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Biology 1400 Environment Laurie W. Warren, PhD
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• Questions about course/syllabus? • Lab manual – required!! • First lecture slides posted on Blackboard – be sure to take written notes in every lecture!

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Biology: The Science of Life Main topics
• • • • • Scientific method Cells and molecules The diversity of life Basic genetics DNA technology

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Main topics (cont)
• Natural selection and evolution • Anatomy and physiology (structure and function) in lab • Ecology and ecosystems • Environmental issues – human impacts

Current news

Chapter 1: Scientific Method
The process for producing scientific knowledge methodically and logically or The cumulative body of knowledge produced by many scientists

Science is not just facts to be memorized….. Process, using the scientific method: – Observing – Proposing an idea (hypothesis) – Testing that idea – Discarding ideas that fail

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The Nature of Hypotheses • Hypothesis: proposed explanation • Testable and potentially falsifiable • Where do hypotheses come from?

The Nature of Hypotheses • Both logical and creative influences are used
Chance Logic Intuition Experience

Imagination HYPOTHESIS

Previous scientific results

OBSERVATION

QUESTION

Scientific theory

The Logic of Hypothesis Tests
• Just because something makes sense on the surface doesn’t mean it’s true…. • It was once thought the sun revolved around the Earth (Aristotle); considered fact for 2,000 yrs • Falsified by Galileo & Copernicus

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The Logic of Hypothesis Tests • The process looks something like this:

Your flashlight isn’t working.

What is the cause?

The Logic of Hypothesis Tests • A logical idea is tested

The Logic of Hypothesis Tests
• A logical idea is tested • If the test shows the original hypothesis to be false, another idea is tested

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The Logic of Hypothesis Tests • A hypothesis that fails our test is rejected. • A hypothesis that passes is supported, but not proven. • Why not? An alternative hypothesis might be the real explanation.

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The Theory of Evolution
Descent from a common ancestor with modification over many generations SCIENTIFIC THEORY A widely accepted explanation supported by evidence, incorporates tested hypotheses, laws, and facts

Charles Darwin

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Scientific Theory • Powerful, broad explanation of a large set of observations • Rests on many hypotheses that have been tested • Generates additional hypotheses

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Using Correlation to Test Hypotheses • Correlation – a relationship between two variables • It is not always possible or ethical to experiment on humans or rare and endangered species. • Using existing data, is there a correlation between variables?

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Using Correlation to Test Hypotheses • Hypothesis: stress makes people more susceptible to catching a cold • Is there a correlation between stress and the number of colds people have caught?

Using Correlation to Test Hypotheses • Results of such a study: the number of colds increases as stress levels increase.
Does this mean that high stress always causes Increased cold susceptibility? Other factors?

Figure 1.8

Using Correlation to Test Hypotheses • Results of such a study: the number of colds increases as stress levels increase.
Does this mean that high stress always causes Increased cold susceptibility? Other factors: diet, genetics, environment, lifestyle (hygiene, sleep, exercise)
Figure 1.8

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How would you scientifically determine the cause of a fish kill in your favorite fishing stream?

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The Dead Zone - Gulf of Mexico What is the cause? When does it occur? Role of human activity?

Fish kill – Bayou Chaland, LA http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news

The Dead Zone - Gulf of Mexico • Nitrogen from fertilizer use • Large algal blooms die and decomposers deplete oxygen

Fish kill – Bayou Chaland, LA http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news

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What does it mean to be alive?

Flu virus

Bacterium Plant & animals 30 Fungi

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Characteristics of Living Organisms
Living organisms: – are composed of one or more cells – can grow and reproduce independently using DNA – Sense their environment and respond to it – obtain and use energy (metabolism) – maintain internal balance (homeostasis) – Populations evolve adaptations to their environment
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Cell structure and function

Cells:
• All living things are made of one or more cells • All cells come from other cells • A cell (and it’s DNA) is the basic unit of all organisms • What do you think is the smallest cell in existence? The largest?

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Structure determines function!!!!

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Basic cell structure
• Plasma membrane (boundary) • Cytoplasm (fluid) • Organelles (functional compartments)

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Nucleus: Houses DNA- instructions for making proteins in cell DNA is contained in chromosomes, each of which is a long DNA molecule together with supporting proteins
Nucleus

DNA
C A C C G G T

(See also Figure 10.3D)

A

Nucleotide

T
T C A G A Base pair A T

C

G
G A A T T C

T

T

A

Sugar-phosphate backbone

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Nucleus: Houses DNA- instructions for making proteins in cell DNA is contained in chromosomes, each of which is a long DNA molecule together with supporting proteins Nucleolus - ribosomes are produced here (construct critical proteins) Nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane (the nuclear envelope) that has pores in it to allow ribosomes to pass in and out

Animal cell model
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus

Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane

Mitochondrion

Energy in the cell
• Mitochondria (plants and animal) – change energy from food (sugars) to cellular energy (ATP) Chloroplasts (plants) – convert energy from sunlight to food (photosynthesis)

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Plant cell model
Nucleus Ribosomes

Not in animal cells

Central vacuole Chloroplast Cell wall

Mitochondrion

Plasma membrane

Plant vs. Animal Cells
Cell wall Vacuole (stores sugars, pigments) Chloroplasts

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Photosynthesis (plants only)
• The process by which plants (also algae, some bacteria) use the energy of sunlight to make food from CO2 and water
sunlight

• CO2 + H2O

sugar (glucose) + O2
C6H12O6

• Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll that absorbs light

Cells and Energy
Cells convert food molecules (glucose) to ATP (cellular energy molecule) in mitochondria Cellular respiration (animals and plants)
Sugar + O2 → CO2 + H2O + ATP

ATP powers the work of cells such as: • Generation of light by fireflies by light-emitting cells • Contraction of muscle cells

Cell Division: Essential to life!!
• Growth (child to adult) • Cell replacement (damaged/old such as skin cells) • Reproduction (asexual, sexual)

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• 8.3 Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission

Prokaryotic chromosomes

What are chromosomes?
• Threadlike structure of genetic material; carries genes and proteins in a compact shape • Contains thousands of genes that encode critical body development and function; physical traits • Number of chromosomes varies in different species

Eukaryotic Cell Division
• Complex cell cycle
– Much more DNA than bacteria to be copied/replicated – DNA packaged within the nuclear membrane

• 2 types
– Mitosis – somatic cells (nonreproductive) – Meiosis – sex (germ) cells (how eggs and sperm are produced)

Colorized TEM 32,500

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We all began as a single cell….

zygote

mitosis

Mitosis
• Occurs in all somatic cells (nonreproductive) • Creates two daughter cells identical to the parent cell • Each cell is diploid (n) - one set of chromosomes (46 in humans)

Figure 5.7a Copying and partitioning DNA
(a) Copying and partitioning DNA

Step 1

Interphase DNA is copied.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Figure 5.7a Copying and partitioning DNA
(a) Copying and partitioning DNA

Step 2

Interphase DNA is copied.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 5.7a Copying and partitioning DNA
(a) Copying and partitioning DNA

Step 3

Interphase DNA is copied.

Mitosis DNA is split equally into two daughter cells.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 5.7a Copying and partitioning DNA
(a) Copying and partitioning DNA

Step 4

Interphase DNA is copied.

Mitosis DNA is split equally into two daughter cells.

Cytokinesis Parent cell is cleaved in half.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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(b) Steps in the cell cycle Mitosis Cell growth and preparation for division G2 Cell cycle G1 Cell growth M Cytokinesis

S DNA is copied. Interphase (G1, S, G2)

Figure 5.4 DNA condenses during cell division.

When DNA replicates
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 5.6 Unreplicated and replicated chromosomes.
A b Replication

LM 500X

A b

A b Centromere Sister chromatids

C

C

C

Unduplicated chromosome

Duplicated chromosome

Eukaryotic Cell Division: Before a cell can divide, it must make a replicate copy of DNA
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Karyotype

Karyotype (metaphase)
Figure 8.20A

Meiosis
Reduction division • Occurs only in reproductive organs (ovaries, testes) • Four daughter cells (eggs, sperm) each haploid (n) - one set of chromosomes (23 in humans)

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