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Seismic Design Codes for Buildings in Japan
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan E-mail: email@example.com [Received August 18, 2006; accepted September 27, 2006]
Two revised seismic design codes in the Building Standard Law of Japan, which were revised in 1981 and 2000, are simply reviewed with the transition of Japanese seismic design code in this paper. The central feature of the seismic code revised in 1981 was the introduction of a two-phase earthquake design. Allowable stress design was employed for ﬁrst-phase earthquake design targeting the safety and serviceability of buildings during medium-level earthquake activity. Second-phase earthquake design, which is ultimate strength design, was added to provide safety against severe earthquake motion. On the other hand, the seismic code revised in 2000 precisely deﬁnes performance requirements and veriﬁcation based on accurate earthquake response and limit states of a building. The capacity spectrum method is used for evaluating the earthquake response. The code is applicable to any type of material and buildings such as seismic isolation systems as long as material properties are well deﬁned and structural behavior is appropriately estimated.
Keywords: the Building Standard Law of Japan, seismic design code, two-phase earthquake design, performance based earthquake design
1. Transition of Seismic Design Code for Buildings in Japan [1–3]
The Urban Building Law enacted in September 1920 was the ﬁrst regulation in Japan related to structural design for buildings linking allowable stress design consisting of design loads, frame stress, and allowable material stress. Seismic building code design started in 1924 when the Urban Building Law was revised as a consequence of the 1923 great Kanto earthquake disaster. This Law used structural provisions including a seismic coefﬁcient of 0.1. In 1950, the Building Standard Law replaced the Urban Building Law with more elaborate provisions for structural design. The standard seismic coefﬁcient was raised to 0.2 but seismic design was essentially unchanged because this increase in seismic loading accompanied a comparable increase in allowable material stress.
Both the Urban Building Law and the Building Standard Law speciﬁed loading, allowable stress, and certain minimum requirements for detailing members. Other details of structural design, such as structural analysis and proportioning of members, are speciﬁed in Structural Standards issued by the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ). These standards, prepared separately for each structural material, supplement the law and are revised more frequently to add new knowledge and provide for new materials as they develop. The seismic design building code was radically changed in 1981 in the largest revision since 1924. Up to this revision, large earthquake events in which many buildings suffered severe damage had occurred, particularly the 1968 Tokachi-oki earthquake, which signiﬁcantly damaged buildings designed based on building regulations then in force. Action undertaken as a consequence of this event included partial revision of the Building Standard Law, a large-scale revision of AIJ Standards incorporating shear design for reinforced concrete buildings and the establishment of a review procedure for existing buildings for seismic safety. A ﬁve-year-project conducted from 1972 to 1977 aimed at establishing a new and rational seismic design method. This was released in 1977 as a proposal for a new aseismic design method for buildings. The 1978 Miyagiken-oki earthquake, which resulted in damage as severe as the 1968 Tokachi-oki earthquake, demonstrated the complexity of urban disaster in the city of Sendai, whose population exceeded 600,000. This triggered the implementation of the Ministry of Construction proposal. In July 1980, the Enforcement Order of the Building Standard Law was revised. It was also announced that this Order, together with supplementary documents, would be enacted from June 1, 1981. The central feature of the revised seismic design code was the introduction of a two-phase earthquake design. Conventional seismic design was retained, with some modiﬁcations, as ﬁrst-phase earthquake design targeting the safety and serviceability of buildings during mediumlevel earthquake activity. Second-phase earthquake design was added to provide safety against severe earthquake motion. The 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake caused much loss of human lives and severe damage or collapse of buildings . Many lessons among scientists and engineers were learnt about earthquake preparedness, disaster
Journal of Disaster Research Vol.1 No.3, 2006
1). as specified by Ministry of Construction 2. Box (1) is for buildings prevalent in Japan. seismic design. The design is then subjected to technical review by designated inspection institutions for structural performance. but results of calculations are required later for items in box (7) or (9).. 2006 . Second-phase design targets severe or extraordinary earthquakes occurring once in a building’s lifetime. The rigidity factor refers to the vertical distribution of lateral stiffness checked to eliminate buildings with one or more ﬂexible stories among other stories. for which there is ample experience in seismic design and evidence of seismic behavior. Conventional structural design including first phase design for earthquakes 6. basically unchanged from the previous building code. Under the revised code. the precise deﬁnitions for structural performance requirements and veriﬁcation are speciﬁed based on clear responses and limits. In ordinary reinforced concrete buildings. high-rises to be designed by special study. 1. a simple review of the above-mentioned two revised seismic design codes is attempted. structural systems. Check for story drift Second phase design for earthquakes 7. In the following two chapters. upgrading of existing buildings and introduction of new technologies. which assure high safety levels of buildings against destructive earthquakes. structural elements. which speciﬁcally addresses life safety. and construction. usually incorporating timehistory nonlinear response analyses. including ﬁrst-phase seismic design involving allowable stress design for permanent and temporary loadings taking maximum strength into account. H. but considerations in boxes (6)-(8) are included in second-phase design.. Boxes (2) and (3) involve second-phase design. Use of specifications of Ministry of Construction 9. The code is applicable to any materials and buildings including seismic isolation systems on the condition that material properties are well deﬁned and building behavior properly predicted. in boxes (1)-(3). reparability. Seismic Design Revised in 1980 [1 2] 2. should provide sufﬁcient seismic resistance to withstand severe earthquakes.3.e. Timber construction Others. Major changes in the code related to this design phase are methods in seismic force evaluation. following conventional structural design.1.e. The evaluation of story drift (box (6)) is intended to eliminate ﬂexible structures experiencing excessively large lateral deﬂection under seismic loading. i. 1. Checking for eccentricity provides protection against excessive torsional deformation. second-phase earthquake design. particularly the application of newly developed materials. Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT).1 No. conventional structural design is conducted ﬁrst (box (5)). so second-phase design is not applied to these buildings. 342 Fig. Check ultimate capacity for lateral load 10. The Building Standard Law provisions do not apply directly to buildings taller than 60 m (box (4)). and functionality. such as the soft ﬁrst story.Kuramoto. The recognized need for new-generation seismic design led to the development of performance-based engineering . buildings are ﬁrst divided into four groups mainly based on height (boxes marked (1)-(4)). including low-rise reinforced concrete with generous amounts of shear walls. Special approval required 2. It is expected to encourage structural engineers to develop and apply new construction technology. i. General Flowchart In the general structural design ﬂowchart provided by the revised Enforcement Order of the Building Standard Law in 1980 (Fig. response. 1. Approval by building officials of local government body 11. Check for rigidity factor and eccentricity 8. For these. Buildings up to 31 m high (box (2)) involve a choice of ﬂow into boxes (7) and (8) or into box (9). for three different groups of buildings up to 60 m in height. Application of two-phase design is shown in Fig. The option of boxes (7) and Journal of Disaster Research Vol. the basic intent of the general ﬂow is two-phase design involving an additional design phase. These checks are followed by the application of a set of additional minimum requirements speciﬁed by MLIT (box (8)) to ensure certain strength and ductility. First-phase design. For buildings not exceeding 60 m. h > 60m 5. Seismic provisions in the building code were signiﬁcantly revised in 2000 from prescriptive to performancebased to enlarge choices of structural design. h ≤ 31m and other than 1 3. Upon its recommendation. including seismic design. First-phase design involves strong earthquakes occurring several times during a building’s lifetime. this check is not critical. General seismic design ﬂowchart. a special approval of the structural design is issued by the Ministry of Land. Box (7) requires a check of the rigidity factor and eccentricity. ﬁrst-phase earthquake design. The most important step in second-phase design is the evaluation of maximum lateral load capacity (box (9)). 31m < h ≤ 60m 4.
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