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Chng 1
Chng 1: M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin
M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) l mt khuynh hng m theo phng php thit k da trn nhng s liu thng gp trong thc t ca mt d n t giai on xy dng cng trnh n giai on vn hnh cng trnh. Revit l mt phn mm c nn tng nhm vo mc tiu nh vy.

Mc tiu
Sau khi hon tt chng ny, bn s c th : Hiu c phng php lun ca BIM

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Bi 1-1: M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) Tng quan


Bi ny s m t M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM). Nu thit k theo phng php M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM), bn s c c: nhng bn v c cht lng tt hn, thi gian tit kim hn v nng sut lao ng c nng cao. BIM to ra mt c hi cho cc chuyn gia trong lnh vc cng nghip xy dng nng cao cht lng, h gi thnh sn phm cc cng on: thit k, thi cng v vn hnh cng trnh.

Mc tiu
Sau khi hon tt bi hc ny, bn s c th: Hiu c M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) Hiu c tnh lin kt hai chiu.

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Khi qut v M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM)


M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) da trn phng php lun v mi lin h gia Thit k v H s thit k. BIM cho php bn to lp v qun l cc thng tin lin quan n mt d n cng trnh. Cc thng tin ny c lu gi ch trong mt m hnh. iu ny m bo cc mi lin h, tng thch v hon chnh ca cc thng tin. Theo truyn thng, trong lnh vc cng nghip xy dng cc d n xy dng c trnh by bng nhiu bn v th cng. Nhng thng tin b sung cho cc bn v ny c thc hin bi cc ghi ch v yu cu k thut. Vi s ra i ca cng ngh CAD, qu trnh ny c t ng ha. Tuy nhin, kt qu ca nhng s phc th cng, h thng ha CAD v h thng CAD hng i tng vn nh c : s tng quan gia mt hnh nh mang tnh khi nim v mt cng trnh trong tng lai. S pht trin theo khuynh hng M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) thay i mi tng quan ny. Phn mm theo khuynh hng BIM s ghi nhn nhng thng tin lin quan n cng trnh v trnh by di dng hnh nh 2D, 3D, bng thng k hay nhng nh dng theo yu cu khc.

nh ngha M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM)


BIM l mt khuynh hng m phng php lm vic da trn nhng thng tin tin cy, c lin h vi nhau ca mt d n t giai on thi cng n giai on vn hnh. Khi ng dng BIM, cc kin trc s, k s, nh thu v ch u t d dng: to lp cc thng tin c lin h vi nhau gia thit k v h s thit k di dng s ha; s dng nhng thng tin ny tin lng mt cch chnh xc nhng g s thy, nhng g s xy ra v chi ph xy dng; ng thi tin tng rng bn giao h s nhanh hn, kinh t hn v gim tc ng tiu cc n mi trng.

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Revit v M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM)


Revit l phn mm theo khuynh hng M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) Theo truyn thng, nhng bn v phc v mt phn mm CAD trnh by phn thit k hnh hc bng nhng k hiu c chun ha theo quy c. Nhng quy c ny xut hin trong hng lot cc mt bng, mt ng, mt ct. Cc quy c m t phi hon ton lin h vi nhau. Phn mm theo khuynh hng M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) trnh by mt thit k di dng mt lot cc vt th v thnh phn thng minh, v d : tng ca s v cc gc nhn. Nhng vt th v thnh phn ny u c tham s. Thng tin ca nhng vt th v thnh phn ny u c lu gi trong mt m hnh cng trnh duy nht. Bn c th trch xut khng hn ch s lng gc nhn t nhng d liu ca m hnh ny.

Trn nn tng l to ra mt h thng cho thit k cng trnh v sn xut h s thit k, Revit h tr vic thit k, to lp h s thit k v ngay c nhng yu cu cao hn ca mt d n cng trnh. V s dng cng ngh thay i tham s, bt k mt thay i no do bn to ra s ko theo nhng thay i cc mi lin kt tng ng ca ton b d n mt cch t ng, bao gm: cc gc nhn m hnh, cc bn v, cc bng thng k, cc mt ct v cc mt bng.

Thng tin cng trnh c nh dng theo i tng s dng


Trong mt phn mm theo khuynh hng BIM, cc thng ca cng trnh c lu gi trong mt m hnh cng trnh duy nht thay v lu gi trong tng bn v c quy nh, v d: cc tp tin bn v hay cc bn tnh. M hnh ny hin hnh cc thng tin theo nh dng quen thuc Chng 1: M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin 19
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vi ngi s dng hiu chnh, xem li. Mt vi in hnh cho nhng nh dng ny l mt ng 2D, hnh nh thc 3D. V d, cc kin trc s khi lm vic vi BIM s s dng thng tin c sn v tiu chun, quy c, cch biu hin theo yu cu ca ngnh thit k cng trnh. H c th xem nhng thng tin ny di nhng nh dng rt quen thuc vi cc bn v kin trc nh : cc mt bng, cc mt ct, cc mt ng. Cc k s xy dng c th xem cc bn v ca s khung. Nh vy, giao din biu din thng tin ca k s xy dng, hay k s MEP, s khc vi giao din biu din thng tin ca kin trc s.

Qun l nhng thay i vi M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM)


Cc gii php M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) qun l tt c nhng thay i ca m hnh cng trnh trong sut qu trnh thit k, thi cng v phn t vn hnh. Mt s thay i bt c thnh phn trong m hnh cng trnh s ko theo s thay i tng ng cc phn c lin quan. Mt m hnh duy nht c th ci thin mi lin h gia cc bn v v lm gim i nhng li khng khp trong h s thit k. Nh vy, bn s c nhiu thi gian cho vic thit k thay v kim tra bn v thit k mt cch th cng. V kt qu ng nhin l cht lng thit k s tng ln, chi ph cho vic iu chnh s gim xung. Vi m hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM), cng vic thit k, thi cng v vn hnh cng trnh s c tin hnh vi t xung t hn t kh khn hn s vi cc cng c trong qu kh.

Nm bt v ti s dng thng tin


Cc gii php m hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) s gip cc chuyn gia ca cc chuyn ngnh khc nm bt v lu tr thng tin cho mc ch ti s dng. D liu c ghi nhn mt ln, tng ng vi thi im gn nht, v lu tr li s dng khi c yu cu. V d, hy ngh n mt ng dng phn mm qun l ti chnh c nhn c kh nng ghi nhn thng tin trong s chi phiu mi khi qu v vit chi phiu v np tin vo ti khon. ng dng ny s lu tr v kim sot nhng thng tin ny dng vo nhiu mc ch khc nhau, v d nh lm th tc xin hon thu v lp bng k khai ti sn rng ca qu v. Vic lp m hnh thng tin xy dng s tc ng ln d liu theo cch tng t.

c im ca M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM)


Lm vic theo li suy ngh ca kin trc, k s v nh thit k trong thit k cng trnh: Tn dng nhng quy trnh lm vic mang tnh trc quan qua nhng phn mm c kh nng phn nh c th gii thc. M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) cha ng nhng thng tin c bn ca bt k mt d n cn phi c, v vy khi bn thit k, phn mm Revit s t ng to lp chnh xc cc mt sn, cc mt ng, cc mt ct, cc gc nhn 3D cng nh cc bng tnh ton, cc bng thng k chi tit khi lng cc vt t. Hiu bit su hn thit k ca mnh qua qu trnh hnh dung v phn tch (qu trnh lm vic). Nm bt trc nhng suy ngh v vic s lm, iu ny h tr tt hn cho vic thit k, to lp h s thit k v thi cng cng trnh:

Bi 1-1: M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) Trung tm ha ng dng ng Dng Revit Club.com

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Nng cao tng s phc nhanh chng hiu bit su hn thit k trong tin trnh cng vic. Tr gip thit k nhng cng trnh thng minh hn, pht trin bn vng hn thng qua vic phn tch vt liu, khi lng, v tr mt tri, tc ng nhit ca mi trng. Trao i thng tin vi cc i tc phn tch tiu hao nng lng v d on tt hn s vn hnh ca cng trnh. Cung cp nhng d liu c bn ca BIM s dng trong vic pht trin nhng xung khc (gia cc b mn trong d n), phn tch kt cu v sn xut vt t. Tr gip thit k nhng cng trnh thng minh hn, pht trin bn vng hn thng qua vic phn tch vt liu, khi lng, v tr mt tri, tc ng nhit ca mi trng. Trao i thng tin vi cc i tc phn tch tiu hao nng lng v d on tt hn s vn hnh ca cng trnh. Ci thin doanh nghip ca bn thng qua vic kh nng phi hp tt hn, d n c cht lng cao hn: Quyt nh nhanh hn, thi lng hon thnh sn phm t hn Gim thiu ti a nhng li khng khp v nhng vic phi lm nhiu ln bng cch qun l ton din cc thay i ca thng s. Chim c u th trong cnh tranh v khch hng lng hn, li nhun ngy cng cao hn vi nhng h s thit k cht lng hn.

V d v m hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM)


Trong qu trnh thit k mt cng trnh, nu xy ra mt thay i no v iu kin ca ti trng, bn phi thay i tham s ca h thng kt cu. S thay i ny bao gm vic gia tng chiu cao ca dm hay thay i tit din mt ct dm. Mt s thay i tit din s ko theo s thay i cc thng s hnh hc ca tit din thanh dm trong gc nhn 3D. S thay i ny cng c phn nh trong mt bng v mt ct. Do , M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) m bo kt qu c tnh tng tc gia vic thit k v s hin th minh ha.

Khi qut tnh lin kt hai chiu


c trng ch yu ca Revit l s lin kt hai chiu, m bo cho vic nhng thay i ca bt k phn no trong mt thit k u c phn nh ngay lp tc trong tt c nhng phn c lin kt.

nh ngha tnh lin kt hai chiu.


Tnh lin kt hai chiu l kh nng ca M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM), c biu hin qua vic nhng thay i ca cc lin kt c thc hin trong bt c gc nhn no s dn ti vic thay i ni dung th hin tt c cc gc nhn cn li. Tnh chaats ny c p dng mt cch t ng cho bt k thnh phn no, gc nhn no v ghi ch no. V d : mt thay i v kch thc ca mt bc tng s c phn nh trong tt c cc thnh phn khc nh ca s, ca i, trn v cm in, l nhng thnh phn c lin quan n tng v chu nh hng bi s thay i kch thc tng. Nhng thnh phn ny cng b nh hng nhng quy c lin kt vi tng c to lp trc . Revit m bo cc mt ct cng trnh v cc mt ng lun c cp nht mt cch chnh xc ph hp vi nhau.

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Nhng mi quan h ca tham s


Thut ng tham s mun ni n mi lin h gia cc thnh phn trong mt m hnh cng trnh. Nhng mi lin h ny cho php phn mm lin kt v qun l nhng thay i xy ra trong m hnh cng trnh. Nhng mi lin h ny c to lp mt cch t ng do phn mm hay do chnh bn. Trong ton hc v c ch hot ng ca CAD, nhng con s hay tnh cht quyt nh mi lin h ny c gi l tham s. Do , s vn hnh ca phn mm c gi l vn hnh theo tham s. Chnh nhng mi lin h vn hnh theo tham s s to nn mi lin kt cn bn v nhng li ch khc theo phng php lun M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM).

V d minh hot tnh lin kt hai chiu


Thay i hng nhn ca k hiu ng ct s lm cho ni dung th hin ca mt ct thay i. Ch cn v mt bc tng trn mt bng, bc tng ny s xut hin trong cc gc nhn khc, bao gm c bng thng k chi tit ca vt liu tng. Thay i loi dm hay thit b in trong bng thng k s dn ti s thay i ni dung trnh by ca thng tin hnh hc v thng tin phi hnh hc.

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V d minh hot mi quan h tham s


Sn c lin kt vi cc tng bao quanh. Khi mt bc tng di chuyn, sn phi cp nht t ng vn m bo c s lin kt vi cc tng chung quanh. Mt lot cc ca s c lp cch u nhau dc theo tng. Khi chiu di ca bc tng thay i, cc ca s s c ti b tr m bo chng vn cch u nhau khi lp trn tng. Mt mi quan h c thit lp gia ct v h thng ng iu ha khng khi (HVAC) nhm p ng quy nh hoc yu cu thit k. Khi ct c di chuyn i, h thng ng ny cng s di chuyn cng vi ct .

Tm tt chng
Trong chng ny, cc bn hc v M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM) v nhng li ch ca n. ng thi: Hiu c phng php lun ca M hnh cng trnh c gn thng tin (BIM).

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