A TECHNICAL PAPER PRESENTATION ON
“SILICON RETINA” USING VLSI TECHNOLOGY.
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION
SHAIK RAFFIQ 12211D5717 Email: email@example.com :firstname.lastname@example.org
Padmasri Dr.B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Vishnupur, Narsapur, Medak District – 502313. Email: email@example.com.
This is the only amazing organ which helps the biological organisms to visualise its thinking capability. Can we ever imagine life without eye sight??? But its true that about 700. is responsible for the evolution of “Artificial silicon retina” (ASR).
. A silicon chip that faith fully mimics the neural circuitary of a real retina could lead to better bionic eyes for those with vision loss. and 1. which convert light into nerve impulses at the back of the eye. using VLSI technology. As is commonly seen in with retinitis pigmentosa. The probability of working of silicon retina in the absense of light is yet to be discovered by the scientists. retinal cells.5 million people worldwide suffer from a disease called retinitis pigmentosa(RP). But the disadvantage of this is it works only when the light focuses on it(day time). When surgically implanted under the retina. The main objective to use silicon retina in biological field is to make the blind to visualise the things. the existing VLSI technology has brought an innovative revolution in the field of science. with the help of eyes. This artificial silicon retina is a boon to man kind. in a location known as the sub retinal space. But. retinal implantation of the silicon retina technology. the ASR is designed to produce visual signals similar to those produced by the photoreceptor layer. The paper depicts the pictorial view of the diodes. One of the brilliant inventions and discoveries to help the blind people. gradually die. The paper presented will give a clear idea about implantation of silicon retina into eye. and how it functions so that the diseased can regain their vision. these patients all have severe narrowing of their visual fields down to a very small central circle. The beautiful and colourful world around. and all patients suffering with it are legally blind.000 people in the developed world are diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD)each year. The ASR is powered solely by incident light and does not require the use of external wires or batteries.ABSTRACT
The most sensitive and important part of a biological structure is “EYE”. In both of these diseases. is enjoyed by every creature.
The photo diodes mimic the
The anatomy of the eye The retina is complex in itself. Its main function is to receive and transmit images to the brain. Once enough light is available (for example. The computer trasmitts this information to an infrared LED screen on the goggles. This thin membrane at the back of the eye is a vital part of your ability to see. The goggles reflect an infrared image into the eye and onto the retinal chip. Here is a simple explanation of what happens when you look at an object:
• • • •
Scattered light from the object enters through the cornea. These ganglion cells interpret the messages from the rods and cones and send the information on to the brain by way of the optic nerve. which then sends the image to a wireless wallet-sized computer for prossesing. The retina sends messages to the brain through the optic nerve. The patient would wear goggles mounted with a small video camera. daylight or artificial light in a room).• • •
Rods Cones Ganglion Cells
How Our Retina Works: To understand how artificial vision is created. cones give us the ability to see color and detail of objects. it's important to know about the role that the retina plays in how we see . For the device to work the microchip would have to be implanted behind the retina of a blind person. Rods are able to function in low light (they can detect a single photon) and can create black and white images without much light. The brain interprets what the object is. because they allow us to see at a high resolution.
There are about 125 million rods and cones within the retina that act as the eye's photoreceptors. Age old technique of implantation: The eye implant-a 3 millimeter -wide chip that would fit behind the retina – could be a dramatic step above the currently available technique. stimulating photo diodes on the chip. The information received by the rods and cones are then transmitted to the nearly 1 million ganglion cells in the retina. These are the three main types of cells in the eye that help perform this function:
. Cones are responsible for allowing us to read this article. The light is projected onto the retina.
The chip could be embedded directly into the eye and connected to the nerves that carry signals to the brain's visual cortex. which normally convert light into electrical signals within the retina.the device would cover about 10 degrees of the wearer’s field of vision. Finally.
. each with slightly different performance.retina cells by converting light into via nerve pulses to the brain. Over a period of 1 week the air bubble is resorbed and replaced by fluids created within the eye. These are connected up to 3600 transistors. and close the incisions. the medical team first created a model of how light-sensitive neurons and other nerve cells in the retina connect to process light.000 microscopic solar cells that convert light into electrical impulses. They made a silicon version using manufacturing techniques already employed in the computer chip industry. which mimic the nerve cells that process light information and pass it on to the brain for higher processing. the "light-sensing" cells of the eye. They then make a pinpoint opening in the retina through which they inject fluid to lift up a portion of the retina from the back of the eye. The silicon chip: To make the chip. The goggles are trasperant so. which take the place of light-sensitive neurons in a living retina. the surgeons insert a miniature cutting and vacuuming device that removes the gel in the middle of the eye and replaces it with saline. Their chip measures 3. creating a small pocket in the "subretinal space" just wide enough to accommodate the ASR. if the user still has some vision . There are 13 different types of transistor. The purpose of the chip is to replace damaged photoreceptors. each incision no larger than the diameter of a needle. The surgeons then enlarge the pocket opening and insert the implant into the subretinal space. But the new silicon chip could remove the need for a camera and external computer altogether. The ASR chip contains approximately 5. insert air into the middle of the eye to gently push the retina back down over the device.5 x 3. The use of the subretinal space to hold a device that artificially stimulates the retina seems a logical step in replacing the loss of photoreceptor cells of the retina. they can match that with new information. The new surgical procedure: The microsurgical procedure starts with three tiny incisions in the white part of the subject's eye. Through these incisions. The chip contains light sensors and circuitry that functions in much the same way as nerves in a real retina – they automatically filter the mass of visual data collected by the eye to leave only what the brain uses to build a picture of the world. which are then transmitted by cells in the inner retina with the mammalian retina as its blueprint.3 millimetres and contains 5760 silicon phototransistors. they reseal the retina over the ASR.The circuit was built
surgeons make three tiny incisions. Today. The retina chip performs in the same way. such a device is very close to becoming available to the millions of people who have lost their vision to retinal disease.500 microscopic solar cells that are able to convert light into electrical pulses. In fact. when Dr. In order for an artificial retina to work it has to be small enough so that doctors can transplant it in the eye without damaging the other structures within the eye. mimicking the function of cones and rods. It has a diameter of just 2 mm (.mimicking different types of actual nerve cells. To implant this device into the eye. The lowest image (right) shows how this allows it to extract useful data from a moving face. with each being: • Small enough to be implanted in the eye.
The dot above the date on this penny
. the surgeons introduce a miniature cutting and vacuuming device that removes the gel in the middle of the
Changing scene: The mammalian brain only receives new information from the eyes when something in a scene changes. This cuts down on the volume of information sent to the brain but is enough for it to work out what is happening in the world. and one has already been implanted in the eyes of three blind patients. The concept for both devices is similar. Based on this information.078 inch) and is thinner than a human hair. Mark Humayun demonstrated that a blind person could be made to see light by stimulating the nerve ganglia behind the retina with an electrical current. there are at least two silicon microchip devices that are being developed. Description: The ASR contains about 3. scientists set out to create a device that could translate images and electrical pulses that could restore vision. This test proved that the nerves behind the retina still functioned even when the retina had degenerated. Perhaps the most promising of these two silicon devices is the artificial silicon retina (ASR) developed by optobionics As in the picture at the top of this page the ASR is an extremely tiny device. Through these incisions. There is good reason for its microscopic size. smaller than the surface of a pencil eraser. • Supplied with a continuous source of power • Biocompatible with the surrounding eye tissue.
is the full size of the Artificial Silicon Retina. Creating Artificial Sight: The current path that scientists are taking to create artificial vision received a jolt in 1988.
.eye and replaces it with saline. As we read this one sentence. which creates a small pocket in the subretinal space for the device to fit in. we are probably oblivious to the thousands of pieces of visual information that our eyes are gathering each second.08 inches). Just in the retina alone.12 X . similar to how a camera works to capture images on film. For any microchip to work it needs power. The retina is then resealed over the ASR. Even if we wear eyeglasses. Text on most computer screens is about 3 millimeters tall and 2 mm wide ( . batteries or other secondary devices to supply power. This solar energy eliminates the need for any wires.
Photo courtesy Optobionics Only 2 mm in diameter and thinner than a human hair. and the amazing thing about the ASR is that it receives all of its needed power from the light entering the eye. a pinpoint opening is made in the How Artificial Vision Will Work retina through which they inject fluid to lift up a portion of the retina from the back of the eye. receives all of the light entering the eye. Here we can see where the ASR is placed between the outer and inner retinal layers. this silicon chip may restore sight. Next. there are millions of cells at work right now acting as photoreceptors reacting to light. This means that with the ASR implant placed behind the retina. Light that enters the eye is directed at the retina. our eyes are functioning at a level good enough to recognize the small letters on the page.
the ASR's photoelectric signals can induce artificial biological visual signals in the remaining functional retinal cells. the ASR is designed to produce visual signals similar to those produced by the eye's natural photoreceptor layer. The researchers believe that the device is unique because it functions much like a solar cell. Tuning the RF filters would entail generating RE modification signals to adjust specific parameters of the tunable filters so that the patient's perception of a visual stimulus most accurately represents the actual visual pattern. The edge of the image was obtained with the zerocrossing detector circuit using the output of the chip in real-time. transmitted and stored. The output of the analog silicon retina used in this study is sufficiently accurate under natural illumination. An analog silicon retina chip is used for control of the autonomous walking robot. the researchers recently proposed a method of pertaining the learning retina encoder
. where its ability to sort out important information would allow reduced amounts of data to be analyzed.using visual feedback provided by subjects with normal vision. From their sub retinal location. The micro photodiodes are designed to convert the light energy from images to electrical impulses that stimulate the remaining functional retinal cells in patients with RP and AMD. with no external connections and no power supply.
"LEARNING RETINA" WOULD ALLOW FINE-TUNING OF IMPLANTS The learning Retinal Encoder concept is based on using tunable receptive-field (RF) filters to stimulate the spatial and temporal receptive field properties of the retinal ganglion cells.
Individual micro photodiode located on an artificial silicon retina. The device is powered only by lightthat enters the eye. Smart sensors: The electronic retina could also be used in smart sensors and remote monitoring cameras. Surgically implanted under the retina. Other applications of silicon retina: Walking robots: The silicon retina could be used to give small robots a better understanding of their visual environment. Although tuning the RF filters must be based on regained perceptions of blind subjects. These signals are processed and sent to the brain via the optic nerve. The transfer of the image from a silicon retina to a computer in the robot was executed asynchronously using a RAM.
than to make blind to see.the use of silicon retina is not only confined to the biological field. “What would be the better contribution. the rods and cones used for the artificial visiual perception in silicon retina are the major contributions from electronics industry.
Silicon retina has became the emerging industry in the field of VLSI technology. many innovative applications like walking robots. photo receptors. The photo diodes . The silicon retina provides information about the edges of images rather than a whole picture. which wasn’t possible before. spatial sensors. but also. Edge information is usually sufficient for detecting and tracking objects. The silicon retina helped blind people to rebuild their vision upto certain extent. for silicon retina using VLSI tecnology????????”
.Tracking the objects: The electronic retina processes the larger amount of data that makes up an image in order to transmit a smaller amount of key information. so that they could visualise this world. traffic sensors etc are emerging out.