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from the editors desk

Chief Patron
Vilas Muttemwar
Minister for New and Renewable Energy,
New Delhi
Patron
Deepak Gupta
Secretary, MNRE, New Delhi
Editor
Arun K Tripathi
MNRE, New Delhi
Editorial Board
N P Singh, Chairman
K P Sukumaran
Bibek Bandyopadhyay
Praveen Saxena
B Bhargava
D K Khare
Parveen Dhamija
B S Negi
P C Pant
D Majumdar
R K Vimal
Production team
Madhu Singh Sirohi, Ambika Shankar,
R Ajith Kumar, R K Joshi, and T Radhakrishnan,
TERI, New Delhi;
N Ghatak, MNRE, New Delhi
Editorial office
Arun K Tripathi
Editor, Akshay Urja
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Block No. 14, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road
New Delhi 110 003
Tel. +91 11 2436 3035, 2436 0707
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Disclaimer
The views expressed by authors including those of
the editor in this newsletter are not necessarily the
views of the MNRE.

Volume 2 Issue 4 P February 2009
Published, printed, and edited for and on behalf of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
Government of India, from B-14, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, by Dr Arun Kumar
Tripathi. Printed at M/s Brijbasi Art Press Ltd, E46/11, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase II, New
Delhi 110 020, India
Dear Reader,
Energy has always been a driving force in the development
of human culture, living style, and the overall development
since ages but it reached new heights during the later half
of the 20th century and at its peak during frst decades of
the 21st century. One cant predict its height and peak of
development and thus it is a continuing process. If we go back to the history of
energy utilization, it can be broadly categorized into the wood era, coal era, and
the present oil era based on the utilization of energy sources.
Although energy was present in many forms since inception of life on earth
or even before it, its end-use applications have been discovered and modifed
from time-to-time by the mankind. For example, when the wheel was invented,
it was given energy by human beings and later on by draught animals. Using
the then available known form of energy has always infuenced the invention
for the use of mankind. For example, the diesel engine was designed to function
by using peanut oil as fuel; a bicycle was invented for using human energy;
aeroplane was invented that uses aviation fuel; and so on. There has always been
a quest to exploit various forms of energy and in this context many inventions
have been made. For example, the energy available in nature around us, that
is, sun, wind, fowing water, woody material from tree, crop waste, and so on is
being utilized for various end use applications since ages but their mode and
methods of utilization have changed/improved as the technologies developed
from time to time.
The present use of renewable energy available from sun, wind, fowing water,
woody material, and waste involves the developed technologies, systems, and
devices commercially available in the market. There is a need for changing the
attitude in adopting renewable energy devices in our daily life, which will also
ensure our contribution towards mitigating GHG emissions and global warming
as well. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has taken new initiatives by
introducing three schemes, that is, demonstration programme on tail-end grid-
connected solar power plants, rooftop SPV systems and national rating system,
and energy-efcient green buildings. The present issue contains information on
these schemes.
Akshay Urja has also been providing information on the availability of
renewable energy systems and devices that are useful in our daily life and are
commercially available in the market. The current issue focuses on solar cookers.
The articles on biogas and geothermal heat pumps are quite informative. On
the behalf of the entire team of Akshay Urja, I promise to keep you abreast with
the latest developments taking place globally and in our country as well in
renewable energy. Please continue to support Akshay Urja with your encouraging
response.
ARUN K TRIPATHI
<aktripathi@nic.in>
A bi-monthly newsletter of the
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
Government of India
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 2
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Being a geography teacher, it gave
me immense pleasure to go through
Akshay Urja. This is indeed a very useful
and informative magazine published by
the Government of India. The material
published is very relevant. I feel that
such useful reading and learning
material/matter should be reaching
the hands of students specially those
belonging to the rural areas. It is a
humble request to the ministry in this
regard and oblige. Many good wishes
for more success.
B R Parmar
PGT Geography, Kendriya Vidyalaya,
Itarsi, Madhya Pradesh
-iri,
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I happened to read the recent issue of
Akshay Urja. Really, it is a wonderful
and the only magazine which bears
100% renewable energy news and
information in our country. I would
like to congratulate the editorial team
and other members involved in it. The
RE statistics gives me a proud look on
our governments achievements. In
general, each and every page of the
magazine is a way forward in educating
people of the achievements and the
Thank you very much for your
encouragement. The editorial
team of Akshay Urja will make
every efort to make this newsletter
highly informative and useful to
all our readers. We welcome your
suggestions and valuable comments
to make further improvement in
terms of content and presentation.
Editor
Akshay Urja
importance of RE in their daily lives. The
information available in this magazine
helps me a lot in knowing about the
latest development on RE. Once again
I would like to congratulate the team
members and express my heartfelt
thanks to you all.
M Kesavan
Department Incharge, Department of
Instrumentation and Control Engineering, C
S I Polytechnic College, Salem, Tamil Nadu
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We are a leading multinational
organization. We found your magazine
Akshay Urja very useful and informative
in updating us on the latest trends in
energy conservation and applications
of renewable energy sources. We wish
all the best to the team in its eforts.
Ashish Chauhan
Assistant Manager Energies, Aventis
Pharma Ltd, Ankleshwar, Gujarat
-ri,
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We, the Hema Sri Agro Power Projects
Ltd, have incorporated a company with
the objective of generating power with
non-conventional resources (biomass).
Having registered with the MPUVN
(Madhya Pradesh Urja Vikas Nigam),
we propose to establish a 20-MW
biomass-based power project at
Magrora Village of Dabra Tehasil in
Gwalior District of Madhya Pradesh.
In pursuit of our eforts, we have
performed Bhoomi Pooja on 16 April
2008 in the presence of Sri Dileep Singh
Shekawath, Chairman, MPUVN and Sri
Narotham Mishra, Honble Minister,
Government of Madhya Pradesh and
other distinguished guests.
We came across your by bi-monthly
newsletter recently at MPUVN ofce
and found that it is very helpful to
get acquainted with news about
renewable energy sources. We would
like to subscribe to it as well. We further
request you to let us know about
the details, if any, available with you
regarding possibilities of setting up a
biomass-based power plant in the state
of Rajasthan.
P Chandra Reddy
Director, Hema Sri Agro Power
Projects Ltd, L B Nagar, Hyderabad
RE EVENTS
Ushering in green buildings ... 40
Delhi Sustainable ... 41
Development Summit 2009
RE INSTITUTION
Blending with nature: ... 42
Energy Research Centre,
University of Cape Town
CHILDRENS CORNER . . . 44
BOOK REVIEW . . . 45
BOOK / WEB ALERT . . . 46
FORTHCOMING EVENTS . . . 47
RE STATISTICS . . . 48
SUCCESS STORY
Solar drying in textile industry ... 37
CASE STUDY
Solar refrigerator ... 38
Biogas enrichment and . . . 22
bottling technology for
vehicular use
Widening the reach of . . . 25
renewable energy: new initiatives
an energy-efcient technology
Prospects and potential of . . . 31
solar energy technologies in
North Campus, Delhi University
Geothermal heat pumps: . . . 34
an energy-efcient technology
Volume 2 Issue 4 P February 2009 contents
I nt er nat i onal
Green billboard ready to light up
Times Square . . . 11
Eco-friendly portable gadgets from
smallest fuel cell . . . 11
Biogas to heat 50% of UK
homes . . . 11
Wind energy to cut 10 billion
tonnes of carbon emission
by 2010 . . . 12
RE NE WS
Nat i onal
Launching Nagpur as a model
solar city . . . 4
Iqbalpur is states frst solar
village . . . 4
Pen power lights up village . . . 5
Bio-diesel to fuel IIT-Bombays
power aspirations . . . 5
Solar table lamps for rural
students . . . 6
RE TECH UPDATE
Electricity from straw and
other waste materials . . . 13
FEATURE ARTICLE
Solar cookers: the how . . . 14
and where
Plant it: bring good luck . . . 18
to people, energy, and
environment
1
8
2
2
3
1
3
8
3
7
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 4
RE News
T
he MNRE (Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy) proposes to
develop 60 solar cities during
the Eleventh Plan Period. At least one
city in each state, to a maximum of
fve cities in a state, will be supported
by the ministry. This scheme has been
developed to meet the peak electricity
demand of cities, reduce dependence
on fossil fuels and expensive oil and gas
for energy, and promote increased use
of renewable energy.
To set an example for other cities,
the ministry has decided to develop
two cities as Model Solar Cities.
Financial support up to a maximum
Rs 9.50 crore will be available to each
of these for implementation of the
Master Plan developed under the
scheme from the ministry. The support
will be on 50% cost-sharing basis from
Launching Nagpur as a model solar city
the respective municipal corporation/
city administration/state government.
The release will be made after the city
identifed for development as Model
Solar City submits its Master Plan for
which a separate support is available
under the scheme as per above. As total
funds of Rs 19 crore for developing the
Model Solar City may not be sufcient,
the city, in addition to this grant, will
be eligible to draw separate support
for installation of renewable energy
systems from various ongoing schemes
of the ministry wherein the present
restriction on the number/ capacity
of renewable energy systems/devices
being supported in a city, if any, may
not be applicable.
MNRE launched a programme of
developing Nagpur as a model solar city
on 19 February 2009. The Union Minister
for New and Renewable Energy, Shri
Vilas Muttemwar launched the project
along with former Chief Minister of
Maharashtra, Shri Vilasrao Deshmukh.
Nagpur will be the frst solar city
in the country. Nagpur will become
a model solar city by 2012 under
the scheme. Up to 10% of energy
consumption of this city has been
targeted to be met through renewable
energy and energy efciency measures.
Fifty per cent of the cost will be shared
by the ministry where Rs 50 lakh will
be provided for the master plan, solar
city cell, and promotional activities.
Major solar energy systems will also be
installed including streetlights, garden
lights, trafc lights, hoardings, and solar
water heaters. Energy-efcient green
buildings will also be promoted on a
large scale in the city.
Iqbalpur is states first solar
village
I
qbalpur village of Gurgaon district
has become the frst Haryana village
covered 100% by solar home-lighting
systems. Deputy Commissioner Deepti
Umashankar handed over a solar
home-lighting system to the 201st
customer of the village at a programme
organized. The village has achieved
this distinctive status with persistent
eforts of the Gurgaon Grameen Bank,
which has worked in collaboration
with the Bharatiya Vikas Trust, Manipal,
Karnataka and Tata BP Solar India.
The bank provided 100% loan facility
for the installation of solar home-
lighting systems. Deepti Umashankar
underlined the importance of non-
conventional energy sources in the
present-day power situation and
asserted that the potential of solar
energy could be efectively used to
bridge the gap between the demand
and supply of electricity.
She lauded the role played by the
Gurgaon Grameen Bank in making
this village a 100% solar home-lighting
village. The village as well as the
bank have set an
example for others
to replicate, she
observed. Apart
from honouring
the frst and
201st customers
of the system,
the Deputy
Commi s s i oner
also presented
loan sanction
letters to villagers
and self-help
groups of the
village. The Chairman of the Gurgaon
Grameen Bank, Shri N T Hegde said
that the bank had fxed a target of
setting up 5000 solar home-lighting
systems by the end of this fnancial
year.
THE TRIBUNE
6 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
national news
Pen power lights up village
S
mall is beautiful. Who would have
thought that the small white stem
of a Reynolds pen could help generate
electricity and light up a remote
village in Kerala? The residents of
Poovaranthodu, a village located on the
eastern hills of Kozhikode district, are
thanking this branded pen and
a youth named Martin for
illuminating their lives.
Poovaranthodu folks
have been hearing
about electricity
reaching their home from
politicians and ofcials
for decades n o w
but nothing
happened so far.
Enter V T Martin, an
ITI diploma holder and
Radio-cum-TV mechanic
who runs an electrical repair
shop in the town. Martin combined
his acquired knowledge of electrical
currents and some native wisdom to
produce a hydro-generator. Thanks to
this youth, about 200-odd households
now have either solar lighting or a
hydro-generator.
Other than the pen, Martins
generator is powered by two other
key ingredients: the copiously fowing
Poovaranthodu River and the dynamo
of an Enfeld motorcycle. The dynamo
is modifed to accommodate a magnet
and a coil. The windings of the coil
are done according to the consumers
requirement of alternate current or
direct current. So, how does it all work?
The water is brought downhill through
a fbre-tube. As it reaches the dynamo-
powered generator, the size of the
tube is progressively reduced so that
at the tip the water jets out through
the white stem of the Reynolds pen,
says Martin. This jet then hits the spikes
of the dynamo wheel to power the
system. An inverter and battery are also
attached to the mechanism to ensure
uninterrupted power.
I tried out diferent tubes and pens
to increase the speed of the water jet.
It was only the long white body of a
Reynolds pen that withstood the water
pressure and delivered the right output,
he explains. Martin can set up the
generator, batteries, and an inverter for
a one-time investment of Rs 20 000. The
villagers are happy as they can light bulbs
and make fans, iron box, computer, and
even a mixer work. Unlike in other parts
of Kerala, we do not have power cuts or
load shedding, says Chacko who runs a
teashop at Poovaranthodu.
The number of households that
have opted for the hydro-generator
adds up to roughly 50 while about
150 have chosen solar power. Those
who are conveniently located to get
uninterrupted water prefer an AC
generator to a DC one while some
people have solar panels too, says
Martin. No wonder that when the
nation debated the pros and cons of
nuclear power, Poovaranthodu villagers
were least bothered about it. They were
busy watching the fun on TV from their
homes perched in the hills.
THE DECCAN HERALD
Bio-diesel to fuel IIT-Bombays
power aspirations
I
n a few months from now, IIT
Bombays vehicles like buses, cars, and
ambulances could be well run by using
fuel produced from the frst campus
bio-diesel plant in Indiainstalled by
the students of the institutes chemical
engineering department. Started in
March 2008, the project called Biosynth
is the frst-ever student initiative of
setting up a self-sustained bio-diesel
producing plant at an institute level. It
uses waste vegetable oil as its primary
raw material. Its an ambitious project.
While we are currently at the design
and production stages, the plant is
likely to be ready for commissioning by
MayJune 2009, said professor Sanjay
Mahajani, faculty coordinator for the
project.
Subsequently, the plant will start
producing bio-diesel to serve campus
fuel and power requirements. Initially,
it will be used to run campus vehicles,
which will be subject to approval by
the institute, said Mahajani. The long-
term vision is to develop an efcient
technology that can reduce Indias
dependence on fossil fuels.
DNA, MUMBAI
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 6
Solar table lamps for rural
students
H
AREDA (Haryana Renewable
Energy Development Agency) has
come up with an innovative scheme to
provide LED-based solar table lamps
called Shikshadeep to the students
who are facing difculty in studying
due to power shortages in the rural
areas. He disclosed that Shikshadeep
was basically a portable lighting device,
which would work for four to fve hours
daily. The lamp and battery would be
warranted for a period of fve years
whereas the solar panel would be
warranted for 10 years. The approximate
cost of one such lamp would be Rs 1600.
He said that the girl students of the rural
schools who top in their schools in the
annual examinations of Class V, VIII, X,
and XII would be provided Shikshadeep
free of cost.
HAREDA has also decided to
provide one solar educational kit per
school in all 3000 secondary
schools of the state
on demonstration
basis to popularize
p h o t o v o l t a i c
technology among
the students. The
cost of these kits
would be shared by the
state and central governments
in the ratio of 50:50.
According to the spokesman,
the state government has taken several
steps to conserve energy. During
2008/09, solar water heating systems
were installed in 29 social sector
institutions at a cost of about Rs 1.25
crore.
THE HINDU
Gujarat announces solar power
policy
T
o promote green and clean
power in the state, the Gujarat
government is giving a thrust to solar
power generation, ofering a number of
incentives under its new solar energy
policy. The government would
also put in place an appropriate
investment climate leveraging the
CDM (carbon trading mechanism)
and conserve the States natural
carbon energy resources and transform
it into an integrated solar generation
hub of the country. Announcing the
new Solar Energy Policy 200914, the
Minister of State for Industry, Mr
Saurabh Patel, said initially,
the government would
provide incentives
to those installing a
minimum SPG capacity
of 5 MW in case of solar
photovoltaic or solar
thermal means.
Solar power generators
installed and commissioned
during the operative period of this
policy (200914) would be eligible
for incentives. Electricity generated
from the SPGs for self-consumption
or sale to licensees or third parties
shall be exempted from payment of
electricity duty. The energy generated
from a solar power project shall be
sold to the distribution licensees in
Gujarat at levelized fxed tarif per unit
for a period of 25 years under a power
purchase agreement.
THE HINDU BUSINESS LINE
Karnataka Power plans three
solar power projects
K
arnataka Power Corporation will be
setting up three solar power projects
in Karnataka to tap natural resources. It
is taking up the solar power projects
on a pilot basis at an estimated cost
of INR 225 crore. Mr B S Yeddyurappa,
Chief Minister of Karnataka has laid the
foundation stone for the countrys frst
ever, 3 MW solar photovoltaic power
plant at Yelesandra in Bangarpet taluk
of Kolar district on 9 January 2009. The
power produced from the plant will be
supplied to the state grid through an 11
kV transmission line, which is about 100
metres from the proposed plant. The
cost of each megawatt will be in the
range of INR 25 crore.
As per reports, the other two
projects will be set up at Itnal village in
Chikodi taluk of Belgaum district and in
Shikaripur taluk of Shimoga district. Each
national news
7 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
national news
of these three projects will supply 3 MW
of power during the day to the state grid,
which is sufcient to charge about 400
irrigation pump sets and irrigate 1200
acre. KPCL has foated tenders for the
projects in Kolar and Belgaum districts.
So far, 24 companies, both domestic
and international have participated
in the tender including TATA BP Solar,
BHEL, Sun Technics, Iso Photon of
Spain, and Zecon Solar of USA among
others. The report added that KPCL
will use the solar photovoltaic modular
crystalline technology for this entire
project. For each plant the corporation
requires 15 acre. The projects will be
completed and commissioned by the
next Kannada Rajyotsava falling on 1
November 2009.
THE HINDU BUSINESS LINE
Tata Power to set up geothermal,
solar plants in Gujarat
T
ata Group company Tata Power
said it is looking at the possibility
of setting up a geothermal power plant
and a solar power plant of 5 MW each at a
suitable location in Gujarat, a move that
will strengthen the renewable energy
portfolio of the company. Tata Power
has entered into an agreement in this
regard with the Gujarat government to
explore the possibility of setting up a 5
MW geothermal power plant in phase
I, the Tata group company said in a
fling to the Bombay Stock Exchange.
The company also signed an MoU for
developing a 5 MW solar power plant in
Gujarat, the fling added.
We are happy about this strategic
partnership with the Government
of Gujarat. This partnership not only
strengthens our renewable portfolio
but also creates opportunities to
expand our presence in the growing
renewable energy market in India,
Tata Power managing director Prasad
Menon said. Tata Power is one of the
largest integrated private power and
energy company with an installed
generation capacity of over 2300 MW
and a presence in all the segment of
the power sector namely generation
(thermal, hydro, solar, and wind),
transmission, distribution, and trading.
WWW.LIVEMINT.COM
GEDA gives in principle approval
for 25 biomass power plants
S
tate-run GEDA (Gujarat Energy
Development Agency) has given
in-principle approval to private groups
for setting up bio mass power plants in
25 districts of the state, ofcials said.
We have given in principle approval
to private entrepreneurs for setting
up biomass run power plants in 25
districts of the state for an estimated
generation of 317 MW energy, a
senior GEDA ofcial told. The proposed
biomass power plants will be of
diferent megawatt capacities, and a
diferent private group will set up the
plant in these districts so that there
are no clashes on procurement of raw
material, he added.
The frst-of-its-kind power plant
in the state that uses 300 tonnes of
biomass per day as fuel cotton stalks,
sesame stalks, and groundnut shells
is proposed to come up in Amreli
district, Commercial Manager, Amreli
Power Projects, I V S Sharma said. We
have purchased 5.5 acres of land for
setting up the plant and invited all
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 8
national news
the stakeholders on 28 January at
the site to discuss the modalities of
commissioning the plant latest by May
2010, Sharma said. Energy generation
using biomass as fuel has been high
in states such as Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra, and Karnataka. Over 46
energy projects using biomass as fuel
has been sanctioned in Andhra Pradesh
and followed by 1015 projects in
Karnataka, Sharma, who represents
national consultant agency said.
THE FINANCIAL EXPRESS

NCL plans solar energy boost
T
he NCL (National Chemical
Laboratory) will spend about Rs 50
to 75 crore in the next fve years on a
mega research project on solar energy
in which the next generation of non-
silicon solar energy material will be
developed using institutional facilities
at the campus, NCL director S Sivaram
said on Wednesday.
Energy is a major issue of concern
today. Solar energy is the most crucial
source of alternate energy. However,
solar energy is converted into power
using solar panels, which are made
of silicon. The problem with silicon is
that it is very expensive and has a rigid
structure. We are working towards
fnding alternative material for tapping
solar power, which will be more
afordable and fexible, Sivaram told
reporters.
The NCL director said that the
laboratory was also working on making
a prototype for assembly of 1000 fuel
cells for which it was talking to private
sector companies for partnerships.
About Rs 4 to 5 crore funding received
for it would be spent on the fuel cell
assembly project. According to him,
about 100 acres of land have been
made available by NCL to IISER (Indian
Institute of Science Education and
Research), Pune to set up a Rs 500 crore
campus for 3000 students, 200 faculty,
and 500 PhD students. The NCL has 380
PhD students, which is to be increased
to 500 by end of the year 2009. A hostel
for 135 students and laboratory of 65
000 square feet space are being set
up, after which, NCL will be one of the
largest campuses for chemical science
in the country, he said.
WWW.SAKAALTIMES.COM
German assistance of 50 million
euros to IREDA for RE & EE
financing
K
fW, Germany and IREDA (Indian
Renewable Energy Development
Agency Ltd) signed an agreement for
fnancing RE&EE (renewable energy
and energy efciency) projects in India
under second line of credit of Euro 50
million at semi-commercial rate of
Euribor minus 50 bps along with Euro
1 million technical assistance to IREDA.
Earlier KfW had also extended a line of
credit of Euro 61.36 million to IREDA,
which was successfully utilized. A third
line of credit of Euro 19.971 million at
IDA terms for the promotion of biomass
power generation project is also in
advanced stages of consideration. This
will be utilized for implementation of
seven model investment projects in the
biomass energy sector.
The agreement was inked on 11
December 2008 by Shri Debashish
Majumdar, CMD, IREDA and Mr Uwe
Ohls, Senior Vice President, South Asia,
KfW in the presence of Dr Praveen
Saxena, Director, MNRE; Shri S P Reddi,
Director (Finance), IREDA; Shri K S Popli,
Director (Technical), IREDA; and Mr
Christian Haas, Director, KfW Ofce,
New Delhi. The Guarantee Agreement
for the line of credit was also signed
by DEA for the loan component, and
by MNRE for the technical assistance
component. The closing date for the
loan shall be December 2014.
IREDA
The worlds only solar-powered
music band sings for the planet
T
heir music is all about love and
violence; after all they are an
American rock and roll band. However,
they are a band with a slight twist
the love is for the planet, and the lyrics
are about the harm being inficted on
it. Solar Punch, considered the only
solar-powered music band in the
world, doesnt just talk greenall
their instruments are powered by solar
9 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
national news
energy and their cars use green fuel.
Solar Punch is proof that each
individual can be a solution
to climate change. Our
band uses simple
solar technology
to power our
guitars, drum
kits, and other
instruments. We
need to be extra
diligent to keep the
batteries charged, but
theres never been a problem.
Their travel gear comprises four
solar panels, amplifers, and extra solar
batteries for cloudy days. As fellow
guitaristvocalist T H Culhane tells an
excited crowd, Let the sun shine on the
solar panels, or the music will die.
EXPRESS NEWSLINE
Worlds first large ship using
solar power unveiled
The worlds frst large ship partially
using solar power for engine-related
devices was unveiled in the Japanese
port city of Kobe, with a ceremony to
turn on the fow of energy from solar
panels installed on the vessels deck.
The ceremony for the Auriga Leader,
a car freighter developed jointly by
Nippon Yusen K K and Nippon Oil
Corp. in an efort to reduce carbon
dioxide emissions through the use of
solar energy, was held at a shipyard of
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. Nippon
has said that the cargo vessel will be
the frst large ship in the world to be
powered partly by solar generation.
Solar energy has already been used in
vessels for lighting in cabins.
THE STATESMAN
Toyota Motor developing
solar-powered green car
T
oyota Motor is developing a vehicle
that will be powered solely by solar
energy in an efort to turn around its
struggling business with a futuristic
ecological car. The Nikkei newspaper,
however, said that it will be years before
planned vehicle is available in the
market. According
to the newspaper,
Toyota is working
on an electric
vehicle that will get
some of its power
from solar cells
equipped on the
vehicle, and that
can be recharged
with electricity
generated from
solar panels on the
roofs of homes.
The automaker later hopes to develop a
model totally powered by solar cells on
the vehicle.
ASSOCIATED PRESS
Centre proposes law to promote
the use of renewable energy
T
he Union Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy has proposed a
law to promote the use of renewable
energy, Mr Deepak Gupta, Secretary,
MNRE said. The ministry has appointed
a consultant to prepare a draft law, and
the report is expected to be ready in six
months. He was speaking on the sidelines
of the inauguration of the two-day
International Congress on Renewable
Energy. The Congress was organized by
the SESI (Solar Energy Society of India),
the MNRE, IREDA (Indian Renewable
Energy Development Agency), the Tamil
Nadu Energy Development Agency and
the Madras Chamber of Commerce and
Industry.
On the occasion, Mr S Regupathy,
Minister of State for Environment
and Forests, presented the lifetime
achievement award to Ms Lalita
Balakrishnan, Head, Rural Energy
Department, All India Womens
Conference.
THE HINDU
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 10
Jayakumar, another volunteer, was an
autorickshaw driver who has installed
the system for about 60 vendors in
Peenya and collects Rs 1520 from
each vendor. The vendors say the well-
lit stalls attract more customers. Most
of our earnings were earlier spent on
kerosene. Now, we save more, says
Kalavathi, who runs a vegetable shop in
Malleswaram. The NGO recently started
this service in Bangalore and has got a
good response. The organization seeks
to create job opportunities with low
investment and encourage youths to
take up self-employment, says Aparna,
Project Associate with the NGO. The
institution, launched in Kundapur in
Udupi district in 2004, has spread its
activities to 15 locations in the state.
THE TIMES OF INDIA
national news
Jumbo jet flies on veggie oil
A
passenger jet powered in part
by vegetable oil has successfully
completed a two-hour fight to test
a biofuel that could lower aircraft
emissions and cut costs, according
to Air New Zealand. One engine of a
Boeing 747-400 was powered by a 50
50 blend of oil from jatropha plants
and standard A1 jet fuel. While Air New
Zealand couldnt say whether the blend
would be cheaper than standard jet fuel
since jatropha is not yet produced on a
commercial scale, the company expects
the blend to be cost competitive. Tests
show that jatropha has an even lower
freezing point than jet fuel. The fight
was the frst to use jatropha as part of
a biofuel mix.
DECCAN CHRONICLE
NGO lights up stalls with solar
energy
G
iven the acute power shortage, an
NGO in Bangalore is trying to save
power by taking the renewable energy
route. SD3IDF has distributed solar
battery-operated lamps to street vendors
of Malleswaram, Peenya, Dasarahalli,
Banashankari, and Bommanahalli. The
NGO gives each volunteer Rs 2 lakh as
a loan, with which he can purchase a
battery and bulbs and light up street
stalls. Vendors say theyd spend more
money on gas and kerosene. From 5 pm,
shops are lit up with these lamps and the
batteries are charged the next day.
Ramesh, who used to sell milk,
took a loan from the NGO and installed
batteries for 70 vendors from Goripalya
to Hosur. Now, his income has gone
up to Rs 15 00020 000 per month.
11 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
international news
Green billboard ready to light up
Times Square
T
he worlds frst billboard running
solely on wind and solar power is
ready to make its debut in the capital
of all billboards, New Yorks Times
Square. Wind whistling between the
neighborhoods skyscrapers should
keep the giant billboard lit constantly,
said the manufacturer, Japanese copy
and photo giant Ricoh Company Ltd.
The Eco-Board weighs 35 000 pounds
(15 800 kg) and will be powered by
16 vertical wind turbines and 64 solar
panels. We wanted to make a statement
that we can put up a advertisement and
not impact the environment, so that
began the journey to Times Square,
Ricoh spokesman Ron Potesky said.
A highly congested part of midtown
Manhattan, Times Square is home to
hundreds of huge, brightly lit billboards
and video screens.
Potesky said the power generated
from the custom-built wind turbines
will account for 95% of the energy
needed to run the sign, which is 47 feet
high by 126 feet long, and carries the
companys name in huge red letters.
On the corner of 42nd (Street) and 7th
(Avenue) there is a lot of wind. So we
expect that this will be lit 24 hours a
day seven days a week, mainly by wind
power, a little bit by the sun, he said.
The turbines, built specifcally for the
project by California wind technology
company PacWind LLC, are installed
vertically. PacWind CEO Mary Watkins
said the design was extremely efcient
in comparison to traditional propeller
types.
THE TIMES OF INDIA
Eco-friendly portable gadgets
from smallest fuel cell
F
rom the worlds smallest working
fuel cell created by chemical
engineers in the US, it may be
possible to have eco-friendly and
portable gadgets in the future.
At just 3 millimetres across,
future versions of the tiny
hydrogen-fuelled power
pack will be able to
store more energy than
batteries and that too
in the same space.
Still, its easier to
make batteries at
the small scale
than the pumps
and control electronics of a fuel cell. In
fact, small pumps tend to utilize more
energy than they generate. Its not
practical to make a pump, a pressure
sensor, and the electronics to control
the system in such a small volume.
Even if they are magically made at
that scale, their power consumption
would probably exceed the power
generated, New Scientist quoted Saeed
Moghaddam at the University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign as saying.
WWW.MEDIINDIA.NET
Biogas to heat 50% of UK homes
U
p to half the UKs domestic gas
heating could be met by turning
waste into biogas, according to a
report from National Grid. The report
looks at how all the biodegradable
waste streams such as sewage, food,
and wood could be turned into biogas
and injected into the gas distribution
system. At the moment, there is a small
quantity of production of biogas in the
UK coming from landfll and sewage
plants, but it is being used to generate
electricity. The National Grid
says these valuable
waste resources
could be used
more efciently
by turning them
into biomethane.
This could meet 50%
of the domestic gas
needs and help achieve
renewable energy targets
for 2020.
Two processes are
highlighted by the National
Grid for producing the biogas:
anaerobic digestion which turns
wet waste such as sewage and
animal manure into biomethane, and
gasifcation which is better suited to
drier wastes and energy crops. In cost
terms, it is estimated that biogas would
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 12
international news
be a similar price to other renewable
energy sources. However, because
the UK already has an extensive gas
grid, there would be little need for
disruptive infrastructure development.
The report concludes that there are no
insurmountable technical difculties
to delivering biogas. The main hurdle
will be to get the right commercial
incentives in place so waste can be
turned into biomethane for gas grid
injection rather than electricity. This
needs to be allied with a comprehensive
waste management policy.
WWW.RENEWABLEENERGYWORLD.COM
Wind energy to cut 10 billion
tonnes of carbon emission by
2010
W
ind energy can save the world
from 10 billion tonnes of CO2
(carbon dioxide) emission by 2020, said
GWEC (Global Wind Energy Council)
at the COP14 (the 14th Conference of
Parties) climate summit in the Polish
city of Poznan recently. The coalition
has launched a global campaign Wind
Power Works, to spread the power
of wind energy in combating climate
change.
According to GWECs secretary
general Steve Sawyer, the campaign
intends to demonstrate to the global
decision makers that wind energy is the
leading power generation technology
with the ability to achieve substantial
cuts in CO2 emissions in the crucial
timeframe up to 2020. By this time,
global emissions need to peak and start
to decline to avoid the most disastrous
efects of climate change, he added.
The organization has unveiled
a 5-km resolution world wind map,
showing global wind resource and
its spatial and temporal availability.
This map is intended to accelerate the
adoption of wind energy development
by identifying the value of the wind
resource at any location around
the world. It will allow developers,
fnanciers, and governments to identify
the best regions in the world for wind
energy development.
THE FINANCIAL EXPRESS
C
orn belongs in the kitchen,
not in biogas facilities.
Objections like this can be
heard more and more frequently. They
are protesting against the fermentation
of foodstufs in biogas plants that
generate electricity and heat. One
thing the opponents are afraid of is
that generating electricity in this
way will cause food prices to
escalate. In collaboration with
several small- and medium-
sized enterprises, research
scientists at the Fraunhofer
Institute for Ceramic
Technologies and
Systems IKTS in Dresden
have developed the
frst-ever biogas plant
that works entirely
without edible raw
materials.
In our pilot
plant, we exclusively use
agricultural waste such as corn stalks,
that is, the corn plants without the
cobs. This allows us to generate 30%
more biogas than in conventional
facilities, says IKTS Head of Department
Dr Michael Stelter. Until now, biogas
plants have only been able to process
a certain proportion of waste material,
as this tends to be more difcult to
convert into biogas than pure cereal
crops or corn, for instance.
This is not the only advantage. The
time for which the decomposing waste
material, or silage, is stored in the plant
can be reduced by 50%70%. Biomass is
usually kept in the fermenter, building
up biogas, for 80 days. Thanks to the
right kind of pre-treatment, this only
takes about 30 days in the new plant.
Corn stalks contain cellulose which
cannot be directly fermented. But in our
Electricity from straw and
other waste materials
13 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
RE tech update
plant, the
cellulose
is broken
down by
e n z y m e s
before the
silage ferments,
Stelter explains.
The researchers
have also optimized
the conversion of
biogas into electricity.
They divert the gas into a
high-temperature fuel cell
with an electrical efciency
of 40%55%. By comparison,
the gas engine normally used
for this purpose only achieves
an average efciency of 38%. What
is more, the fuel cell operates at 850
degrees Celsius. The heat can be used
directly for heating or fed into the
district heating network. If the electrical
and thermal efciency are added up,
the fuel cell has an overall efciency of
up to 85%.
The overall efciency of the
combustion engine is usually about
38% because its heat is very difcult to
harness. The researchers have already
built a pilot plant with an electricity
output of 1.5 kilowatts, enough to
cover the needs of a family home. The
researchers will present the concept of
the biogas plant at the Hannover-Messe
on during 2024 April 2009. In the next
phases of the project, the scientists
and their industrial partners plan to
gradually scale up the biogas plant to
two megawatts.
WWW.SCIENCEDAILY.COM
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 14
feature article
Solar cookers
C
ooking is a common application of solar energy in India. A variety of
solar cookers are available to suit diferent requirements. The MNRE
has been implementing a programme for promoting the use of
solar cooking in the country for over two decades. The programme
also supports the development and demonstration of new types
of cooking systems. One of the advantages of solar cookers is that these do not
pollute the environment, and conserve conventional energy.
Box solar cooker
A box solar cooker cooks food with the help of solar energy, and helps save
conventional fuel. This cooker can be used for the preparation of rice, dal, kadhi,
vegetables, meat and fsh dishes, snacks, soups, sweets, desserts, sauces, jams,
pickles, biscuits, cakes, puddings, and so on. However, it cannot be used for
frying or for baking chapattis. It supplements cooking fuel but does not replace
it totally. It is an ideal device for domestic cooking during most of the year except
on cloudy days. Typically, a box solar cooker measures about 60 cm x 60 cm,
and is provided with four pots. Smaller models are also available. Hybrid models
are also sold by various manufacturers, which are provided an electrical heater
to serve as back up during non-sunshine hours. The cost of a box solar cooker
varies from Rs 1800 to Rs 3000 depending on its size and features.
The ministry has been providing an incentive of Rs 200 per ISI-mark solar
cooker for promoting the sale. The incentive for non-ISI-mark solar cooker is Rs
100 per cooker. In addition, the ministry provides fnancial support to organize
promotional activities to increase sale of solar cookers and to the manufacturers
for obtaining BIS approval.
the how and where
16 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
Dish solar cooker
A dish solar cooker uses a parabolic
dish to concentrate the incident solar
radiation. This solar cooker is also
known as SK-14 type of solar cooker.
This model of solar cooker is useful for
homes and small establishments. On a
sunny day, the cooker can deliver power
of about 0.6 kW, which can boil two to
three litres of water in half an hour. The
temperature achieved at the bottom of
the vessel can reach 350500 degrees
Celsius, which is sufcient for roasting,
frying, and boiling. The cost of the dish
solar cooker may vary from Rs 5500 to
Rs 7000 depending upon the type of
refector and other features. It can save
up to 10 LPG cylinders per year upon
full use at small establishments.
At present, the MNRE provides an
incentive of up to 30% of the cost of the
cooker (subject to a maximum of Rs
1500 per cooker) to encourage
its use.
Community solar
cooker for indoor
cooking
Like the dish solar
cooker, the community
solar cooker is also
a parabolic refector
cooker. However, it is
larger than the SK-14
type, and is commonly
known as Schefer cooker.
The unique feature of this
cooker is that it makes cooking
possible with solar energy in the
kitchen itself. The cooker has a large
refector ranging from 7 to 12 m2 of
aperture area. Cooking for about 40
50 persons is possible with this cooker.
One dish may take about 6090 minutes
to cook, depending on the type of dish
and solar insolation available. In areas
with good solar insolation, it is possible
to cook two meals a day with this
cooker.
The cooker is provided with a
mechanical clockwork arrangement
that rotates the primary refector
outside to automatically track the sun.
The community solar cooker is useful in
schools, institutional kitchens, canteens,
ashrams, hotels, hospitals, police and
armed forces kitchen, and so on. The
cost of this cooker is about Rs 50 000.
The payback period is 45 years.
Solar steam generating system
for cooking
It is possible to cook large quantities of
food using the solar steam generated
by solar heat. A solar steam generating
system comprises automatically
tracked parabolic concentrators; steam
header assemblies with receivers,
steam pipelines, feed water piping,
steel structures, and civil works;
instrumentation like pressure gauges
and temperature indicators; steam
traps; and so on. The system is generally
hooked up with a conventional steam
generating system already available
with the user, to make it reliable under
all climatic conditions. This system can
supply enough steam to prepare food
for 15 000 people each day.
Availability and repair/servicing
Solar cookers can be obtained and
installed through manufacturers, their
dealers, and Aditya Solar Shops. The
list of BIS-certifed manufacturers is
given in the following pages. Repair
and servicing facilities are also available
with them. The state nodal agencies
also provide information on their
availability. IREDA can be contacted for
the fnancing schemes and soft loans.
Support from MNRE
Type of solar cooker Support to user (s)
Dish solar cooker 50% of the total cost, limited to Rs 2500 per cooker
Community solar cooker for indoor 50% of the eligible capital cost, limited to
cooking Rs 25 000 per cooker
Steam cooking systems 50% of the eligible capital cost, as agreed upon
by the MNRE
Note This support is subject to change.
Worlds largest
solar steam cooking
system in Tirupathi
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 16
feature article
List of BIS-certified manufacturers of solar cooker
M/s Universal Engineers Enterprises
Garg Bhavan, Prince Road
Gandhi Nagar, Moradabad (UP)
Tel. 0591 249 3619
Fax 0591 249 9768
M/s Rural Engineering School
Rojmal, Tal, Gadhada (SN)
District Bhavnagar 364 750
Gujarat
Tel. 028 4729 4127
Fax 028 4725 3535
E-mail ruralschool@redifmail.com
Khadi Gramodhyog Prayog Samiti
Gandhi Ashram
Ahmedabad 380 027
Fax 079 2755 2469
Mobile 9825484275, 9879784255
Sayala Taluka Khadi Gramodyog
Seva Mandal
Motiram Building
Below SBS Service Branch
Phulchhab Chowk
Rajkot 360 001
Tel. 0281 247 7226
Mobile 09825074591
E-mail saylatalukakhadigs.mandal@
yahoo.co.in
M/s J N Enterprises
F-12, Navin Shahdara
New Delhi
Mobile 9350859119
M/s Vishvakarma Solar Energy Co.
G T Road, Phillour, Distt Jallandhar
Punjab
Tel. 0182 622 523, 0182 622 217
M/s Fair Fabricators
142, Tilak Nagar, Near Post Ofce
Indore 452 018
Fax 0731 249 1488
Mobile 9425316707
E-mail fairfabricators@hotmail.com
M/s Rohtas Electronics
15/268-B, Civil lines
Kanpur 208 001
Tel. 0512 230 5564
Fax 0512 230 5390
E-mail rohitas@vsnl.net
M/s Usha Engineering Works
40-A, Trunk Road
Madanur 635 804
Vellore District , Tamil Nadu
Tel. 041 747 3613
E-mail solltechnew@yahoo.co.in
M/s Geetanjali Solar Enterprises
P/14, Kasba Industrial Estate
Phase-I, E M By Pass
P O East Kolkata Township
Kolkata 700 107
Tel. 033 2442 0773/2442 4027
Fax 033 2442 0773
E-mail gse@cal.vsnl.net.in
Sharda Inventions
94/1 MIDC Satpur, Nashik
Tel. 0254 352 444, 353 844
Mobile 9422245346
Essential Equipment
Takali Karyalaya, Bhide baag
Deour, Dhule 424 002
Tel. 0256 22029/353844
Mobile 98221876932
Gadhia Solar Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd
Plot No.86, Old GIDC Gundlav
Valsad 396 035
Gujarat
Tel. 026 323 6703
M/s Dhara Engineers
Opp. Union Bank of India
Chandra Colony Corner
C G Road
Ahmedabad 380 006
Tel. 079 644 7337
M/s Solar Alternatives
St Marys Church Compound
Phulwari Sharif, Patna 801 505
Tel. 0612 254 487
M/s Tinytech Plants
Tagore Road
Rajkot 360 002
Tel. 0281 468 485
Solar Thermal Appliances
Plot No.45, Rajpur Extn Colony
Khasara No. III
Maidan Garhi
New Delhi 110 068
Tel. 011 630 1010
M/s Supreme Rays Solar Systems
Shop No.8, Kumbhar Bldg
Behind Tekwale Petrol Pump
Opp. Akashwani
Hadpsar
Pune 411 028
Mobile 9890655884
Clique Developments Pvt. Ltd
Plot No. 134 A/B, First Floor
Government Industrial Estate
Near Hanuman Mandir, Charkop
Kandivli (W)
Mumbai 400 067
Aksons Solar Equipments Pvt. Ltd
42/1, Sahajanand Society
Gandhi Bhavan
Kothrud, Pune
Maharashtra
Tel. 91 20 2538 0109
Mobile 9422000459
Fax 91 20 3090 0575
SU Solartech Systems (P) Ltd
SCO 184, Sector 7-C
Chandigarh
Tel. 91 0172 279 2699
Mobile 9814014278
Fax 91 172 279 2576
Jay Industries
D 64 MIDC, Miraj Area
Maharashtra
Tel. 91 233 264 4464
Mobile 09422041364
Fax 91 233 264 4464
Shiva Solar Systems Pvt. Ltd
7378 Prem Nagar
Gali No. 5, Subzi Mandi
New Delhi 110 007
Deep Engineers
C 4/132, Sector 6
Rohini
New Delhi 110 032
Tarashma Engineers and Fabricators India
7/19 Jwala Nagar
New Delhi 110 032
The Bharat Engineering Co.
WZ 1, Phool Baugh
Rampura
New Delhi 110 035
17 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
J N Enterprise
Vidhanpura, Navin Shahdara
New Delhi
Brahma Enterprises
A/1/70A Lawrence Road
New Delhi 110 035
Classic Creations
74, Khanpur
New Delhi 110 062
Non-conventional Energy Systems
521, Mahesh Nagar
Ambala Cantt
Lalgee Solar
VPO Gutkar
Mandi (HP)
R K Solar Power Systems
6, 6th Cross
Malleswaram
Bangalore 560 003
Fair Fabricators
142, Tilak Nagar
Indore 452 001
Rawat Industries
143, Tilak Nagar
Indore 452 001
Thermal Systems
1/1 Mohanpura, Jawahar Marg
Indore 452 001
Sun N Shade
4 Chauthmal Colony
Indore 452 001
Summati Engineering Works
Shed 3, MPLUN Sheds 1
Industrial Area, Govindpura
Bhopal 462 003
Samta Udyam
82/101 T T NAGAR
Bhopal
Cook and Cool
8697 Amrit Complex
Ashok Garden
Bhopal
Cosmo Products
Ashoka Complex
Pachpedi Naka, Dhamtari Road,
Raipur
Classic Solar Devices
Ganeshpuri, Sungraha
Panna
Madhya Pradesh
Amika Screen Works
12 Dev Sahab ki Gali
Tilak Road, Ujjain
Innovative Enterprises
91 Jawahar Marg
Nandlalpura Chauraha
Indore 452 001
National Engineering Works
S/2 Industrial Area, Richhai
Jabalpur 482 009
Engees Industries
Surya Centre, First Floor
Shop No. 5, Jail Road
Indore 452 001
Vishal Industries
415 Deen Building Compound
N M Joshi Marg
Mumbai 462 003
M Laxman and Co.
320, Shaniwar Peth
Pune 411 030
Technical Research and Engineering Corp.
Plot 172, MIDC
Near Sainath Flour Mill
Solapur 413 006
Surya Jyoti Devices India Pvt. Ltd
Village Chanalon
P O Kurali, Ropar
Rajasthan State Agro Industries Corp.
Jhotwara, Jaipur
Usha Engineering Works
MadrasCalicut Trunk Road
Madhannur 635 804
Solar Energy Systems
14, 10th Street
Tatabad Gandhipuram
Coimbatore 641 012
Tamil Nadu Small Industries Corp.
1 Whites Road
Chennai 600 014
Universal MFG Co.
B 85, SECTOR 8, Noida 201 302
Solar Equipment MFG Co.
C 3, SECTOR 6
Noida 201 302
Ashish Import Export Pvt. Ltd
A 29, Sector 57
Noida 201 302
FRP POINT
G-3 Sarojini Nagar
Industrial Area
Lucknow 226 008
UP Instruments Ltd
Aishbag Road
Lucknow 226 004
Rohtas Electronics
15/260 Civil Lines
Kanpur 208 001
Rampur Rural Development Agency
Chair Darya Khan
B/H Municipal Board
Rampur
Surya Fibres
A 320, Indira Nagar
Lucknow 226 016
Yanthra Vidyalaya
P O Box 4
Suruchi Complex
Bardoli 394 601
Pinball MFG Co.
147 GIDC
Makarpura
Baroda 390 010
Solar Energy Enterprises
17 Janvishram SOC, B/H Sahjanand
College, Ambawadi
Ahmedabad 380 015
Prototype Development Training Centre
AJI Industrial Estate
Bhavnagar Road
Rajkot 360 003

Disclaimer
This is not an exhaustive list. Inclusion
in this list does not imply approval or
recommendation of any company or
its products by the Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy. Kindly provide
updated address in case of a change.
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 18
feature article
W
ith over 5000
applications,
this should be
consi der ed
the best
amongst other known biomass
resources. However, it is still
not used extensively. This is the
worlds largest grass and already
known to us for its thematic
uses like in construction
work, making furniture,
utensils, fbre, and paper. It
has got a huge potential to
bring about a revolution as
a bio-energy resource. The
time has come to explore its
usage as a renewable energy
resource. However, it is not
something newly explored.
It is already tested but needs
huge awareness buildup
among the common people
considering its importance as
a biomass energy resource,
environment protector,
and poverty alleviator. This
resource is bamboo. Though
a non-wood plant, it is still
considered a tree.
As a bioenergy
resource, it can meet both
thermal and electrical
energy requirements and
thus give energy security
to rural people. From
time immemorial, we are
heavily dependent on
bring good luck to people, energy, and environment
Plant it
Priyaranjan Sinha <E-mail sinha_priyaranjan@yahoo.co.in> and rajeSh BajPai
biomass resources for meeting our
thermal energy requirements. We had
these resources in abundance and
thus, we used them indiscriminately
without giving much thought to their
conservation. The result has been large
depletion of the forest cover. In some
areas, the situation is so worse that poor
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 18
19 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
villagers need to purchase fuel wood or
walk miles to collect it.
Bamboo plantation is highly
suitable for clean-cut forestlands,
degraded lands, and non-agricultural
lands. There are about 1500 bamboo
species. Bamboo is also perhaps the
fastest growing plant with some
varieties growing at the rate of 5 cm per
hour or 1.5 metres a day. Moreover, it is
incredibly fexible. It bends in strong
winds but rarely breaks. With a
tensile strength superior to mild
steel and a weight-to-strength
ratio better than graphite, bamboo
is the strongest contender
among other known biomass
species on earth. Therefore, it
should be selected naturally as an
alternative to other trees not only
for reforestation but also for
aforestation.
Utilization of
this renewable fuel
can save vast natural
forest resources and
fossil fuels such as coal,
oil, and gas. This would
allow retention of carbon
already sequestered in
forests and in fossil fuels.
Again, it can produce
larger amount of biomass
and 30% more oxygen
than a hardwood forest of
comparable size. Bamboo
has been overlooked or
ignored in the past by tropical
foresters when compared with
timber trees. All the energy
generation options based on
bamboo have the potential to alleviate
poverty.
One of the most important reasons
for limited income earning opportunities
in rural areas is lack of electricity
or availability of quality electricity.
Biomass gasifcation technology can
not only generate power but also
create employment in rural areas. This
distributed power generation can cut
down the limitations of centralized
power generation. Biomass-based
distributed power generation has a
huge potential for electrifying the non-
electrifed villages.
A substantial number of villages in
our country are either still not electrifed
or are not energy secure. Till now, we
have mostly used
the conventional
fossil fuels like
coal and oil but
their limited
storage and
p o l l u t i n g
nature have
f o r c e d
us to look for
alternatives. The situation is
deteriorating in most of the developing
countries. Bamboo has got the potential
to tide over this problem and ensure
energy security.
The availability of sufcient quantity
of biomass resources on sustainable
basis has been the concern in most of
the areas. The chosen
biomass resource should
not only be available but
also afordable as far as
the project sustainability
is concerned. Uncultivable
wasteland is not the
problem in most cases.
Therefore, the right type of
tree should be selected for
this. Short rotation forestry
should be the choice. Some
varieties of bamboo grow
so fast that their cultivation
can be considered as
short-rotation forestry.
Bamboo can be processed
for thematic uses and the
unused part can be used
for power generation along
with other energy purposes.
It can be harvested in
35 years versus 1020
years for most softwood.
Bamboo tolerates extremes
of precipitationabout
30250 inches of annual
rainfall.
The feasibility of bamboo
for power generation in both
dual fuel and 100% gas-
based engine are tested.
The MNRE (Ministry of
New and Renewable
Energy) along with NMBA
(National Mission on
Bamboo Application), IISc
(Indian Institute of Science)
have worked on it. It has been
found that in the initial phase,
it is ideal for the places where
bamboo already grows on
a large scale and bamboo-
processing industries are
available such as the north-
eastern states of India. In
the later phase, it is ideal for
all those locations where
fresh plantation is required
feature article
19 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
and climatic conditions permit
growth. In gasifcation, the variety
of bamboo is not the issue. The
criteria should be the following.
P It requires dried bamboo of any
variety to maintain the moisture
content of less than 20%.
P The bamboo should be 23
inches in length and 12 inches
in diameter. The sizing can be
done either manually or by a
machine.
P The chopped bamboo is then
used for gasifcation purpose.
Case study
The following results have been
noticed in a dual-fuel engine
with bamboo-based producer
gas.
P Average bamboo consu-
mption (kg/kWh) = 1.14
P Average diesel consumption
(litres/kWh) = 0.08
P Average percentage of diesel
replacement = 77
P Flame colour: mainly blue
with very less variation
P Odour of the fame is slight
pungent.
Besides, the residual loss
in the form of ash is very
lessabout 6%. The results
as cited in the above case
study are similar to the results
obtained with other biomass-
based gasifcation systems.
Therefore, it is proven that
bamboo-based biomass
gasifcation system is
technically perfect. In order
to make it an economically
viable option, it is very
important to consider the
raw bamboo cost. It has been
observed that if the unused
portion in the bamboo
processing industry is only
considered for gasifcation process, it
could be a very good option considering
other benefts.
Another beneft of unused mixed
variety of bamboo portion is converting
it into solid fuel for thermal applications
like cooking and space heating. It is
manufactured through the process
of pyrolysis of raw bamboo and then
mixing the powdered form of char
with binding materials like molasses,
clay, and four. The mixed mass is then
formed into briquette or pellets either
manually or by machine. It is then sun
dried for usage.
It has been noted that depending
on the mixing ratio of char and binding
material, the calorifc value of such
substances varies from 5500 to 7500
kcal/kg. The thermal behaviour of a
typical briquette sample is shown in
Figure 1.
All these thermal applications will
have a huge impact on protecting the
forest cover. From the above facts, it
is clear that bamboo is an energy- and
environment-friendly substance plant.
Nowadays, plantation of bamboo is
getting maximum attention and is
becoming highly important because of
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 20
feature article
its function as an environment protector
and poverty alleviator. Climate change
will afect the basic elements of life for
people around the worldaccess to
water, food production, health, and
the environment. Hundreds of millions
of people could sufer hunger, water
shortages, and coastal fooding as the
world warms.
Bamboo can easily compete with
the most efective wood species
in terms of carbon sequestration
capacities. It can play a signifcant role
in linking climate change mitigation
to sustainable economic development
in the developing world. Thus, the
CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)
projects as per the Kyoto Protocol can
be thought of in order to combat global
warming.
Carbon credits may help in creation
of jobs and generation of wealth. Again,
it can be the start-up fund for various
bamboo-related developmental
projects. Unlike tree crop plantations,
which are facing criticism with regard
to an unclear pro-poor focus, bamboo
is highly suitable for cultivation
specifcally for pro-poor development.
Besides higher biomass, bamboo
has other advantages over wood as
a carbon stock. Unlike woody crops,
bamboo ofers the
possibility of annual
selective harvesting and
removal of about 15%
20% of the total stock
without damaging the
environment and stock
productivity. Over 90% of
bamboo carbon can be
sequestered in durable
products such as boards,
panels, foors, furniture,
buildings, cloth, paper, and
activated charcoal. These
products have a very long
life span and may retain
carbon for several decades.
The annual biomass and
carbon sink per hectare of
many bamboo species are
comparative to wood tree
crops such as eucalyptus
and teak. Bamboo can
sequestrate CO2 in the form
of 12 tonne per hectare of
plantation.
Bamboo often grows on
small plots of marginal lands
managed by poor people.
It is possible to group many
small plots under one project.
Such groups could qualify for
carbon trading as
small-scale forest
project. In ancient
Chinese culture
it was believed
that a gift of living
bamboo would
bring good luck. So,
lets start preaching
this practice in
our country also
in order to bring
good luck to energy,
environment, and
people.
Figure 1 Thermal behaviour of a typical briquette sample
21 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 22
feature article
enrichment and bottling
technology for vehicular use
dr Virendra Kumar Vijay
Center for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
E-mail vkvijay@rdat.iitd.ernet.in
Biogas
Introduction
I
n the present era of ever-
increasing energy consumption
and dwindling fossil fuel reserves,
the importance of biomass-
based, decentralized fuel such
as biogas and biomass-based power
generation has been greatly increased.
It is a well-established renewable and
environment-friendly fuel for rural
energy needs. Biogas is ideally suited for
rural applications where required animal
or human excreta and agricultural waste
are available in plenty. Harnessing such
a resource promotes rural industries,
agriculture, and dairy and animal
farming in a sustainable way. This will
also increase employment in the rural
regions and discourage migration to
cities.
Biogas is an environment-friendly,
clean, cheap, and versatile fuel. Biogas
is produced by anaerobic digestion of
degradable wastes such as cattle dung,
vegetable wastes, sheep and poultry
droppings, municipal solid waste,
sewage water, and landfll. Presently
the biogas is mainly used for cooking
and lighting purposes in the rural
areas. Biogas is being used in stationary
engines for diferent agricultural
operations. Its utilization is also feasible
in automobiles, used for transportation
purposes by enriching and compressing
it in cylinders. Biogas can be converted
into bio CNG after enrichment and
bottling. It becomes just like CNG.
Potential of the technology
So far, biogas has mostly been used as
fuel for cooking and running stationary
engines. However, its potential has not
been fully utilized yet. There is a great
enhancement in its utilization potential
particularly where bigger plants are in
operation, for example, institutional
biogas plants in goshalas, dairy farms
or community biogas plants in villages.
Goshalas are running generally on
charity basis and most of Goshalas
are not in sound fnancial position.
23 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
Enrichment and bottling of biogas will
help to improve it.
India has a vast potential of 6.38 x
1010 cubic metres of biogas per annum
from 980 million tonnes of cattle dung
produced. The NPBD (National Project
on Biogas Development) was launched
by the Government of India in 1981. A
total of about 36.5 lakh family biogas
plants have been installed under this
programme all over the country till
December 2004. This is about 30% of
the total 120 lakh family-type biogas
plants. More than 3380 CBP (community
biogas plants), IBP (institutional biogas
plants), and NBP (night-soil-based
biogas plants) have been installed all
over the country with most reporting
satisfactory performance levels. The
family biogas plants in the country are
estimated to be saving 39.6 lakh tonnes
of fuelwood per year. Besides, about
9.2 lakh tonnes of enriched organic
manure are being produced every year
from these plants.
There are a number of goshalas,
dairies, and village communities
having large number of cattle, which
have the potential for installing biogas
enrichment and bottling system. In
urban areas, large quantity of biogas
can be produced in sewage treatment
plants using anaerobic digestion. The
Okhla Sewage Treatment Plant in New
Delhi is an example where more than 10
000 cubic metres of biogas is produced
every day. Due to rising cost of
petroleum products and environmental
concerns it has become imperative
to make use of local resources as an
alternate to petroleum fuels. Therefore,
it is a worldwide trend to explore and
make use of biogas as an alternate fuel
in vehicles.
Biogas composition, properties,
and utilization as CNG
Biogas comprises 60%65% methane,
35%40% CO
2
(carbon dioxide),
0.5%1.0% H
2
S (hydrogen sulphide),
and water vapour. It is almost 20%
lighter than air. Biogas, like LPG
(liquefed petroleum gas), cannot
be converted to liquid state under
normal temperature. Removing CO
2

and compressing it into cylinders
makes it easily usable for transport
applications three-wheelers, cars,
pick up vans, and so on and also for
stationary applications at various long
distances. Already, CNG technology has
become easily available and therefore,
bio-methane (enriched biogas),
which is nearly same as CNG, can be
used for all applications for which CNG
is used.
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 24
feature article
Cylinders flled from one 120 m
3
biogas bottling = 8 cylinders/day
plant (Capacity 6 kg/cylinder)
As 6 kg CNG cylinder = 6 litre petrol
Therefore, gas flled in these cylinders will be = 6 8 = 48 litres of
equivalent to petrol/day
or Diesel/petrol savings = 17520 litres/annum.
= Rs 876 000/annum
(approx.)
Rs 9 lakh/annum
(from one bottling plant)
Biogas scrubber Biogas high-pressure cylinder and
Compressor
Biogas-run car Biogas plant
Biogas enrichment process
A variety of processes are available
for enrichment, that is, removing CO
2
,
H
2
S, and water vapour. Commonly CO
2

removal processes also remove H
2
S. One
of the easiest and cheapest methods
involved is the use of pressurized
water as an absorbent liquid. In this
method, the biogas is pressurized and
fed to the bottom of a scrubber column
where water is sprayed from the top. In
counter-currently operated absorption
process, the CO
2
and H
2
S present in the
biogas is absorbed in the water going
down and the methane goes up and
is collected in the vessel. Although
the water requirement in this process
is high, it is the simplest method of
removing impurities from biogas.
Concept of alternative bio-CNG
Biogas contains a large proportion
(about 40% by volume) of CO
2
, a
heavier and non-combustible gas and
some fraction of H
2S
. Hence, the biogas
must be enriched by removing these
undesirable gases to save compression
energy and space in bottle and corroding
efect. The scrubbing system is found to
enrich methane to about 95% or more
depending upon biogas inlet and water
injection pressure. Biogas can be used
for all applications designed for natural
gas, assuming sufcient purifcation.
Scope of the technique
Enriched biogas is made moisture
free by passing it through flters after
which it is compressed to a pressure
of about 200 bars using a three-stage
gas compressor. Compressed gas is
stored in high-pressure steel cylinders
as used for CNG. There is large potential
of this technology in buses, tractors,
cars, autorickshaws, irrigation pump
sets, and in rural industries. This will
help in meeting the energy demand
for rural masses thus reducing the
burden of petroleum demand, moves
towards energy security and will
improve economic status by creating
employment generation in rural area.
Therefore, from only one biogas
bottling plant, enriched biogas flled
cylinders will be able to replace
fuel worth Rs 9 lakh annually in the
country. Increasing the number of
bottling plant will subsequently
increase the diesel/petrol savings. The
whole cost can be recovered within
twothree years from the year of
installation of the plant.
26 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
D
uring the past 25 years,
the renewable energy
programme in India
has evolved in three
distinctive stages. In the
frst stage, from about the late 1970s to
the early 1980s, the thrust of the national
efort in this feld was directed towards
capacity building and R&D, largely in
national laboratories and educational
institutions. The second stage, from
early 1980s to the end of the decade,
witnessed a major expansion with
accent on large-scale demonstration
and subsidy driven extension activities.
Widening the reach
of renewable energy:
new initiatives
dr arun K triPathi
Director, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India
The extension programmes generated
a vast network of institutions and non-
government organizations, right down
to the level of self-employed workers
and organizations at the grass-roots
levels.
In the third and current stage,
extending from the beginning of the last
decade, the emphasis has been more
on application of matured technologies
for power generation, based on wind,
small hydro, biogas cogeneration, and
other biomass systems, as well as for
industrial applications of solar and
other forms of energy. There has also
been a gradual shift from the subsidy
driven mode to commercially driven
activity in the area. Since 2006/07, new
impetus has been given to research
and development of cutting edge new
and renewable energy technologies
such as next generation solar
technologies, hydrogen and fuel cells,
and biofuels.
The ministry has launched some
major new schemes in 2009 as well.
Some of these include Demonstration
programme on tail-end grid-connected
solar power plants and Rooftop SPV
systems.
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 26
feature article
Demonstration programme on
tail-end grid-connected solar
power plants
The main objective of the demonstration
programme is to connect solar
power plant at the tail end of the
grid for providing voltage support to
strengthen the grid and to provide
additional power for use in the daytime.
Any company or electricity board that is
authorized in the state/union territories
to distribute or generate electricity
will be eligible to take up the projects
under the demonstration programme.
In addition, state nodal agencies are
also eligible, provided they connect
the plant to the grid at the tail end
and feed power to the tail-end grid.
Any of the above-mentioned eligible
organizations can submit a proposal
directly to the ministry for seeking
fnancial support and that organization
will be considered as the project
implementing agency. Each proposal
must be supported by a DPR (detailed
project report).
Targets and central financial
assistance
Tail end grid-connected solar power
plants, with an aggregate capacity up
to 4 MWp may be supported under
the demonstration
programme. The ministry
will provide a central
fnancial assistance of up
to 50% of the installed
cost of solar power plant,
excluding the cost of the
land, extension of line for
power evacuation, civil
works and cost of AMC,
or a maximum of Rs 10
crore per megawatt of
solar capacity used in the
tail-end supported solar
power projects. Cost of
preparation of the DPR will
also not be covered under the eligible
CFA (central fnancial assistance).
One per cent of the MNRE CFA will
be provided as administrative charges
to the implementing agency subject to
a maximum of Rs 10 lakh per project. The
ministry will provide, on a case-to-case
basis, full support for training; capacity
building; third party monitoring; and
impact assessment studies relating to
the demonstration programme.
Technical performance
optimization
With a view to encourage technology
development and reduction in the
cost of the power plant projects, the
implementing agencies are expected
to utilize state-of-the-art technology
to set up the plants. They are expected
to use large capacity and higher power
output PV modules available for the
specifc technology used in setting
up the power plant. Qualifcation of
27 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
PV modules, to be used in the tail end
grid-connected SPV power plants, in
accordance with the standards issued
by BIS or IEC 61215 certifcation or
other international certifcation on
qualifcation of PV modules will be
necessary. Use of modules that do not
conform to BIS or any international
certifcation is not permitted.
The electronics, cables, controls,
structures, storage batteries (if any),
and so on must qualify to the latest
BIS or international standards that are
acceptable to utilities and which fulfll
all safety norms for grid-connected
power projects. The PV power project
connected to the tail-end grid should
be designed to optimize generation
in electricity in terms of vis--vis
available solar radiation at the site
(may be obtained through use of
efcient electronics, lower cable losses,
maximization of power transfer from
PV modules to electronics and the grid,
maximization of power generation
by enhancing incident radiation by
optional methods like seasonally
changing tilt angles).
Monitoring and progress report
The implementing agencies will
install suitable instruments and make
adequate arrangements
to monitor the technical
performance and ensure
satisfactory operation of the tail
end grid-connected solar power
plants. The concerned state
nodal agency may also visit the
project site and provide their
feedback and recommendation
to the implementing agency
and the ministry. All projects
set up under the demonstration
programme will be open to
inspection by ofcials from
the ministry, IREDA, concerned
state nodal agencies, and any
independent organization
appointed by the ministry/IREDA for
performance monitoring.
The ministry may also undertake
feld evaluation studies for any of the
tail end grid-connected solar plants
through professional and independent
organizations. The implementing
agencies will be required to submit
quarterly and annual progress report
about the project to the ministry. The
implementing agencies will furnish
an annual report on generation of
electricity from each plant in the format
given by the ministry.
Rooftop SPV systems
Several cities and towns in the country
are experiencing a substantial growth in
their peak electricity demand. Municipal
corporations and the electricity utilities
are fnding it difcult to cope with this
rapid rise in demand and hence, most
of the cities/towns are facing severe
electricity shortages. Various industries
and commercial establishments, for
example, malls, hotels, hospitals,
nursing homes, and so on; housing
complexes developed by builders and
developers in cities and towns use
diesel generators for back up power
even during daytime. These generator
capacities vary from a few kilowatts
to a couple of megawatts. Generally,
in a single establishment, more than
one generators are installedone to
cater to the minimum load required
for lighting and computer/other
emergency operations during load
shedding and the others for running
ACs and other things such as lifts and
other power applications.
With an objective to reduce
dependency on diesel gensets, a scheme
to replace them with SPV is being
proposed. Further, in order to utilize
the existing roof space of buildings, the
scheme proposes to promote rooftop
SPV systems on buildings to replace
diesel gensets installed for minimum
load requirement for operation during
load shedding. These loads generally
vary between 25 kW and 100 kW.
A rooftop SPV system could be
with or without grid interaction.
In grid interaction system, the DC
power generated from SPV panels is
converted into AC power using power
conditioning unit and is fed to the grid
either of 11 kV three-phase line or of
220 V single-phase line depending on
the system installed at the institution/
commercial establishment or residential
complex. They generate power during
the daytime, which is utilized fully by
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 28
feature article
powering the captive loads and feeding
excess power to the grid as long as the
grid is available. In cases where solar
power is not sufcient due to cloud
cover and so on, the captive loads are
served by drawing power from the
grid.
The grid-interactive rooftop SPV
systems thus work on a net metering
basis wherein the benefciary pays
to the utility on net meter basis only.
Ideally, grid-interactive systems do
not require battery bask up as the grid
acts as the back up for feeding excess
solar power and vice versa. However, to
enhance the performance reliability of
the overall systems, a minimum battery
back up of one hour of load capacity
is strongly recommended. In grid-
interactive systems, it must be ensured
that in case the grid fails, the solar
power has to be fully utilized or stopped
from the feeding the grid immediately
(if any in excess) so as to safeguard any
grid person/technician from getting
electrocuted while working on the grid
for maintenance and so on. This feature
is called Islanding Protection.
Non-grid interactive systems ideally
require a full load capacity and battery
power back up system. However, with
the introduction of advanced load
management and power conditioning
systems, and safety mechanisms it is
possible to segregate
the daytime loads to
be served directly by
solar power without
necessarily going
through the battery
back up. As in the
previous case, of grid-
interactive systems,
minimum one hour
of battery back up
is, however, strongly
recommended for
these systems also
to enhance the
performance reliability of the systems.
The non-grid-interactive systems with
minimum battery back up are viable
only in places where normal power is
not available during the daytime. In
case the SPV power is to be used after
sunshine hours, it would require full
load capacity battery back up, which
will increase the cost of system and this
may not be economically viable even
with support from the government.
The CFA for rooftop SPV systems
at the rate of Rs 75 per watt of SPV
panels to a maximum of 30% of the
cost of systems to proft-making
bodies availing depreciation benefts
and at the rate of Rs 100 per watt to a
maximum of 40% of the cost of systems
to non-proft-making bodies (with or
without grid interaction) limited to 100
kW capacity will be available mainly
for daytime use. This will include
institutions, government buildings,
commercial establishments, industry,
housing complexes, and so on. The
minimum capacity installation will be
25 kW. Smaller systems (not less than 10
kW) may be considered as special case.
No targets are set for these systems
to state/urban local bodies. Proposals
will be considered on a frst-come-frst-
serve basis.
Green buildings
Energy-efcient solar buildings are
constructed based on the techniques
of solar passive design with a view
to provide comfortable living and
working conditions, both in winter
and summer. These buildings can be
integrated with renewable energy
and energy conservation devices and
systems, and can save over 30% to 40%
29 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
Project size (total built up area) Rating-cum-registration fee
<= 5000 square metre Rs 314 000 (Rs 250 000 fxed cost for
registration and secretariat fees + Rs 64 000 for
evaluation)
> 5000 square metre Rs 314 000 (fxed cost for projects up to 5000
square metre) + Rs 3.75 square metre over and
above 5000 square metre of built area
of conventional energy that is used
for lighting, cooling or heating. Such
buildings have been tried out in few
states as a result of initiatives taken by
the MNRE. Finding the concept of solar
buildings useful, the state governments
of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,
and Nagaland have already made
it mandatory to construct all new
buildings in the government and public
sectors with this concept.
Eforts are now being made to
construct green buildings all over the
country, which not only take care of
energy conservation but also look
into water and waste management,
environmental impact, minimum
destruction of natural resources, and
various other aspects in an integrated
way. Building rating systems have been
quite efective in raising awareness
and popularizing energy-efcient and
green building design. Most of the
internationally devised rating systems
have been tailored to suit the building
sector of the country where they were
developed.
The objective of this scheme is to
promote the widespread construction
of energy-efcient solar/green buildings
in the country through a combination
of fnancial and promotional incentives,
and other support measures so as to save
a substantial amount of electricity and
other fossil fuels apart from having peak
load shavings in cities and towns. The
objective will be achieved by providing
incentives to buildings rated for their
performance under the National Rating
System being promoted by the ministry
and fnancial support for organizing
workshops and seminars for engineers,
planners, builders, architects, consultants,
housing fnance organizations and
potential users, and for compilation and
publication of documents related to
solar/green buildings.
This scheme is presently confned
to commercial and institutional
buildings including housing complexes
with minimum built area of about
2500 square metres. All the houses in a
complex will be considered, as single-
project individual households are not
covered in the scheme.
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 30
Owners of the buildings under
design and construction, interested
to be rated under GRIHA will get their
buildings registered with the GRIHA
Secretariat as per the procedure given
on the GRIHA/MNRE website. The
registration-cum-training fee for the
projects registered under GRIHA will be
as given below, which will be paid to
the GRIHA Secretariat by the owners at
the time of registration.
Release of registration-cum-rating
fee to the owners will be made by
MNRE on reimbursement basis through
GRIHA Secretariat after validation
of Star Rating Post-Construction by
the National Advisory Council. A
fnancial support of up to Rs 2 lakh
for each activity could be provided
for organizing workshops/seminars/
training programmes/meetings of NAC/
publications/awareness campaigns,
and so on to implementing agencies
including GRIHA Secretariat. Annual
awards to green buildings rated 5
Star under GRIHA will be given away
by the ministry in the form of shields/
certifcates. Cash incentive of Rs 50 lakh
to municipal corporations and Rs 25
lakh to municipalities/other urban local
bodies (one each to them) will also be
given away that perform the best in
promoting green buildings in their
areas from 2011/12 onwards.
Funds for other activities as felt
necessary by GRIHA Secretariat to
promote GRIHA as large-scale in the
country may also be considered by the
MNRE with approval of NAC subject to
availability.
feature article
31 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
D
atabases like the
Handbook of Solar
Radiation over India by
A Mani, NASA Surface
Meteorology and Solar
Energy: RETScreen Data, WeDCo when
evaluated reveals abundant solar
irradiance available over the surface
of Delhi throughout the year. Global
radiation on the horizontal surface
ranges between 500 W/m
2
to 900 W/m
2
around 12 pm in December and May,
respectively (Figure 1).
Tilted surface at an angle of latitude
+15 captures the maximum amount
of radiation during peak winter season
ranging between 2000 kWh/m
2
and
3500 kWh/m
2
(Figure 2). Tilted south
facing collector surfaces are preferred
in the Northern Hemisphere so as to let
the rays get incident at a perpendicular
tamoShi Bhattacharya
Student, Delhi University
in North Campus, Delhi University
Prospects and potential of
solar energy technologies
angle and receive maximum amount
of solar radiation over a given area and
period. If the power density (J/m
2
/sec)
of the incident radiation is I
o
then the
power density of the solar radiation
upon a horizontal surface is just
I
H
= I
o
cos . If the collector surface is
tilted then the intensity
is I
DIR
(
T
) = I
o
cos
s
,
where
s
= -
T
.
If
T
= , then the
intensity upon the
tilted surface achieves
maximum value I
o
.
This minor bit of
geometry illustrates the
obvious fact that the
maximum amount of
solar radiation received
when the collector
surface is oriented to
be perpendicular to the incident solar
radiation. A study conducted for hostels
in the North Campus, Delhi University
through primary survey reveals the
huge pressure of consumption exerted
on the power grid or conventionally
extracted electricity from coal and
Figure 1 Evaluation of RETScreen data for Delhi
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 32
feature article
gas. Nineteen selected hostels with
about 3100 students show an average
power consumption of 494.56 kWh/
day. The energy consumption pattern
shows a variable trend depending on
various factors, that is, the number of
students residing, number of electrical
appliances used, and utilization habits
of hostel residents and staf.
Despite having the same number of
residents, some hostels have a variable
range of electricity consumption. For
example, AGSHW, ISHW, and NESHW
with nearly 100 residents each consume
579, 751, and 645 kW per day (6.6 kwH/
day/capita on an average) whereas PG
mens, ISHM, and Meghdoot consume
about 314, 401, and 314 kW per day
(3.4 kW/day per capita on an average),
respectively. This is because of larger
number of lights, fans, geysers, and
other appliances provided in the frst
three that leads to overutilization of
energy in a way. This is naturally a
given cause of overconsumption of
power at any place. Consumption per
resident per day in most of the hostels
is much higher than Indias average
consumption per capita of 1.6 kWh/day.
A summary of the energy consumption
pattern has been given in Figures 3
and 4.
Conventionally extracted energy
consumed through various processes
such as lighting, water heating, space
cooling and heating, and so on can
be replaced with suitable solar energy
technologies. Among these, about
48% of the energy that is used for
heating water, cooling or heating
space can be replaced by solar thermal
technology. The remaining 52% of
Figure 2 Global radiation tilt factors for
different months
Figure 3 Energy consumption patterns of various hostels
Table 1 Roof area of hostels and global solar radiation received
P G
Hostels AGSHW ISHW NESHW V K R V Rao Womens
Roof area (m
2
) 988 1137 988 692 1068
Annual global 4940 5685 4940 3460 5340
radiation (kWh)
Hostels Jubilee Hall Hindu SRCC Boys SRCC Girls Manasarovar
Roof area (m
2
) 3935 3060 397 878 1010
Annual global 19 675 15 300 1985 4390 5050
radiation (kWh)
Hostels AGSHW ISHW NESHW V K R V Rao P G Womens
Roof area (m
2
) 600 1409 5175 3240 1809
Annual global 3000 7045 25 875 16 200 9045
radiation (kWh)
Miranda
Hostels House ISHB CIE (Girls) CIE (Boys) D S Kothari
Roof area (m
2
) 1880 2256 360 280 1222
Annual global 9400 11 280 1800 1400 6110
radiation (kWh)
Hostels Stephens (Girls) Stephens (Boys)
Roof area (m
2
) 984 3245
Annual global radiation (kWh) 4920 16 225
33 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
feature article
the energy consumed by lights, fans,
computers, television, hotplates,
refrigerators, and so on can be replaced
by solar photovoltaic technology.
Energy requirement to be replaced
(rather supplemented) is more for
solar electricity in summer (85%) and
for solar thermal in winter (60%).
Installation of solar collectors for the
above mentioned applications would
need shadow free areas of hostel roof,
lawns, and so on. For the same purpose,
the area of hostel roofs and average
solar radiation incident on them have
been calculated (Table 1).
Findings and observations have
successfully established the abundant
availability of solar radiation throughout
the year, possible solar energy
technologies as well as heavy pressure
of electricity consumption on the grid
by the hostels. This rationalizes the
need to partially replace or hybridize
the present energy sources with that
of solar energy. The study further gets
specifc to simulate the preliminary
feasibility model for applications like
solar water heating using RETScreen
international computer software.
A simulation model for solar water
heating system has been prepared
calculating the required installation area,
initial cost, and payback year (Table 2).
In this case, glazed fat-plate collectors
have been considered along with the
storage facility and conventional water
heating systems efciency has been
taken as 90%. The cost and payback
period would difer depending upon
systems confguration, building
design, and the authoritys decision
to install the number of collectors and
varying infation rates. It should also be
noted that the thermal performance
of the system would depend on its
confguration and climatic conditions.
The solar system tanks and collectors
are generally designed for normal
pressure < 11 kg/cm
2
. For pressurized
water supply, special systems with
thicker tanks would be required.
The preliminary investigation
towards solar radiation resource
assessment of the location of North
Campus, Delhi University shows that
there is enough potential to utilize
solar energy technologies especially
for lighting, water heating, and cooling
applications. There is enough area
on the roof of hostels to install solar
energy collectors or PV panels for
energy generation and supply. The total
requirement of hot water in the campus
is approximately 102 650 litres per day,
for which only 3254 m
2
installation is
required. This will cost about Rs 18 369
297 with an average payback period of
fve years.
Though the use of solar energy
has a cost implication attached, it
can be enhanced through eforts of
educational institutions. They should
come forward to use renewable energy
technologies to the maximum possible
extent. The curriculum should be
suitably modifed to include renewable
energy technologies at all levels.
Figure 4 Comparison energy
consumption by various sources
Table 2 Summary of proposed solar water heating systems for Delhi
University hostels
Required
Required area for Budgeted Payback
Capacity no. of Aperture installation initial cost period
Hostels (litres/day) collectors area (m
2
) (m
2
) (rupees) (years)
AGSHW 8448 84 168 268.8 1529558 3.7
ISHW 8512 85 170 272.0 1546043 3.7
NESHW 8448 84 168 268.8 1513073 3.7
V K R V Rao 3068 30 60 96 622883 5.1
P G Womens 8650 86 172 275.2 1562528 3.7
Stephens (B + G) 9093 90 180 288.0 1628468 3.7
Kothari 2629 26 52 83.2 556943 5.5
Jubilee Hall 5485 54 108 172.8 101823 4.0
Hindu 5611 56 112 179.2 1051493 4.0
SRCC (B+G) 5295 52 104 166.4 1002038 4.1
Manasarovar 5132 51 102 163.2 969068 4.1
Miranda House 8132 80 160 256 1447133 3.7
CIE 1493 14 28 44.8 359123 8.8
Meghdoot 2819 28 56 89.6 589913 5.3
P G Mens 3504 35 70 112 705308 4.7
Gwyer Hall 4512 45 90 144 870158 4.3
Kirorimal 3804 38 76 121.6 754763 4.6
Hansraj 4918 49 98 156.8 936098 4.2
ISHB 3095 30 60 96 622883 5.0
feature article
Introduction
G
HPs (geothermal heat
pumps) are a relatively
new technology that
can save money. These
ground-source heat
pumps use natural heat storage
capacity of the earth or ground water
to provide energy-efcient heating and
cooling. GHPs should not be confused
with air-source heat pumps that rely on
heat in the air. Geothermal heat pumps
use the relatively constant temperature
of the ground or water several feet
below the earths surface as the source
of heating and cooling. Geothermal
heat pumps are appropriate for retroft
or new homes, where both heating
and cooling are desired. In addition to
this, GHPs can provide hot water for
domestic use.
How do they work?
A GHP doesnt create heat by burning
fuel, like a furnace does. Instead, in
Geothermal heat pumps
an energy-efcient technology
mineSh Patel
Geo Clinic <geoclinic@yahoo.com>
winter it collects the earths natural
heat through a series of pipes, called a
loop, installed below the surface of the
ground or submersed in a pond or lake.
Fluid circulates through the loop and
carries the heat to the house. There,
an electrically driven compressor and a
heat exchanger concentrate the earths
energy and release it inside the home
at a higher temperature. Ductwork
distributes the heat to diferent rooms.
In summer, the process is reversed.
The underground loop draws excess
heat from the house and allows it to
be absorbed by the earth. The systems
cools a home in the same way that
a refrigerator keeps food coolby
drawing heat from the interior and not
by blowing in cold air.
Types of geothermal heat pump
systems
There are four basic types of ground
loop systems. Three of these
horizontal, vertical, and pond/lake are
closed-loop systems. The fourth type of
system is the open-loop option. Which
one of these is the best depends on the
climate, soil conditions, available land,
and local installation costs at the site.
All of these approaches can be used
for residential and commercial building
applications.
Closed-loop systems
Horizontal
This type of installation is generally
the most cost-efective for residential
installations, particularly for new
construction where sufcient land is
available. It requires trenches at least
four feet deep. The most common
layouts either use two pipes one
buried at six feet and the other at four
feet or two pipes placed side-by-side
at fve feet in the ground in a two-foot
wide trench. The SlinkyTM method of
looping the pipe allows more pipe in a
shorter trench, which cuts down on the
installation costs and makes horizontal
installation possible in areas it would
not be with conventional horizontal
applications.
Vertical
Large commercial buildings and schools
often use vertical systems because the
land area required for horizontal loops
would be prohibitive. Vertical loops are
also used where the soil is too shallow
for trenching, and they minimize
the disturbance to the existing
landscape. For a vertical system, holes
(approximately four inches in diameter)
are drilled about 20 feet apart and 100
400 feet deep. Into these two holes go
two pipes that are connected at the
bottom with a U-bend to form a loop.
The vertical loops are connected with
the horizontal pipe (that is, manifold),
placed in trenches, and connected to
the heat pump in the building.
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 34
feature article
Pond/lake
If the site has an adequate water body,
this may be the lowest cost option. A
supply line pipe is run underground
from the building to the water and
coiled into circles at least eight feet
under the surface to prevent freezing.
The coils should only be placed in a
water source that meets minimum
volume, depth, and quality criteria.
Open-loop system
This type of system uses well or surface
body water as the heat exchange fuid
that circulates directly through the GHP
system. Once it has circulated through
the system, the water returns to the
ground through the well, a recharge
well, or surface discharge. This option is
obviously practical only where there is
an adequate supply of relatively clean
water, and all local codes and regulation
regarding groundwater discharge are
met.
Application of heat pumps
Heat pumps can be used in a variety of
places such as the following.
P Dairy industry
P Fish farm
P Textile industry
P Meat processing unit
P Pharma industry
P Breweries
P Clubs
P Hospitals
P Hotels
P Cold storages
P Chemical industry
P Spa/swimming pool
P Colleges
P Schools
P Laundry
P Showers
P Wash basins
36 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
P Zero energy homes
P Commercial buildings
P Process water
P OEMs of HVAC industry
Benefits of geothermal system
An investment in a geothermal system
provides an array of benefts not found
with other systems.
P Lower operating cost: A geothermal
system operates more efciently
than ordinary heating and air
conditioning systems because it
can deliver an astounding four
units of energy for every one unit
of electrical energy used. That
translates into an efciency rating
of 400% as compared to the most
efcient gas furnace, which rates
only 94%. By combining stored earth
energy with safe electric power,
many homeowners realize savings
up to 60% for heating, cooling, and
hot water.
P Lower life cycle cost: Due to the
extraordinary efciency of a
geothermal, any added investment
feature article
related to installing a geothermal
unit is usually more than ofset
by your energy savings. In new
homes, most homeowners will
experience an immediate positive
return on their investment when
the system cost is added to
the mortgage. In replacement
installations, homeowners fnd that
any added investment over the cost
of an ordinary system is generally
recovered in energy savings with a
few years. With a long system life
and less maintenance, the overall
life cycle costs are lower with
geothermal.
P Enhanced comfort: This system
provides precise distribution
of comfortable air all year long,
eliminating hot spots and cold
spots. During heating, one would
experience warm air without the hot
blasts associated with ordinary gas
furnaces. Compared to an air-source
heat pump, the air is warmer. When
cooling, a geothermal unit delivers
cool, dehumidifed air. For ultimate
comfort, a zoning system can be
added using multiple thermostats
to control temperatures in various
zones.
P Safe: This system is safe because
natural gas, propane or oil are not
required to operate a geothermal
unit, there is no combustion, fames,
or fumes, and no chance of carbon
monoxide poisoning.
P Clean: With the all-electric
geothermal system, there are no
fumes produced during operation.
By adding optional high-efciency
air cleaners, high levels of indoor air
quality can be achieved.
P Quiet: Unlike ordinary air
conditioners or heat pumps, there
is no outdoor unit that disturbs
the surrounding environment.
Geothermal units are designed
and constructed for whisper quiet
operation, similar to a refrigerator.
Some models include variable
speed fan motors and acoustical
enclosures for the compressors.
P Reliable: Unlike air conditioners and
heat pumps, geothermal units are
installed indoors. Therefore, they are
not subject to wear and tear caused
by rain, snow, ice, debris, extreme
temperatures, and vandalism.
Geothermal units have proven to
be very reliable and require less
maintenance.
P Environmentally friendly: According
to the Department of Energy and
the EPA, geothermal systems are
the most environment-friendly way
of heating and cooling a house. The
system emits no carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide or any other
greenhouse gas. With a geothermal
system, you can take comfort in a
better environment. In addition, the
lower peak demand for geothermal
systems helps to postpone the need
to build more expensive electricity
generating plants.











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VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 36
SUCCESS STORY
Solar drying
is becoming
more prevalent in
industry nowadays, the
driving force behind the ever
rising cost of fuels. Diferent types
of solar dryers have been developed
and are being used in agro-based,
food processing, chemical, and textile
industries. A solar air-heating system
for drying of garments in tumbler
dryers has been installed at M/s Raghav
Woollen Mills, Ludhiana, Punjab. The
replacement of cool ambient air (of
temperature about 30 C) has been
done with solar pre-heated air (of
temperature 5566 C), which is further
raised by conventional fuels to 100110
C by steam radiators or diesel-fred hot
air generator.
PAU designed packed bed solar air
heating collectors (72 nos) have been
installed making a total area of 90
m2, by M/s Vishivkarma Solar Energy
Corporation, Phillaur, Punjab. The total
project cost has been Rs 5.27 lakh and
a subsidy of Rs 1.57 lakh has also been
given by MNRE as central fnancial
assistance. Fuel savings to the tune of
about 25% have been realized after
implementation, amounting to more
than 1.50 lakh per annum. Additionally,
the user also avails a tax beneft of Rs 90
000 since 80% depreciation is allowed
in the frst year itself.
The
payback
period is two
years and the
system is expected
to last for more than 15
years. Thus, the user saves
Rs 22.5 lakh worth of diesel at
current pricing. The only regular
maintenance required is cleaning of
glasses twice a week due to the dusty
and sooty conditions prevailing at the











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site of installation. Such systems can
fnd widespread use in drying of leather,
fsh, egg trays, apple trays, plywood,
and so on where sun drying in the
open is adopted usually. Scientifcally
designed solar drying can not only
make the process faster but also more
efcient because the product will not
be exposed to vagaries of weather and
also dust, insects, brid droppings, and
so on.
S
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VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 38
case study
L
ack of refrigeration facility in
the rural areas is adversely
afecting the health and
economy of the villages.
Refrigerators available in
the market work on 230V AC and are
not useful at places where grid power
is not available on a continuous basis.
The problems faced by the people
in the absence of a safe storage for
vaccines, medicines, and perishable
food products need to be overcome
to improve their quality of life. Using
solar energy for refrigeration is an
ideal concept as the periods of high
sunshine are times when refrigeration
is also required maximum. Most of the
unelectrifed or electricity defcient
villages of the country are blessed with
good solar radiation most of the time. Of
all the possible or desirable applications
of solar energy, cooling has been the
most sought after application. While
solar energy can be used to produce
cooling efect through diferent routes,
the vapour compression route powered
by electricity generated from solar
energy is found to be the most suitable
one for refrigerators of small capacities
useful for household purpose, medical
uses, and small community use.
Conventional refrigerators can be
powered through solar energy but the
power supply system would have to
use an inverter to convert DC electricity
stored in batteries to 230V AC to operate
the refrigerator. Besides the inverter, the
power supply system necessary for this
purpose was found to be too expensive
due to the inverter losses, high starting
current, and minimal installation used
in these refrigerators.
After many years of research,
Gujarat-based SPRERI (Sardar Patel
Renewable Energy Research Institute)
has developed DC compressor-
based SPRERITECH refrigerator that
operates on 24V DC supply from
storage batteries charged with the
Solar refrigeratort
V chaVda and naVeen Kumar
Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute
E-mail tilak_chavda@yahoo.co.in
39 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
help of solar photovoltaic modules.
The model named TD80 provides top
opening 80-litre storage capacity in
two compartments to store a variety of
essential items that require refrigeration.
The strategically placed evaporator
coils ensure uniform temperature
throughout the refrigerator, thereby
making it highly suitable for bulk
storage. The evaporator coil has been
provided below the inner body for
efective cooling and easy loading and
cleaning of the box.
The design features state-of-the-
art skin condenser and highly energy-
efcient Danfoss BD35F sealed DC
compressor that is the only imported
component in the solar refrigerator.
DC compressor that uses environment-
friendly refrigerant, R134a (HFC) and
electronic control unit available from
Danfoss, Germany has been used in
the solar refrigerator. The unit operates
with very low noise level and requires
negligible starting current. Thermostat
with seven settings enables the user to
obtain a wide range of temperatures
varying between 3 C and 6 C.
In the large number of villages
without grid-connected power, the
TD80 can be operated with the help of
solar photovoltaic modules. Depending
on the application, solar photovoltaic
modules of 100 to 200 W can provide
satisfactory performance. The SPV
modules charge the battery bank,
which in turn operates the refrigerator.
With a battery of 24 V, 130 Ah, no
sun autonomy of up to four days can
be obtained, making the refrigerator
suitable for most of the critical
applications. A solar charge regulator
is used to protect the batteries against
problems due to over charging or
excessive discharge in cloudy weather.
So far, SPRERI has manufactured
seven TD80 model refrigerators and
installed at diferent places in India
for demonstration purposes. The DC
compressor based solar refrigerator
costs three to four times more than
the AC compressor based refrigerators
available in the local market. Therefore,
they have not been manufactured
on a large scale yet. SPRERI has given
license to M/s Sunrise Technology,
Gujarat to market and manufacture
SPRERIs TD80 model refrigeration
systems for commercialization for a
period of two years. Besides SPRERI and
Sunrise Technology, BHEL-Hyderabad,
CEL-Sahibabad, and Tata BP Solar-
Bangalore are also manufacturing solar
refrigerators in India.
Inviting advertisements for Akshay Urja
Akshay Urja is widely circulated to various stakeholders of renewable energy. Akshay Urja invites
advertisements (in colour) from interested organizations, manufacturers, institutions, etc. The advertisement
tarifs are as follows.
Advertisement area Tarif (rupees)*
Inside Front Cover 40 000
Inside Back Cover 40 000
Full Page 25 000
* Avail 25% discount on booking for six issues and 20% discount on booking for three issues
The interested organizations may write to:
Editor, Akshay Urja
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Block - 14, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003
Tel. +91 11 2436 3035 or 2436 0707 Fax +91 11 2436 3035 or 2436 1298
E-mail aktripathi@nic.in
case study
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 40
RE event
B
uildings have major
environmental impacts over
their entire life cycle. Resources
such as ground cover, forests, water,
and energy are depleted to give way
to buildings. A green building depletes
the natural resources to the minimum
during its construction and operation.
The aim of a green building design
is to minimize the demand on non-
renewable resources, maximize the
utilization efciency of these resources,
when in use, and maximize the reuse,
recycling, and utilization of renewable
resources.
In sum, the following aspects of the
building design are looked into in an
integrated way in a green building.
P Site planning
P Building envelope design
P Building system design ((HVAC)
heating ventilation and air
conditioning, lighting, electrical,
and water heating)
P Integration of renewable energy
sources to generate energy onsite.
P Water and waste management
P Selection of ecologically sustainable
materials (with high recycled
content, rapidly renewable resources
with low emission potential, etc.).
P Indoor environmental quality
(maintain indoor thermal and visual
comfort, and air quality)
Keeping in view the Indian agro-
climatic conditions and in particular the
preponderance of non-AC buildings, a
National Rating System, GRIHA was
developed, which is suitable for all kinds
of building in diferent climatic zones
of the country. The system was initially
conceived and developed by TERI (The
Energy and Resources Institute) as TERI-
Ushering in green buildings
GRIHA, which has been modifed to
GRIHA as a National Rating System after
incorporating various modifcations
suggested by a group of architects
and experts. It takes into account the
provisions of the National Building
Code 2005, the Energy Conservation
Building
Code 2007 announced by BEE, and
other IS codes, local bylaws, other local
standards and laws.
The frst GRIHA training programme
on green buildings was organized in
Bangalore in TERIs Southern Regional
Centre during 2223 December 2008
with an aim to create awareness
amongst stakeholders related to the
construction industry in South India. The
programme was well received in the city
and was attended by many architects,
corporate, institutes, and government
bodies including the Director of MNRE
(Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy) and Managing Director of
KREDL (Karnataka Renewable Energy
Development Ltd). Representatives
from various corporate organizations
and PSUs like Infosys, Wipro, ITC, HAL,
and NAL also participated.
The incentive programme for
GRIHA-rated green buildings that has
been devised by MNRE along with TERI
was publicly announced for the frst
time during the training programme in
Bangalore by Mr Dilip Nigam, Director,
MNRE. During the two-day training
programme the criterion of certifcation
spread across the life cycle of the
building from inception to operation
were explained in various technical
sessions. The stages of the life cycle
that have been identifed for evaluation
are pre-construction, building design
and construction, and building O&M
(operation and maintenance). These
issues, which were addressed through
a series of technical sessions, are as
follows.
Participants of the workshop held at Bangalore
41 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
P Pre-construction stage (intra- and
inter-site issues)
P Building planning and construction
stages (issues of resource
conservation and reduction
in resource demand, resource
utilization efciency, resource
recovery and reuse, and provisions
for occupant health and well-
being). The prime resources that are
considered in this section are land,
water, energy, air, and green cover.
P Building O&M stage (issues of O&M
of building system and processes,
monitoring and recording of
consumption, and occupant health
and well-being, and also issues
that afect the global and local
environment).
All the participants with varied
backgrounds welcomed the initiative
taken by TERI and MNRE to organize this
workshop and showed their enthusiasm
to attend the same in the future also to
know more about the national green
rating system. The feedback received
from the participants depicts the
success of the training programme
conducted.
Delhi Sustainable Development Summit 2009
T
he DSDS (Delhi Sustainable
Development Summit) is an
annual fagship event of TERI. It
is a global forum that seeks to provide
long-term solutions for sustainable
development. The DSDS 2009, with
the theme Towards Copenhagen:
an equitable and ethical approach,
while facilitating multistakeholder
dialogue aimed at fnding answers to
these challenges. The summit through
various sessions discussed the ways
and means to strengthen the capacities
of developing countries, identifcation
of adaptation priorities, and adaptation
measures. There was a special focus on
key vulnerabilities and global responses
in assisting the most vulnerable regions
in developing countries to create
adequate capacity for adaptation.
Parallel special events also addressed
some key themes including renewable
energy and sustainable buildings.
Scaling up Renewable Energy
and Energy Efficiency in South
Asia: focus on financing and
investment
This event aimed at addressing issues
to stimulate the use of renewable
energy and energy efciency in South
Asia. It opened with a welcome address
by Ms Ligia Noronha, Coordinator,
REEEP (Renewable Energy and Energy
Efciency Partnership), South Asia,
who presented brief highlights of
REEEP activities in South Asia. This was
followed by a special address by Mr
Creon Butler, Minister and Deputy High
Commissioner, British High Commission
and Chair of the Steering Committee,
REEEP, South Asia. He expressed
concerns about the likely impacts of the
global economic crises on the activities
of REEEP in particular and renewable
energy and energy efciency promotion
activities in general.
Ms Gauri Singh, Joint Secretary,
MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy), Government of India,
highlighted various policy initiatives
undertaken by the MNRE for renewable
energy technology promotion in
India, in her inaugural address. While
presenting the focus of the future
policies, she explained the importance
of developing wind, solar, and biomass
energy based grid-connected power
generation to meet Indias growing
energy demand and the need to change
the focus from tax-based incentives to
generation-based incentives. Ms Ligia
Noronha proposed the vote of thanks.
The proceedings continued with panel
discussions on a variety of issues.
RE events
Mr Pranab Mukherjee, Honble Minister of External Affairs, Ministry of External Affairs,
Government of India, inaugurating DSDS 2009.
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 42
Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town
Blending with nature
eugene ViSagie
University of Capetown <Eugene.Visagie@uct.ac.za>
Introduction
T
he UCT (University of Cape
Town) is a public university
located in Cape Town, South
Africa. UCT was founded in
1829 as the South African
College, and is the oldest university in
Africa south of the Sahara desert. UCT is
the highest-ranking African university
in both the World University Rankings
and the Academic Ranking of World
Universities by the Shanghai Jiao Tong
University. UCT is currently ranked 179th
and is the only African university to have
been listed in the worlds top 200.
Energy research at UCT is conducted
across engineering disciplines with the
ERC (Energy Research Centre) being
the leading research unit. The ERC is a
multi-disciplinary unit housed in the
Faculty of Engineering and the Built
Environment. The centre conducts
high-quality, targeted, and relevant
research and also ofers postgraduate
opportunities at the Masters and PhD
levels. The mission of the centre is
to pursue excellence in technology,
policy, and sustainable development
research; and education and capacity-
building programmes, both at the local
and international levels.
Partnering with the best
Research in the university has
been commissioned by a range of
organizations. The international
clients include, amongst many others,
United Nations Institute for Training
and Research, SEI - Boston, United
Nations Environment Programme,
International Energy Agency, Energy
and Stanford University Programme
on Sustainable Development, Helio
International, Global Network on
Energy for Sustainable Development,
World Resources Institute, and the
International Atomic Energy Agency.
Local clients include various
government departments, notably
those of Environment Afairs and
Tourism, Minerals and Energy, as well
as Eskom, the National Electricity
Regulator, City of Cape Town, and the
Council for Scientifc and Industrial
Research.
Key research areas
The interdisciplinary mix of the centres
staf enables it to provide balanced
insight into energy problems pertinent
to Africa. This is refected in the major
research focus areas, which are outlined
below, although many projects do, of
course, overlap the concerns of these
research groups.
New and renewable energy
Renewable energy is not a stand-alone
focus area at this point in time, but one
that overlaps the concerns of the other
research groups. The ERC ofers a New
and Renewable Energy Technologies
master-level course. The course focuses
on renewable energy technologies, and
within this large feld, on renewable
energy technologies, which have the
most important present/future roles
in countries like South Africa. Broader
international trends are also examined,
but in less detail. More detailed
engineering principles and renewable
energy system design issues focus on
major renewable energy applications
for South/Southern Africa.
Energy, poverty, and
development linkages
The Energy, Poverty, and Development
group is concerned with energy issues
RE institution
43 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
RE institutions
that afect sustainable development
and improved livelihoods for poorer
communities in South Africa and other
developing countries. Over the last
decade, important research areas have
included the following.
P Assessing energy needs, resources,
consumption patterns, and
opportunities amongst low-income
rural and urban communities
P Monitoring and assessing energy
supply programmes aimed at
assisting the poor
P In particular, tracking the progress
of electrifcation programmes (both
grid and non-grid electrifcation)
and promoting a broader integrated
development approach
P Targeted research around themes
like energy subsidies for the poor,
gender dimensions in energy
poverty, the benefts/constraints
of using renewable energy, and
impacts of energy sector re-
structuring on access to energy for
the poor
P Action research programmes
helping people in poor communities
to improve their energy supplies
and use (in cooperation with energy
suppliers and government).
The research generally includes a
process of feedback to national policy-
makers and energy supply agencies. The
experiences gained through feld work
and policy research are carried into the
ERC Masters programme, to reach a
wider spread of energy/development
students and professionals from South
Africa and other countries. Capacity-
building and information services are
also provided for groups of people
involved in improved energy for the
poor, such as end-users, community
leaders, schools, local government, and
energy suppliers.
Energy efficiency group:
spearheading the effort
The energy efciency group deals with
energy efciency at the demand
level. Energy efciency is an
economic resource and can be
thought of as an alternative fuel.
The efects on single businesses
and the national picture are
examined. Much of the work
continues to be in the industrial
sector while work in the building
sector is growing. The group
is currently carrying out work
under the Eskom Demand Side
Management programme. It is
currently researching the potential
for DSM with industrial electrical
loads and is also accredited as a
monitoring and verifcation body
under this programme.
The group does not work in
isolation. Many of its activities
overlap with other groups,
specifcally in the areas of modelling
and climate change. A good deal of
expertise has been built up with regard
to the CDM (Clean Development
Mechanism) under the Kyoto Protocol.
There is a commitment to promoting
energy efciency, and the group ofers
courses, in addition to components
within the Masters programme. There
is always a welcome to those interested
students who would like to expand
the overall body of knowledge, as well
as their own, either by participating in
research projects, or more directly in
industrial projects.
Far reaching objectives
Generally, the objective is to undertake
independent and objective research
of both national and global interest
in order to deepen knowledge
and understanding of energy and
development needs, problems,
challenges, and innovative solutions.
Contact details
Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town
Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7700, South Africa
Tel. 27 21 650 3230 Fax 27 21 650 2830
Web www.erc.uct.ac.za
Some of the topicS covered
Solar radiation: basics, geometry, and measurement
Wind resources: principles, measurement, and results
Wind energy conversion
PV materials and modules
Stand-alone PV system design
Biogas digesters
Hydro power
Biomass, biofuels, and energy
PV system design for an of-grid household
Village water pumping project (wind and PV)
Solar water heater assessment for municipalities
Passive solar/building design for low-cost housing
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 44
childrens corner
Drawing by
Upasana C Kumar
Class II
Shiv Niketan School,
New Delhi
Drawing by
Indrashis Das
Class I
Apeejay School,
Park Street,
Kolkata
46 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
book review
W
hile energy has always
been a driving force in the
evolution of human culture,
its importance has reached new heights
in the frst decade of the 21st century.
Due to its overarching macroeconomic
importance, energy is now a precious
commodity in global fnancial markets.
Energy issues pervade global geopolitics,
and will continue to do so in light of the
increasing concentration of oil supplies
in the Middle East coupled with rising
global energy demand. Energy is central
to global environmental change as
emissions from energy use contribute
signifcantly to the human component
of climate change. Finally, and most
importantly, access to modern energy
services is a fundamental prerequisite
to alleviating poverty from the lives of
the three billion people living below
subsistence level.
A commonly agreed upon set of
terms and defnitions is essential to
build communication among disparate
groups, and to improving the general
publics understanding of energy issues.
This is especially true as new words are
generated, and old ones are discarded,
and as technologies, institutions, and
behaviours change. An authoritative
dictionary is important for an area
in which identical words mean very
diferent things. For example, efciency
and elasticity mean diferent things to
an economist and an engineer.
This dictionary covers all the
academic disciplines and multifaceted
aspects of the concept of energy.
The distinguishing features are its
integration of the social, natural, and
engineering sciences and its breadth
of coverage. It uses an integrated
approach that emphasizes not only the
importance of the concept in individual
Dictionary of Energy
Dictionary of Energy
Cleveland C J and Morris C. 2006
ISBN 81-312-0536-3 Price: Rs 1750 502 pp.
disciplines, such as physics and
sociology, but also how energy is used
to bridge seemingly disparate felds,
such as ecology and economics. The
dictionary covers all the environmental,
engineering, and physical science topics
found in existing dictionaries. It also
covers entirely new areas such as the
economic and social aspects of energy
use, energy fows in the biological
realm, methods of energy modelling
and accounting, energy and materials,
energy and sustainable development,
energy policy, net energy analysis,
and energy in world history,
among others.
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 46
book / web alert
Internet resources
Alternative Source
As time passes, the
need for alternatives
to non-renewable
resources is not only
becoming greater
but is also being met
as new products
and innovations are
developed. This website is a collection of information
about these products and innovations. This website is a
collection of diferent types of information taken from
around the Internet, all categorized and stored to be
easy for the user to gain knowledge about alternative
energy sources.
Discover Solar
Energy
Discover Solar
Energy is a
comprehensive
resource of more
than 9000+
renewable energy
links to relevant
websites of
individuals, governments, and organizations. The links
are cross-referenced to help homeowners, engineers,
hobbyists, teachers, and students fnd quick answers to
issues relating to alternative energy.
Re-Energy.ca
Re-Energy.ca is a
renewable energy
project kit that can
be downloaded
and printed from
the worldwide web,
for free! Re-Energy.
ca explores wind energy, water energy, solar energy,
biomass energy, and more. Build your own working
models from one of fve easy-to-follow construction
plans, including a wind turbine, biogas generator, solar
car, and more. Re-Energy.ca provides educators with
background information, exciting hands-on learning
activities, and resources and links on renewable energy
and sustainable energy technologies.
Biodiesel: growing a new energy economy
Pahl G. 2005
United States: Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
281 pp.
Biodiesel has powered tour buses for Neil Young,
Bonnie Raitt, and Willie Nelson. Daryl Hannahs
private vehicle runs on it, while Republican
and Democratic politicians alike are backing
its development. Its more biodegradable
than sugar and less toxic than table salt, and
the production process can take place on a
massive industrial scale or gallon by gallon in
your garage. In this essential book, Gerg Pahl shares the
history of bio-diesel, explains the technology in straightforward terms,
and explores its exciting potential in the United States and beyond, including
resources you can use to buy or make your own bio-diesel.
ISBN 1-931498-65-2 Price: $17.64
From Sunlight to Electricity: a practical handbook on solar photovoltaic
applications (second edition)
Deambi S (ed.). 2008
New Delhi: TERI Press. 121 pp.
This book is a compilation of information that
gives the readers an overall understanding of the
PV sector in India, designs, and applications of
specifc devices and related benefts, fnances,
and policies. The book also discusses the PV
technology programme in India, the issues
therein, and its future directions. It serves
the interest of all the stakeholders in the PV
sectorpolicy-makers, government ofcials,
non-governmental organizations, and academic
and research organizations.
ISBN 978-81-7993-156-1 Price: Rs 200
The Biomass Assessment Handbook: bioenergy for a sustainable
environment
F Rosillo-Calle, P de Groot, S L Hemstock, J Woods
(eds). 2007
London: Earthscan. 269 pp.
This handbook provides the reader with the skills
to understand the biomass resource base, the
tools to assess the resource, and explores the
pros and cons of exploitation. Topics covered
include assessment methods for woody and
herbaceous biomass, biomass supply and
consumption, remote sensing techniques as
well as vital policy issues. International case
studies, ranging from techniques for measuring
tree volume to transporting biomass, help to illustrate step-by-
step methods and are based on feldwork experience. Technical appendices
ofer a glossary of terms, energy units, and other valuable resource data.
ISBN: 978-1-84407-526-3 Price: 59.95
ht t p: / / www.
di scover sol ar ener gy. com/
ht t p: / / www.
al t er nat i vesour ce. or g/
ht t p: / / www. r e- ener gy. ca/
47 VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009
forthcoming events
Okhla Industrial Estate, Phase III
New Delhi 110 020
Tel. +91 11 4279 5000/054
Fax +91 11 4279 5098/99
E-mail rajneeshk@eigroup.in
Third Renewable Energy Finance Forum
2021 November 2009, Mumbai
Maria Ferreiro
E-mail mferreiro@euromoneyplc.com
International events
PHOTONS Seventh Solar Silicon
Conference
3 March 2009, Munich, Germany
Tel. 49 241 4003 102
Fax 49 241 4003 302
E-mail petra.boehne@photon.de
Web www.photon-expo.com
Gulf Solar Expo 2009
April 2009, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Ben Leighton
Tel. 00971 4214 9558
E-mail Ben.Leighton@
greenpowerconferences.com;
Ben.Leighton@
greenpowerconferences.com

Solar 2009
814 May 2009, Bufalo, New York, USA
Tel. 1 303 443 3130
Fax 1 303 443 3212
E-mail ases@ases.org
Web www.ases.org
ESTEC 2009
2526 May 2009, Munich, Germany
European Solar Thermal Industry
Federation
Renewable Energy House
Rue dArlon 63-67
B-1040 Bruxelles
Belgium
Tel. 3 225 461 937
Fax 3 225 461 939
E-mail info@estif.org
Web www.estif.org
National events
RenewTech India 2009
35 March 2009, Pune
Ashish Gupta
Director
B-702, Dheeraj Heritage Residency
Shastri Nagar, Linking Road Extn
Santacruz (W), Mumbai 400 054
Tel. 022 2660 5550/7755 (Mumbai)
011 4151 4955/5549 (Delhi)
E-mail info@renewtechindia.com
Biofuels in India: setting new paradigms
45 March 2009, New Delhi
Arvind Reddy
Winrock International India
788, Udyog Vihar, Phase V, Gurgaon
Haryana 122 001
Tel. +91 124 430 3868/66
Fax +91 124 430 3862
E-mail arvind@winrockindia.org
Web www.winrockindia.org
ENVIROENERGY 2009: International
Conference on Energy and Environment
1921 March 2009, Chandigarh, India
Prof. Pankaj Chandna
Conference Chair, ENVIROENERGY 2009
Department of Mechanical
Engineering, National Institute of
Technology, Kurukshetra 136 119, India
Tel +91 1744 233465 / 233356 /
98960 74922 (M); +91 98962 46886 (M)
Fax +91 1744 238050
Email conferencechair@
enviroenergy2009.org, convener@
enviroenergy2009.org
Web http://www.enviroenergy2009.org
PowerGen India and Central Asia 2009
24 April 2009, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi
PennWell
Tel. 44 1992 656 610
Web www.pennwell.com
Renewable Energy India 2009 Expo
1012 August 2009, New Delhi
Rajneesh Khattar
Exhibitions India Group
217-B, (2nd Floor)
Intersolar 2009
2729 May 2009, Munich, Germany
Tel. 49 7231 58598-0
Fax 49 7231 58598-28
E-mail info@intersolar.de
Web www.intersolar.de
Photovoltaics Summit Europe
30 June2 July 2009, Rome, Italy
Tel. 44 1372 802164
E-mail publicity@adsale.com.hk
Web www.2456.com/ep
24th European Photovoltaic Solar
Energy Conference
2124 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany
Tel. 49 89 720 12 735
Fax 49 89 720 12 791
E-mail pv.conference@wip-munich.de
Web www.photovoltaic-conference.com
24th European Photovoltaic Solar
Energy Conference & Exhibition (EU
PVSEC)
2125 September 2009, Germany
WIP-Renewable Energies
Conference Secretariat
Tel. +49 89 720 12735
E-mail pv.conference@wip-munich.de
Web www.photovoltaic-conference.com
ISES Solar World Congress 2009
1114 October 2009, Johannesburg, South
Africa
Tel. 49 761 45906-0
Fax 49 761 45906-99
E-mail hq@ises.org
Web www.ises.org
Solar Power 2009
2729 October 2009, Anaheim, California, USA
Tel. 1 202 857 0898
Fax 1 202 682 0559
E-mail ebrown@solarelectricpower.org
Web www.solarpowerconference.com
Solar Energy 2010
1620 February 2010, Berlin, Germany
Tel. 49 5121 206 2606
Fax 49 5121 206 2626
E-mail info@messen-profair.de
Web www.messen-profair.de
VOLUME 2 ISSUE 4 FEBRUARY 2009 48
renewable energy statistics
Renewable energy at a glance in India
MW megawatt; kW kilowatt; MW
p
megawatt peak; m
2
square metre; km
2
kilometre square
Achievement as on
S.No. Source/system Estimated potential 31 January 2009
I Power from renewables
A Grid-interactive renewable power (MW) (MW)
1 Wind power 45 195 9 755.85
2 Bio power (agro residues and plantations) 16 881 683.30
3 Bagasse cogeneration 5 000 1 033.73
4 Small hydro power (up to 25 MW) 15 000 2 344.67
5 Energy recovery from waste (MW) 2 700 58.91
6 Solar photovoltaic power 2.12
Sub total (A) 84 776 13 878.58
B Captive/combined heat and power/distributed renewable power (MW)
7 Biomass/cogeneration (non-bagasse) 150.92
8 Biomass gasifer 160.31
9 Energy recovery from waste 31.07
Sub total (B) 342.30
Total (A+B) 14 220.88
II Remote village electrifcation 5 410 villages/hamlets
III Decentralized energy systems
10 Family-type biogas plants 120 lakh 40.90 lakh
11 Solar photovoltaic systems 50 MW/km
2
120 MWp
i. Solar street lighting system 70 474 nos
ii. Home lighting system 434 692 nos
iii. Solar lantern 697 419 nos
iv. Solar power plants 8.01 MW
p
v. Solar photovoltaic pumps 7148 nos
12 Solar thermal systems
i. Solar water heating systems 140 million m
2
2.60 million m
2
collector area collector area
ii. Solar cookers 6.37 lakh
13 Wind pumps 1347 nos
14 Aero generator/hybrid systems 0.89 MW
eq
IV Awareness programmes
16 Energy parks 504 nos
17 Aditya Solar Shops 284 nos
21 Renewable energy clubs 521 nos
22 District Advisory Committees 560 nos
TM
SOLAR
PHOTOVOLTAIC
MODULES
SOLAR
PHOTOVOLTAIC
MODULES
IEC61215
IEC61730-2
Sun Power Forever
TM
WAAREE Energies Pvt. Ltd.
Head office




36, Damji Shamji Industrial Complex, Off Mahakali Caves Road,
Andheri (East), Mumbai - 400 093. INDIA
Tel.: +91-22-6696 3030, Fax: +91-22-2687 3613
E-mail: infosolar@waaree.com Website : www.waareeenergies.com
Range: 3Wp to 230Wp
Capacity: 30MW/Annum
World Class Manufacturing Facility
TV Certified: IEC61215 / 61730-2
UL1703 Approval In Progress
Customised OEM and Contract Manufacturing
Dealership Enquiries Solicited
Range: 3Wp to 230Wp
Capacity: 30MW/Annum
World Class Manufacturing Facility
TV Certified: IEC61215 / 61730-2
UL1703 Approval In Progress
Customised OEM and Contract Manufacturing
Dealership Enquiries Solicited
RNI No. DELENG/207/22701