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Universitas Indonesia Faculty of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

ASSIGNMENT AS MID-TERM TEST COURSE: SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT S4/2013; 2 SKS Lecturer: El Khobar M. Nazech

Haryadi Wirawan 1006705615 BE HONEST TO YOURSELF. 1. Make a list of things you do that are consistent with a sustainable society. What area could use some improvement? -Green business -3R for every steps we took everyday 2. List and describe the factors that contribute directly to animal and plant extinction. Which ones the most important? -fresh water and of course fresh air (not contaminated) 3. Discuss the ecological factors that contribute to species extinction. -abiotic and biotic factors depends on each other to support their life, its the cycle of / riddle of life. Only God can answer the question 4. Define the term deforestation and list the effect of deforestation. What are the steps taken by the government of Indonesia to tackle the deforestation problem? - Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. (Taken from wikipedia.com). Effect of deforestation are : flood, hurricane, loss a lot of species, lack of fresh water, wildfire, etc...

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5. Describe several ways to use forest more sustainably. -Use the forest to carbon trade business, we get the money from carbon trade and still protect our forest by not chopping it down or burn it down. Because our virgin forest consume CO2 and CO efficiently 6. What is the relationship between oxygen cycle and carbon cycle?\ - we breath fresh air (O2) and exhale CO2 . which is consume again by plants to convert it again into O2 with photosynthesis process 7. Explain the human influence on nitrogen cycle and hydrological cycle. - we often use fertilizer (full of nitrogen chemical substance) to feed the plants, and suddenly were forgetting something terrible. The outbreak of the leftover nitrogen chemical substance got into the hydrological cycle up in the trophosphere 8. Discuss the tragedy of the commons. Give some specific examples of commons and how they are mistreated? - Wildfire tragedy , often occurs in east section of indonesia . Wildfire were naturally because the heat loss from earth, But most of them were by human induction or by slash and burn techniques adopted by farmers in Indonesia. Slash and burn has been extensively used for many years as the cheapest and easiest means to clear the lands for traditional agriculture. The wildfire cases were taken mistreatedly because some of private interests in goverment 9. What are the factors leading to the increased resource consumption on earth in recent years? -people doesnt care about their needs anymore, they only care about their lifestyle. So they brought more than they need to show off in front of people 10. Explain the hierarchy of Municipal Solid Waste Management options. - The hierarchy usually adopted is (a) waste minimisation/reduction at source, (b) recycling & waste processing (with recovery of resources i.e. materials (products) and energy), (d) waste transformation (without recovery of resources) and (e) disposal on land (landfilling). File://elkhobar/sbe/midterm2013

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*taken from EPA wastes non hazardous 11. Describe how we can reduce waste and pollution? - we can reduce waste and pollution by increasing efficiency of system production and our efficiency of life. 12. For 1 (one) week, keep a list of the solid waste you throw away. What percentage of this waste consists of materials that should be reduced, reused, recycled and disposed? -cardboards 100% reduced, reused, recycled, Newspapers 40 % recycled, 60 % reused as inner wrapping for gift Tissue disposed 100% if contaminated Plastic 80% Recycled for making another plastic, 20% of its chemical ingredients were disposed 13. In what ways can you personally reduce paper and wood waste and increase recycling? -reuse paper by using 2 side of paper for writing, recycle pile of wood into cupboard if its possible

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14. How to manage construction waste and demolition debris? -about construction waste, we must divide it into several types before we can recycle it. Therefore the recycle process can be done properly based by the materials. About demolition debris, the recycle process cannot be done properly and only way to make it more efficient is to make the debris more smaller and make it more compact so it wont use more area in landfill 15. What are the major arguments for and against wilderness preservation? -wilderness preservation designated for preservation in their natural condition and thats included the biotic and abiotic factor inside. Against : we need large area to be consumed for our daily needs (water, wood, soil, etc...) 16. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy. -Solar energy ---Advantage ---Disadvantages

: cheap in cost of production energy, : still need more research to make it more ergonomic for human being

17. Using your critical thinking skills, debate the statement conservation is our best and cheapest energy resource -conservation still our best and cheapest energy resource, but making it ergonomic to human being still more difficult than just pushing one red button 18. How is geothermal energy formed? How can it be tapped? Describe the benefits and risks of geothermal energy? -formed by our tectonic activity since the earth were created, the benefits of geothermal were economicly usable for low needs of electricity and environment friendly, the risks are theres no certainty about recoverable reserve in certain area because geothermal energy only reserve in selected tectonic area

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19. Define nonrenewable and renewable mineral resources, and give examples of each. How are they different? - A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be reproduced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate; once depleted there will be no more available for future use, Example : fossil fuel burned down into engine and all we got just mechanical energy and heat loss from engine A renewable resource is a natural resource which can replenish with the passage of time, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes. Example : river stream and flows of air generate the turbine in power plants 20. What are the chronic health effects of air pollution? Which pollutants are thought to be the cause of these effects? - respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer, according to the WHO. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's health status and genetics Pollutants included Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Carbon monoxide (CO) Sulphur oxides (SOx).

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21. Describe the greenhouse effect. What causes it? What are its effects? How can be done to lessen its impacts? - The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is reradiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases and increasing the heat that present in earth.

How to reduce the risk? Simply live by 3 R (reduce, reuse, recycle) the materials you need everyday, and act locally by simply using public transportation and eat local food so the amount of fossil fuels to transport the food less than imported food from other country. 22. Explain the possible impacts of ozone depletion on ecosystem. How can we avoid it? - Increasing amount of UV-B into earth that can causes skin cancer melanoma and non-melanoma, cataracs and another eye problem. We can avoid it by simply using eco-friendly products and using public transportation and stop using sprayer that using aerosol

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23. Identify the core causes of current water crisis in the word. - When then there is not enough potable water for given necessity, the threat of a water crisis is realized. Therefore the needs of fresh water must be controlled wisely 24. Water could be the source of the worlds next big conflict Please explain (consider movie: Quantum of Solace) - If the source of fresh water being controlled by someone, it can bring chaos to the people who need it especially the people near the source of fresh water 25. Make a complete list of your ideas for controlling air pollution in your city or town, and rank them according to their effectiveness and their feasibility. Which ones are practical? 1 Not Smoking 2 Using public transportation 3 Limit the air conditioning user in building (give them natural air flow instead) 4 Plant more trees in uptown and downton 5 I wanna be president for 1 day and make 1-4 happens Number 1 very practical, but not effective Number 5 very effective, but not practical 26. Describe the major characteristics of a more environmentally sustainable and livable eco-city or green city. - When people and environment can live sustainable without harming each other 27. Classify the rainwater harvesting. Find out the rainwater harvesting methods currently being adopted in your locally and try to propose suggestion for improvement. -using water tank in their backyard, but not efective because the rainwater were full of bird poop and other stuff running in their house. Improvment : using closed pipe therefore any other substance cannot mixed into water tank -using soil catchment (only for the rich people who bought lot of areas in their backyard) File://elkhobar/sbe/midterm2013

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28. What are the causes and effect of acid rain? How can we avoid it? - Mainly caused by Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) dan nitrogen oxides (NOx), effect of acid rain : rust , increasing amount of acid in soil or lake that can make animal even people dying of it. Avoid simply by using live by 3 R (reduce, reuse, recycle) the materials you need everyday, and act locally by simply using public transportation and eat local food so the amount of fossil fuels to transport the food less than imported food from other country. 29. Discuss the various water conservation techniques that can be practiced by individuals. -We can store the rainwater for eksternal use, example watering our plants in home 30. Explain the consequences of population growth on the following: a. food resources; b. water resources; c. energy resources. -A. More people need food, and many food resources will be depleted -B. More people need water for their daily life, therefore the fresh water wont last longer -C. More people need energy to do their work, and energy resources like non-renewable will depleted, but renewable maybe not 31. Explain the various popular definitions of the term of sustainable development and what is the concept of sustainable development? - sustainable development is now more closely associated with the concept of green technology. Evolving technology but still consider the safety aspects of the neighborhood. 32. What are the major obstacles in the path sustainable development in Indonesia? - Greedy people in top of chain command of our goverment that keeps on consuming our natural resources who doesnt care about sustainable development. Our birocration also in pain because of it

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33. What are the greatest strengths and weakness of the system of government in your country with respect to: a. protecting the environment and b. ensuring environmental justice for all? What the major changes? If any, would you make in this system? - it seems the country is still weak in protecting the environment or environmental justice for all, to meet the welfare needs of the nation are still not maximized. Infrastructure development was calculated lags behind other countries. I would make big diffrent in goverment if i graduate civil engineering with high GPA and have hot girlfriend to support me and dont forget about the money, money , money 34. What is the role of science and engineering in the protection of the environment? -Science can give us data about environment , and angineering can transform the data into something useful that can be used to help protect the environment 35. Describe the benefit of green development and explain the process elements of green development. -benefits of green building are surely we can save our planet, or at least extend the lifetime of our planet. Green development concept is based on the development of environmentally friendly technology in which we develop the standard of living but pay attention to the safety of the neighborhood. 36. Give a brief explanation of the design, construction and operation of sustainable buildings. - Using eco-friendly design that maximize the space in minimum needs of energy used. Therefore the sustainable point can be reached 37. Suppose you have a dream to build an ideal house for your own family, describe your design criteria of your house. You are going to reuse and recycle all of water, explain your plan. How are going to manage your solid waste at your home? You also planned to harvest rain water. Illustrate your house lay-out.

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LET ME PRESENTS TO YOU EcoPLUS+ The Diamond IS IT A DIAMOND? YES , LITERALLY DIAMOND FOR SUSTAINABLE LIFE We can harvest the rain water directly into the tank shown above, Electricity bills? Naaah, we dont pays it, we create it by the solar panel above the roof. Lights? Naah, we got natural lights from daylights and maximize it.

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Water? Yes we need it, but we need it too for flushing our toilet. But, using fresh water? Naaah, were using water leftover from our shower instead. How much this design and construction cost? 185,000 plus localisation, design fees But with all the things inside it, maybe it worth to be. Because you saving a lot of resource for your daily life needs. Source : http://www.solearth.com/projects/view/ecoplus 38. Using internet finds Bellagio Principle Explain what it is. What related to Sustainable Built Environment? Give your idea to implemnt the Bellagio Principle in your daily activities (1)Guiding vision and goals. - More focusing on needs, not wants (2) Holistic perspective. - Understand the whole system, and if it possible join the system (3) Essential elements - Curb our appetite for needs, saving it for next generation (4) Adequate scope. - Learn more about time and space (5) Practical focus. - Analyze more but focusing the only main purpose (6) Openness. - Sharing your information (7) Effective communication. - Giving you more time and resource to be made (8) Broad participation. - Youre not alone, so give another person a try (9) Ongoing assessment. - Develop more skills (10) Institutional capacity. - We need something that can support us

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39. The UNCED conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 was the last major international conference on sustainability. Research what has been done since the Rio conference to implement its recommendations, and prepare a paper summarizing your findings. RIO DE JANEIRO 1992 There were 72 governments participated, with 108 sending their heads of state or government. Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) attended, with 17,000 people at the parallel NGO "Global Forum" (a.k.a. Forum Global), who had Consultative Status. The issues addressed included:

Efficiency of producing energy , minimize the waste alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions water scarcity

there are any agreement has been reach ? yes, there are Kyoto Protocol. Another agreement was to "not carry out any activities on the lands of indigenous peoples that would cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate". The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature at the Earth Summit, and made a start towards redefinition of measures that did not inherently encourage destruction of natural ecoregions and so-called uneconomic growth. Twelve cities were also honoured by the Local Government Honours Award for innovative local environmental programs. These included Sudbury in Canada for its ambitious program to rehabilitate environmental damage from the local mining industry, Austin in the United States for its green building strategy, and Kitakysh in Japan for incorporating an international education and training component into its municipal pollution control program. *taken from wikipedia with minor changes

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40. The concept of sustainability maintains that prevent should be designed to insure that future generations will have the ability to meet their own needs. However, based on past experience, it can be argued that people are adaptable and find way to cope with a changing world. For example, known petroleum reserves may soon (in a few decades) run out. Some argue that this is not a reason to conserve on gasoline usage now, because by then other undiscovered petroleum reserves may be found or alternative fuels will be developed. Petroleum-based fuels may be of little value in the future. Discus the pros and cons of this argument and give your views. -The development of technology were tremendous upon the industrial revolution in england (used to called Great Britain). The amount of energy used to runs the engine such as natural gases and steam that produced by running hot air into turbine works perfectly . But that wasnt stop there, british people want more energy that can be cointained anywhere such as liquid or solid forms of energy.Solid? yes, they used coal from yorkshire to powerup their steam train, but the efficiency cant be high because the volume of 100 kg to power up steam train/km coal were huge . Then americans, especially in texas has found another source of energy that can be contained anywhere and it is black gold or we used to called now petrolleum or fossil fuel. But nowadays, people tend to use eco-friendly energy such as natural gas and steam from hot air because the aim were different. Contaiment energy unit were out of date and out of topics when we talking about environment. 41. We are now in position to make a substantial contribution to the greening of the planet through ecological and ecosystem restoration. We find ourselves in a retrospective period of human history, both politically and ecologically, where although not necessarily questioning all we have built and engineered to date, we are determining 1. Whether to continue practices as usual (and whether we can afford to do so); and 2. What new approaches are available for restoring the bodily function of nature, on which we depend on? Please explain your opinion regarding this condition. -Although we are human being, the social factor have a lot to be develop for enviromental approach. For example, whenever some group determine to save environment doesnt mean all of the group have the same aim to save environment. Therefore the social factor needs to be develop for making people concious about our environment in a stake nowadays. File://elkhobar/sbe/midterm2013