is he, think
you?

Duke. I know not where; b u t wheresoerer, I wish


him well.
368

Lucio. It was a mad fantastical trick of him t o


steaI from the state, and usurp the beggary he was never born to. L o r d Angelo dukes it well in his ab370 sence ;he p u t s trangression to't. Duke. H e does well in't. Lucio. A little more lenity t o lechery would do no riar. harm in him. Something too crabbed t h a t way, I ' ' Duke. It is too general a vice, a n d severity must cure it. 375 Lucio. Yes, in good sooth, the vice is of a great kindred; i t is well allied. B u t it is impossible t o e s t i r p it quite, F r i a r , till eating and drinking be p u t down.
349 wear faehion. 350 mettle spirit, with a quibble. 368 usurp wrongfully assume. 377 extirp cxtirpnte.
6;Q

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U R E , 111. 1

They say this Angelo was not made by man and woman after this downright way of creation. I s i t true, .think you? 381 Duke. How should he be made, then? Lucio. Some report a sea-maid spawn'd him ; some t h a t lie was begot between two stock-fishes. B u t it is certain t h a t when he makes water his urine is congeal'd ice, t h a t I know t o be true. And he is a motion generative, that's infallible. 387 DulL.e.You are pleasant, sir, and speak apace. Lucio. IVhy, what a ruthless thing is this in him, f o r the rebellion of a cod-piece t o talie away t h e life of a man! Would the Duke t h a t is absent have done this? E r e he would have hang'd a man for the getting a hundred bastards, he would have paid for the nursing a thousand. H e had some feeling of the s p o r t ; he knew the service, and t h a t instructed him t o mercy. Duke. I never heard t l ~ c absent Duke much detected f o r women; he was not inclin'd t h a t may. 307 Lucio. 0, sir, you are deceiv'd. Dz~ke. 'Tis n o t possible. Lucio. W h o ? N o t the Duke? Yes, your beggar of fifty. And his use was t o p u t a ducat in her clackdish. Tlie Duke had crotchets in him. I-Ie would be drunk, t o o ; t h a t let me inform you. 404 Duke. You do him wrong, surely. Lucio. Sir, I was an inward of his. A shy-fellow was the Duke; and I believe I lsnow the cause of his withdrawing.
380 after according to. 384 stock-fishes dried codfish. 386-7 motion generative N. 390 cod-piece N. 392 getting begetting. 396 detected accused. 400-1 beggar of fifty beggarwornas fifty years old. 401-2 clack-dish wooden dish with a lid, clacked to attract attention. 402 crotchets odcl fancies. 405 inward intimate. shy reserved, fearful.
60

M E A S U B E F O B M E A S U R E , 111. 1

Duhe. W h a t , I prethee, might be the cause? Lucio. No, pardon. 'Tis a secret must be lock'd within the teeth and the lips. B u t this I can let you understand, the greater file of the subject held t h e Duke t o be wise. Duke. Wise! Why, no question but he was. Lucio. A very superficial, ignorant, unweighing fel10~. 415 D u b . Either this is envy in you, folly, o r mistaking. T h e very stream of his life and the business he hat11 helm'd must, upon a warranted need, give him a better proclamation. L e t him be but test~moniedin his own bringings-forth, and he shall appcar t o the envious a scholar, a statcsman, and a soldier. Therefore, you speak unskillfully; or, if your knowledge be more, it is much darkened in your malice. 424 Lucio. Sir, I know him, and I love him. D21.7ce. Love talks with better knomledge, and knowledge with dearer love. Lucio. Comc, sir, I know what I know. Duke. I can hardly believe that, since you know not what you speak. But, if ever the Duke returnas our prayers a r e he may-let me desire you t o make your answer before him. I f it be honest you have spoke, you have courage t o maintain it. I am bound t o call upon you; and, I p r a y you, your name? 434 Lucio. Sir, my name is Lucio, well known t o the Duke.
409 must which must. 411 greater 6le majority. 414 unweighing thoughtless. 418 helm'd steered.418 upon need were warrant needed. 418-9 give him a better proclamation proclaim him to be a better man. 419 testimonied attested. 420 bringings-forth achievements. 422 unskillfully without discernment. 426 dearer P decrre.

...

61

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 111, 1

Duke. H e shall know you better, sir, if I may live t o report you. ~ u . c i oI . fear you not. 439 Duke. O! You hope the Duke will return no more, o r you imagine m e too unhurtful an opposite. B u t indeed I can d o you little harm ; you'll forswear this again ! Lu,cio. I'll be hang'd first. T h o u a r t deceiv'd i n me, Friar. B u t no more of this. C s n s t thou tell if Claudio die tomorrow o r no? 446 Duke. Why should he die, s i r ? Lucio. W h y ? F o r filling a bottle with a tun-dish. I would the Duke we talk of mere return'd again: this ungenitur'd agent will unpeople the provTnnce with continency. Sparrorvs must not build in his houseeaves because they a r e lecherous. T h e Duke yet would have d a r k deeds darkly answered; he would never bring them t o light. Would he were return'd! M a r r y , this Claudio is condemned f o r untrussing. Farewell, good F r i a r ; I prethee, p r a y f o r me. T h e Duke, I say t o thee again, would e a t mutton on Fridays. He's not p a s t it yet, and I s a y t o thee, he would mouth with rt beggar, though she smelt brown bread a n d garlic. S a y that I said so. Farewell. 4ao

Exit. Duke. N o might n o r greatness in mortality Can censure 'scape. Back-wounding calumny T h e whitest virtue strikes. W h a t king so s t r o n g Can tie the gall u p in the slanderous tongue? B u t who comes here? 4%
441 opposite adve-. 448 tun-dish funnel. 450 ungenitur'd impotent. 455 untrussing undoing the trousers. 457 mutton N. 458 He's thee N. not P now. 461 mortality human life.

.. .

62

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U R E , 111. 1

Enter Escalus, Provost, and [Oflcers with] Bamd


[Mistress Overdone]. Escalus. GO, away with her t o prison ! Blistress Overdo7ze. Good my lord, be good t o me. Your Honor is accounted a merciful man, good my lord. 4 69 Escalus. Double and treble admonition, and still forfeit in the same kind! This would make mercy swear, and play the tyrant. Provost. A bawd of eleven years' continuance, may it please your I-Ionor. 474 Mistress Overdone. M y lord, this is one Lucio's information against me. Mistress Kate Keepdown was with child by him in the Duke's time ;he prornis'd her marriage. His child is a year and a quarter old, come Philip and Jacob. I have kept it myself, and see how 480 he goes about t o abuse me! Escalus. T h a t fellow is a fellow of much license. L e t him be call'd before us. Away with her t o prison ! Go t o : no more words. [Exeunt Oficers with Alistress Overdone.] Provost, m y brother Angelo will not be alter'd; Claudio must die tomorrow. L e t him be furnish'd with divines, and have all charitable preparation. I f my brother wrought by my pity, it should not be so with him. Provost. So please you, this f r i a r h a t h been with him, and advis'd him for th' entertainment of death. Escalus. Good even, good Father. 49 I . Duke. Bliss and goodness on you! Escalus. Of whence a r e you?
471 forfeit liable to penalty. 479 Philip and Jacob N. 487 wrought by my pity acted as mercifully as I would. 490 entertainment expectation.
68

M E A S U B E F O R M E A S U R E , 111. 1

Duke. N o t of this country, though my chance is


now T o use it f o r my time. I am a brother 495 Of gracious order, late come from the See, I n special business from his Holiness. Escalw. W h a t news abroad i' th' world? Duke. None, but t h a t there is so g r e a t a fever on goodness, t h a t the dissolution of it must cure it. Novelty is only in request, and i t is a s dangerous t o be aged in a n y kind of course, as i t is virtuous t o be constant in a n y undertaking. There is scarce t r u t h enough alive t o make societies secure, but security enough t o make fellowships accurs'd. Much upon this riddle runs the wisdom of the world. This news is old enough, yet i t is every day's news. I p r a y you, sir, of what disposition was the Duke? 507 Escalus. One that, above all other strifes, contended especially t o know himself. Duke. W h a t pleasure was he given t o ? Escalus. R a t h e r rejoicing t o see another merry, than merry a t anything which professed t o make him rejoice: a gentleman of all temperance. B u t leave we him t o his events, with a p r a y e r they may prove prosperous; and let me desire t o know how you find Clnudio prepar'd. I a m made t o understand t h a t you 517 have lent him visitation. Duke. H e professes t o have received no sinister measure from his judge, but most willingly humbles himself t o the determination of justice; yet had he framed t o himself, by the instruction of his frailty,
494 time present time. 495 See i.e. of Rome. 499 dissolution death. 500 only especially. 603 security N. 508 strifes endeavora. 514 to his events to the outconle of his &airs. 517 visitation pnestly visit. 518 sinister unjust.. 520 determination sentence. 521 framed fabricated. instruction prompting.
(is

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U B E B 111. 1

many deceiving promises of life, which I, by my good Ieisure, have discredited to him, and now is he resolv'd t o die. 524 Escalus. You have paid the heavens y o u r function, and the prisoner the very debt of your calling. I have labor'd for the poor gentleman t o the extremcst shore of my modesty; b u t m y brother-justice have I found so severe, t h a t he hat11 forc'd me t o tell him he is indeed Justice. 530 Duke. I f his own life answer the straitness of his proceeding, i t shall become him well; wherein if he chance t o fail, he h a t h sentcnc'd himself. Escalus. I am going t o visit the prisoner. F a r e you well. 535 Duke. Peace be with you! [Exeunt Escalus and Provost.] He, who the sword of heaven will bear Should be as holy a s severe ; P a t t e r n in himself t o know, Grace t o stand, and virtue go; More n o r less t o others paying T h a n by self-offenses weighing. Shame t o him whose cruel striking Kills f o r faults of his own liking ! Twice treble shame on Angelo, T o weed m y vice and let his grow! 0, what m a y man within him hide, Though angel on the outward side! How may likeness nlolde in crimes, 550 Making practice on the times, T o draw with idle spider's strings
525 paid function done your duty toward God. 528 shore limit. modesty eense of propriety. 537-58 He contracting N. 540 and virtue go if virtue fail. 549-52 How things Y.

. ..

.. . ...

'ib

MEASlJ@l> F O B M E A S U R E , 111. 1

Most ponderous and substantial things? Craft against vice I must apply: With Angelo tonight shall lie His old betrothed, but despised: So clisguise shall, by th' disguised, Pay with falsehood, false exacting, And perform an old contracting.

555

Exit.

Act IV
SCENE

Enter Mara'ana, and B o y singing.


'Take, 0 take those lips may, That so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, the break of day, Lights that do mislead the morn: But my kisses bring again, bring again, Seals of love, but seal'd in vain, seal'd in vain.'

Enter

Duke [disguised as before].

Mariana. Break off t h y song, a n d haste thee quick


away. Here comes a man of comfort, whose advice Hrtth often still'd my brawling discontent.

[Exit Boy.] I c r y you mercy, sir, and well could wish


J You h a d n o t found me here so musical. L e t me excuse me, and believe me so, My mirth i t much displens'd, b u t pleas'd my woe. Duke. 'Tis good; though music oft h a t h such a charm Q T o make bad good, and good provoke t o harm. I p r a y you tell me, h a t h anybody inquir'd f o r me here t o d a y ? Much upon this time have I promis'd here t o meet.

'Take mirth

.. .. . .

vain' N. 4 cry you mercy beg your pardon. 7 M y woo N. 12 meet be present.
81

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , IV. 1

Marian,a. You have not been inquir'd after. I have s a t here all day. 14 Enter Isa,bella. Duke. I d o constantly believe you. T h e time is come even now. I shall cravc your forbearance a little; may be I will call upon you anon, for some advantage t o yourself. Mariann. I am always bound t o you. Exit. 20 Duke. Very well mct, ancl well come. W h a t is the news from this good deputy? Isabella. He hath a gardcn circummur'd with brick, Whose western side is with a vineyard back'd ; And t o t h a t vineyard is n planclled gate, 25 T h a t makes his opening with this bigger key. This other doth commnnrl a little door Which from the vineyarci t o the garden leads. There have I made my promise, Upon the heavy middlc of the night, T o call upon him. 30 Duke. B u t shall you on your knowledge find this way? IsabelEa. I have tnne a due and wary note upon't. Wit11 whispering and most guilty diligence, I n action all of precept, lic did show me T h e way twice ore. Duke. Are there no other tokens 35 Between you 'greed concerning her observance? Isnbella. No, none, but only a repair i' th' dark, 'And t h a t I have possess'd him my most s t a y
15 constantly firmly. 22 circummur'd walled around. 24 planched boarded. 29 heavy drowsy. 34 action all of precept with instructive gestures. 35 ore o'er, over. 36 observmce i.e. of the instructions Isabella has received. 37 repair rendezvous. 38 possess'd informed. G8

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , I!',

Can be b u t brief ; f o r I have made him know I have a servant comes with me along, T h a t stays upon me, whose persuasion is I come about my brother. Du.lse. 'Tis well borne up. I have not yet made known t o hliariana A word of this. W h a t ho, within ! Come forth !
Enter Marianar.

40

45 I p r a y you, be acquainted et11 this maid. She comes t o d o you good. I do desire the like. Zsabella. Duke. D o you persuade yourself t h a t I respect you? Mariana. Good Friar, I know you do, and have found it. Duke. Take then this your companion by the hand, 50 Who hat11 a story ready for your ear. I shall attend your leisure, but make haste; The vaporous night approaches. Mariana. Will't please you walk aside?

Exeunt [ill ariana and IsabeEEa] . Duke. 0 place and greatness ! Rfillio~lsof false eyes 55 Are stuck upon thee. Volumes of report Run with these false and most contrarious quests Upon t h y doings : thousand escapes of wit Make thee the father of their idle dream, And rack thee in their fancies !
Enter Ma7ian.a and Isabella.

Welcome, how agreed?


42 borne up contrived. 55 stuck fixed. report rumor. 56 quests inquiries (cries of hounch upon the acent). 57 escapes mllies. 69 rack distort.
69

6 1 E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , IV. l

IsabeEla. She'll take the enterprise upon her, Father, If you advise it. Ddce. It is n o t my consent, 61
B u t my entreaty too.

IsabeEEa. Little have you t o s a y When you d e p a r t from 1Gm but, soft and low, 'Remember now my brother.' Mariana. F e a r me not. Duke. Nor, gentle daughter, fear you not a t all. H e is y o u r husband on a pre-contract. T o bring you thus together, 'tis no sin, Sith t h a t the justice of your title t o him Dot11 flourish the deceit. Come, let us go: Our corn's t o reap, f o r yet our tilth's t o sow.

05

70

Exeunt.

Enter Provost and Clozon [Pompey] .


Provost. Come hither, sirrah. Can you cut off a man's head? Po~mpey.I f the m a n be a bachelor, sir, I can; b u t if he be a married man, he's his wife's head, and I 5 can never cut off a woman's hcad. Provost. Come, sir, leave me your snatches, and yield me a direct answer. Tomorrow morning a r e t o die Claudio and Barnardinc. Here is in o u r prison a common executioner, who in his office lacks a helper. I f you will take it on you t o assist him, it shall redeem you from your gyves; if not, you shall have y o u r full time of imprisonment, and y o u r de69 flourish gloss over. '70 tilth plowed land N. 6 snatches quibbles. 9 common public. 11 gyves chains.
70

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E . IV. S

Iiverance with a11 unpitied whipping, f o r you have 14 been a notorious bawd. Pompey. Sir, I have been an unlawful bnmd time out of mind, but yet I will be content t o be a lawful hangman. I would be glad to receive some instruction from my fellow partner. Provost. W h a t ho, Abhorson! Where's Abhorson, there? eo
Enter Abhorson. Abhorson. D o you call, sir? Provost. Sirrah, here's a fellow will help you tornorrow in your execution. I f you think i t meet, compound with him by the year, and let him abide here with you; if not, use him for the present and dismi~s him. H e cannot plead his estimation with you; he hath been a bawd. Abhorson. A bawd, sir? Fie upon him! H e will discredit our mystery. 29 Provost. Go to, sir: you weigh equally. A feather m i l l t u r n the scale. Exit. Pompey. P r a y , sir, by your good favor-for surely, sir, a good favor you have, but t h a t you have a hanging look--do you call, sir, your occupation a mys55 tery? Abhorson.. Ay, sir, a mystery. Pompey. Painting, sir, I have heard say, is a myst e r y ; and your whores, sir, being members of my occupation, using painting, do prove my occupation a mystery. B u t what mystery there should be in hanging, if I should be hang'd, I cannot imagine.
13 unpitied pitiless. 23 meet fitting. compound come to terms.
26 estimation good reputation. 29 mystery craft, trade. 32 favor

countenance.

71

MEASURE FOR MEASURE,

IV.

42 Abhorson. Sir, it is a mystery. Pompey. P r o o f ? Abhorson. Every t r u e man's apparel fits your thief. I f i t be too little for your thief, your true man thinks it big enough. If i t be too big for your thief, your thief thinks it little enough; so every t r u e man's apparel fits y o u r thief.

Enter Provost. Provost. Are you agreed? 49 Pompey. Sir, I will serve him, for I do find t h a t your hangman is a more penitent t r a d e than your bawd; he doth oftener ask forgiveness. Pompey. You, sirrah, provide your block and your nx tomorrow four o'clock. 54 Ab,horson. Come on, bamd. I will instruct thee in my trade. Follow. Pompey. I do desire t o learn, s i r ; and, I hope, if you have occasion t o use me f o r your own turn, you shall find me yare. For, truly, sir, f o r your kindness 60 I owe you a good turn, Provost. Call hether Barnardine and Claudio. Exeunt [Pompey and Abhorson]. Th' one has my pity, not a j o t the other, Being a murtherer, though he were my brother.

Enter Claudio.
Look, here's the warrant, Claudio, f o r t h y death. 'Tis now dead midnight, and by eight tomorrow 65 T h o u must be made immortal. lF7here's Barnardine? Claudio. As fast lock'd u p in sleep as guiltless labor
44-48 Every thief N. 41 true honest. 52 he ness N. 59 yare nimble F y'are. 61 hether hither.

...

...
s

forgive-

7a

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , IV. P

When i t lies starkly in the traveler's bones. H e will not wake. W h o can do good on him? Prouos t. Well, go, prepare yourself. [Knocking within.] But hark, what noise? $0 Heaven give your spirits comfort. [ E x i t Claudio.] By and by. 1 hope i t is some pardon or reprieve F o r the most gentle Cluudio.

Enter Duke [disguised as before]. Welcome, Father. Duke. T h e best and wholesom'st spirits of the night Envelop you, good Provost. Who call'd here of late? I'rovost. None since the curfew rung. 76 Duke. Not Isabel? Provost. No. Duke. They will, then, ere't be long. Provost. \Vhat comfort is for Claudio? Duke. There's some in hope. Provost. It is rt bitter deputy. 81 Dulie. N o t so, not so: his life is parallel'd Even with the stroke and line of ]is great justice. H e doth with holy abstinence subdue T h a t in himself which he spurs on his power 85 T o qualify in others. Were he meal'd with t h a t Which he corrects, then were he tyrannous, B u t this being so, he's just. [Knockin.g w.ithin.1 Now a r e they come. [Exit Provost.] This is a gentle provost. Sildom when
68 starkly stiflly. 71 By and by right away (in answer t o the knocking). 82 Even read 'E'en.' stroke and line N. 85 qwdify temper. rneal'd stained. 88 Sildom when it is seldom that.
78

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U I L E . IV. 2

T h e steeled gaoler is the friend of men. [Rnocking.] How now ! W h a t noise? T h a t spirit's possess'd with haste 90 T h a t wounds th' unsisting postern with these strokes.

[ E n t e r Provost.] Provost. T h e r e he must s t a y until the officer Arise t o let him i n ; he is call'd up. Duke. H a v e you no countermand f o r Claudio yet, B u t he must die tomorrow? Provost. None, sir, none. 95 Dzckc. As near the dawning, Provost, as it is, You shall hear more ere morning. Provost. Happily You something know: yet I believe there comes N o countermand. N o such example have me. Eesidcs, upon the very siege of justice, L o r d Angelo h a t h t o the public e a r Profess'd the contrary. Enter n Messenger. DuIce. T h i s is his Lord's man. 104 Provost. And here conles Claudio's pardon. Messenger. M y L o r d hat11 sent you this note, and by me this further charge; t h a t you swerve n o t from the smallest article of it, neither in time, mittter, o r other circumstance. Good morrow; for, as I take it, 109 it is almost day. [ExitJlressenger.] Provost. I shall obey him. Duke. [Aside.] This is his pardon, purchas'd by such sin
S9 steeled hardened. 91 unsisting unresisting. 97 Happily perchance. 100 siege seat. 74,

M E A S U E E F O E M E A S U R E , IV.

S !

F o r which the pardoner hiinself is in: Hence h a t h offense his quick celerity, When it is borne in high authority. When Vice makes Mercy, Mercy's so extended, 115 T h a t f o r the fault's love is th' off ender friended. NOW,sir, what news? Provost. I told you. Lord Angelo, belike thinking me remiss in mine office, awakens me nit11 this unwonted putting on-methinks strangely, for he h a t h 121 not us'd it before. Duke. Pray you, let's hear.
[Provost reads] T h e Letter. Whatsoever you m a y hear t o the contrary, let Claz~diobe executed by four of the clock; and, in the afternoon, Barnardine. For my better Clazdio's head sent me satisfaction, let me h a v ~ by five. Let this be duly performed, with a thougltt that more depends o n it tha.n we must yet deliver. T h u s fail not t o do you7 office, as you will a.n+swer it a t your peril. 132 W h a t s a y you t o this, sir? Dulce. W h a t is t h a t Barnardine who is t o be executed in thy afternoon? Provost. A Bohemian born, but here nurs'd up and bred; one t h a t is a prisoner nine years old. Duke. How came i t t h a t the absent Duke had not either deliver'd him t o his liberty o r executed him? I have heard it was ever his manner t o do so. 139 Provost. His friends still wrought reprieves f o r him; and, indeed, his fact, till now in the government
120 putting on incitement. 136 prisoner old prisoner for nine years. 140 still oomtantly. 141 fact crime.
75

...

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , IV. a

of L o r d Angelo, came not t o a n undoubtful proof. D u k . It is now a p p a r e n t ? Provost. Most manifest, and not denied by himself. Dulce. H a t h he borne himself penitently in prison? 1-40 How seems he t o be touch'd? Provost. A man t h a t apprehends death no more dreadfully but a s a drunken sleep: careless, reckless, and fearless of what's past, present, or t o come; insensible of mortality, and desperately mortal. Dulie. I-Ie wants advice. 15: Provost. He will hear none. H e h a t h evermore hat1 the liberty of the prison: give him leave t o escape hence, he would not. Drunk many times a day, if not rnnny days entirely drunk. W e have very oft anrak'dl him, a s if t o c a r r y him t o execution, and show'd him a seeming warrant for it; it h a t h not 158 moved him a t all. Duke. hfore of him anon. There is written in your brow, Provost, honesty and constancy. I f I read it, not truly, my ancient s l d l bcguiles me; b u t in the boldness of my cunning I will l a y myself in hazard. Claudio, whom here you have w a r r a n t t o execute, is no g r e a t e r forfeit t o the law t h a n Angelo who hash sentenc'd him. T o make you understand this in n nia~lifcsted effect, I crave but four days' respite, f o r the which you a r e t o do me both a present and a dangerous c o u r t e s ~ . 166 Provost. P r a y , sir, in what? Duke. I n the delaying death. Provost. Alack! how Inay I do it, having the hour
142 undoubtful certain 145 dreadfully with dread. l50 mortality death. mortal laclung in any hope of immortality. 151 advice q i ~ i t u a counsel. l 163 lay hazard jeopardize myself (a dicing metaphor). 165-6 in effect by presenting concret,eevidence.

...

.. .

76

M E A S U R E F O B N E A S U R E , IV. P

limited, and a n express command, under penalty, t o deliver his head in the view of Angelo? I may make m y case us Claudio's, t o cross this in the smallest. Dzdie. By the vow of mine order I warrant you, if my instructions may be your guide. L e t this Barnlzrdine be this morning executed, and his head borne t o Angelo. 178 Provost. Angelo h a t h seen them both, and nil1 discover the favor. Duke. O ! death's a great disguiser, and you may add t o It. Shave the head, and dye the beard; and say i t was tllc desire of the penitent t o be so bar'd before his death. you know the course is common. I f anything fall t o you upon this, more than thanks and good fortune, by the Saint whom I profess, I 187 will plead against i t with my life. Provost. Pardon me, good Father; it is against my oath. Duke. Were you sworn t o the Duke or t o the deputy ? Provost. T o him, and t o his substitutes. Duke. You will think you have made no offense, if the Duke avouch the justice of your dealing? Provost. B u t what likelihood is in t h a t ? 195 Duke. N o t a resemblance, but n certainty. Yet since I see you fearful, t h a t neither. iny coat, integrity, nor persuasion can with ease attempt you, I will go further than I meant, t o pluck all fears out of you. Look you, s i r ; here is the hand and seal of

172 limited designated. 174 cross thwart. 175 warrant you guarantee your security. 180 favor &fference in feature. 182 dye F tie N. 183 bar'd shaved. 106 resemblance probability.
77

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U I C E , IV. a

the Duke: you know the character, I doubt not, and 202 the signet is not strange t o you. Provost. I know them both. Dulze. T h e contents of this is the return of the Duke. You shall anon over-read i t a t your pleasure, where you shall find within these two days, he will be here. This is n thing t h a t Angelo kxlows not, f o r he this very d a y receives letters of strange tenor, perchance of the Duke's death, perchance entering into some monastery, but by chance nothing of what is writ. Look, th' unfolding s t a r calls u p the shepherd. P u t not yourself into amazement how these things should be; all difficulties a r e but easy when they are known. Call your executioner, and off with Burnardine's head. I will give him rt present shrift and advise him for a better place, Yet you are amaz'd, but this shall absolutely resolve you. Come away; it is almost clear dawn. Exit [with Provost].

SCENE

Enter Clown [Pompey].

Pompey. I am as well acquainted here as I was in our house of profession: one would think i t mere RGstress Overdone's own house, for here be many of her old customers. First, here's young Master Rash ;
201 character handwriting. 211 unfolding star morning star, when the f l o c h leave the fold. 212 amazement perplexity. 215 shrift confession and absolution. 217 resolve assure. 2 profession
business.
78

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U R E . IV.

he's in for a commodity of brown paper and old ginger, nine-score and seventeen pounds, of which he made five marks, ready money. Marry, then ginger was not much in request, for the old women were all dead. Then is there here one Master Caper, at the suit of Master Threepile the mercer, for some four suits of peach-color'd satin, which now peaches him a beggar. Then hare we here young Dizzy, and young Blaster Dcepvom, and Master Copperspur, and Master Starve-lackey, the rapier and dagger man, and young Drop-heir thnt ltill'd lusty Pudding, and M r ~ s t c r Forthright the tilter, and brave Blaster Shoe-tie, the g r e a t traveler, and wild Half-can t h a t stabb'd Pots, and, I think, forty more; all great doers in our trade, and are now 'for the Lord's sake.'
Enter Abhorson. Abhorson. Sirrah, bring Barnardine hither. 20 Pompey. Master Barnardine! You must rise and be hang'd, Master Barnardine. Abhorson. W h a t ho ! Barnardine! Barnardine. [With.in.] A pox o' your throats! n7ho makes t h n t noise there? W h a t a r e you? 25 Pompe3. Y o u r friends, sir, the hangman. You must be so good, sir, t o rise and be p u t t o death. Barn.ardine. [Witl~in.] Away! you rogue, away! I am sleepy, 29 Abhorson. Tell him hc must awake, and that quickly too. Pompey. P r a y , Master Barnardine, awake till you are executed, and sleep afterwards.
5 9 commodity dead N. 11 peaches impeaches. 16 tilter fencer. 17 Shoe-tie N. 19 'for sake' cly of prisonera asking alms from jail windows. 25 what who.

. ..

. ..

79

M E A S U I L E F O R M E A S U R E , IV

84 Abhorson. Go in t o him, and fetch him out. Pompey. H e is coming, sir, he is corning. I hear his straw rustle.

Enter Barnardine. Ablhorson. I s the ax upon the block, sirrah? Pompey. Very ready, sir. Barnardine. How now, Abhorson! What's the news with y o u ? 40 Abhorson. Truly, sir, 1 would desire you t o clap into your prayers : for, look you, the warrant's come. Barnardine. You rogue, I have been drinking all 44 night; I ain not fitted for?. Pompey. 0,the better, sir: f o r he t h a t drinks all night, and is hang'd betimcs ia the morning, may sleep the sounder all thc next day. E n t e r Duke [disguised as before]. Abhorson. Look you, sir; here comes your ghostly 49 father. D o we jest now, thinlc you? Duke. Sir, induced by my charity, and hearing how hastily you are t o depart, I a m come t o advise you, comfort you, and pray with you. Barnardine. Friar, not I : I have been drinking h a r d all night, and I will have more time t o prepare me, o r they shall beat out my brains with billets. I will not consent t o die this day, that's certain. 56 Duke. 0 , sir, you must; and therefore, I beseech you look forward on the journey you shall go. Barnardine. I swear I will not die today f o r any mm's persuasion. 00 Duke. B u t hear you41-2 clap into go at once into. 4 3 4I epiritual. 55 billets bloclrs of wood. 80

...

for3 N. 48 ghostly

MEASURE FOR MEASURE, I V

Barnardine. Not a word: if you have anything t o say t o me, colne t o my ward; for thence will not

I today.
Enter Frovost. Duke. Unfit t o live or die. 0 gravel heart! After him, f e l l o ~ s : bring him t o the block.

Exit.

65

[Exeunt Abhorson and Pompey.] sir, how do you find the prisoner? Provost. Duke. A creature unprepar'd, unrneet for death, And t o transport him in the mind he is

Were damnable. Here in the prison, Father, Provost. There died this morning of a cruel fever One Ragozine, n most notorious pirate, A man of Claudio's years-his beard and head J u s t of his color. TVllrrt if me do omit 75 This reprobate till he were well inclin'd, And satisfy the deputy with the visage Of Ragozine, more like t o Claudio? Duke. 0,'tis an accident t h a t heaven provides! Dispatch i t presently. T h e hour draws on 80 Prefix'd b y Angelo. See this be done, And sent according t o commtxnd, whiles I Persuade this rude wretch willingly t o die. Provost. This shall be done?.good Father, presently. B u t Barnardine must die t h s afternoon. 85 And how shall we continue Claudio, T o save me from the danger t h a t might come I f he were known alive? Duke. Let this be done.
63 ward cell. 65 gravel stony. 69 transport i.e. t o the next world. 74 omit pass by. 79 presently immediately. 85 continue keep.
81

M E A S U R E FOB M E A S U R E , I V . 3

P u t them in secret holds, both Barnardine and Cl audio. E r e twice the sun hath made his ,journal greeting T o th' under generation, you shall find 90 Your safety rnanifestcd. Provost. I am your free dependant. DzJie. Quick, dispatch, and send the head t o Angelo. Exit [ P r o v o s f j . Xow will I mritc letters t o AngelT h e Provost, he shall bear them-whose contents 9s Shall witness t o him I a m near a t home, And that, by g r e a t injunctions, I a m bound T o cnter publicly. I3im I'll desire T o meet me a t the consecrated fount 100 A league below the city ; and from thence, By cold gradation and well-balanc'd form, W e shall proceed with Angelo.
Enter Provost.

Provost. Here is the head. I'll c a r r y it myself. Dzclce. Convenient is it. &falie n swift return, F o r I mould comrnune with you of such things l05 T h a t want no ear but yours. I'll make all speed. Exit. Provost. Isabella. [ W i t h i n . ] Pence, ho, be here! D~ulce. T h e tongue of Isabel. She's come t o know If yet her brother's pardon be come hither. 110 B u t I will keep her ignornilt of her good, T o make her heavenly coi~lfortsof despair, RTllellit is least expected. Enter Isnbella.
89 journal daily. 90 th' under the Antipodes; F y o d . 92 free dependant willing servant. 101 cold eradation deliberate degrees. 105 commune stressed -

-.

82

MEASURE FOR MEASURE, I V . 3

130,by your leave ! Isabella. Duke. Good morning t o you, fair arid gracious daughter. 114 Isabella. T h e better, given me by so holy rt man. H a t h yet the deputy sent nip brother's pardon? Duke. H e hath releas'd him, Isabcl, from the world. 133s head is off and sent t o Angelo. 119 Isarbellu. Nay, but i t is not so. Duke. It is no other. Sllom your wisdom, daughter, I n your close patience. Isabella. 0 ! I will t o him and pluck out his eyes ! Duke. You shall not be admitted t o his sight. Isa,bella. Unhappy Claudio ! Wretched Isabel ! 125 Injurious world ! h lost damned Angelo ! Lluke. This nor hurts him nor profits you tt jot. Forbear i t therefore: give your cause t o heaven. &!lark what I say, which you shall find By every syllable a f aitliful verity. T h e Duke comes home tomorrow-nay, d r y your eyes130 One of our covent, and his confessor, Gives me this instance. Already he hnth carried Notice t o Escalus and Angelo, Who do prepare t o meet him a t the gates, f you can, pace your There t o give u p their power. I 135 wisdom I n t h a t good p a t h t h a t I would wish it go, And you shall have your bosom on this wretch, Grace of the Duke, revenges t o your heart, And general honor.
121 close secret, i.e. by conceali~lg your suffering. 122 ! will read 'I'll.' 131 covent convent. confessor atressed - - -. 132 instance piecc of news. 135 pace ciircct;. 137 bosom heart's dosire.
83

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U H E , IV. 8

Isabc71a.

I am directed b y you.
140

Dzdie. This letter then to F r i a r Peter give--

'Tis t h a t he sent me of the Duke's return. Say, by this token, I desire his company A t hlariana's house tonight. I-Ier cause and yours, I'll perfect him withal, and he shall bring you 145 Before the D u k e ; and t o the head of Angelo Accuse him home and home. For my poor self, I am combined by a sacred vow And shall be absent. Wend you with this letter. Conlmand these fretting waters from your eyes mTitll a light heart. T r u s t not my holy order, 180 I f I pervert y o u r course. Who's here?

Enter Lucio. Lucio. Good even. F r i a r , where's the provost? Duke. N o t within, sir. Lucio. 0 p r e t t y Isabella, I a m pale a t mine h e a r t t o see thine eyes so red: thou must be patient. I a m fain t o dine and s u p with water and bran. I d a r e not for my head fill m y belly; one fruitful meal would set me to't. But they say the Duke mill be here tomorrow. B y my t r o t h , Isabel, I lov'd thy brother. I f the old fantastical Duke of dark corners h a d been a t home, he h a d lived. 161 [Exit Isabella.] Dz~ke.Sir, t h e Duke is rnarvelous little beholding t o y o u r r e p o r t s ; but the best is, he lives not in them. Lucio. F r i a r , thou knowest n o t the Duke so well
144 perfect make him fully acquainted with. 146 home and home sharply, decisively. 147 combined bound. 148 Wend you go your way. 156 fain compelled. 160 fantastical capricious. of dark corners i.e. he transacts hb affairs in dark corners. 163 in them according to them.
84

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , IV. 3

as I do. He's a better woodman than thou tak'st him for. 166 Dulce. Well, you'll answer this one day. F a r e ye well. Lucio. Nay, t a r r y , I'll go along with thee. I can tell thee p r e t t y tales of the Duke. 170 Duke. You have told me too many of him already, sir, if they be t r u e ; if not true, none were enough. Lucio. I was once before him for getting a wench with child. 175 Duke. Did you such a thing? Lucio. Yes, marry, did I; but I was fain t o forswear it. T h e y would else have married me t o the rotten

medlar.

Duke. Sir, your company is fairer than honest. Rest you well. l so Lucio. B y my troth, 1'11 g o with thee t o the lane's end. I f bawdy talk offend you, we'll have very little of it. Nay, F r i a r , I am a kind of burr: I shall stick. Exeunt.

SCENE

Enter Angelo and Esca.lus.

Escalzrs. E v e r y letter he hath writ h a t h disvouch'd other. Angelo. I n most uneven and distracted manner. His actions show much like t o madness. P r a y heaven
165 woodman hunter, i.e. of women. 178 medlar a fruit rotten before it ie ripe. 179 fairer more amiable. 1 disvouch'd contr*

dictsd.
86

M E A S U R E F O h M E A S U R E , IV. 4

his wisdom be not tainted. And why meet him a t the B gates, a n d redeliver our authorities there ? Escalus. I guess not. AngeZo. And why should we proclaim i t in a n ]lour before his ent'ring, t h a t if a n y crave redress of injustice, they should exhibit their petitions in the street ? 11 Escalus. H e shows his reason f o r t h a t : t o have a dispatch of complaints, and t o deliver us from devices hereafter, wl~icll shall then have no power t o stand against us. IS Angelo. Well, I beseech you let it be proclairn'd. Betimes i' t h y morn I'll call you a t your house. Give notice t o such men of sort a n d suit a s a r e t o meet him. 20 Escalus. I shall, sir: fare you well. Angclo. Good night. E x i t [Escalua]. This deed unshapes me quite, makes me unpregnant And dull t o a l l proceedings. A deflower'd maid, And by a n eminent body t h a t enforc'd 25 T h e l a m agaiust i t ! B u t t h a t her tender sllame \lTill not proclaim against her maiden loss, H o w might she tongue me! Y e t reason dares her no: F o r my authority bears off R, cl.edcnt bulk, T h a t no particular scandal once can touch 29 B u t i t confounds the breather. I l e should hrtve liv'd, Save t h a t his riotous youth, with dangerous sense, Alight in the times t o come have tane revenge,
14 devices cunning plots. 16-9 Well night N. 17 Betimes curly. 18 sort and suit rank and standing. 22 unshapes confounds. unpregnant unapt. 26 her maiden loss loss of her virginity. 27 tongue accuse. dares her no in.n-tiniidrtte9 her into saying nothing. 28 credent bulk weight of credibility. 29 particular personal. 32 tane ta'en, taken.
06

...

M E A S U R E FOR MEASURE, I V . 4

By so receiving a dishonor'd life With ransom of such shame. Would y e t he had liv'd!
Alack, when once our grace we have forgot, Nothing goes right: we would, and we would not.
SS

Exit.
SCENE

Enter Duke [in his own habit] and Friar Peter.


Dulte. These letters a t fit time deliver me. T h e provost knows our purpose and our plot. T h e matter being afoot, keep your instruction, 4 And hold you ever t o our special drift, Though somctiines you do blench from this t o that, As cause doth minister. Go call a t Flavius' house, And tell hirn where I s t a y ; give the like notice T o Vnlencius, Rowland, and t o Crnssus, 9 And bid them bring the trumpets t o t h e gate. B u t send me F l a r i u s first. It shall be speeded well. [Exit.] Friar Peter.

Enter Varrius. Duke. I thank thee, Varrius; thou hrtst made good
haste. Come, we will walk. Therc's other of our friends Will greet us here anon, my gentle Varrius. Exeunt.
34 he had read 'he'd.' 1 me ethical dative. 4 drift purpose. 5 blench turn aside. 9 trumpets trumpeters.

MEASURE FOR MEASURE,

IV.

SCENE

Enter IsabeWa and Ilfariana. Isabella. T o speak so indirectly I am loath.

I would s a y the t r u t h ; but t o accuse him so, T h a t is y o u r part. Y e t I'm advis'd t o do it, He says, t o veil full purpose. f i fnriana. Be rul'd by him.
H e speak against me on the adverse side, I should n o t think it strange, for 'tis a physic That's bitter t o sweet end. Mariana. I would F r i a r Peter-

Isabella. Besides, he tells me t h a t if peradventure

Enter [Friar] Peter.

0, peace ! T h e f r i a r is come. Isa*beZla. Friar Peter. Come, I have found you out a stand most fit, 10
Where you may have such vantage on the Duke I I e shall not pass you. Trvice have the trumpets sounded. T h e generous and gravest citizens Have hent the gates, and very near upon 15 T h e Dulte is eiit'ring; therefore hence, away.
Exeunt.
2 I would read 'I'd.' 4 veil full purpose conceal our full plan. 1 0 stand station. 11 vantage advantage of position. 13 generous of noble birth. 14 hent reached. 88

Act

v
1

SCENE

Enter Duke, Varrius, Lords, Angelo, Escalz~s, Lucio, [Provost, Oficers, a n d ] Citizens a t several doors. D.uX.e. My very worthy cousin, fairly met. Our old and faithful friend, we a r e glad t o see yon. Angelo.
H a p p y return be t o y o u r r o y a l Grace! Escalus. Duke. M a n y and hearty thankings t o you both. 5 W e have made inquiry of you; and WC hear Such goodness of your justice, t h a t our soul Cannot b u t yield you forth t o public thanks, Forerunning more requital. You make my bonds still greater. Angelo. Duke. 0,y o u r desert speaks loud, a n d I should wrong lt, 10 T o lock i t in the wards of covert bosom, When it deserves with characters of brass, A forted residelice 'gainst the tooth of time And razure of oblivion. Give me your hand, And let the subject see, t o make them know 15 T h a t outward courtesies would fain proclaim Favors t h a t keep within. Corne, Escalus, You must walk by us on our other hand; And good supporters a r e you.
1 cousin title of respect. 2 we are read 'we're.' 5 we have read be've.' 10 wards prison cells. covert bosom i.e. keep it secret in a y heart. 11 characters letters. 12 forted fortified. 13 razure effacement.
89

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , V. 1

Enter [Friar] Peter and Isa bella. F r i w Peter. Now is your time. Speak loud and lrneel before him. 19 Isabella. Justice, 0 royal Duke! Vail your regard Upon a wrong'd-I would fain have said, a maid! 0 worthy Prince, dishonor not your eye B y throwing it on any other object Till you have heard me in my t r u e complaint 25 And given me justice, ,justice, justice, justice! Duke. Relate your wrongs. In what? By whom? Be brief. Here is Lord Angelo shall give you justice. Reveal yourself t o him. Isabella. 0 worthy Duke! You bid me seek redemption of the divel. SO H e a r me yourself ; for t h a t which I must speak Must either punish me, not being believ'd, O r wring redress from you. H e a r me, 0 hear me, here ! Angelo. M y Lord, her wits, I fear me, are not firm. 34 She h a t h bin a suitor t o me for her brother, Cut off by course of j u s t i c e Isabella. By course of justice ! Angelo. And she will speak most bitterly and strange. Isabella. Most strange, but yet most truly, mill I speak. That Angelo's forsworn, is i t not strange? T h a t Angelo's a murtherer, is't not strange? T h a t Angelo is an adulterous thief, A hypocrite, a virgin-violntor, I s i t not strange, and strange?
20 Vail your regard look down. 34 She hath read ' s h e ' t h . '
90

M E A S U R E FOR M E A S U R E , V . l

Nay, it is ten times strange. Duke. Isabella. It is n o t t r u e r he is Angelo T h a n this is all a s t r u e a s it is strange. 45 Nay, it is ten times t r u e ; f a r t r u t h is t r u t h T o th' end of reck'ning. Away with her! P o o r soul, Dzbke. She speaks this in th' infirmity of sense. Isabella. 0 Prince, I conjure thee, a s thou believ'st There is another comfort than this world, 50 T h a t thou neglect me n o t with t h a t opinion T h a t I am touch'd with madness. Make not impossible T h a t which b u t seems unlike. 'Tis n o t inlpossiblc B u t one, the wicked'st c a i t 8 on the ground, M a y seem a s shy, a s grave, as just, a s absolute SS: As Angclo ; even so may Angelo, I n all his dressings, caracts, titles, forms, Be an arch-villain. Believe it, royal Prince. I f he be less, he's nothing; b u t he's more, Had I more name for badness. Duke. B y mine honesty, 60 I f she be mad-as I believe no otherH e r madness h a t h the oddest frame of sense, Such a dependency of thing on thing, As ere I heard in madness. Zsabelln. 0 gracious Duke, Harp n o t on t h a t ; nor do not banish reason 85 F o r inequality, but let your reason serve T o make t h e t r u t h a p p e a r where i t seems hid, And hicle the false seems true.
47 i n sense out of a sick mind. 52 unlike improbable. 54 absolute perfect. 56 dressings outward shows. caracts distinctive marks. 63 ere e'er, ever. 65 inequality injustice. 67 hide eclipse. seems which seems.
91

...

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U R E , V. 1

Iilany t h a t are n o t mad Duke. H a r e sure more lack of reason. W h a t would you say? Isabella. I a m the sister of one Claudio, 70 Condemn'd upon the a c t of fornication T o lose his head, condemn'rl by Angelo. I, in probation of a sisterhood, W a s sent t o b y my brother, one Lucio As then the messengerThat's I, and't like your Grace. Lucio. 75 I came t o her from Claudio, and desir'd ller T o try her gracious fortune with L o r d Angelo F o r her poor brother's pardon. Islabella. That's he indeed. Duke. YOU were n o t bid t o speak. Lucio. No, my good lord, N o r wish'd t o hold my peace. I wish you now, then. Duke. 80 Pray you, take note of it, and when you have A business f o r yourself, p r a y heaven you then Be perfect. Lucio. I w a r r a n t your Honor. Dulie. The warrant's for yourself: t a k e heed to't. Isabella. T h i s gentleman told somewhat of my taleLucio. Right. 85 Duke. It may be right, b u t you a r e i' the wrong T o speak before your time. Proceed. Isabella.. 1 went T o this pernicious caitiff deputyDuke. T h a t ' s somewhat madly spoken. Isabella. P a r d o n it, 90 T h e phrase is t o the matter. 72 probation novitiate. 74 and't like if it please. 79 wish'd
bidden, with a quibble. 90 to applicable to.
92

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , V. 3

Duke. Mended again. T h e matter: proceed. Isabellu. I n brief, t o set the needless process by, How I persuaded, how I prayyd, and kneel'd 94 How he refell'd me, and how I repliedF o r this was of much length-the vild conclusion I now begin with grief and shame t o utter. H e would not, but by gift of my chaste body T o his concupiscible in temperate lust, Release my brother; and, after much debatement, 100 My sisterly remorse confutes mine honor, And I did yield t o him. But the nest morn betimes, His purpose surfeiting, he sends a warrant & o 'r my poor brother's head. I1,uh.e. This is most likely! Isabella. 0, t h a t i t were as like as i t is true! Duke. By heaven, fond wretch ! Thou know'st not what thou speak'st, 105 01else thou a r t suborn'd against his honor I n hateful practice. First, his integrity Stands without blemish; next, it imports no reason T h n t wii;h such vehemency he should pursue f he had so offended, 110 Faults proper t o himself. I H e would have weigh'd t h y brother by himself, And not have cut him off. Someone h a t h set you on. Confess the truth, and say b y whose advice T h o u cam'st here t o complain. And is this all? Isabella. 115 Then, 0 you blessed ministers above, Keep me in patience: and with ripen'd time Unfold the evil which is here wrapt u p
,

92 set by pass over. 94 refell'd refuted. 95 vild vilo. 98 concupiscible lewd. 100 remorse pity. 105 fond foolish. 106 suborn'd bribed to bear false witness. 107 practice strstagem. 110 proper belonging.
9s

...

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , V. 1

Iu countenance ! Heaven shield your Grace from woe, As I, thus mrong'cl, hence unbeliered g o ! Duke. I know you'd fain be gone. An officer! 120 T o prison with her! Shall me thus permit A blasting and n scandalous breath t o fall On him so near u s ? This needs must be a practice. Who knew of your intent and coming hither? Isabella. One t h a t I would were here, F r i a r Lodowick. 1 2 . 5 Dulce. A ghostly father, belike. Who knows t h a t Lodowick? Lwcio. RIy lord, I linow him; 'tis a meddling friar. I do not like the man. Had he been lay, my lord, F o r certain words he spalre against your Grace I n your retirement, I had swing'd him soundly. 130 Dulce. Words against me! This' s good friar, belike ! And t o set on this u~retcliedwoman here Against our substitute! L e t this f r i a r be found. Lucio. B u t yesterniglit, my lord, she and t h a t friar, 135 I saw them a t the prison: a saucy friar, A very scurvy fellow. Friar Peter. Blessed be your royal Grace! I have stood by, my lord, and I have heard Your royal ear abus'd. First, htlth this woman 140 Most wrongfully accus'd your substitute, Who is as free from touch o r soil with her, As she from one ungot. We did believe no less. Dulce. Know you t h a t F r i a r Lodovrick t h a t she speaks of?
118 corlntenance authority. 123 practice plot. 128 lay a layman. 130 swing'd beaten. 131 This' this is. 141 soil defilement. 142 mgot unborn.
94

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , V. l

Friar Peter. I know him for a man divine and holy1 4 . 5 N o t scurvy, nor a temporary mcrldler, As h ' s reported by this gentleman; And, on m y trust, a man t h a t ilcvcr yet Did, ns he vouches, ~nisrcportyour Grace. Luacio.M y lord, most villainously-believe it. Friar Peter. Well: he in time may come t o clear himself, 150 IZut n t this instant he is sick, my lord, Of ,z strange fever. Upon his mere request, Being come t o linowledge t h a t there was complaint Intended 'gainst Lord Angelo, came I hether, T o speak, as from his mouth, what he doth know 155 I s true and false; and what he with his oath And all probation will lnnke up full clear, \77hensoever he's convented. First, f o r this woman, T o justify this worthy nobleman, So vulgarlv and personally accus'd, 180 H e r shall gou hear disproved t o her eyes, Till she herself confess it. D-uke. Good Friar, let's hear it.

[IsobeZZa withdraws, guarded.] Enter Mariana. Do you n o t smile at this, Lord Angelo? 0 heaven, the vanity of wretched fools! 16s Give us some seats. Come, cousin Angelo, I n this I'll be impartial. Be you judge Of your own cause. I s this the witness, F r i a r ?
145 temporary in worldly affairs, 152 Upon request ~olely bocuuse he requested it. 154 hether hither. 157 probation proof. 158 Whensoever read 'whensoe'er.' convented summoned. 160 vulgarly publicly. SD Isabella withdraws N. 166 be impartial take no part.
95

.. .

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , V. 1

First, let her show her face, and after speak. Marian.a. Pardon, lriy lord. I will not show my face 170 Until my husband bid me. Duke. What, are you married? Mariana. No, my lord. Duke. Are you a maid? Ilfariana. No, my lord. Duke. A widow, then? 175 Marianu. Neither, my lord. Dulce. Why,. you are nothing, then-neither maid, widow, nor wife? Lucio. M y lord, she may be a punk; for many of 180 them a r e neither maid, widow, nor wife. Duke. Silellce t h a t fellow. I would he had some cause T o p r a t t l e for himself. ~ n ~ c i Well, o. m y lord. M a ~ i a n aM . y lord, I do confess I nere was married, 185 And I confess besides I am no maid: I lmve known my husband, yet my husband Knows not t h a t ever he knew me. Lz~cio.H e was drunk, then, my lord; it can be no better. 189 Dulce. F o r the benefit of silence, would thou wert so
too !

Lucio. Well, my lord. Dulie. This is no witness f o r Lord Angelo. bfariana. Now I come to't, my lord : She t h a t accuses him of fornication, I n selfsame manner doth accuse my husband; And charges him, my lord, with such a time, When, I'll depose, I had him in mine arms, With all th' effect of love.
166 her

105

199

F your. 179 punk prostit~t~e. 184 nere ne'or, never.

96

M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U R E , V, 1

Angelo. Charges she moe than me? Jfariana. Not t h a t I know. Dulce. N o ? You s a y your husband? Jfariatza. Why, just, my lord, and t h a t is Angelo, W h o thinks he knows t h a t he nere linem my body, B u t knows he thinks t h a t he knows Istlbel's. 204 An.gelo. This is a strange abuse. Let's see t h y face. Marlana. My husband bids me. Now I will unmask.
[Unveiling.]

This is t h a t face, thou cruel Angelo, Which once thou swor'st was worth the looking on. This is the hand which, with tt vow'd contract, mras fast belock'd in thine. This is the body eio T h a t took away the match from Isabel, And did supply thee a t t h y garden-house I n her imagin'd person. Duke. Know you this woman? Lucio. Carnally, she says. Duke. Sirrah, no more! Lucio. Enough, my lord. 215 Angelo. M y lord, I must confess I know this woman, And five years since there was some speech of marriage Betwixt myself and her, which was broke off', P a r t l y for t h a t her promised proportions SO Came short of composition, but in chief F o r t h a t her reputation was disvalued I n levity: since which time of five years I never spake with her, saw her, nor heard from her, Upon my faith and honor.
205 abuse deception. 209 contract stressed 211 match appointment. 212 supply gratify. 219 promised F pomis'd. proportions dowry. 220 composition agreement. 222 levity loose conduct.
97

>

MEASURE FOR MEASURE, V. 1

nfnriana. Noble Prince, As there comes light from heaven and words from breath, 225 As there is sense i n t r u t h and t r u t h in virtue, I am affianc'd this man's wife as strongly As words could malte up vows; and, m y good lord, B u t Tuesday night last gone in's garden-house He knenr me a s a wife. As this is true, 230 L e t me in safety raise me from m y knees Or else forever be confixcd here A marble monument. I did b u t smile till now: Angelo. Now, good my lord, give me the scope of justiceMy patience here is touch'd. I d o perceive 235 These poor informal women a r e no more But instruments of some more mightier member That sets them on. L e t me have way, m y lord, T o find this practice out. DU~CE. Ay, with my h e a r t ; And punish them t o your height of pleasure. 240 T h o u foolish F r i a r , and thou pernicious woman, Compact with her that's gone, think'st thou t h y oaths, Though they would swear down each particular saint, W e r e testimonies against his worth and credit 244 That's seal'd in approbation? You, L o r d Escalus, S i t with m y cousin. Lend him your kind pains T o find o u t this abuse, whence 'tis deriv'd. There is another f r i a r t h a t set them on. L e t him be sent for.
332 confixed firmly fixed. 234 scope free play. 236 informal foolkh. 242 Compact leagued. 243 particular read 'parfic'lar.' 244 against read 'gainat.'
98

M E A S U R E F O E M E A S U R E , V. 1

Friar Peter. Would he were here, my lord; for he indeed 250 H a t h set the women on t o this complaint. Your provost knows the place where he abides And he may fetch him. Go do it instantly. [Exit Provost.] Duke. And you, my noble and well-warranted cousin, 255 Whom it concerns t o hear this matter forth, Do with your injuries as seems you best, I n any chastisement. I for rt while Will leave you, but stir not you till you have Well determin'd upon these slanderers. am Escalus, M y lord, we'll do i t throughly. Exit [Duke]. Signior Lucio, did not you say you knew t h a t Friar Lodowick t o be a dishonest person? Lucio. Cucullus non facit monachum: honest in nothing, but in his clothes; and one t h a t hath spolie most villainous speeches of the Duke. 265 Escalus. W e shall entreat you t o abide here till he come and enforce them against him. W e shall find this friar a notable fellow. 269 Lucio. As any in Vienna, on my word. EscaZus. Call t h a t same Isabel here once again. L would speak with her. [Exit an Attendant.] P r a y you, my lord, give me leave to question; you shall see how I'll handle her. Lucio. Not better than he, by her own report. Escalus. Say you? 275 Lucio. Marry, sir, I think, if you handled her privately, she would sooner confess : perchance, publicly, she'll be asham'd.
260 throughly thoroughly. 263 Cucullus momchum the hood does not make the monk. 268 notable worth watching.
99

. ..

H E A S U B E F O B M E A S U R E , V. l

Ester Du&e [in hia friuar's habit], Provost, Isabeaa and Ofli.cers]. 279 Escalus. I will g o darkly t o work with her. Lucio. That's the way: for women a r e light at midnight. Escalus. Come on, mistress. Here's a gentlewoman denies all t h a t you have said. Lucio. My lord, here comes the rascal I spoke ofhere with the provost. 285 Escalus. I n very good time. Speak not you t o him, till we call upon you. Lzhcio. Mum. EscaEzts. Come, sir. Did you set these women on to slander Lord Angelo? They have confess'd you did. Du7ce. 'Tis false. 29 1 Zscalus. How! know you where you are? Duke. Respect t o yo;r great d a c e ! And let the dive1 294 Be sometime honor'd for his burning throne. Where is the Duke? 'Tis he should hear me speak. Escalus. The Duke's in us, and me will hear you speak. Look you speak justly. Dulce. Boldly a t least. But 0, poor souls, Come you t o seek the lamb here of the fox? Good night t o your reclress ! I s t,he Duke gone? 300 Then is your cause gone, too. The Duke's unjust, Thus t o retort your mt~inifestappeal And p u t your trial in the villain's mouth 304 ~ ' h i c hhere you come t o accuse. Lucio. This is the rascal! Tllis is he I spoke of.
279 darkly obscurely. 280 light wanton, a quibble. 294 blmhg thone N. 302 retort throw back.
100

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , V. 1

Escalw. W h y , thou unreverend and unhnllow'd Friar !


Is% not enough thou hast suborn'd these women T o accuse this worthy man but, in foul mouth, And in the witness of his proper ear, 3 10 T o call him villain? And then t o glance from him t o th' Duke himself, T o t a x him with injustice? T a k e him hence. To th' rack with him! We'll touse him joint by joint, B u t ure will know his purpose. W h a t ! 'Unjust' ! 315 Duke. Be not so hot. T h e Duke D a r e no more stretch this finger of mine t h a n he D a r e rack his own: his subject am I not, N o r here provincial. My business in this s t a t e Made me a looker-on here in Vienna, Where I have seen corruption boil and bubble 320 Till i t orerun the stew. Lams f o r all faults, B u t faults so countenanc'd, t h a t the s t r o n g statutes S t a n d like the forfeits in a barber's shop, As much in mock as mark. Escalus. Slander t o th' state! Away with him t o 325 prison ! Angelo. W h a t can gou vouch against him, Signior Lucio ? I s this the man t h a t you did tell us o f ? Lucio. 'Tis he, my lord. Come hither, goodman bald329 pate. D o you know me? Duke. I remember you, sir, by the sound of your voice. I met you at the prison in the absence of the Duke.
309 i n ear in his own hearing. 313 touse tear. him F ymc, 318 provincial within hie juristliction. 321 stew cauldron, brothel. 323-4 forfeits mark N.

. ..

...

101

M E A S U R E F O R M E A H U R E , V. 1

Lucio. 0 , did you so? And do you remember what you said of the Duke? Duke. Most notedly, sir. 535 Lucio. D o you so, sir? And was the Duke a fleshmonger, a fool, and a coward, as you then reported him t o be? Duke. You must, sir, change persons with me, ere you make t h a t my report. You, indeed, spoke so of 34 1 him; a n d much more, ~nuchworse. Lucio. 0 thou damnable fellow! Did not I pluck thee by the ncse for thy speeches? Du,ke. I protest I low .the Duke as I love myself. Angelo. H a r k how the villain would close now, 346 after his treasonable abuses ! Escalus. Such a fellow is not t o be talk'd withal. Away with him t o prison! Where is the provost? Away with him t o prison! L a y bolts enough upon him, let him speak no more. Away with those giglets too, and with the other confederate companion ! 351 [The Provost lays 7~ands on the DuI,.e.J Duke. Stay, sir: stay a while. Angelo. W h a t ! Resists he? Help him. Lucio. Lucio. Come, sir; come, sir; come, sir. Foh, sir! Why, you bald-pated, lying rascal, you must be hooded, must you? Show your knave's visage, with a pox t o you! Show your sheep-biting face, and be 358 hang'd an hour ! Will't not off? [Pulls of the friar's hood, and discovers the Duke.] Duke. T h o u art the first knave t h a t ere mad'st a Duke. First, Provost, let me bail these gentle three. 360
335 notedly particularly. 345 close come to t e r m . 347 withal with. 350 giglets lewd women. 357 sheep-biting ekulking.
102

MhASURE FOR MEASURE,

V.

[ T o Lucio.] Sneak not away, sir, f o r the f r i a r and

Must have a word anon. Lay hold on him. Lucio. This nlay prove worse than hanging. Duke. [ T o Escnlus.] W h a t you have spoke I pardon. S i t you down, We'll borrow place of him. [ T o Angelo.] Sir, b y your leave. 309 H a s t thou or word, o r wit, o r impudence T h a t yet can do thee office? I f thou hnst, Rely upon i t till my tale be heard, And hold no longer out. AngeZo. 0 my dread lord! WO I should be guiltier than my guiltiness 'Fo think I can be undiscernible, When I perceive your Grace, like power divine, R n t h lonk'd upon my passes. Then, good Prince, No longer session hold upon my shame, 375 But let my trial be mine own confession. ~rnrnediatesentence, then, and sequent death I s rill the grace I beg. Duke. Come hither, Mariana. Say, mast thou ere contractcd t o this woman? 379 Angelo. I was, my lord. Duke. Go take her 'hence, and m a r r y her instantly. Do you the office, Friar-which consummate, Return him here again. Go with him, Provost. Exit [Angelo, with Mariana, Friar Petcr, and I'rouost]. Escalus. M y lord, I a m more amaz'd a t his dishonor T h a n a t the strangeness of it.
366 or

YOU

. . . or either . . . or. 369 hold . . . out maintain no

longer silence. 371 be undiscernible remain unrevealed. 373

passes devices. 374 session hold sit in judgment. 381 consummate performed. 103

M E A S U R E FOB M E A S U B E , V. 1

Du.lze. Come hither, IsabeL Your f r i a r is now your prince. As I was then 385

Advertising and holy t o your business, Not changing heart with habit, I a m still Attorney'd a t your service. Isabella. 0,give me pardon, T h a t I, your vassal, have employ'd and pain'd 389 Your unknown sovereignty. Duke. You a r e pardon'd, Isabel. And now, dear maid, be you as free t o us. P o u r brother's death, I know, sits at your heart, And you Inay marvel why I obscur'd myself, Laboring t o save his life, and would not rather Make rash remonstrance of my hidden power 895 Thnn let him s o be lost. 0 most kind maid, It was the swift celerity of his death T h a t brain'd my purpose: but peace be with him. T h n t life is better life, p a s t fearing death, 399 Thnn t h a t which lives t o fear. Make it your comfort, S o h a p p y is your brother. Enter Angelo, Mariana, [Friar] Peter, Provost. Isabella. I do, my lord. D2~7ce. F o r this new-married man approaching here, Whose salt imagination yet h s t h wrong'd Your well-defended honor, you must pardon F o r Mariana's sake. B u t as he adjudg'd your brotherBeing criminal, in double violation 386 Advertising (stressed - - L ) and holy ministering and
dcvot,ed. 388 Attorney'd i.e. as an advocate or special pleader. 391 free generous. 393 marvel probably to be read 'mar'l.' 395 rash remonstrance hasty manifestation. 397 celerity read 'celer'ty.' 398 brain'd battered. 401 So thus. 403 salt lmivious. 406 rriminal guilty.
104

M E A S U B E F O B M E A S U B E , V. 9

Of sacred chastity, and of promise-breach, Thereon dependent, for your brother's l i f e T h e very mercy of the law cries out 41G &lost audible, even from his proper tongue, 'An Angelo for C l a d i o , death for death!' H a s t e still pays haste, and leisure answers leisure, Zike doth quit like, and Measure still for hleasure. Then, Angelo, t h y fault's thus manifested, Which though thou wouldst deny, denies thee van415 tage. We do condemn thee t o the very block Where Claudio stoop'd t o death, and with like haste. Away with him ! Afar iana. 0, my most gracious lord! I hope you will not mock me with a husband. Dulce. I t is your husband mock'd you with a hus420 band. Consenting t o the safeguard of your honor, I thought your marriage fit. Else imputation, F o r t h a t he knew you, might reproach your life And choke your good t o come. F o r his possessions, 425 Although by confutation they a r e ours, \ITe d o instate and widow you with all, T o buy you a better husband. 0 my dear lord ! AIariana. I crave no other, nor no better man. Duke. Never crave him; we a r e definitive. ilfariana.. Gentle my liegeYou d o but lose your Duke. labor. 430
413 Measure Yeasure N. 415 vantage the advantage of any such denial. 422 imputation censure. 425 confutation the fact. of Angelo's proven guilt N. 426 instate and widow give you as a widow's legacy. 429 definitive firmly resolved.
105

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M E A S U R E FOB M E A S U R E , V. 1

Away with him t o death! [ T o Lucio.] Now, sir, t o you. Mariasta. 0 my good lord! Sweet Isabel, take my art : Lend me your knees, and, all my life t o come, 434 1'11 lend you all my life t o d o you service. Duke. Against all sense you do importune her: Should she kneel down in mercy of this fact, H e r brother's ghost his paved bed would break, And take her hence in horror. Ilfariana. Isabel, Sweet Isabel, do yet but ltneel by me: Hold u p your hands, say nothing, I'll speali all. 440 They say best men a r e moulded out of faults, And, for the most, become much more the better F o r being a little bad: so may my husband. 0, Isabel! will you not lend a knee? Duke. H e dies for Claudio's death. Isabella. [Kneeling.] Most bounteous sir, 445 Look, if it please you, on this man condemn'd, As if my brother liv'd. I partly think A due sincerity governed his deeds, Till he did look on me. Since it is so, 450 Let him not die. M y brother had but justice, I n t h a t he did the thing f o r which he died: F o r Angelo, His a c t did not oretake his bad intent, 454 And must be buried but as an intent T h a t perish'd by the may, Thoughts are n o subjects,
I

436 fact evil deed. 437 paved bed i.e. vaulted with stone N. 4 2 for the most in most cases. 448 sincerity read 'sincer'ty.' 455 Thoughts are no subjects thoughts are not punishable by
the state. 106

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , V. l

Intents b u t merely thoughts.


Mariana. Merely, m y lard. Duke. Y o u r suit's unprofitable : stand up, I say. I have bethought me of another fault. Provost, how came it Clnudio was beheaded A t an unusual hour? Provost. I t was commanded so. 480 Duke. H a d you a special warrant f o r the deed? Provost. No, my good lord; i t was by private message. Duke. For which I do discharge you of your office. G i ~u e p your Iceys. Provost. Pardon me, noble lord: 485 I thought it was a fault, but knew i t not, Yet did repent me, after more advice; F o r testimony whereof, one in the prison, T h a t sllould by private order else have died I have reserv'd alive. Duke. What's he? Provost. H i s name is Barnardine. DzL7se. I would thou hadst done so by Claudio. 470 Go, fetch him hither: let me look upon him. [ExitProvost.] Escalus. I am sorry, one so learned and so wise As you, Lord Angelo, hare still apperts'd, Should slip so grossly, both in the heat of blood, 47.= And lack of tenlper'd judgment afterward. Angelo. I am sorry t h a t such sorrow I procure; And so deep sticlcs it in my penitent heart T h a t I crave death more willingly than mercy. 'Tis my deserving, and I do entreat it.
466 advice consideration. 473 still always.
107

M E A S U R E FOR M E A S U R E , V. 1

Enter Barnardine and Provost, Claudio [muffEed], Julietta.

Dulce. Which is t h a t Barnardine? Provost. This, my lord. 481 Duke. There was a friar told me of this man. Sirrah, thou a r t said t o have a stubborn soul, T h a t apprehends no further than this world, And squar'st t h y life according. Thou'rt condemn'd: 48s But, for those earthly faults, I quit them all, And p r a y thee take this mercy t o provide F o r better times t o come. Friar, advise him: I leave him t o your hand. W h a t muffled fellow's t h a t ? Provost. This is another prisoner t h a t I sav'd, Who should have died when Claudio lost his head49 I As like alnlost t o Claudio as himself. [UnntulgEes Claudio.] D&e. [ T o Isabella.] If he be like your brother, f o r his sake I s he pardon'd, and, for your lovely sakeGive me your hand and say you w i l l be mine495 He is my brother too. But fitter time for that. B y this Lord Angel0 perceives he's safe-Methinks I see a quick'ning in his eye. TVell, Angelo, your evil quits you well. Loolc t h a t you love your wife; her worth, worth yours. 500 I find a n a p t remission in myself, And yet here's one in place I cannot pardon.
482 thou art read 'thou'rt.' 484 sqmar'st ~hapes.485 quit remit. 487 advise give spiritual couneel. 498 quits requites. 500 apt remission ready forgiveness. 501 in place present. 108

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E . V. P

[To Lwcio.] You, sirrah, that knew me f o r a fool, a coward, One all of luxury, an ass, a madman: Wherein have I so deserv'd of you, 505 T h a t you extol me thus? Lucio. 'Faitli, my lord, I spoke it but according t o the trick. If yon will hang me for it, you m a y ; but I had rather i t would please you, I might be whipped. Dulie. 'CVhipp'd first, sir, and hang'd after. 5 10 Proclaim it, Provost, round about the city, I f a n y nonlan wrong'd by this lewd fellowAs I have heard him swear himself there's one Whorn he begot with child-let her appear, And hc shall m a r r y her. The nuptial finish'd, 515 Let him be vhipp'd and hnng'd. Lucio. I beseech your Highness, d o not m a r r y me t o a whore. Your Highness said even now, I made you a Duke. Good my lord, do not recompense me in 519 making me a cucliold. Duke. Upon mine honor, thou shalt m a r r y her. Thy sla~lclers I forgive ; and therewithal Remit t h y other forfeits. Take him t o prison, And sec our pleasure herein executed. Lucio. Marrying a punli, my lord, is pressing to death, whipping, and hanging. 525 Dz~ke. Slandering a prince deserves it. [E,~eunt officers with Lucio.1 She, Claudio, t h a t you wrong'd, look you restore. J o y t o you, Mnriana ! Love her, Angelo. 629 9 have confess'd her and I know her virtue.
503 luxury lechery. 506-7 according to the trick as a joke. 52'2 Remit forfeits cancel your other punishments. 524-5 pressing to death i.e. by the placing of heavy weights on the chest. 109

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MEASURE FOR MEASURE,

V.

Thanks, good friend Escalus, for thy much goodness : There's more behind t h a t is more gratulate. Thanks, Provost, for t h y care and secrecy ; '(;tTeshall employ thee in a worthier place. Forgive him, Angelo, t h a t brought you home 535 T h e head of Ragozine f o r Claudio's : Th' offense pardons itself. Dear Isabel, I have a motion mucli imports your good, Whereto if you'll a willing ear incline, What's mine is yours, and what is yours is mine. 540 So, bring us t o our palace, where we'll show 1Frhut's yet behind, that's meet you all should know. [Exmt.]
531 behind to come. gratulate pleasing. 537 motion propod

NOTES

Act I , Scene l
[The Actors' Names] Based upon the l i ~ of t characters appended to the Folio text of the play. Bracketed names appear in the text but 11ot on the list. The list-supplies the Duke's name, Vincentio, which does not appear in the text. Act I The Folio divides this play into acts and scenes throughout. These divisions are 'theatrical1-that is, they are adapted to the special conditions of the Elizabethan stage. Modern editon generally do not begin a new scene at 1.2.118, and generally divide Act I11 into two scenes. 8-9 But work Possibly two half-lincu have becn omitted here, but the text is not unintelligible as it stands. The Duke has just praised lilscalus for a kno~vledgeof government exceeding his onn. Nothing remains, then, except that Escalus apply h i s best abilities to his ~~$CieTLqj-that is, his fitness for government-and let them work together. 30-1 as to thee 'As to justify you in ~ a a t ~ i your n g energy upon the mere cultivation of your virtues or in limiting the effect o f your virtues to your own character' (Durham). 32-3 Heaven themselves Cf. Mattlww 5:15, 'Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlb stick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.' 36-40 Nature use S h e requires and allots t o herself tho same advantages that credit.ors usually enjoy-thanke for the end own lent^ she has bestowed, and ex3raordinary exertions in those whom she has thus favored, by way of interest (use)' (Malone). 41 one advertise One who can, in his own right, make known his abilitie~ as my deputy. 42 Hold Possibly reflecting stage business. The Duke extends the commission to Angelo, whose initial reluctance to accept it

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111

hf.EASt'BE B O B M E A S U R E , I . 1

is emphasized by Shakeepeare. Some editors, however, believe thmt the Duke is here exhorting Angelo to hold fast to those virtues he has just described him as possessing. There is little to choose between the two interprctations. It is quite likely that the text llas been cut. 53-5 Our value The need for our hasty departure is so con~pelling that me must give it preference over important matters which would otherwise recjuire our attention.

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16 petition peace The authorized form of grace under Queen Elizabeth ended with the words, 'God savc our Queen and Realm, and send us peace in Christ.' 22 proportion There are m a y contemporary references to the t*ediouslylong graces fashionable a t the t-ime. Lucio is quibbling on one of the meanings of the word 'meter.' 32 three-pil'd Three-piled-that is, decpnapped-velvet wa velvet of the very fincst quality. The First Gentleman quibbles on this meaning of the term and pil'd meming 'peeled' or 'bald,' with reference to one of the supposed effects of the French Disease, syphilis. 36-9 and thee Lucio mocIririgly interprets the First Gentleman's feelingly (1. 35) as 'painfully,' and so as a confession of a mouth-sore stemming Irom venereal infection. He therefore says that, although he mill start a round of hcalths in his name, he mill avoid drinking after him: that is, out of the same cup. 46-7 I to In the Folio, tllis speech as well as the preceding one is given to Lucio. Pope w a s the first of a succession of editors to give the speech to the First Gentleman, from whom it seems slightly more appropriate in view of the subsequent dialogue. In this case, the Firsk Gentleman's remark (11. 5 3 4 ) must be interpreted as whimsy. Lucio capitalizes on another verbal indiscretion. 89 woman The verb 'to do' (aee the preceding line) was frequently used in this bawdy sense by Elizabethans. Cf. the name Mistress Overdone. 91 Groping river Peculiar means 'privately-owned' and fishing in private waters constituted poaching. One way of catch.

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Act . l Scene , i?

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112

NOTES, I. e

lng trout was t o tickle them out of their hiding-places. Peculiar had also acquired a colloquial meaning of 'mistress.' 94 maid 'Maids' are the young of skate and other fish and, as Wilson points out, Pompey had just mentioned 'groping for trouta.' The explanation, if correct, adds little point and nluch coarseness t o the quibble. 98 suburbs That is, outside the walls of the city, the customary location for Renaissance brothels. The suburbs of London were notorious for them. 115-6 Thomas Tapster bfistreas Overdone addresses Pompey by the name commonly given, in Shakespeare's day, to any tapster. SD Enter Provost Gentlemen The Folio begins a new scene a t this point, perhaps an evidence of revision for, if 1 1 . 86-118 were not present in an earlier text of the play, the Folio division could be defended. The transition from 11. 1-85 to 119 ff. would then have been sharp enough t o warrant a new scene. 125 words of heaven The words of heaven, according to Henley, are those found in Romans 9:15, 'For he [God] saith t o Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.' In addition, the paqsage reflects the conventional Renaissance belief that the ruling prince was a viceroy of God. The meaning, then, would seem to be: the demigod-in this case, Angelo-can make us pay e m t l y (by weight) for our offenses, and his judgments, by virtue of his deputed authorit.y, are as uncontrollable as those of Heaven itself. 137 mortality Thc Folio reading. Most editors emond to ?norality. But the word moralify does not appear elsewhere in Shakespeare whereas mo~tality appears often. The word is ultimately derived from Latin mortalitas which Cooper (Thesaz~rus,1578) dofines: 'Mortality, Erailety, estate subject to decay.' 150 she wife In Shakespeare's day, there were two types of betrothal contract: a contract in words of the future tense ( s p m a l i a per verba de juturo) and a contract in words of the present tcnse (sponsalia per verba de paesenti). The former wab roughly equivalent to the modern 'engagement' and could be broken off a t will. The latter constituted valid and binding xnatri-

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113

M E A S U R E FOB M E A S U B E , I . 9

mony in the eyes of the lam. Consummation of the marriage, however, was not t o take place before the union had received the benediction of the church, or its licensed representative. '110 husband and wife who httve intercourse with each other before the church has blessed their marriage, sin and should be put to penance: they will be compelled by spiritual censures to celebrate their marriage before the face of the church; but they mere married already when they exchanged a consent per terba de pramenti .' (Pollock and Muitland, Tlle History of English Law, 1911, 2,372-3). Claudio's contract was clearly de praesenti. Technically, therefore, Claudio was guilty of fornication, but it must be added that Shakespeare's contemporaries would have regarded his sin as highly venial. Despite the teaching of the church, cohabitation on the basis of unblessed de praesrmti contracts was widely practiced. 161fault newness Tho meaning of this higllly compressed i t be phrase cannot be communicated in a few words. &Whether the fault of newness, a fault arising from the mind being dazzled by a nenr authority, of which the new governor had yet had only a glimpse .' (hlalone). 187 prone and speechless dialect The phrase is usually interpreted as an instance of hendiadys--silently earnest or eager. It is dimcull, however, to find rt precise meaning for prone, perhaps because Shakeweare deliberately makea it anlbiguous: prone, suggesting the posture of supplication, a familiar meaning of Latin pronus, but with overtones of an indelicate sexual connotation it seems to have had for Elizabethans. The play full of such double-entendres.

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Act I , Scene 3
20 steeds The Folio has tueedes, which badly confuses the metaphor, although the reading can be defended. Most editors have adopted the emendation in the text, first suggested by Theobald. Cf. the preceding scene, 11. 162-5. 21 slip The Folio reading,which most editors emend to steep. But the Elizabethan pronunciation of the two morde was virtually identical and, in fact, sleep was sometimes spelled slip. See Helge Kokeritz, Shakespeare's PronuncMth (1953), pp. 146, ll 4

NOTES, I. S

191. Both meanings are in this passage metaphorically appropriate-perhaps reflecting Shakespeare's intention. 37-9 for punishment For we virtually bid people abuse their liberties when evil deeds are permitted to pass without punishment. 42-3 And slander The Folio reads h h t for sight and do in slander for do it slander. The emended reading waa first proposed by Hanmer. The meaning seems to be that, while Angelo is accomplishing the necessary reforms in the name of the Duke, the latter's nature mill remain so completely out of sight that no slander can possibly attach itself to his name.

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A c t I , Scene

J $

32 lapwing A bird notorious for its trickery in leading hunters away from its young. Lucio makes a distinction between what he mys and what he really feels,-'tongue far from hcart.' 49 marry Scxunl intercourse on t.he basis of an unhlessed de pracsenli contract could be partly expinted by a subsecluent cclebmtion of the marriage 'in the face of the church.' 72-6 Doth have These lines have bee11 rearl-angcci by modern editors. In tohe Folio, the lines end with so! already, l . 74) are contracted into warrant, poor, good. The words for his ( For's in the Folio,

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22-3 what thieves Angelo has just said t,hat just.ico can penalize only those offemes which are known t o it. But there is no way for justice (the Zuws) to know when thieves pass judgment on thieves. 38 brakes of vice The Folio reading bralces of ice has never defended. The emendation adopted in the text been convj~lcingly was first proposed by Rion~e.Hos~everenigmatic the phrasing nlay be, the general meaning is clear from the context: 'Some escape from a thicket-like tangle of vices without punishment; others are condemned for a single fault.' 84-90 stew'd prunes There seems t o have been a theory that thia fruit was effective both in the prevention and cure of venereal
116;

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2 c t I I , Scene l

M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. 1

disease, hence its popularity in brothels. Perhape word-pl~yfa involved, too. 'Stews' was a common Elizabethan term for 'brothel.' 130 Bunch of Grapes It was the custom in Elizabethan times to give such names to the different rooms of an inn. 175-6 Justice or Iniquity? That is, Elbow or Pompey. There i s a glancing allusion here to ,the old morality plays, in some o f which the Vice is actually named Iniquity. 209 draw you A quibble on the name 330th as wcll as on ' z h g ,draw, and quarter.' They will draw you-that is, empty you, deprive you of all your money and possessions. 222 bum The buttocks, but also the fantastically stuffed trunlr hose xvhich en~phrrsized the buttocks and which were very much in vogue a t the time. 249 bay A unit of measurement in contemporary architecture. 'Applied to a house,' the NED says, 'it appears to be the space lying under one gable, or included between two party walls.' The bays of the Globe Theater were twelve and a half feet aquare. See John C. Adams, The Globe PZu?lhoztse, pp. 20-1. 255-6 I shall you Tho relclance is t o the decisive defeat of Pompcy by Caesar a t the battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C. 273 put upon't It was the practice for the ward or paritsh to choose its own constrtble; the latter, if he wished, might then pay someone else t o act as his deputy.

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40-1 To fine actor To fine means 'to punish.' Angela asserts that justice would be not,hing if, instead of punishing the criminals, its sole function was to condemn their crime* crimes already condemned in the statute books. 242-3 She it Here the two meanings of sense, upon which Shakespeare plays over and over again, are found in close jutaposition. The lines recall 1.2.186-90. 160 prayers cross As Isabella has just used the term Honur, 1t is a title of respect. Taking the word in its normal sense, Angelo pretends t o see in Isabella's renlark a prayer a t cross purpoiies with the wish which has formed in his own heart. There

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Act I I , Scene 92

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116

N O T E S , 11. 9

le probably also an oblique reference to the Lord's Prayer'Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.' 169 Corrupt season I am corrupted by thoso very qualities which make her virtuous, just as it is the same sun which makes carrion putrid and the violet lovely and fragrant. 173 evils I t has been said that privies were once known aa a d s but the hTED does not record this meaning. To support the 0 : 2 7 . general conception, there is a scriptural parallel in 2 Kings 1

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40-2 0 horror Some editors would read E a w for loue. But the meaning seems clear enough. Their illicit. love hrtE injured both Claudio and Julietta in that it baa brought Claudio a sentence of death and respited Julietta a cornfortlcss life, n1mo:;t worse than death itsclf. I n Shakespeare's source-plajr, R h e t r stone's Promos and Cassandm, Polina, the counterpart of Julietta, and those of in a long soliloquy, blames love for her ~nisfortuncs her condemned lover (Part I, Act V, Scene 3).

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Act 11, Scene 3

16-17 Let's write crest For Is'l trot (Warburton, Hanmer) the Folio reads 'Tis not. The horn is the devil's crest. In As You Like It (IV.2.1&15), Jacques sings of a horn which is also a crest. Playing on his own name (good Angel), Angclo here Hccrns to be drawing a parallel between himself and the devil, the masterhypocrite, perhaps in his self-revulsion identifying himself with the devil, as Iago with other feelings does in OthelEo. 32 know In his mind, Angelo translates Isabella's innocent 'I have come t o h o w your pleasure' into the language of sexual gratification. To know a woman was to have sexual relations with her. 46-9 'tis one That is, it i s no rrorse wrongfully to take away the life of a man who has been legitimately born than it ie to beget an illegitimate child. The coining metaphor is further developed. For 'meanes' as a variant spelling of 'mints,' see Kokeritz, Shakespeare's Pronun&ion, p. 215. 50 'Tis earth 'What you have stated is undoubtedly the 117

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Act II,

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M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 11. 4

divine law: murder and fornication are both forbid by the canons of scripture; but on earth the latter offence is considered aa less heinous than the former' (Malone). 58 for accompt That is, we are not called to such strict account for the sins which are forced upon us as for those we commit voluntarily. Only the number of compell'd sins, therefore, has real significance. 80 enshield Dover Wilson would read enshelkd, calling attention t o Ben Jonson's illasque o f Bhckness (produced Jan. 5, 1605), in which the female maequers, one of whom was Queen Anne, made their appearance in a large concave shell resembling mothcr-of-pearl. 122-3 If weakness Angelo has just admitted that all men are frail, and thy wealcness is the wealiness of the male sex: 'If no one else has shared my brother's weakness, if he alone has inherited the male frailty to which you refer, then let him die.' 127-8 Men them The primary meaning, as Wilson saw, is suggested by the preceding metaphor. Women are as fragile as mirrors and, like mirrors, they too make forms-that is, men. Hence, when men take advantage of woman's frailty, they are marring the sex which brought them into being. 145-7 I others 'Your virtue assumes an air of licentiousness, which is not natural t o you, on purpose to try me' (Steevens). This speech explains why Isabella a t first receives Angelo's blunt declaration of love (l. 141) so calmly,

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Act 111, Scene l


9 skyey influences The received opinion in Shakespeare's day was that the stare and planets influenced not only weather conditions but the affairs and lives of men. A man's fate w m in hie 'stars.' Cf. the note to III.1.24r5. 14-15 For baseness 'For all the conveniences and comforts you possess are provided by the base o6ces and occupations of others.' But the phrase 'Are nurs'd by baseness' may mean 'Are cherished out of low and selfish motives.' 1f3-17 For worm Editors generally take w o r n in its common Elizabethan sense of 'enake.' But by the poor w m , Shake-

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l18

N O T E S , 111. 1

speare may mean the grave or coffin worm to which, by analogy with 'snake,' hc ascribes a forked tongue in a delicate mocliery of man's pretensions to valor. 24-5 For moon .Your temperament is influenced in many &range directions by the operation of the moon.' The moon, a symbol of mutability, was believed to affect human character and conduct. 3'24 Thou both 'When me are young, we busy oursclvetr in forming schemes for succecding time, and miss the gralifications that are before us; when we are old, we amuse the languor of age with the rec~llcct~ion of youthful pleasures or performances: so that our lifc, of which no part is filled nith the business of the present time, resembles our dreams after dinner, when the eventa of the morning are mingled with the designs of the evening' (Johnson). 34-6 for Eld A passage which has never been satisfactorily explsined, possibly because it may be corrupt. Perhaps ' i n your youth you are forced into a dependence on old age, and are like palsied eld in begging alms.' The central idea is that, in our youth, when we are in a position to enjoy lifc, we lack the means to do so. By the time we are old and rich, we have lost the power of enjoyment. SD Enter Isabella Folio stage entrances tend t o reflect playhouse conditions. It takes a few moment,s for the actor, entering from back or side, t o reach the center of the stage. Modern editors often find it convenient to drop Folio entrances s few lines. 53 SD Modern editors indicate that the Duke and Provost leave the stage a t this point but the Folio gives no 'Exeunt.' Nor does the Folio provide a re-entry for the Duke at 1. 151. Probably the Duke and Provost simply withdraw to one side of the s h g e or, if the action of the scene was initiated on the inner stage, to the outer stage. scope Though you were free t o range over 69-70 Though hhe wide world, you ivould still be mentally confined to the idea of your own ignominy. 94 prenzie The only two occurrences of this word in the language, according to the NED, appear here \vilhin the #pace of a

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M E A S U R E F O R M E A S U R E , 111. 1

few lines. Cf. prenzie guards in l. 97. There has been no satisfactory elucidation of the word's meaning. The context seems t o k i n to 'puritanical' or 'prim.' Hotson, howrequire n meaning a ever, believes that p e k e is Shakespeare's translation of the now obsolete Italian word for 'prince' (prmze) and that prenzie guards nleana therefore 'prillce-robes, clothes with rich trimming.' 'l'he explanation is not very convincing. 123 region The conception of Hell as alternating between ~ e vere cold and intense heat was medieval in origin. Both Dante (Inferno, canto VI) and &lilton (Paradise Lost, 1 1 , 587-603) draw upon the conception. 216-7 between solemnity The contract of Angelo, like that of Claudio, was of the de praesenti type, constituting legal matrimony. Also, like that of Claudio, it had not been solemnized 'in the face of the church.' 272 SD Exit Modern editors, with the exception of Wilson, begin a new scene a t this point, alttllough one is not designated in the Folio and, in fact, iB scsrcely necessary. Isabella makes her exit, but the Duke remains on stage and is present when Elbow and his officers enter with their prisoner, Pompey. 278-9 two usuries Procuring nnd moneylending. Contemporary references show that moneylenders were accustomed to wear gowns furred in this manner. I-Ierc the fox skin connotes craft and the lamb skin, innocence. 286 brother father The Duke good-l~umoredlymocks Elbow's awkward form of address. Elbow was probably represented on the stage as old and doddering. 313 His waist Elbow makes capital of the fact that the hempen rope which Franciscan friars wore aa a girdle was also the kind of rope generally used in hangings. 319 Pygmalion's images According to legend, Pygmalion made a statue of a woman so beautiful that he fell in love with it. When he embraced it, the statue came t o life. Lucio mocks the tendency of bawds to exaggerate the beauty and chastity of the prostituta they represent. 'IIrtve you no women to sell who are as beautiful and unstained as Pygmalion's statue when it first came to life?' 330-1 she tub Pompey cluit)bles on two kinds of tubs: one for coming beef, the other, into which salt waa put, for

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N O T E S , 111. 1

aweating bdividua1s Buffering from venereal disease. Hence, powder'd ( l . 333) means 'salted.' 386-7 motion generative A puppet waa k n o m as a motion. Lucio seems to imply that, although h g e l o has the organs of generation, he makes no more use of them than if he wcre a puppet. 390 cod-piece A baggy and often indelicately conspicuous appendage t o the front of the breeches. 457 mutton The primary reference is t o fasting on Fridays during Lent, but Lucio glances a t another meaning of m u t h common a t the timc, 'prostitute.' 455 He's thee Hanrner'~emendation. The Foho reads 'He's now past it, yet (and I say to thee),' which can be defended. But the context suggests that the emended rending is preferable. Lucio, furthermore, is not one to qualify his remarks. For Shakeepeare to have him do so here would be out of character. 479 Philip and Jacob The feast of St. Philip and St. James was celebrated on May 1. Jacobus the Latin equivalent of James. 503 security The Duke alludes t o the prnciice of one friend eianding security for ancther, which often led t o broken friendships when bonds were forfeited. 537-58 H e contracting bl'any critics believe these o c t e eyllabic couplets were not written by Shakespeare. There is some clumsiness in the phrasing and in general no clear purpose would aeem t o be served by a chorus a t this point. Wilson, while bclieving that the verse itself is un-Shakespearean, calls attention to the similarity between this chorus and the Gomer choruses in Pericles. The problem appears insoluble. 549-52 How things A most difficult passage and perhaps corrupt. Editors attempt to construe it with the preceding verses, but it might be better to view the lines as interrogatory and transitional. This interpretation is supported by the Folio punctuation of the passage, restored in the present edition. The Duke asks himself how, by adopting spider-like methods of deceit, roughly similar t o those of Angelo ('Craft against vice' and 'Pay with falsehood, false exacting'), he can take advantage of the current situation to encompass (To draw nleaning 'dram to121

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l h E A S - U R E trOR M E A S U R E , 111. 1

gether') the substantial ends he had--earlier outlined t o h b e l l a (see 111.1.252-6). Angelo has made t,he relationship between Claudio and Julietta a criminal one and it is by a 'likeness made I ncrimes9-that is, by the device of the bed-trick-that the Duke hopes to ensnare Angelo.

Take vain This song appears also in Fletcher's Bloody Brother (V.2) with, howevor, the addition of a second stanza.
There is no way of knowing whether Shakespeare or Fletcher was its author. The most lilccly errplanation is that Shakespeare wrote the song m we have i t in this play and that then Fletcher added the new (and more erotic) stanza to make thc song conform t o his special purposes in The Bloody Brother. On this point, see William R. Bowden, The English Dramatic Lyric, 160342, p. 28. 7 M y mirth woe That is, the music clid not make me mirthful but served only to assuage my sorrow. 70 tilth Folio tithe's, for which no editor has been able to find a satisfactory meaning. Tllc emendation, first proposed by Warburton, restores both scnse and point to the proverb-like =ying. Act IV, Scene 2

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Act IV, Scene 1

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44-8 Every thief The Folio ends Abhorson's speech with thiej (1. 44) and gives the rest of it to Pompey. The alteratio9, first made by Capell, has been adopted by almost all subsequent editors. The argument of the hangman is based upon the fact that i t was custonlnry for Elizabethan hangmen to inherit the clothing worn by thcir victims a t the time of execution. His reasoning, as 1Icath pointed out, runs exactly purallcl to that of Pompey. 'As the latter putts in his claim to the whores, as mcmbers of his occupation, and, in virtue of their painting, would enrol1 his own fraternity in the mystery of painters; so the former equally lays claims to the thieves, as members of his profession, and in their right, endeavors to rank his brethren, the hangmen, under the mystery of fitters of apparel, or tailors.' 52 he forgiveness Another custom of hangmen was to ask forgiveness from thoso they were about to execute. 82 stroke and line Angelo'rj manper of life ia consistent with

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NOTES, I V . l

Me ideals of rendering justice; he practices what he preachea. There may be n quibble on strolce (blow of the executioner's ax) and line (the hangman's cord). 182 dye The Folio reading lie can be defended, but see ,4ct IV, Sccne 3. 11. 7 3 4 . IIarrison suggests that to tie a beard was to trim i t short. The emendation adopted in the text was first proposed by Simpson.

Act IV, Scene 3


5-9 commodity dead By Act of Parliament in 1571, not more t'han 10 per cent interest could be charged on loam. Moneylenders, however, could, and frequently clid, evade the statute by the legal device known as *commodities.' Before making a loan of cash, the moneylender would require the borrower to purchase a .commodity' of goods, usually of little or no value. Thus, in the case of 3fwler Rash, the 'commoclity' was 'brown paper and old ginger.' For this he paid 197 and received a loan of five marks (E3.6s.Sd.). But, unfortunately, there turned out to be no r~ttrket for the ginger, sirice all the old women, who were notoriously fond of it, had died. Pompej-, as usual, is indulging his penchant for lighthearted esaggerat.ion.'; 17 Shoe-tie The significance of this namo is explained by a pmsage in Nashe's Unfortunate Traveller (hfcI<errow, 2, 300-l), quoted by E t and Wilson. 'From Spaine what bringeth our Traveller? I have not yet tucht all, for he hath in either shoo as much taffatie for his tyings as weld serve for an ancient; which serveth him (if you mil have the mysterie of it) of the o m e accord for a shoo-rag.' 43-4 I for't To take the life of a man when he had not confessed, and bcen absolved from, liis sins was t40 place his eternal life in jeopardy. So Hamlet will not kill King Claudius while he is praying but prefers tbowait until he is 'drunk asleep or in his rage' or in the performance of some act 'That lmth no relish of salvation in't.'

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Act ZV, Scene

4
123

16-9 Well night Set 8s prose in t,he Folio, possibly a printer's mistake. The passage is easily translated into blank

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M E A S U R E F O B M E A S U R E , TV. 4

verse and in many editions it is so rearranged, In thh case, the end words for the successive lines would be proclaim'd, house, suit, well.

Act V , Scene l
SD Isabella withdraws The Folio has no stage direction t o indicate that Ieabella leaves the stage a t this time. Yet the Duke, a t 1. 242, refers t o her as gone and, a t l. 270, Escalus orders that Isabella be called here once again. She is given a re-entry a t 1. 278. Cnpcll was the first to establish her esit e t 1. l62 and modern editora have followed his precedent. Despite the remarks of Friar Peter, 1. 161, that the Duke will hear Isabells 'disproved to her eyes,' the latter seems not t o have heard the testimony of hiariana. See 11. 282-3. The problem appears insoluble on the basis of available evidence. Wilson suggests that them may have been some tampering wilh the text a t this point. 394 burning throne The Dulie implies that the devil haa ascended the seat of justice in the person of tbgelo--.another version,' comnlents Hart, 'of the good angel on the devil's crest.' 3 2 3 4 forfeits mark The j d i t s , as Hart shonrs, 'were teeth extracted by barbers who doubled as dentists. To advertise their clual function, barbers were wont to hang teeth on a string and exhibit them in their shops. Thus, the e-utracted teeth stand in the same relrttion to the 'strong statutes' as the 'threatJning twigs of birch' in 1.3.24. 413 Measure Measure Cf. Rhtthem 7:2. 'nor with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, i t shall be measured to you again.' And see the next three verses in Matthew. 425 confutation. So Folio. htost editors emend to 'confiscation.' In the longhand of the time, thc letters 'c' and 't' looked very much alike and it is easy to seo how the compoeitor could have made s mistake, reading 'confutation' for 'confiscation.' The Folio reading, however, can be defended. 437 paved bed Common graves were not pwed. Hart believe0 there may be a reference to the 'custom' of burying executed criminals under the stone flooring of the jail. But it seems more likely that the Duke is alluding to the family crypt or vault. 1 2 ;

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T e x t and Date
It is now generdy accepted that there waa a performance of Measure for Measure a t Court on St. Stephen's Day, Dec. 26, 1604. Probably the play as we know it was finished earlier in the same year. Two apparent references to IGng James (1.1.67-72; 11.4.26-30) and a possible reference t o the plague year of 1603 (1.2.84) suggest that a t least poriions of the play were written after March 14, 1603, when James ascended the English throne. But the alleged references are by no means certain, and recently J. Dover \;tTilson has complicated the problem of a date for Measure for measure by arguing that the play shows evidence of one or more revisions over a period of years. On the whole, however, the style would seem to support the belief that Shakespeare gave the play its final shaping in 1604. There is no evidence that ~lleasu~e for llleasure was published during Shakespeare'~lifetime. Consequently, the Folio of 1623 provides the only authoritative text. Cnfortunately, the condition of this text entirely justifies Wrlson's conclusion that the copy from which it was printed was not an autograph or playhouse manuscript but the work of a rather careless transcriber, who may even have assembled the play from the 'parts' of individual actors. Many entrances ancl exits are omitted from the Folio text and thc stage directions are very thin-facts which give some plausibility to the 'assemblage' theory. The present edition b based, therefore, upon the text of the First Folio. Emenda,tions have been sparingly introduced. A few obvious printer's errors and mislinentions are silently corrected. Otherwise, all departures from the Folio text are duly recorded. Significant emendations are discussed in the notes.
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APPENDIX B

Source
M m r e for Afensure remains one of Shakespeare's most puzzling plays. Revaluatione of the play in the last twenty years have greatly enriched our ~nderst~anding of its thought and poetry, but each new interpretation seems to have raised nlmost as many questions as i t has answered. I t is therefore especially gratifying to know the direct source of lCIeasure for Measure. Such a Bource will always furnish interesting materials for a study of Shakespeare's methods and may often suggest fruitful approaches to the problem of interpretatioiz. The direct source of Measure for Measure is George Whetatone's The riylzt ezceUent and famous IIistorue of Pronws and Carsandm: Divided into Commical Discourses, in two parts, published in 1578. The play was apparently never acted. Four years later, Whetstone published a prose version in a collection 01 short stol.ies called An Heptameron of Civil2 Disco~~rses. FVletstone himself had derived his plot from one of the tales in the Iiecatommithi of Giraldi Cinthio, published in Sicily in 1565. Al. some time before 1573, the latter had also dramatized the tale in a play entitled Epitia. It is poesible that Shakespeare knew the Cinthio versions, and it is all but ccrinin that he h e w the Nepta.meron, narrated by 'Madame Isabella,' which may have suggested the name of his heroine. But the only essential debt is to the play of Promos and Cassandra. Whetstone makes the city Julio, in Hungary, the setting for his drama. It begins with the reading of letters from Corvinus, King of Hungary, designating one Promos as the new deputygovernor of Julio and giving him full powers 'to weede from good the yll.' In his speech of acceptance, Promos stressee the
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APPENDIX B

need for judicial integrity and impartiality. 'Each shall be doomde,' he says, 'even as his merite is,' but he pointedly assert8 the dcsirability of tempering justice with mercy. Then, as in Alemure for Ilileasure, the reader is transported into the heart of the city for a glance a t the prevailing lawlessness. Sexual corruption is especially evident. B7e are introduced to Lamia, a notorious strumpet and her 'man,' Rosko, the prototypes of Mistress Overdone and Pompey. From Roslro we learn that I'romos has alrcady acted; he has revived an old law making Eornimtion a crrpl,nl offe~se arid a young man named Andrugio has been arrested and sentenced to death. Lamia is distressed by this piece of news, envisaging a hopeless lire of chastity and poverty, but Roslco heartens her with the information that, Phallax, the deputy's 'secondary,' is notoriously susceptible to 'lace mutton.' In the meantime, Andrugio appeals to h i s sister, Cassandra, t o intercede on his behalf before the governor. She quickly consents. In the first of two interviews nith Promos, she pleads with him to 'over-rule the force of law^ &h mercie' and urges as extenuating factors her brother's 'yong yeares,' his overmastering passion, and his intention to marry his mistress, Polins. Promos tells her to return on the morrow. Cassal-dra, it immediately develops, has moved him more by her person than by her eloquence. In a brief soliloquy following her departure, he lamenta the (sodaine change' her beauty and 'modcst wordes' have wrought in him. Promos now reveals his passion for Cassandra to Phallax, and is advised by the latter to offer Cassandra a choice of alternatives: either she must yield up her body t o the governor or her brother must die. Confronted with this choice a n the occasion of their second meeting, Cassandra indignantly tells Promos 'my selfe wyll dye ere I my honor stayne.' The governor's promise of a subsequent marriage is spurned, and Cassandra hurries off t o inform her brother of the new develop ment. Unlike Claudio in &leasure for Measure, Andrugio shows no trace of horror at the vile offer of the governor. Arguing that 'in forst faultes is no intent of yll,' he begs Cassandra to do m Prom- wishes. Up to thii point i n the action, the eventa of Promos and Cas8andra are closely para1le:ed by those in Measure for Measwe.
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MEASURE FOR M E A S a R r '

But now Shakespeare and Whetstone part company. Cassandra a t length yields to her brother's entreaties and makes the sacrifice which she has been Icd to believe will save his life. But she is mistaken. Promos fullills neither of his two promises; he makes it clear that he has no ir~tentionof marrying her and, instead of releasing her brother, gives order that he be executed forthwith and his head prcsentcd to Cassandra on a platter. A friendly jailer, however, frees Andrugio, who betaltes hinlself to the woods. For the head of Andrugio, he substitutes 'A dead man's head that suffered tli' other day,' and it is this head which with grief, Cassandrn now he displays t o Cassandra. Distraugl~t resolves t o go t o ICing Corvinus with the nrhole story. This resolution is made a t the end of Act W, Scene 4, of the First Part. Not until the last scene of the Second Part is final justice meted out. . alliance Between these limits, the action moves s l u g ~ l yThe between corruption in government, represented by Phallax, and corruption in civil life, represented by Lanlia and Rosko, haa produced a flourishing immorality. As Shakespealqe was later t o do, Xihetstone intersperses his main action with subplot scenes designed to illustrate this immorality. Corvinus arrives in the city a t the end of Act I (of the Second Part) and, shortly afterwards, is~ues a proclamation announcing his intention t o sit in judgment upon grievances. First, Phallax is exposed; Corvinus orders his goods confiscated and strips him of his office. Then C a w n d r a comes forward and lodges her accusat4ionagainst the governor. For having unjustly done h d r u g i o to death, Promos receives the sentence of execution; but he must firljt marry Cmsandra 'to repayre hir honour.' Cassandra non1 undergoes an astonishing change of heart. Nature wyld mee my brother love; now dutie commaunds mee To preferre before l g a or friend, my husband's safetie. Meanwhile Andrugio has l~card of the death sentence passed upon Promos, and magnanimously resolves to give himself up in order that he may not see Cassandra 'plunged in distren.' Promos is already on his way t o execution when Andrugio, in a t'imely arrival, reveals his true identity to the king. Impressed by this 1 2 8

APPENDIX R

unselfish action, Corninus sets Andrugio free after extracting a promise that he will marry Polina. A repentant Pro~nosfares even better. At Cassandra's request, the king not only restores him t o his freedom but--surprisingly-to his office as well. h d on this pleasant note the play ends. The plot of Promos and Cassandra haa much t o recommend i'i, and no reader will fail t o notice the extent t o which Shakespeare o it. But i t has one grave 5 w . The marriage of is indebted t C w a n d r a to her seducer and the would-be murderer of her brother is as dista~ltcfulas i t is psychologically unsound. Whetstone's attempt t o motivate it by representing Cassandra m falling in love with Promos succeeds only in draning atten'lion to its initial absurdity. I t was clearly his recognition of this flaw which led Shakespeare t o make 1 ~ most s strilung alteration in the plot of the original story. By introducing the llariana story and the device of the bed-trick, he contrives t o save the virtue of his heroine Isabella and, a t the same time, does no disservice to hlariana, vhose love for Angelo, it is made clcar, had triumphsntly w i v e d the passage of time and his original dislike for ner. Shakespeare's only other major alteration is the increased scope he gives to the activities of the Duke. In the old play, 'Corninus, King of Hung& is simply the agent by means of which the action is finally resolved-a deus ex machinu. In dieasZLT(:for Measure, the powerful figure of the Duke in the background, in touch a t all times with the developing situation and always controlling it, transfers our main attention from the plot to the issuce which have set it in motion. The theme of Whetstone's play is tveakly defined and executed. Indeed, if the reader is not alert, he tends to lose sight of the theme altogether until suddenly confronted with it in the parting advice which IGng Conrinus gives Promos. Henceforth, f o r e t m e of thy forepassed faultea, And measure grace with Justice evermore. Unto the poore have evermore an eye, And let not might out countenaunce their right. Thy officers trust not in every tale, In cheife, when they are meanes in strifee and sui;es:
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M E A S U R E FOR MEASURE

Though thou bc just, yet c o p e maye them corrupt; Brld if by them thou dost injustice shome, Tys thou shalt beare the burden of their faultea.

Aa these Iincs suggest4,for Whetstone the idea that the good governor should temper strict justice with mercy is ancillary to the more general propositions that 'might' should not be confused with 'right' ancl tlmt the ruler is ultimately responsible far the actions of his subordinates. I t was the mercy theme, however, which cornmended itself to Shalccspeare's poetic imagination, and around which he carefully construc:ted his play. To this theme Shakespeare attached a dignity and importance for which there is no precedent in Whetatone. It may be added that Measure for Measure is the only play of Shakespeare with a thematic title.

APPENDIX

Reading List
CHAMBERS, 'The Jacobean Shaltespenre and Measure Jar Measure,' bridal Shake~penre Lecture of the British Academy, London, 1937. FRANCIS FERGUSSON, 'Philosophy and Theatre in Measure fur ~lieasure,'Kenyon Review, 14 (1952), 102-20. a. WILSON KNIGHT, The .CT7heel of Fire. London, 1930. HELGE KOKERITZ, Shakespeare's Pronztnciation, I4s~ Haven, 1953. MARY I,..E~ELLES, Shakespeare's '~VIeamtre for Measure,' London, 1953. WIIILIAM W. LA'FVRDINCE, Shakespeare's Problem Conzedies, New York, 1931. F. R. LEAVIS, 'The Greatness of Measure for Measure,' Scrutiny, 10 (1941-2), 23447. CLIFFORD LEECH, 'The "Meaning7' of Afeasure for Illeasure,' Shakespeare Survey, S (195l), G6-73. ELIZABETH M. POPE, 'The Renaissance Background of Afeaszcre for Measure,' Shakespeare Survey, (1950), 62-82. SIR MZTHUR QUILLER-COUCH, Introduction, pp. vii-xliii, to the New Cambridge ed. of ~lleasure for Aleasure, Cambridge, 1922. E. M. W. TILLYARD, Shakespeare's Problem Plays, London, 1950. D. A. TR~VERSI, 'hfeasure for Measure,' Scrutiny, 11 (1942-3), 40-58.
R. W.