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WATER CYCLE IN ECOSYSTEM

Water cycle is another important material cycle. Water is one of the important substances necessary for life. On average water constitutes 70% of the body weight of an organism. It is an important ecological factor that determines the structure and function of the ecosystem. Cycling of all other elements is also dependent upon water as it provides the transportation to different compartments and is also a solvent medium for their uptake by organisms. It is needed along with carbon dioxide in photosynthesis and has moderating effect on the temperature of the surrounding areas by virtue of its heat absorbing ability. Protoplasm, the physical basis life, is made up of 85-90% water. Human blood, too, contains 90% water. However, significant amounts of water are incorporated by the ecosystem in protoplasm synthesis and a substantial return to the atmosphere occurs by way of transpiration from living plants and evaporation from animals. Water covers about 75% of the earths surface, occurring in lakes, rivers, seas and oceans. The oceans alone contain 97% of all the water on earth. Much of the remainder is frozen in the polar ice and glaciers. Less than 1% water is present in the form of ice-free fresh water I rivers, lakes, and aquifers. Yet this relatively negligible portion of the planets water is crucially important to all forms of terrestrial and aquatic life. There is also underground supply of water. Soils near the surface also serve as reservoir for enormous quantities of water. The earths supply of water is stable and water is used over and over again. About one third of all solar energy is dissipated in driving the water cycle. Sunshine evaporates water from the oceans, lakes and streams, from the moist soil surfaces and from bodies of living organisms. Water vapor gathers in the form of clouds, which move with the winds over the earths surface. After cooling and condensation, water falls in the form of rains or snow. This constant movement of water from the earth into the atmosphere and back is known as the water cycle. Some of the water, which falls on the land percolates through the soil until it, reaches a zone of saturation. Below the zone of saturation is a solid rock through which water cannot percolate. The upper surface of this zone of saturation is known as the water table. The extra water runs off in the form of streams which coverage and joins to form rivers. Finally, water is returned to the ocean.

THE ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE


Climatology is the study of the long-term state of the atmosphere, or climate. The long-term state of the atmosphere is a function of a variety of interacting elements. They are:

Solar radiation Air masses Pressure systems (and cyclone belts) Ocean Currents Topography

SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation is probably the most important element of climate. Solar radiation first and foremost heats the Earth's surface which in turn determines the temperature of the air above. The receipt of solar radiation drives evaporation, so long as there is water available. Heating of the air determines its stability, which affects cloud development and precipitation. Unequal heating of the Earth's surface creates pressure gradients that result in wind. So you see, just about all the characteristics of climate can be traced back to the receipt of solar radiation. AIR MASSES Air masses as an element of climate subsumes the characteristics of temperature, humidity, and stability. Location relative to source regions of air masses in part determines the variation of the day-today weather and long-term climate of a place. For instance, the stormy climate of the midlatitudes is a product of lying in the boundary zone of greatly contrasting air masses called the polar front. PRESSURE SYSTEMS Pressure systems have a direct impact on the precipitation characteristics of different climate regions. In general, places dominated by low pressure tend to be moist, while those dominated by high pressure are dry. The seasonality of precipitation is affected by the seasonal movement of global and regional pressure systems. Climates located at 10o to 15o of latitude experience a significant wet period when dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone and a dry period when the Subtropical High moves into this region. Likewise, the climate of Asia is impacted by the annual fluctuation of wind direction due to the monsoon. Pressure dominance also affects the receipt of solar radiation. Places dominated by high pressure tend to lack cloud cover and hence receive significant amounts of sunshine, especially in the low latitudes.

OCEAN CURRENTS Ocean currents greatly affect the temperature and precipitation of a climate. Those climates bordering cold currents tend to be drier as the cold ocean water helps stabilize the air and inhibit cloud formation and precipitation. Air traveling over cold ocean currents lose energy to the water and thus moderate the temperature of nearby coastal locations. Air masses traveling over warm ocean currents promote instability and precipitation. Additionally, the warm ocean water keeps air temperatures somewhat warmer than locations just inland from the coast during the winter.

TOPOGRAPHY Topography affects climate in a variety of ways. The orientation of mountains to the prevailing wind affects precipitation. Windward slopes, those facing into the wind, experience more precipitation due to orographic uplift of the air. Leeward sides of mountains are in the rain shadow and thus receive less precipitation. Air temperatures are affected by slope and orientation as slopes facing into the Sun will be warmer than those facing away. Temperature also decreases as one move toward higher elevations. Mountains have nearly the same affect as latitude does on climate. On tall mountains a zonation of climate occurs as you move towards higher elevation.

MACRO AND MICRO CLIMATE


Climate The climate of the earth consists of a series of interlinked physical systems powered by the sun. In the built environment we are generally concerned with local climatic systems in particular: Macro-climate the climate of a larger area such as a region or a country Micro-climate the variations in localised climate around a building The macro and micro climate has a very important effect on both the energy performance and environmental performance of buildings, both in the heating season and in summer. The site and design of a building can have a profound effect upon the interaction between a building and its environment.

The building site affects exposure to the prevailing wind, the solar radiation the building receives, pollution levels, temperatures and rain penetration.
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Site and macro climate The orientation of the building affects solar gains and exposure to the prevailing wind (ventilation). The location of neighboring trees and buildings affects the solar gains (shading) and wind patterns. Neighboring trees and buildings also protect the building from driving rain. Macro Climate The macro climate around a building cannot be affected by any design changes, however the building design can be developed with a knowledge of the macro climate in which the building is located. General climatic data give an idea of the local climatic severity: Seasonal accumulated temperature difference (degree day) are a measure of the outside air temperature, though do not account for available solar Typical wind speeds and direction Annual totals of Global Horizontal Solar Radiation The driving rain index (DRI) relates to the amount of moisture contained in exposed surfaces and will affect thermal conductivity of external surfaces. This Meteorological data gives a general impression of the climate at the site of a building and the building design can be planned accordingly. However the building itself and surrounding geography will affect the local climate. Micro-Climate The site of a building may have a many micro climates caused by the presence of hills valleys, slopes, streams and other buildings. Micro Climate Effect of Local Terrain Surrounding slopes have important effects on air movement, especially at the bottom of a hollow. In hollows air warmed by the rises upwards due to buoyancy effects (anabatic flow), to be replaced by cooler air drifting down the slope (katabolic flow). The result is that valley floors are significantly colder than locations part way up the slope. Katabolic flows often result in frosts persisting for longer in low lying locations. The most favorable location in a valley is known as the thermal belt, lying just above the level to which pools of cold air build up, but below the height at which exposure to wind increases.

The crests of hills and ridges have unfavorable wind velocity profiles, the wind flow is compressed (as happens with an aerofoil) leading to high wind velocities.

Micro-Climate Effects of Buildings Buildings themselves create further micro-climates by shading the ground, changing wind flow patterns. One example of how buildings affect the local climate is the heat island effect in large cities where the average temperature is higher than the surrounding area: Solar energy absorbed and re-emitted from building surfaces, pavements roads etc. creates a warming effect on the surrounding air. Also the large quantities of buildings break up the wind flow, reducing wind speeds and causing the warm air to remain stagnant in the city. This also causes increased pollution as well as temperatures. The presence of local high rise buildings can degrade the local climate as wind speed at ground level can be significantly increased, while extensive shadows block access to sunlight for long periods, increasing space heating costs in surrounding buildings.

Improving Micro Climate through Design The aims of enhancing Micro-Climate around Buildings: Reduce costs of winter heating Reduce summer overheating and the need for cooling Maximize outdoor comfort in summer and winter Also: Improve durability of building material (reduced rain penetration) Provide a better visual environment in spaces around buildings Encourage growth of plants Discourage growth of mosses and algae Facilitate open air drying of clothes Means of enhancing the micro climate around a building include: Solar Access: Allow maximum daylight into space and buildings Allow maximum solar radiation into space and buildings Shade space and windows from prolonged exposure to summer sun Protect space and windows from glare Wind Protection Protect space and buildings from prevailing winds and cold (e.g. North/East) winds. Prevent buildings and terrain features from generating turbulence Protect spaces and buildings from driving rain and snow Protect space and buildings from katabatic flows, while retaining enough air movement to disperse pollutants

Features Provide thermal mass to moderate extreme temperatures Use vegetation for sun shading and wind protection (transpiration helps moderate high temperatures). Provide surfaces that drain readily. Provide water for cooling be evaporation (pools and fountains)

Factors Affecting Micro Climate Outside Designers Control Area and local climate Site surroundings Site shape Topographic features Surrounding Buildings Within Designers Remit Spacing and orientation of buildings Location of open spaces Form and height of buildings Fenestration Tree cover Ground profiling Wind breaks Surrounding surfaces (paving grass etc) Two main possibilities for influencing Micro Climate are Solar Access and Wind Control Solar Access Solar access to a site is often a case of minimizing solar overheating in summer while maximizing solar access during the winter. Buildings with a heating requirement should be orientated north south with maximum glazing on the south face. Deciduous trees offer an excellent means of site shading, with shading being reduced in winter when the trees lose their leaves. The colour of surrounding surfaces will have a pronounced effect on the solar radiation available to the building. Light coloured paving will increase the radiation reflected from the ground into the building. Paving stones will also provide external thermal mass, moderating temperature swings immediately adjacent to the building.
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Grass planted outside a building will reduce the ground reflected solar. Use of courtyards and water can also moderate the effects of high temperatures on summer.

Wind Control The form of the building can have a great effect on the impact of the wind: Avoidance of the building flank facing the wind Avoidance of funnel-like gaps between buildings Avoidance of flat roofed buildings and cubical forms Avoid piercing buildings at ground level Avoid abrupt changes in building heights Orientate long axis of the building parallel to the direction of the wind Use podium to limit down draught at ground level Use pitched rather than flat roofs and stepped forms for higher buildings Groups of buildings can be arranged inirregular patterns to avoid wind tunneling. Coniferous trees and fencing and other landscape features such as mounds of earth and hedges can also reduce the impact of wind and driving rain on the building structure. Enhanced Micro Climate and Energy Saving Increased external air temperature leading to reduced space heating reduction: increase solar access to site, wind protection, external thermal mass, quick drying surfaces.
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Reduced Air Change Rate, internal air movement and decreased external surface connective heat transfer: reduced pressure driven ventilation by wind protection. Reduced moisture effects on fabric: less wetting of fabric and energy loss due to evaporation from wet surfaces by protecting from driving rain and providing adequate surface drainage.

GLOBAL WARMING
Global Warming effects on the natural balance of environment. The world climate is going a significant change day by day.There are many causes of Global Warming. The destruction and burning down of tropical forests , traffic clogging up the city streets , rapid growth of unplanned industries, the use of CFCs in packaging and manufacturing products, the use of detergents etc. cause Global Warming. Besides, overpopulation, deforestation are the causative factors of Global Warming. The setting up of mills and factories in an unplanned way has a great effect on environment. These mills and factories produce black smoke which gets mixed with air and increases the amount of CO2. Burning of Gas such as Methane (CH4) and fuel also increase CO2 in the environment. Killing animals like birds, big cats, lions, tigers is also a alarming cause of Global Warming.The effects of Global Warming is very dangerous for our existence and survival. The suns scorching heat comes to earth in a direct way. Therefore, the earths surface becomes seriously heated. Agriculture, forestry and fishery is seriously be damaged. This can catastrophically reduce mankinds ability to grow foods, destroy wildlife. Global Warming also cause sea-water to swell up. All species are important for maintaining ecological balance. If one is lost, the whole natural environment changes. To prevent the dangerous effects of Global Warming necessary steps should immediately be taken.People should not be allowed to cut off trees which causes deforestation. Rather they should be advised and suggested to plant more and more trees in accordance with their capability and convenience. Forests also control the natural balance. People should be made aware of it. Mills, factories, brick-fields should be set up in a very good planned way. There should be well drainage system to pass away waste materials, wastages and poisonous chemicals. The alarming worlds climate is very dangerous for mankind and ecological balance. Unless Global Warming is not controlled, no men, animals will be able to live, grow and thrive. So, we should try maintain the ecological balance to decrease the effects of Global Warming.

SOLAR RADIATION
Solar radiation is more than the light and heat that we perceive from the sun. The sun is a star, after all, and it produces energy in many forms, from perceptible heat, visible and invisible spectrums of light, radiation, and more. Life on earth would be impossible without the sun, but our atmosphere also protects us from the more dangerous aspects of solar radiation. What is Solar Radiation? Loosely defined, solar radiation is the total frequency spectrum of electromagnetic radiation produced by the sun. This spectrum covers visible light and near-visible radiation, such as x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, and radio waves. The visible light and heat of the sun makes life possible, and is called daylight or sunshine. The earths atmosphere deflects or filters the majority of the suns harmful radiation, and our near9

perfect positioning in the solar system allows us to receive the benefits proximity to the Sun without being baked or broiled like Venus or Mercury.

Life On Earth Solar radiation is the basis for all life on earth. Autotrophs, organisms that produce their own food from the sun (mainly plants), use solar energy along with carbon dioxide and water to produce simple sugars in a process called photosynthesis. Heterotrophs, organisms that eat other organisms (like animals and fungi), depend on autotrophs to form the bottom level of the food chain. Heterotrophs couldnt exist without autotrophs, and autotrophs couldnt exist without the sun, so life as we know it depends on electromagnetic radiation. Seasons and Climate The Earths seasonal climate variation occurs as a result of minute changes in our planets distance from the sun during orbit. Solar radiation is also a contributing factor to the process of global warming. Even before modern human activity and fossil fuels began heating up the atmosphere, the elliptical path of the Earths orbit was creating 100,000-year cycles of warming and cooling that led to the ice ages and tropical periods of the distant past. Sunlight affects different parts of the Earth in different ways, with extremes manifesting in equatorial regions and the poles. Our Relationship with the Sun As human beings, we tend to have a love-hate relationship with the sun on one hand, sunlight keeps us warm, creates food and shelter for us via plant life, and gives us light. On the other hand, as greenhouse gases trap more heat and the ozone layer allows more dangerous UV radiation in, the suns rays can be distinctly dangerous. UV rays cause skin cancer in humans and animals, but can contrastingly improve other skin conditions like psoriasis. We need the sun biologically, as well, as it causes our bodies to produce vital vitamin D. Solar radiation and sunlight make it possible for the Earth to house life. The negative aspects of our relationship with the sun are primarily the result of human irresponsibility: we develop skin cancer when we ignore our bodies signals to avoid sunlight.

BROWNFIELD DEVELOPMENT
What is a brownfield development? 'Brownfield' land is an area of land or premises that has been previously used, but has subsequently become vacant, derelict or contaminated. This term derived from its opposite, undeveloped or 'greenfield' land. Brownfield sites typically require preparatory regenerative work before any new development goes ahead, and can also be partly occupied. Background Brownfield land gained political significance after the Government set a national target in February 1998 to ensure 60 per cent of all new developments were built on brownfield land.
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In planning terms, local authorities use brownfield development to help regenerate decaying inner urban areas. This approach is deemed preferable to developing on green space. Planning Policy Statement 3 (PPS3) published in November 2006, reiterated the Government's commitment to the 60 per cent target for new homes built on brownfield land, stressing that local authorities should continue to prioritise brownfield land in their plans and "take stronger action" to bring more brownfield land back into use. The national regeneration agency English Partnerships was tasked by the Government to work with government departments and a wide range of stakeholders to develop a National Brownfield Strategy for England. Subsequently the National Brownfield Forum was established to oversee the implementation of the National Brownfield Strategy and report annually on its progress. The Forum held its first meeting in February 2009 and further meetings were scheduled to be held quarterly. The Coalition government published a new draft National Planning Policy Framework on 25 July 2011 for consultation. The new simpler framework will streamline planning policy from over 1000 pages down to just 52, the aim being to "improve clarity and unblock the system." However, the proposals attracted widespread criticism from environmentalists and conservation groups concerned about too much emphasis being placed on "sustainable growth" and too little on prioritising brownfield development and protecting green spaces. The consultation closed on 17 October 2011 and the Government is expected to make several amendments to the wording of the framework in order to address the many concerns that have been raised.

FLOOR AREA RATIO


Floor area ratio (FAR), floor space ratio (FSR), floor space index (FSI), site ratio and plot ratio are all terms for the ratio of a building's total floor area to the size of the parcel of land upon which it is built. The terms can also refer to limits imposed on such a ratio. As a formula: Floor area ratio = (total covered area on all floors of all buildings on a certain plot)/(area of the plot). Thus, an FSI of 2.0 would indicate that the total floor area of a building is two times the gross area of the plot on which it is constructed, as would be found in a multiple-story building. TERMINOLOGY The terms most commonly used for this measurement vary from one country or region to the next. For example, in Australia "floor space ratio" (FSR) is used in New South Wales[1] and "plot ratio" in Western Australia.[2] In India "floor space index" (FSI) and "floor area ratio" (FAR) are both used.[3][4] And in the United Kingdom both "plot ratio" and "site ratio" are used,[5] while in Canada "floor space ratio" (FSR) is used. USE IN ZONING Floor area ratios are used as a measure of the intensity of the site being developed. The ratio is generated by dividing the building area by the parcel area, being sure to use the same units.[6]
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The floor area ratio can be used in zoning to limit the amount of construction in a certain area. For example, if the relevant zoning ordinance permits construction on a parcel, and if construction must adhere to a 0.10 FAR, then the total area of all floors in all buildings constructed on the parcel must be no more than one-tenth the area of the parcel itself.

An architect can plan for either a single-story building consuming the entire allowable area in one floor, or a multi-story building that rises higher above the plane of the land, but which must consequently result in a smaller footprint than would a single-story building of the same total floor area. By combining the horizontal and vertical limits into a single figure, some flexibility is permitted in building design, while achieving a hard limit on at least one measure of overall size. One advantage to fixing this parameter, as opposed to others such as height, width, or length, is that floor area correlates well with other considerations relevant to zoning regulation, such as total parking that would be required for an office building, total number of units that might be available for residential use, total load on municipal services, etc. Thus, many jurisdictions have found it unnecessary to include hard height limitations when using floor area ratio calculations.

OZONE DEPLETION
The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the ozone layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the stratosphere. The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth. Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe in consists of two oxygen atoms, O2. When found on the surface of the planet, ozone is considered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect. The highest regions of the stratosphere contain about 90% of all ozone. In recent years, the ozone layer has been the subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the ozone layer protects both plant and animal life on the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being depleted was discovered in the mid-1980s. The main cause of this is the release of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons. Antarctica was an early victim of ozone destruction. A massive hole in the ozone layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only that continent, but many others that could be the victims of Antarctica's melting icecaps. In the future, the ozone problem will have to be solved so that the protective layer can be conserved. CAUSES Only a few factors combine to create the problem of ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, is by far the leading cause.

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Many countries have called for the end of CFC production because only a few produce the chemical. However, those industries that do use CFCs do not want to discontinue usage of this highly valuable industrial chemical. CFCs are used in industry in a variety of ways and have been amazingly useful in many products. Discovered in the 1930s by American chemist Thomas Midgley, CFCs came to be used in refrigerators, home insulation, plastic foam, and throwaway food containers. Only later did people realize the disaster CFCs caused in the stratosphere. There, the chlorine atom is removed from the CFC and attracts one of the three oxygen atoms in the ozone molecule. The process continues, and a single chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 molecules of ozone. In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina followed the path of CFCs. Their research proved that CFCs were entering the atmosphere, and they concluded that 99% of all CFC molecules would end up in the stratosphere. Only in 1984, when the ozone layer hole was discovered over Antarctica, was the proof truly conclusive. At that point, it was hard to question the destructive capabilities of CFCs. Even if CFCs were banned, problems would remain. There would still be no way to remove the CFCs that are now present in the environment. Clearly though, something must be done to limit this international problem in the future. EFFECTS Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is depleted, 2% more UV-B is able to reach the surface of the planet. UV-B increase is one of the most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. The increased cancer levels caused by exposure to this ultraviolet light could be enormous. The EPA estimates that 60 million Americans born by the year 2075 will get skin cancer because of ozone depletion. About one million of these people will die. In addition to cancer, some research shows that a decreased ozone layer will increase rates of malaria and other infectious diseases. According to the EPA, 17 million more cases of cataracts can also be expected. The environment will also be negatively affected by ozone depletion. The life cycles of plants will change, disrupting the food chain. Effects on animals will also be severe, and are very difficult to foresee. Oceans will be hit hard as well. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to survive. If that happened, it would mean that all of the other animals that are above plankton in the food chain would also die out. Other ecosystems such as forests and deserts will also be harmed. The planet's climate could also be affected by depletion of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could change, resulting in climatic changes throughout the world. SOLUTIONS

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The discovery of the ozone depletion problem came as a great surprise. Now, action must be taken to ensure that the ozone layer is not destroyed. Because CFCs are so widespread and used in such a great variety of products, limiting their use is hard. Also, since many products already contain components that use CFCs, it would be difficult if not impossible to eliminate those CFCs already in existence. The CFC problem may be hard to solve because there are already great quantities of CFCs in the environment. CFCs would remain in the stratosphere for another 100 years even if none were ever produced again. Despite the difficulties, international action has been taken to limit CFCs. In the Montreal Protocol, 30 nations worldwide agreed to reduce usage of CFCs and encouraged other countries to do so as well. However, many environmentalists felt the treaty did "too little, too late", as the Natural Resources Defense Council put it. The treaty asked for CFC makers to only eliminate half of their CFC production, making some people feel it was inadequate. By the year 2000, the US and twelve nations in Europe have agreed to ban all use and production of CFCs. This will be highly significant, because these countries produce three quarters of the CFCs in the world. Many other countries have signed treaties and written laws restricting the use of CFCs. Companies are finding substitutes for CFCs, and people in general are becoming more aware of the dangers of ozone depletion.

WATER RECYCLING
WHAT IS RECYCLED WATER?
Recycled water is usually treated wastewater which is further treated to varying qualities that is fit for purpose for its intended use. It can then be used for:

Irrigation of sports grounds, golf courses and public open spaces; Industrial processing; Groundwater replenishment; Toilet flushing / clothes washing / garden watering; Environmental benefits (eg: maintaining wetlands); Irrigation of food crops; Irrigation of non-food crops (eg: trees, woodlots, turf, flowers); Construction / dust surpression; and firefighting.

WHY SHOULD WE RECYCLE WATER?


Water recycling is an essential part of maintaining a reliable, sustainable and safe water supply for Western Australia. Increasing the amount of water that is recycled is crucial to managing our precious drinking water resources efficiently and making the most of our wastewater resource that is often 'wasted water'. Our 50 year plan, Water Forever - Towards Climate Resilience created a portfolio of water options to help make Perth more climate resilient. Working in partnership with the community, by 2060, the Water Corporation intends to:
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Reduce water use by 25%; Increase wastewater recycling to 60%; and Develop up to 100 gigalitres of new sources.

This will require collaboration between the Water Corporation, State and Local Government, business, industry and the community. The Water Corporation is involved in approximately 71 water recycling schemes in Western Australia. While water recycling has been undertaken in regional areas of Western Australia for many years, only 6% of treated wastewater is recycled in the Perth metropolitan area. This is mainly due to the abundant supply of groundwater in Perth. However this is not sustainable in the long term with many groundwater areas in WA reaching the limit of their supply or groundwater levels declining. Generally, Western Australians are accepting of water recycling with research showing that 90 per cent of Perth residents support recycling treated wastewater for irrigation of recreational areas, industrial or agricultural use.

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary, room-temperature conditions. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air. An example is formaldehyde, with a boiling point of 19 C (2 F), slowly exiting paint and getting into the air. VOCs are numerous, varied, and ubiquitous. They include both human-made and naturally occurring chemical compounds. Most scents or odors are of VOCs. VOCs play an important role in communication between plants. [1] Some VOCs are dangerous to human health or cause harm to the environment. Anthropogenic VOCs are regulated by law, especially indoors, where concentrations are the highest. Harmful VOCs are typically not acutely toxic, but instead have compounding long-term health effects. Because the concentrations are usually low and the symptoms slow to develop, research into VOCs and their effects is difficult.

RAINWATER HARVESTING
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, cleaning of bathrooms as in first flush, etc. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used for drinking water as well if the storage is a tank that can be accessed and cleaned when needed.

Rainwater harvesting provides an independent water supply during regional water restrictions, and in developed countries is often used to supplement the mains supply. Rainwater harvesting systems are appealing as they are easy to understand, install and operate. They are effective in 'green droughts' as water is captured from rainfall where runoff is insufficient to flow into dam storages. The quality of captured rainwater is usually sufficient for most household needs, reducing the need for detergents because rainwater is soft. Financial benefits to the users include that rain is 'renewable' at acceptable volumes despite climate change forecasts, and rainwater harvesting systems generally have low running costs, providing water at the point of consumption (Ferguson 2012).

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Benefits of widespread rainwater harvesting to the regional reticulated supply system may include reduced treatment, pumping, operation and augmentation costs, reducing peak storm water runoff and storm water processing costs, as well as reduced greenhouse gas emissions due to reduced dependence on pumping and potential augmentation through sources such as desalination (Coombes 2007, White, 2009).

QUALITY
The concentration of contaminants is reduced significantly by diverting the initial flow of runoff water to waste. Improved water quality can also be obtained by using a floating draw-off mechanism (rather than from the base of the tank) and by using a series of tanks, with draw from the last in series. The stored rainwater may need to be analyzed properly before use in a way appropriate to its safety.

SYSTEM SETUP
Rainwater harvesting systems can be installed with minimal skills. The system should be sized to meet the water demand throughout the dry season since it must be big enough to support daily water consumption. Specifically, the rainfall capturing area such as a building roof must be large enough to maintain adequate flow. Likewise, the water storage tank should be large enough to contain the captured water.

VENDORS
There are three main types of companies operating in the rainwater harvesting industry: makers of water storage, makers of accessories, and integrators. Water storage companies make tanks, barrels, and underground cisterns. Accessories are added to facilitate or improve the water capturing process. Integrators are regional practitioners which install systems

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT


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The term "greenhouse effect" refers to the ability of the atmosphere to absorb heat and warm the earth. The sun emits energy primarily as visible (short) wavelength radiation, which passes relatively easily through the atmosphere. In contrast, the much cooler earth emits longer wavelength infrared radiation which is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This "trapped" energy warms the atmosphere and reradiates heat back to earth, in a manner roughly analogous to the process for warming a botanical greenhouse. Some greenhouse gases, including water vapor and carbon dioxide
(CO2), occur naturally in the atmosphere; the absence of such gases would make the earth about 35 degrees centigrade colder and, thereby, incapable of supporting life. 4 Since the beginning of the industrial age, however, the burning of fossil fuel and other human activities have substantially increased the concentrations of CO2 and other naturally occurring greenhouse gases.' Man has also released artificial, extremely potent, and long-lived greenhouse gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons.

SEWAGE TREATMENT

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove
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physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Using advanced technology it is now possible to re-use sewage effluent for drinking water, although Singapore is the only country to implement such technology on a production scale in its production of NEWater. ORIGINS OF SEWAGE Sewage is generated by residential, institutional, and commercial and industrial establishments. It includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that is disposed of via sewers. In many areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce. The separation and draining of household waste into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world, with greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets. Sewage may include stormwater runoff. Sewerage systems capable of handling stormwater are known as combined sewer systems. This design was common when urban sewerage systems were first developed, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Combined sewers require much larger and more expensive treatment facilities than sanitary sewers. Heavy volumes of storm runoff may overwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or overflow. Sanitary sewers are typically much smaller than combined sewers, and they are not designed to transport stormwater. Backups of raw sewage can occur if excessive infiltration/inflow (dilution by stormwater and/or groundwater) is allowed into a sanitary sewer system. Communities that have urbanized in the mid-20th century or later generally have built separate systems for sewage (sanitary sewers) and stormwater, because precipitation causes widely varying flows, reducing sewage treatment plant efficiency.

As rainfall travels over roofs and the ground, it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles and other sediment, heavy metals, organic compounds, animal waste, and oil and grease. (See urban runoff.) Some jurisdictions require stormwater to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Examples of treatment processes used for stormwater include retention basins, wetlands, buried vaults with various kinds of media filters, and vortex separators (to remove coarse solids). PROCESS OVERVIEW Sewage can be treated close to where it is created, a decentralised system (in septic tanks, biofilters or aerobic treatment systems), or be collected and transported by a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant, a centralised system (see sewerage and pipes and infrastructure). Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local, state and federal regulations and standards. Industrial sources of sewage often require specialized treatment processes (see Industrial wastewater treatment). Sewage treatment generally involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.
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Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the microorganisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment. Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment in order to allow rejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries, low-flow rivers, coral reefs,...). Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example, by lagoons and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.

SANITATION
Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems include human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap). The World Health Organization states that:
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"Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.[1] The term "sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location or strategy, such as:

Improved sanitation - refers to the management of human faeces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goal on sanitation, by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and Imhoff tanks. Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety. Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control. Ecological sanitation - an approach that tries to emulate nature through the recycling of nutrients and water from human and animal wastes in a hygienically safe manner.

HISTORY The earliest evidence of urban sanitation was seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and the recently discovered Rakhigarhi of Indus Valley civilization. This urban plan included the world's first urban sanitation systems. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Roman cities and Roman villas had elements of sanitation systems, delivering water in the streets of towns such as Pompeii, and building stone and wooden drains to collect and remove wastewater from populated areas - see for instance the Cloaca Maxima into the River Tiber in Rome. But there is little record of other sanitation in most of Europe until the High Middle Ages. Unsanitary conditions and overcrowding were widespread throughout Europe and Asia during the Middle Ages, resulting periodically in cataclysmic pandemics such as the Plague of Justinian (541-42) and the Black Death (13471351), which killed tens of millions of people and radically altered societies.[2] Very high infant and child mortality prevailed in Europe throughout medieval times, due not only to deficiencies in sanitation but to an insufficient food supply for a population which had expanded faster than agriculture.[3] This was further complicated by frequent warfare and exploitation of civilians by autocratic rulers. Sanitation refers to the safe disposal of human excreta (Mara, Lane and Scott and Trouba,1). This entails the hygienic disposal and treatment of human waste to avoid affecting the health of people. Sanitation is an essential part of the Millennium Development Goals. The most affected countries are in the developing world (Zawahri, Sowers, and Weinthal 1153). Population increase in the developing world has posed challenges in the improvement of sanitation (Konteh 69). According to Zawari,
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Sowers, and Weinthal (1154), lack of provisions of basic sanitation is estimated to have contributed to the deaths of approximately 3.5 million people annually from water borne diseases.

VEGETATION
Vegetation is a general term for the plant life.; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular taxa, life forms, structure, spatial extent, or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. It is broader than the term flora which refers exclusively to species composition. Perhaps the closest synonym is plant community, but vegetation can, and often does, refer to a wider range of spatial scales than that term does, including scales as large as the global. Primeval redwood forests, coastal mangrove stands, sphagnum bogs, desert soil crusts, roadside weed patches, wheat fields, cultivated gardens and lawns; all are encompassed by the term vegetation.

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE TODAY


Over 100 years ago, people worldwide began burning more coal and oil for homes, factories, and transportation. Burning these fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These added greenhouses gases have caused Earth to warm more quickly than it has in the past.How much warming has happened? Scientists from around the world with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tell us that during the past 100 years, the world's surface air temperature increased an average of 0.6 Celsius (1.1F). This may not sound like very much change, but even one degree can affect the Earth. Below are some effects of climate change that we see happening now.

Sea level is rising. During the 20th century, sea level rose about 15 cm (6 inches) due to melting glacier ice and expansion of warmer seawater. Models predict that sea level may rise as much as 59 cm (23 inches) during the 21st Century, threatening coastal communities, wetlands, and coral reefs. Arctic sea ice is melting. The summer thickness of sea ice is about half of what it was in 1950. Melting ice may lead to changes in ocean circulation. Plus melting sea ice is speeding up warming in the Arctic. Glaciers and permafrost are melting. Over the past 100 years, mountain glaciers in all areas of the world have decreased in size and so has the amount of permafrost in the Arctic. Greenland's ice sheet is melting faster too. Sea-surface temperatures are warming. Warmer waters in the shallow oceans have contributed to the death of about a quarter of the world's coral reefs in the last few decades. Many of the coral animals died after weakened by bleaching, a process tied to warmed waters. The temperatures of large lakes are warming. The temperatures of large lakes world-wide have risen dramatically. Temperature rises have increased algal blooms in lakes, favor invasive species, increase stratification in lakes and lower lake levels. Heavier rainfall cause flooding in many regions. Warmer temperatures have led to more intense rainfall events in some areas. This can cause flooding.
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Extreme drought is increasing. Higher temperatures cause a higher rate of evaporation and more drought in some areas of the world. Crops are withering. Increased temperatures and extreme drought are causing a decline in crop productivity around the world. Decreased crop productivity can mean food shortages which have many social implications. Ecosystems are changing. As temperatures warm, species may either move to a cooler habitat or die. Species that are particularly vulnerable include endangered species, coral reefs, and polar animals. Warming has also caused changes in the timing of spring events and the length of the growing season. Hurricanes have changed in frequency and strength. There is evidence that the number of intense hurricanes has increased in the Atlantic since 1970. Scientists continue to study whether climate is the cause. More frequent heat waves. It is likely that heat waves have become more common in more areas of the world. Warmer temperatures affect human health. There have been more deaths due to heat waves and more allergy attacks as the pollen season grows longer. There have also been some changes in the ranges of animals that carry disease like mosquitoes. Seawater is becoming more acidic. Carbon dioxide dissolving into the oceans, is making seawater more acidic. There could be impacts on coral reefs and other marine life.

GREEN BUILDING IN INDIA


A green building is one which uses less water, optimises energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants, as compared to a conventional building. LEED CERTIFICATION IGBC has licensed the LEED Green Building Standard from the U.S. Green Building Council and currently is responsible for certifying LEED-New Construction and LEED-Core and Shell buildings in India. There are many energy efficient buildings in India, situated in a variety of climatic zones. One of these is RMZ Millenia Park, Chennai, India's largest LEED gold-rated Core & Shell green building.[1] Indian Green Building Council, formed by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in the year 2001, is continuously striving towards wider adoption of eco-friendly / green building concepts in the Indian Industry. IGBC promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability, based on the principles of 5 elements of nature [the Panchabutas viz. earth, water, fire(energy), air & sky] by recognizing performance in the following five key areas:

Sustainable site development Water savings Energy efficiency Materials selection


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Indoor environmental quality

Triggering off the Green building movement in India is the first Platinum Green Building in India; CIISohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre in Hyderabad as per the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Rating system. This landmark achievement put India on the global map of green building movement, through support of all stakeholders from the construction industry. With a modest beginning of 20,000 sq ft (1,900 m2). green built-up area in the country in the year 2003, as on date, 1,724 projects in India have registered under the IGBC Rating programmes, with a total footprint of over 1.2 billion sq. ft. These developments include various kinds of buildings like: Corporate offices, Hotels, Hospitals, Airports, IT Parks, SEZs, Townships, Gated Communities, Residential Buildings, Government Offices, Schools, Colleges etc. Today, India has 267 certified green buildings, which are fully functional and operational. IGBC has launched different rating programmes to suit variety of building types. IGBC Green Homes Version 2: This rating system is designed for rating new residential buildings, such as Individual homes, Gated communities and High rise residential apartments, etc., IGBC Green Factory Building: This rating system is designed for new & existing factory buildings, such as manufacturing facilities, etc., IGBC Green SEZs: This rating system is designed for Special Economic Zones (SEZ). The rating meets the guidelines of Ministry of Commerce & Industry (MoCI). IGBC Green Townships : This rating system is designed for rating integrated township developments LEED 2011 for India-New Construction: This rating system is applicable for those buildings where the design and operation is fully in the scope and control of owner or the developer, such as, Corporate office, Institutional building, etc., LEED 2011 for India-Core & Shell: This rating system can be used for projects where the developer controls the design and construction of the entire core and shell base building including MEP/FP systems, but has no control over the design and construction of the tenant fit-out. Such type of developments include: Retail Malls, IT Parks, etc. The council, now in its 10th year of operation, has crossed significant milestones, as highlighted below:

Over 1 billion sq ft (built up space) of registered green buildings in India Over 1,300 strong IGBC member organizations Organizing Green Building Congress - Indias annual flagship event on green building, since 2001.

BEE CERTFICATION The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) had launched the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC). The code is set for energy efficiency standards for design and construction with any building
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of minimum conditioned area of 1000 Sq mts and a connected demand of power of 500 KW or 600 KVA. The energy performance index of the code is set from 90 kWh/sqm/year to 200 kWh/sqm/year where any buildings that fall under the index can be termed as "ECBC Compliant Building" More over the BEE had launched a 5 star rating scheme for office buildings operated only in the day time in 3 climatic zones, composite, hot&dry, warm&humid on 25 February 2009. IGBC rated green buildings are also able to meet or exceed the ECBC compliance. The CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre is a BEE 5 star rated building. The Reserve Bank of India's buildings in Delhi, Bhubaneshwar in Orissa and in Kerala have been star rated. In Tamil Nadu 11 buildings were star rated by BEE, in the year 2010, including RBI buildings. GREEN HOUSES In Tamil Nadu, Government is planning to build solar powered green houses for rural poor. It has allotted Rs.1,080 Crore for construction of 60,000 houses.

TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS Traditional buildings were energy efficient. This was because architecture depended on the places. Buildings in the hot and dry regions, had corridors directing the wind to cool naturally. In wet regions, structures using natural light and breeze were used. Some examples are

Hawa Mahal - Articulated windows provides cool breeze in a desert area Golkonda - Ventilation is designed to let in fresh cool breeze, in spite of summer.

The traditional building practices were utilized in constructing the Dhyanalinga. Mud mortar stabilized with lime, sand, alum and some herbal additives was used.

WHAT IS GREENFIELD DEVELOPMENT


Greenfield development is the creation of planned communities on previously undeveloped land. This land may be rural, agricultural or unused areas on the outskirts of urban areas. Unlike urban sprawls, where there is little or no proper suburban planning, greenfield development is about efficient urban planning that aims to provide practical, affordable and sustainable living spaces for growing urban populations. The planning takes future growth and development into account as well as seeks to avoid the various infrastructure issues that plague existing urban areas. Going for greenfield development is actually far more convenient than attempting to develop or modify existing urban areas. The process of revitalizing old or rundown neighborhoods, which is known as brownfield remediation, can be expensive, slow, and fraught with various social and political issues.
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Landlords, for instance, may not find development in their interest or profitable. If it is a rough neighborhood with dysfunctional school systems, people may not be willing to move into it even after redevelopment. Planning and developing new communities in new areas, on the other hand, can be a comparatively faster and easier process, with no previous issues to contend with.

GREEN BUILDING RATING SYSTEMS


INTRODUCTION In India, at present, there are predominantly two rating systems to certify buildings as green buildings, namely GRIHA and LEED-INDIA. These rating systems have a predefined set of criteria and there are points for each one of these criterion. The buildings are required to fulfill the defined criteria and achieve a certain number of points to be certified. BRIEF DESCRIPTION GRIHA, an acronym for Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment, is the National Rating System of India. It has been conceived by TERI and developed jointly with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India. It is a green building 'design evaluation system', and is suitable for all kinds of buildings in different climatic zones of the country. It is a rating tool that helps people, assess the performance of their building against certain nationally acceptable benchmarks. It will evaluate the environmental performance of a building holistically over its entire life cycle, thereby providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building. The rating system, based on accepted energy and environmental principles, will seek to strike a balance between the established practices and emerging concepts, both national and international. The guidelines/criteria appraisal may be revised every three years to take into account the latest scientific developments during this period. Going by the old adage what gets measured, gets managed, GRIHA attempts to quantify aspects such as energy consumption, waste generation, renewable energy adoption, etc. so as to manage, control and reduce the same to the best possible extent. LEED-INDIA is the Indian counterpart of United States Green Building Councils LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). It is led by the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) in India. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-INDIA) Green Building Rating System is a nationally and internationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings. LEED-INDIA provides building owners, architects, consultants, developers, facility managers and project managers the tools they need to design, construct and operate green buildings. It promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in the following five key areas: Sustainable site development, Water savings, Energy efficiency, Materials selection and, Indoor environmental quality.
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LEED-INDIA rating system provides a roadmap for measuring and documenting success for every building type and phase of a building lifecycle. Specific LEED-INDIA programs include: LEED India for New Construction (LEED India NC) LEED India for Core and Shell (LEED India CS)

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