Lecture 1 What is ideology? Definition According to oxford dictionary.

A set of beliefs, especially one held by a particular group, that influences the way people behave. Definition of political Ideology A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political order, either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (institutions, processes, programs) for its attainment. How ideology emerges All people are political thinkers whether they know it or not, people use political ideas and concepts whenever they express their opinions or speak their. All political ideas are moulded by the social and historical circumstances in which they develop and by the political ambitions they serve. Ideas and Ideologies influence political life in a number of ways. In the first place, they provide perspective through which the world is understood and explained. People do not see the world as it is, but only as they expect it to be, in other words, they see it through a veil of ingrained beliefs, opinions and assumptions. Political ideas and ideologies thus set goals that inspire political activity. Finally, political ideas and ideologies can act as a form of social cement, providing social groups and indeed whole societies, with a set of unifying beliefs and values. Political ideologies have commonly been associated with particular social classes, conservatism with landed aristocracy, socialism with the working class and so forth. However, ideas and ideologies can also succeed in binding together divergent groups and classes within a society. For instance, there is unifying bedrock of liberal-democratic values in most western states, while countries Islam has established a common set of moral principles and beliefs. In providing society with a unified political culture, political ideas help to promote order and social stability. Ideologies often reflect the way of thinking of a nation or a social group who has been rejected a social position which otherwise would have been its due place in the society. It grows amongst the dissatisfied group of the society as a challenge to the prevailing social set up.

An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated under an existing order, when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in the society and when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them.

Ideology is motivating force for a nation which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity nationhood. An ideology offers an interpretation of the past and explanation of the present and a vision of the future. Basis for Pakistan’s Ideology Pakistan’s ideology is based on the ideals of the Islamic system. It was a reaction to the Hindu British exploitation of the muslims of the sub-continent. It was a revolt against the prevailing system of India where the Hindu nationalism was being imposed on the muslims and their culture in order to save it from total elimination.

The creation of Pakistan was unique in the sense that it was based on the ideology which sought its from the religion of islam. Pakistan is the only Muslim country to be created on the basis of relgion. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Historical Political Religious Cultural Psychological 1. Historical:
What is Pakistan’s Ideology. As far as the meaning and definition of Pakistan ideology is concerned, it basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to their faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. They should have all the resources at the disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization because this was the sole purpose of demanding a separate homeland for the Muslims. Two Nation theory.

Pakistan ideology was erected on the two-nation theory which meant that hindus and Muslims were two separate and distinct nations whose understanding of life was glaringly different from each other. The entire freedom movement resolved around Two-Nation theory which became the basis of demand for Pakistan. It meant that the Muslims were a separate nation with their distinct culture, civilization, literature, history, religion and social values. Islam, the religion of the Muslims, was based on the concept of Tauheed and therefore, could not be assimilated in any other system or religion.

Meaning of Two Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory in its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities. Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent. These difference of outlook ,in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states. THE BASIS OF THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate Nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as: "The Hindus society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries. The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course." There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two Nations. Let us examine each of them separately. 1. Religious Differences The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions. Islam preaches Tawheed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) the Holy Book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life. Hinduism on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and have a very narrow approach towards life. 2. Hindu Nationalism A number of Hindu nationalist movements, which emerged from time to time in the Indian history, added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities. The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the

political condition. 3. Cultural Differences Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self-build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims buried them. Hindus considered the 'Mother cow' as a sacred animal and worshiped neither it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed 'sati' while Muslims abhorred this tradition .The Hindus and Muslims did not intermarry nor they inter-dine. 4. Social Differences The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in their social life as well. The clothes, the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and everything about them was different and immediately pointed to their distinctive origin. 5. Economics Differences After 1857,the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such a way so as to determent the Muslim condition .They were thrown out of Government services and the their estates and properties were confiscated, while the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically. 6. Educational Differences The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took the English education. While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions. 7. Political Differences The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of Two Nation Theory. (i) Hindi Urdu Controversy In 1867, Hindus demand that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims. (ii) Congress Attitude The Indian national Congress was founded in 1885.It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus. (iii) Partition of Bengal In 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims, but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911. 8. Language The Muslims and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages .The language of the former was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand, the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit. Urdu and Hindi language had the difference in writing, thoughts of poetry, arts, painting and words of music. Even this small difference lead to a stirring conflict between the two nations.

The establishment of Pakistan further strengthened the two-nation concept which meant that Pakistan would be a country where Islamic principles would be followed. Aims and objects of the establishment of Pakistan. 1. Enforcement of the sovereignty of the God Almighty. The prime object of the demand of Pakistan was the establishment of a state where Almighty God’s supremacy could be enforced and where a government based on the Islamic priciples could be instituted. On this Quaid-e-Azam said, We did not demand Pakistan to acquire a piece of land but we wanted a homeland where we could introduce Islamic priciples. 2. Establishment of Islamic democracy

3. Revival of Muslim and Identity 4. Protection of Muslim culture and civilization

5. Emancipation from the prejudicial Hindu majority 6. Establishment of a balanced Economic system.

7. Two Nation Theory Sir Syed Ahmad and two nation theory. Early life of sir Syed Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born on 17th October 1817. After completing his education, sir syed Ahmad had to join Government service as his father died in 1838. Achievements Creator of two nation theory Quaid-e-Azam and the ideology of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam or Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on 25th December 1876 in Karachi. Jinnah got his education from Sindh Madrassa-tul-Islam till the time he left for England in 1891 for higher education. Quaid-e-Azam returned to India in 1896 and began to practice as a Barrister. In 1906, he joined All India

National Congress. His very first speech in the congress arena was about “Waqf-al-Aulad.” Later, when he elected the Imperial legislative Council, he sponspered the Waqf Validating Bill, which brought him closer to the Muslims. In 1913, when Muslim League amended its constitution Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League in the same year. Earlier he refused to sign the pledge. Mrs Sarojni Naidu referred Quaid-e-Azam as “ Ambassador of Muslim-Hindu.” Once enrolled as a member of the Muslim League, Jinnah began to play an energetic part in its activities. He began to work for the Hindu-Muslim unity and to achieve this object he got arranged that for the first time, the session of the Muslim League and Congress in the same city (Bombay). The continuous efforts of Quaid led to the “Lucknow Pact”, in 1916. It was a big achievement since some Hindus accepted the Muslims as a separate nation.

Quaid-e-azam explained that Pakistan came into being when first Hindu became a Muslim. In the annual meeting of 1943 at Karachi Quaid-e-Azam said while clarifying the relation of Pakistan and Islam. “What is relation which has made Muslim a single body? What is that rock on which the structure of Millat is restored? What is the base which has secured the safety of the boat of the millat? That relation, rock and base is the Holy Quran. While addressing at Aligarh he clarified the ideology of Pakistan in these words. “What was the motive of the demand of Pakistan and separate electorate for Muslims? What was the need of division of India? Its cause is neither the narrow mindedness of Hindus nor the tactics of Britishers, but is the basic demand of Islam? In the light of the history of the sub-continent Quaid-e-Azam argued that the Muslims have never been a minority. They are a perfect nation and have the right to establish an independent state in those areas where they are in majority. The creation of Pakistan was unique in the sense that it was based on an ideology which sought its roots from the religion of Islam. The famous slogan “Pakistan Ka matlab kia, LA ILAHA ILLAH-LAH. Pakistan ideology was based on the fact that the Muslims were a separate nation having their own culture, civilization, customs, literature, religion and the way of life. Pakistan’s ideology was erected on the Two-Nation Theory which meant that Hindus and Muslims were two separate and distinct nations, whose understanding of life clearly different from each other.

Sir Syed and the Ideology of Pakistan: Sir Syed was born on 17th October 1817, his father died in 1838. At first he worked on a minor clerical appointment but soon qualified himself for the post of a Munsif (sub-Judge). Sir Syed was posted at Bijnore, when the news of the revolt broke out. A mob headed by Nawab Mahmud Khan began to assemble and threaten the Europeans, who had taken refuge in the collector’s bungalow and it was sir Syed who convinced the mob, not to harm the Europeans. As soon as order was restored after the Great Revolt, he wrote a book on “The causes on Indian Revolt”. In this book Sir Syed wrote “The basic cause, which ultimately led to the Great Revolt, was the absence of any Indian representing the Indian point of view in the upper councils governing the country. The first translation of the book was prepared in 1873 by Sir Aucland Golvin and Major-General Graham. 1. The Aligarh Institue Gazette To represent the view point of his countrymen Sir Syed organized a British India Association at Aligarh which an Indian political scientist has described as the fore-runner of the congress. The object of this organization of Indians to the British people in general and the British parliament in particular. Sir Syed also started a magazine, The Loyal Muhammedans of India to correct the impression of the Muslims in the eyes of the British. Sir Syed’s efforts were principally devoted to the general education of his countrymen. He realized that unless they received adequate modern education, their condition could not improve and they could not occupy an honourable place amongst the nations of the world. He established a number of Schools, were opened/established with the support of the Hindu and Muslims gentry and roused more popular enthusiasm than the schools opened by the Christian missionaries, who had a virtual monopoly of modern education in those days. Scientific society originally known as the translation society. This society was set-up at Ghazipur in January 1864. So far Syed Ahmed’s effort was directed towards the advancement of all his countrymen, both Hindus and Muslims. In 1867, however when Syed Ahmed was at Benares, a development took place which diverted the course of his activities and as this change affected the history of this continent. Altaf Hussain Hali, the biographer of the Syed Ahmed. In 1867 some Hindu lenders of Benares resolved that as far as possible, the use of Urdu language, written in Persian script should be discontinued in Government courts and should be discontinued in Government courts and should be replaced by the Hindi language in Devagri script.

“Sir Syed used to say that this was the first occasion when he felt that it was now impossible for the Hindus and Muslims to progress as a single nation and for anyone to work for both of them simultaneously. “ During these days when Hindi-Urdu controversy was going on in Benares, one day I met Mr Shakespeare who was posted there as the divisional commissioner. I was saying about the education of the Muslims and Mr Shakespeare was listening with an expression of amazement when at length he said, “This is the first occasion when I have heard you speak about the progress of the Muslims alone. Before this you were always keen about the welfare of your countrymen in general. I said, “Now I am convinced that both these communities (nations) will not join wholeheartedly in anything. At present there is no open hostility between the two communities, but on account of the so-called ‘educated people’ it will increase immensely in future. Sir Syed ‘Mr Shakespeare, thereupon said, I would be sorry if your prophecy were to prove true. “ I said: “I am also extremely sorry but I am convinced about the accuracy of this prophecy.” On 29th April 1870 Sir Syed wrote a letter to Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk in a letter which admirably sums up the raison d’ etre of Muslim separatism, its advantages and its dangers. “ I have learnt another news which caused me so much grief and anxiety. At Babu Shiv Parshad’s instigation, Hindus have generally resolved to do away with the Urdu language and Persian script, which is a memento of the Muslim rule in this country. I have heard that they have moved the Hindu members of the scientific society to see that Hindi should replace Urdu in the newspapers as well as the books published by the society. This is a proposal which will make Hindu-Muslim unity impossible. Muslims will never agree to Hindi, and if Hindus, also following the new move, insist on Hindi, they also will not agree to Urdu. The result will be that the Hindus and Muslims will be completely separated. “ So far there is no danger, on the other hand, I think that if the Muslims start business separately from the Hindus will lose, but there are two considerations against this course. One objection is from my considerations against this course. One objection is from my own temperament which is keen for the welfare of all the Indians-Hindus as well as the Muslims and the other fear is that at present the Muslims are under a cloud of ill-luch and adversity. They are under the influence of false and meaningless prejudices and do not understand their own welfare. In addition, they are move jealous of each other and vindictive than the Hindus and suffer much more from a sense of false pride. They area also poorer and for these reasons I fear that they may not be able to do much themselves.  Reply to the book of Sir William Muir “The Life of Muhammad”.  Towards the end of 1870 Syed Ahmad started “ Tahzibul- Akhlaq (Muhammaedan Social Reformer). The first issue of “Tahzibul- Akhlaq appeared on 24th December 1870.  On 26th December 1870 he organized, at Benares, a society for the Educational progress of Indian Muslims,” which after suggestions and considering them, decided to start a Mohammaedan Anglo-Oriental college.

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In 1886, the Muhammadan Educational Conference was founded. The conference was also before the foundation of Muslim League, the political mouthpiece of the Muslims and Sir Ahmed’s speech against Muslim participation in the Indian National Congress, was delivered at the second annual session of the Muhammadan Educational Conference. Why was Sir Syed against the demand of Indian National Congress of European democracy/election to the legislative council? Iqbal and the Ideology of Pakistan

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Allama Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot. Initially Iqbal contributed his literary work to an Urdu magazine “Makhzan” in 1901. Iqbal went to England for higher studies in 1905. Iqbal went England a nationalist and a Pantheist but returned a Pan-Islamist and almost a puritan. The change was partly due to his researches in the history of the Islamic mysticism. He wrote a PHD thesis” Development of Meta-Physics in Physics. During the course of studies came to the conclusion that tasawwuf (the so called Islamic mysticism) had no solid, historical foundation in original Islam. According to Iqbal tasawwuf was an alien and even an unhealthy growth. In 1909, on 28TH March. “ I myself been of the view that religious differences should disappear from the preservation of their separate national entities is desirable for both the Hindus and the Muslims. The vision of a common nationhood for India is a beautiful ideal and has a been poetic appeal, but looking to the present conditions and unconscious trends of the two communities, appear incapable of the fulfillment. Iqbal had by now come to believe that Hindus and Muslims were bound to work out their national destinies separately and his own course of action was clear. Iqbal for a brief period was attracted by the Khilafat movement. He, however, soon grew distrustful of the movement and wrote ironic verses regarding the Khilafat Deputation visiting England with a begging bowl. The Hijrat movement finally convinced him that the popular leaders lacked intelligence or were completely indifferent to the welfare of the Indian Muslims. He kept aloof from the non-cooperation movement and resisted the attempts to convert the Islamia College of Lahore into a Ghandian institution. Iqbal, who in 1926 had become a member of Punjab legislative council saw closely what was happening, how the Hindus and Muslims distrusted each other and were ranged in opposite hostile camps, kept from a bitter civil war only by the strong hand of the British army.

Iqbal studied the situation and realized that this surely was not leading to the building up of a common nationhood. Many years earlier he had noticed the unconscious trends of the two people but now his worst fears seemed to be coming true. He began to urgue that the Hindus and the Indian Muslims were two separate nations and any future constitution arrangements must be based on the clear recognition of that fact. The climax of Iqbal’s political career came in 1930, when at the annual session of the All-India Muslim League, he set, before the Indian Muslims. In 1930 Allahabad address he said, “I would like to see the Punjab, N.W.F.P, Sindh and Balochistan combine into a single state and it appears that this is going to be the final destination of the Muslims at least of North-East India. The government of East India company

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