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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Welland Canal is a ship canal in Canada that extends 42 km (26 mi) from Port Weller, Ontario, on Lake Ontario, to Port Colborne, Ontario, on Lake Erie. As a part of the St. Lawrence Seaway, this canal enables ships to ascend and descend the Niagara Escarpment and to bypass Niagara Falls. Approximately 40,000,000 tonnes of cargo are carried through the Welland Canal annually by a traffic of about 3,000 ocean and Great Lakes vessels. This canal was a major factor in the growth of the city of Toronto. The original canal and its successors allowed goods from such Great Lakes ports as Detroit, Cleveland, Windsor, and other heavily industrialized areas of the United States and Ontario to be shipped to the port of Montreal or to Quebec City, where they were usually reloaded onto ocean-going vessels for international shipping. The completion of the Welland Canal made the Trent-Severn Waterway, that connected Lake Ontario with Lake Huron, obsolete as a commercial traffic route for Great Lakes navigation. The southern terminus of the Welland Canal on Lake Erie, located at Port Colborne, is 99.5 meters (326.5 feet) higher than the northern terminus of the Canal at Port Weller on Lake Ontario. This canal includes eight 24.4 meter (80 foot)wide ship locks. Seven of the locks (Locks 1-7, the 'Lift locks') are 233.5 meters (766 feet) long and raise (or lower) passing ships by between 43 (13.01 m) and 49 feet (14.94 m) each. The southernmost lock, (Lock 8 - the 'Guard' or 'Control' lock) is 349.9 m (1,148 feet) in length. The Garden City Skyway passes over the canal, restricting the maximum height of the masts of the ships allowed on this canal to 35.5 meters (116.5 feet). All other highway or railroad crossings of the Welland Canal are either movable bridges (of the vertical lift or bascule bridge types) or subterranean tunnels. The maximum permissible length of a ship in this canal is 225.5 meters (740 feet). It takes ships an average of about eleven hours to traverse the entire length of the Welland Canal.
A ship transits the Welland Canal in St. Catharines, with the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway in background. Original owner Welland Canal Company
Principal engineer Hiram Tibbetts Construction began 1824 Date completed Date extended Date restored 1830 1833 1932 740 ft 0 in (225.6 m) 26 ft 6 in (8.08 m) Lake Ontario at Port Weller Lake Erie at Port Colborne 8 27 miles (43 km) Open Saint Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation
■ 1 History ■ 1.1 First Welland Canal ■ 1.2 Second Welland Canal ■ 1.3 Third Welland Canal ■ 1.4 Fourth (current) Welland Canal ■ 1.5 Fifth (proposed but uncompleted) Welland Canal ■ 2 Accidents and the Welland Canals ■ 3 Sabotage and the Welland Canals ■ 4 Shipping season ■ 5 Facts and figures ■ 5.1 Current canal ■ 5.2 Increasing lock size ■ 5.3 List of locks and crossings ■ 5.3.1 Old alignment prior to Welland By-pass relocation ■ 6 Profile ■ 7 References ■ 8 External links
Maximum boat length Maximum boat beam Start point End point Locks Length Status Navigation authority
Decription Lake Ontario Port Weller
Before the digging of the Welland Canal, shipping traffic between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie used a portage road between Chippawa, Ontario, and Queenston, Ontario, both of which are located on the Niagara River—above and below Niagara Falls, respectively.
5.9 Lock #2 Queen Elizabeth Way - Garden City Skyway Lock #3 10.2
First Welland Canal
Main article: First Welland Canal The Welland Canal Company was incorporated in 1824 by William Hamilton Merritt, in part to provide a regular flow of water for his watermills. The construction began at Allanburg, Ontario, on November 30, at a point now marked as such on the west end of Bridge No. 11 (formerly Highway 20). This canal opened for a trial run on November 30, 1829 (exactly five years, to the day, after the ground-breaking in 1824). After a short ceremony at Lock One, in Port Dalhousie, the schooner Anne & Jane (also called "Annie & Jane" in some texts) made the first transit, upbound to Buffalo, N.Y., with Merritt as a passenger on her deck. The first canal ran from Port Dalhousie, Ontario on Lake Ontario south along Twelve Mile Creek to St. Catharines. From there it took a winding route up the Niagara Escarpment through Merritton, Ontario to Thorold, where it continued south via Allanburg to Port Robinson, Ontario on the Welland River. Ships went east (downstream) on the Welland River to Chippawa, Ontario, at the south (upper) end of the old portage road, where they made a sharp right turn into the Niagara River, upstream towards Lake Erie. Originally, the section between Allanburg, Ontario and Port Robinson, Ontario was planned to be carried in a subterranean tunnel. However, the sandy soil in this part of Ontario made a tunnel infeasible, and a deep open-cut canal was dug instead. A southern extension from Port Robinson opened in 1833. This extension followed the Welland River south to Welland (known then as the settlement of Aqueduct, for the wooden aqueduct that carried the canal over the Welland River at that point), and then split to run south to Port Colborne on Lake Erie. A feeder canal ran southwest from Welland to another point on Lake Erie, just west of Rock Point Provincial Park. With the opening of the extension, the canal stretched 44 km (27 mi) between the two lakes, with 40 wooden locks. The minimum lock size was 33.5 m by 6.7 m (110 ft by 22 ft), with a minimum canal depth of 2.4 m (8 ft).
Locks #4-6 Merritton Tunnel Lock #7 Thorold Tunnel 12.6
Allanburg Deep Cut Port Robinson Welland Recreational Waterway Welland River to Niagara River Main Street bridge - Main Street Tunnel CPR bridge Feeder Canal to Grand River Townline Tunnel
Lock #8 at Port Colborne Lake Erie
08 Feb 2013
7 of today's canal ( 43. This time. The new route had a minimum depth of 4.org/wiki/Welland_Canal 08 Feb 2013 . the saboteurs were caught in nearby Thorold. when an explosive charge destroyed one of the lock gates. The Welland Public Library archive has images of the aftermath. with the building of the present St. almost exactly 100 years after it first opened. Smaller ships called "canallers" also took a part of these loads. not only through the Welland Canal but also the rest of the way to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. One boy ran to safety. each 82. 2001. closing vessel traffic on the Welland Canal for two days. and work began to deepen the canal and to reduce the number of locks to 27. The bridge has not been replaced and the inhabitants of Port Robinson have been served by a ferry for many years. "it is likely that the [vertical lift bridge] operator's performance was impaired while the bridge span was lowered onto the Windoc.5 ft). Main article: Port Robinson. John Nolan and the ringleader "Dynamite" Luke Dillon (a member of Clan-na-Gael)  were tried at the Welland Courthouse and found guilty. 24 of the Third Welland Canal (just to the east of Lock No. which was planned to by-pass most of the existing canal to the east and to cross the Niagara Escarpment in one large superlock.7 m (150 ft) by 8. Competition came in 1854 with the opening of the Erie and Ontario Railway.4 m (80 ft) wide. 51-meters high.122976_N_79. But this railway was affiliated with the canal. running parallel to the original portage road. forcing them open by six inches. The accident destroyed the ship's wheelhouse and funnel (chimney). The present (4th) canal is scheduled to be replaced by 2030. These projects were to be tied into a proposed new canal. the government survey steamer "La Canadienne" lost control due to mechanical problems in the engine room and smashed into the upstream gates of Lock No. Even so.5 m (766 ft) long by 24. John Walsh was eventually released while Luke Dillon remained in custody until July 12. the northbound ore-carrier Steelton struck Bridge 12 in Port Robinson. of the original canal.20991_W_) [approximately 180m north of today's Allanburg bridge]  ).20991°W (http://toolserver. seven at the Niagara Escarpment and the eighth. While land for the project was expropriated and the design finalized.Wikipedia. a new shorter alignment was completed between St.3 mi) long Welland By-pass. It was suspected that Benjamin Lett was responsible for the explosion. 22 of the 3rd Welland Canal. 1912. and no pollution to the waterway.4-kilometre (8.192372°W (http://toolserver. In this configuration. Catharines. The accident and portions of its aftermath were captured on amateur video. which were too large for the small canal locks. a guard lock. 1914 The First World War brought with it plots against the canal and the most notable of them came to be known as "The Von A ship in Lock 3 of the Welland Canal in St. now running directly north to Port Weller.3 m (14 ft) with 26 stone locks. the project never got past the initial construction stages and has since been shelved. Due to this problem. a catastrophic flood was prevented when a guard gate located upstream of the lock closed into place preventing the upstream waters from careening down the route of the Canal and causing further damage and possible injury or loss of life. On April 21. to the other end of the canal (The remnants of this railway are today owned by the Trillium RR). just south of the Homer Lift Bridge and Garden City Skyway http://en. at Port Colborne to adjust with the varying water depth in Lake Erie.org/~geohack/geohack. a 2. Lawrence Seaway.php? pagename=Welland_Canal¶ms=43. However. a standard depth of 8. 1900 about 6:30 in the evening. This canal is officially known now as the Welland Ship Canal." The Welland Canal connects Lake Ontario and Lake Erie through a series of eight locks. John Walsh. destroying it. Fifth (proposed but uncompleted) Welland Canal In the 1950s. 37 (Allanburg) of the First Welland Canal ( 43. David Boucke was saved by a government surveyor Hugh McGuire. On August 11. cresting the upstream gates of Lock No. One of the most interesting features of this third Welland Canal was the Merritton Tunnel on the Grand Trunk Railway line that ran under the canal at Lock 18. doing minor damage. The damage to the bridge was focused on the centre of the vertical-lift span. but there were no reported injuries. 21 where 5 boys were fishing. In 1859. Around the same time.Welland Canal . carried the canal over a sunken section of the St David's Road.192372_W_) )). No one was killed. Accidents and the Welland Canals On June 20. one of the boys. But the remaining three. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 5 Second Welland Canal In 1839 the government of Upper Canada approved the purchase of shares in the canal company in response to the company's continuing financial problems in the face of the continental financial panic of 1837. The bridge was rising and the impact knocked the bridge over. providing a new and shorter alignment between Port Robinson and Port Colborne and by-passing downtown Welland.122976°N 79. By 1848. titled the Fifth Welland Canal.6 m (25 ft). The 13. opened for the 1973 shipping season.2 m (27 ft) was adopted. the canal was still too small for many boats.wikipedia.07796°N 79. the Thorold Tunnel was built at Thorold and several bridges were removed. The depth was now 7. (http://www. and 200 years since the first full shipping season.com/watch?v=D2Wn2RDzsvg) The vessel was a total loss. Third Welland Canal In 1887. Willie Wallace Tifney (age 5). the Welland Railway opened. Catharines.youtube. Lawrence Seaway. The Marine Investigation Report concluded.org/~geohack/geohack. Fourth (current) Welland Canal Construction on the current canal began in 1913 and was completed in 1932. only two have ever been carried out. and caused minor damage to the vertical lift bridge. receiving life sentences at Kingston Penitentiary. All three crossings of the new alignment—one an aqueduct for the Welland River—were built as tunnels. in 1830. the lake freighter Windoc collided with Bridge 11 in Allanburg. a dynamite charge was set off against the hinges of Lock No. parallel to the canal and with the same endpoints. ignited a large fire on board.1 m (26. However. 1974.07796_N_79. It was repaired over a number of weeks and reopened to vehicular traffic on November 16.7 m (9 ft) deep path was completed. Ontario#The demise of Bridge 12 On August 25. with locks 233. 2001. Another tunnel. The buyout was completed in 1841. Nolan lost his sanity while incarcerated. each 45. The route was again changed north of St. Catharines and Port Dalhousie. Sabotage and the Welland Canals The Welland Canal has been the focus of plots on a number of occasions throughout its existence. built between 1967 and 1972. allowing ships to bypass the Niagara Falls. The earliest and potentially most devastating attack occurred on September 9. Willie Tacke (age 5) and Leonard Bretwick (age 4) were knocked into the water.php? pagename=Welland_Canal¶ms=43. 1841 at Lock No. nearby.7 m (45 ft) wide.3 m (270 ft) long by 13. there are eight locks. drowning in the surge. The resulting surge of water flooded downstream. Ontario. it was soon apparent that the canal would have to be enlarged again. and was actually used to help transfer cargoes from the lake ships. Ontario.
a United States federal grand jury issued an indictment against Franz von Papen. at which time the charges were dropped. just hours ahead of the vernal equinox. March 20. MS Isa lifted in Lock 7 Lock 3 Observation Centre of the current Welland Canal (facing North).Welland Canal . Von Papen remained under indictment on these charges until he became Chancellor of Germany in 1932.0 mi) A lock of the second Welland Canal Increasing lock size Canal First (1829) Second (1848) Third (1887) Fourth (1932) Locks Width (metres) Length (metres) Depth (metres) 40 6.4 261. However.8 8. Aerial photo of Port Dalhousie from the third canal era.2 Abandoned locks of the third canal List of locks and crossings Locks and crossings are numbered from north to south. The shipping season re-opens in spring when the waters are once again safe.5 m (740 ft) Maximum draft: 8. 3rd canal lock at left. Papen was at the time safely on German soil. 2nd canal lock at right. Lock 7 Observation Centre (Thorold).2 m (27 ft) Maximum above-water clearance: 35. In 2007. http://en. on charges of a plot to blow up the Welland Canal.5 2.wikipedia. In April 1916.1 45. the season opened on the earliest date ever. having been expelled from the US several months previously for alleged earlier acts of espionage and attempted sabotage.5 m (326 ft) Average transit time between the lakes: 11 hours Length of canal: 43. Facts and figures Current canal ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Maximum vessel length: 225.Wikipedia.5 km (27.5 m (116 ft) Elevation change between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie: 99. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 5 Papen Plot". Shipping season The Welland Canal closes in winter (January–March) when ice or weather conditions become a hazard to navigation.4 27 8.7 82.3 8 24.7 33. Note 3rd canal towpath at upper left and Muir brothers' ship yard centre right.7 2.org/wiki/Welland_Canal 08 Feb 2013 .3 4.7 26 13. then a senior German diplomat.
Catharines Bridge 4 St. Catharines Bridge 1 St. towers and counterweights removed 42°56′50″N 79°14′58″W Welland Bridge 16 Ontario Road/Broadway Avenue cut by western approaches to Townline Tunnel (Highway 58A and Canadian National Railway/Penn Central) Welland Welland Bridge 17 Bridge 18 Canada Air-Line Railway (now Canadian National Railway) Forks Road Welland Recreational Waterway merges with the Welland By-pass at Ramey's Bend in Port Colborne † If assigned by the St. Catharines Lock 2 St. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 5 Municipality Lock or bridge number † Crossing Remarks 43. Catharines Lock 3 St.899122°N 79.htm) 42°58′37″N 79°15′21″W rebuilt as fixed-span after the relocation.191899°W twinned flight locks 43. carries Highway 58 Ormond Street Welland Railway (now Canadian National Railway) Canboro Road (Regional Road 20) (former Highway 20) Bridge Street (Regional Road 63) Main Street Tunnel: (Highway 7146) Townline Tunnel: Highway 58A and Canadian National Railway/Penn Central Main Street (Regional Road 3) Highway 3 Glendale Avenue (Regional Road 89) Great Western Railway (Ontario) (now Canadian National Railway) Carlton Street (Regional Road 83) Garden City Skyway: Queen Elizabeth Way Queenston Street (Regional Road 81) (former Highway 8) Lakeshore Road (Regional Road 87) Church Road (Now Linwell Road) Never installed 43.123446°N 79.246166°W control lock removed winter 1997 Old alignment prior to Welland By-pass relocation Municipality Bridge Number † Crossing Remarks Welland Recreational Waterway branches off from the Welland By-pass at Port Robinson Thorold Thorold Welland Welland Welland Welland Welland Bridge 14 Bridge 15 Bridge 13 Canadian National Railway Highway 406 Woodlawn Road (Regional Road 41) East Main Street/West Main Street (Regional Road 27) Division Street (Regional Road 527) Lincoln Street Canada Southern Railway (Penn Central) built during the relocation built after the relocation built after the relocation vertical lift bridge.134283°N 79.historicbridges.org/wiki/Welland_Canal 08 Feb 2013 . Catharines Lock 1 St. Catharines Bridge 3A St. The original bridges across the fourth canal were numbered in order.Welland Canal .212992°W St.202178°W Replaced original Bridge 3 (destroyed in accident) also known as "Homer Lift Bridge" 43. counterweights still present 42°56′57″N 79°15′00″W vertical lift bridge.155230°N 79. Catharines Bridge 5 St Catharines Bridge 6 St Catharines Lock 4 Thorold Thorold Thorold Thorold Thorold Thorold Thorold Thorold Thorold Welland Welland Port Colborne Port Colborne Port Colborne Port Colborne Port Colborne Bridge 19 Lock 8 Bridge 19A Bridge 20 Bridge 21 Mellanby Avenue (Regional Road 3A) Buffalo and Lake Huron Railroad (now Canadian National Railway) Clarence Street Bridge 9 Bridge 10 Bridge 11 Bridge 12 Locks 5-6 Lock 7 Bridge 7 Bridge 8 Hoover Street Niagara Central Railway (now Canadian National Railway) Thorold Tunnel.Wikipedia.217484°N 79. Catharines Bridge 2 St.193895°W southernmost lift over the Niagara Escarpment removed removed removed removed winter 1998 lowered prematurely on Windoc in 2001 destroyed by the Steelton in 1974 42. Numbering was not changed as bridges were http://en. Catharines Bridge 4A St. the new span located to the north of the original site of Bridge 16 42°58′25″N 79°15′21″W vertical lift bridge. Lawrence Seaway Authority.193058°W location of Welland Canal Information Centre 43. counterweights removed 42°59′30″N 79°15′05″W built after the relocation rebuilt as fixed-span after the relocation 42°59′01″N 79°15′16″W rare Baltimore truss swing bridge  (http://www.org/truss/wellandrr/index.wikipedia.193131°N 79.