Fet t e rn e a r E x c a v a t ion

Bosporan Kingdom

Slievemore Mystery

Aeria l - C a m

Past Horizons
Online Journal of Volunteer Archaeology and Training
March 2009

E xplo ring Ro c k - A r t i n M a l a y s i a

Issue 7 March 2009 Editors: Felicity Donohoe & Maggie Struckmeier Layout: David Connolly & Maggie Struckmeier Past Horizons Traprain House Luggate Burn Haddington East Lothian EH41 4QA Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643 Email: editor@pasthorizons.com Find us on the web: www.pasthorizons.com  Contributors: Penny Dransart J. R. Trigg Nikolai Vinokurov Sophie Mamattah John Sullivan Tatyana Van Loo Stuart Rathbone Adam Stanford Tim Phillips Roberta Gilchrist Barry Lewis

12 Artezian

An ongoing excavation of the fortified township of Artezian in the Crimean peninsula. Focusing mainly on the era of the Bosporan Kingdom, particularly the time of the war with the Romans of 44-45 AD where a wealth of finds has enabled the archaeologists to build up a strong narrative for that time.

F ront cover: C o l o n i a l p e r i o d c o n t a c t a r t i n t he Lenggong Va l l e y P hotograph: B a r r y L e w i s

Note Past Horizons can give no endorsement of any listed project or guarantee the accuracy of the information supplied. The editors accept no responsibility for any loss, injury, or inconvenience sustained by anyone using the resources contained within this magazine and/or the websites mentioned herein. When considering a project, be sure to contact the director with any questions you might have about conditions, travel, health issues, etc. Check for references from previous participants, seek advice where possible and select a project that will be of the greatest benefit to you, the project and the team.

18 Slievemore - Excavating a Bronze Age Platform

All content is copyright and no reporduction of text or images is allowed without prior permission from the author. Past Horizons 2009

Achill Archaeological Field School began excavating what looked like a roundhouse platform on the slopes of Slievemore mountain. Stuart Rathbone discusses why he now thinks the structure is not domestic and may have a more ritual purpose.

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Contents

30 Accessible, Inclusive Archaeology
How to make the study of archaeology accessible to everyone. Reading University leads the way in facing that challenge.

24

Adam Stanford discusses the archaeological benefits of this method of photography.

Low Level Aerial Photography

8 Fetternear

The Scottish Episcopal Palaces Project has been excavating at Fetternear, the summer palace of the mediaeval Bishops of Aberdeen.

34 Rock-Art Field School

Malaysia is the focus of this rock-art field school which brings together experts from around the world at the forefront of research.

Reg u l a r s
5 6
The addictive romance of archaeology. The study of rock-art.

Editorial

44 45

Interested In...

News stories from around the world.

News

40 Dig Cook 42

Archaeological volunteer digs and field schools for 2009.

Dig In

More culinary escapades from Annie Evans.

46 Profile

Archaeological photographer Adam Stanford.

Past Horizons reviews the Festival of Archaeology in Cardiff.

Review

47 Fun Page
3
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toolstore

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whs 4inch wood handled tr owel whs 4inch soft handled tr owel t yzack leaf & square t yzack tr owel & square stanle y br a ss plumb bob stanle y aluminium line le vel sm all tools set stanle y powerwinder stanle y mea suring tapes

tool r olls dr afting film r otring mechanical pencils blundell harling scale ruler japanese pot tery combs finds bags t y vek l abels m a sking tape indelible m arkers

SPEAR & JACKSON

Tyzack

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N ames to conjure w i th...
Each time I collect and update the field schools and volunteer opportunities for Past Horizons I become enthralled all over again by the breadth of archaeological activity happening around the world. Names such as Easter Island, Lake Titicaca, Pompeii, the Amazon and the Western Sahara, to name but a few, conjure images in my head that make me wish I was there in the midst of it all. I experience similar feelings when articles arrive for this magazine. Although living here in the present, I am also transported back in time where I can imagine the lives of the people who once lived there. One article that inspired such thoughts is Artezian (page 12) which concerns the Bosporan Kingdom in the Crimea, southern Ukraine. After receiving the translation from Russian into English the scene was set and I became immersed in the story to such an extent that I felt I was standing on the ramparts of the fortified township, looking out over the grasslands of the Crimean steppe and across the sea of Azov. Another article arrives, this time from the other side of the world, and this soon has me fighting my way through tropical jungle to discover previously-unknown rock-art in Malaysia. World Rock-Art, Landscapes and Creativity (page 34) describes an opportunity to learn about non-invasive recording techniques, research principles and conservation issues both in the classroom and out in the field. The scientific study of rock-art is gaining serious attention within archaeology and brings with it the real chance for adventure. Invariably new discoveries are to be found in remote and difficult terrain, and there are projects underway around the world beginning to map some of these paces in a more systematic way. This will enable researchers to look at artistic and stylistic similarities that may provide clues about migration and cultural interaction of the many tribal groups who created this art. I sometimes get emails from people describing their experiences of actually signing up for an excavation or field school. In fact some describe their first dig as a life-changing experience; others see it as a chance to learn, meet new people and have a good holiday all at the same time. It can be difficult to take that step if you have never done it before but be warned: archaeology can be addictive and you may find yourself looking at the world with new eyes. So if you have ever dreamed of following in the footsteps of Lawrence of Arabia, wanted to travel ‘from here to Timbuktu’, longed to live amongst Mongolian nomads or negotiate Amazonian rapids in a reed boat whilst discovering lost civilisations along the way, then these adventures are all out there for the taking. What are you waiting for? To find a project go to: http://www.pasthorizons.com/worldprojects 

editorial

Maggie Struckmeier
Maggie Struckmeier 5
editor@pasthorizons.com 

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m a s s a z t e c g r av e f o u nd in m e x ico cit y

news

O

n 10 February 2009, an exc a v a t i o n a t a pyramid in Mexico City’s T l a t e l o l c o square revealed a mass gra v e w i t h t h e remains of 49 adults. The unexpecte d d i s c o v e r y was made by a team led by Salvad o r G u i l l i e m from the Mexican government’s a r c h a e o l o g y institute, and they believe the bodies m a y b e s o m e of those who fought Hernan Cortes, t h e S p a n i s h conquistador and leader of the ex p e d i t i o n t o Mexico that caused the fall of the Az t e c e m p i r e . One of the interesting features of t h e b u r i a l s was the presence of copper necklac e s a n d b o n e buttons from pre-Hispanic cultures. T h e b u r i a l s w e re most likely ordered by the Spanish overlords as some of the f e a t u r e s a r e C h ristian in nature, but were probably carried out by the Aztecs the m s e l v e s . L a rge scale deaths at the hands of the conquistadors may explain the n e e d f o r t h e m a ss grave. However, one other possible explanation for the size o f t h e g r a v e m a y be disease, which devastated large numbers of the indigenous p o p u l a t i o n b e t ween 1545 and 1546. The team is exploring both possibilities. R e ad the full story: http ://tinyurl.com/azykyq 

If you are viewing this magazine on SCRIBD, then you will not be able to see the video. You can view it on either the full flip page version of the magazine: www.pasthorizons.com/magazine OR: on our dedicated video website: http://www.pasthorizons.tv/tv/view/302/mexico-citys-tlatelolco-square-aztec-burials/

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Ar chaeologists une a rt h s tat u e s of a ph a r a oh

Two giant anchors have been found which could shed light on a m o n u m e n t a l e vent in Vietnamese hi story, the Great Battle of Bach Dang, when t h e Tr a n dynasty defeated invading Yuan Mongolian troops in 1288. Read more: http://tinyurl.com/amr8g5 
Ar chaeologists dat e e a r l ie s t k now n d om e s t ic at e d horse s Archaeologists date earlie s t k n o w n d o m e s t i c a t e d h o r s e s . A n i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e a m o f archaeologists has dated t h e e a r l i e s t k n o w n e v i d e n c e o f h o r s e s b e i n g d o m e s t i c a t e d by humans back to the Bo t a i C u l t u r e o f K a z a k h s t a n a r o u n d 5 , 5 0 0 y e a r s a g o Read more: http://tinyurl . c o m / d 9 m 8 4 a  Olduvai, e volution a nd Da rw in

I nterview with David H. Koch by Archaeology Magazine, discussi n g h i s n e w h all at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, wher e e v i d e n c e o f six million years of human evolution will be part of an interact i v e d i s p l a y. Read more: http://tinyurl.com/bqvx5j 
Sm all statue of Tuta nk h a m e n f o u nd in nort he r n I r a q

A Kurdish archaeological expedition recently announced it had fo u n d a s mall statue of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen in nort h e r n I raq. Read more: http://tinyurl.com/bsbv9o 
Wreckage of HMS V ictory ’s pr e de c e s s or di s cov e r e d

T he world’s most successful marine treasure hunters, Odyssey Ma r i n e E xploration, yesterday unveiled evidence that they had found HM S Vi c t o r y, t he most advanced fighting ship of its time. Read more: http://tinyurl.com/dgsruz 
Hobbit feud: scient i s ts a r g u e ov e r my s t e r io u s b one s

T he latest chapter of this story is revealed in the Journal of Huma n E volution which boasts four reports concerning the hobbits, five y e a r s a f t e r t heir discovery was disclosed to the world. Read more: http://tinyurl.com/cqyqbo 
Anchors m ay shed l ig h t on fa m o u s bat t l e

Two giant anchors have been found which could shed light on a m o n u m e n t a l e vent in Vietnamese history, the Great Battle of Bach Dang, when t h e Tr a n d ynasty defeated invad ing Yuan Mongolian troops in 1288. Read more: http://tinyurl.com/amr8g5 
For more news stories that are updated constantly, try: Past Horizons News Blog: Stonepages Weekly News and Podcast: CBA Archaeology News Feed: Archaeologica: http://pasthorizons.wordpress.com/category/news-and-articles  http://www.stonepages.com/news  http://www.britarch.ac.uk/newsfeed  http://www.archaeologica.org/NewsPage.htm 

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Above : G e n e r a l v i e w o f F e t t e r n e a r H o u s e Right: T h e I H S M R A s t o n e a b o v e C o u n t P a t r i c k Leslie and Mary Irvine of Drum’s monograms

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Fetternear

A S c o t t i s h E p i s c o p a l Pa l a c e

S

im ages & te xt by p. dr ansart & j.r.trigg

i n c e 1 9 9 5 a m a j o r p a r t o f our research for the Scottish Episcopal Palaces P r o j e c t ( S E P P ) h a s f o c used on Fetternear, the summer palace of the m e d i a ev a l b i s h o p s o f A b erdeen, near Kemnay in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. In a d d i t i o n t o e c c l e s i a s t i c a l duties, these bishops built not only their own magn i f i c e n t p a l a c e s a n d c a s t l e s , but the cathedrals, too, and SEPP aims to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e s e two architectural areas.
I n a n e x c a v a t i o n carried out at the end of the 1 9 t h c e n t u r y, a n Aberdeen architect reported t h a t f i n e a r c h itectural moulding had been d i s c o v e r e d a t Fetternear, which he said was o f a f i n e r q u a l ity than the late 13th century s t o n e w o r k a t St Machar ’s cathedral, Old A b e r d e e n . W h en we started our work we r e d i s c o v e r e d t he 19th century dig, but no e v i d e n c e f o r t h e fine mouldings. However, we u n e xp e c t e d l y f ound good evidence for a moat t h a t s u r r o u n d e d the palace in the 14th century: u n t i l w e r e c o v e red this information, Fetternear had not been recognised as a mo a t e d s i t e . I n Scotland, such sites have receiv e d r e l a t i v e l y little archaeological attention, m a k i n g o u r work particularly significant. In a d d i t i o n , w e also found the remains of a woo d e n p a l i s a d e that once enclosed the area withi n t h e m o a t . As well as investigating the a r c h i t e c t u r a l projects instigated by the bisho p s , w e h a v e explored their domestic arrangem e n t s . I n t h e south-western sector of the site w e l o c a t e d the late 13th – early 14th centu r y k i t c h e n s .
continued 

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Excava t i o n o f t h e s ou t h e r n a r m o f t h e m o a t d u r i ng 2007

View of the mediaeval bread oven

T h e s e w e r e r e p resented by a concentration of countries. We have excavated po t t e r y s h e r d s i r o n k n i v e s a s well as of animal bones, most from the north of England, G e r m a n y a n d o f w h i c h w e r e cattle and sheep. There was France, and there is also evidenc e f o r t i m b e r a s e r i e s o f h e arths and an originating from t h e B a l t i c o v e n , p r o b a b l y for baking which has been dated b r e a d . T h e p o t t ery consisted dendrochronolo g i c a l l y t o c . o f f r a g m e n t s of locally1357. p r o d u c e d j u g s, some of w h i c h h a d b e e n heated. As Although our w o r k h a s i s c o m m o n i n castle sites, focused on the m e d i a e v a l t h e k i t c h e n s were situated period, we have also i n a p e r i p h e r a l corner of the revealed an ar e a o f l o n g complex. term prehistori c o c c u p a t i o n and a rich post- R e f o r m a t i o n T h e d a t i n g o f the kitchen history. Th e r e l i g i o u s quarters c o i ncides with significance of t h e s i t e d i d A rare North Italian marbled t h e b i s h o p r i c s of two men not end with th e t r a n s f e r o f lion head costrel w h o w e r e n o t ed for their the land into the h a n d s o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l a chievements. Leslie family o f B a l q u h a i n , H e n ry C h e y n e was bishop the neighbour i n g e s t a t e . d u r i n g t h e t r oubled years The Leslies we r e p r o m i n e n t o f S c o t l a n d ’s first War of Catholic supp o r t e r s w h o , I n d e p e n d e n c e with England. History recalls over time, became antiquarians an d l a i d a g r e a t B i s h o p H e n r y ’s military career because emphasis on the estate’s religio u s h e r i t a g e . E d w a r d I o f E n g land ordered him to accompany One of the most striking finds fro m t h e L e s l i e t h e E a r l o f M a r to garrison Urquhart Castle occupation is part of a North Ita l i a n m a r b l e d o n L o c h N e s s . Alexander de Kininmund I lion head costrel, a 17th-centu r y p i l g r i m ’s s u c c e e d e d B i s hop Henry in 1329. He had a flask. d i s t i n g u i s h e d career in the church and had f o r m e d p a r t o f the delegation that took the The building the visitor no w s e e s o n D e c l a r a t i o n o f Arbroath to Pope John XXII in approaching the site dates large l y f r o m t h e Av i g n o n . 16th to 19th centuries; some part s n o t v i s i b l e from the road may date from t h e b i s h o p ’s T h e s e b i s h o p s and their successors were no palace. The façade bears the co a t o f a r m s , s t r a n g e r s t o i n teraction with other European dated 1693, of Count Patrick Le s l i e a n d h i s past horizons

10

Detai l o f t h e t i m b e r p a l i s a d e u n d e r e x c a v a t i o n in 2006

An oak sill beam and beam slot

s e c o n d w i f e , Mary Irvine of Drum. Higher u p t h e w a l l a b ove this panel are two stones, o n e i n c i s e d w i th Count Patrick’s and Mary’s m o n o g r a m s , a n d the other incorporates those o f J e s u s a n d Mary, IHS and MRA. This dual r e l i g i o u s i n s c r iption, which is paralleled at B a l q u h a i n , i s h ighly unusual in Scotland but e x a m p l e s a r e k nown in continental Europe. O u r f i f t e e n t h excavation season will take p l a c e i n J u l y 2 009 and study of the finds is o n g oi n g , b u t o f particular interest is the glass a s s e m b l a g e , w hich is the largest to have been e x c a v a t e d f r o m a site in Scotland. Aims for t h e f o r t h c o m i n g excavation season include f u r t h e r i n v e s t i gation of the moat in an area t h a t w a s p r o d u cing evidence in 2008 for in s i t u w o o d e n s t r uctures. P e n n y D r a n s a r t is director of SEPP and is R e a d e r i n A rchaeology and Anthropology a t t h e U n i v e r s ity of Wales, Lampeter. Jonty Tr i g g t e a c h e s archaeology at the University o f L i v e r p o o l a nd is researching a PhD at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Glasgow. SEPP wishes to a c k n o w l e d g e t h e donation of six WHS trowels b y P a s t H o r i z o ns in 2008, which were put to g o o d u s e b y m e mbers of the volunteer team.

Get Inv olv ed

SEPP invites volunteers to join us for the fifteenth field season at Fetternear from 29 June to 24 July, 2009. Previous experience is not required as training can be provided on site. Many of our volunteers stay in the campsite next to Fetternear, but we can put you in touch with people offering other types of accommodation nearby. There is no charge for participation or for on-site accommodation. Further information is available from Dr. Penny Dransart at: p.dransart@lamp.ac.uk

The findings of previous seasons’ fieldwork is available at:
http://www.lamp.ac.u k / a r c h a n t h / s t a ff / d r a n s a r t / f e t t e r n e a r. h tm

Volunteers from North America during the 2008 season

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Artezian

Buildin g s i n t h e c e n t r a l a re a o f t h e c i t a d e l w h i c h date to after the Bosporan/Roman war of 44 - 45 AD

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Belarus

UKRAINE

Excavat io n on t he Cr imean Peninsula
photogr aphs a nd te xt by pr of es sor nik ol ai vinokur ov

Poland
Kiev

Slovakia Hungary Romania
Moldova

UKRAINE

Russia

Black Sea

ARTEZIAN

Kerch

A

r t e z i a n l i es cl os e to th e A z o v S e a i n t h e C r i m e a n P e n i n su l a o f S o ut h e a s te rn U k ra i n e, a p i c t ur esq ue r egi o n o f s tep p e g r a s s l a nd s , w i n d i n g r i v e r s , s p r i n g s a nd re s er vo i r s , a b un d a nt in f is h an d w i l d b i r d s. H e r e , f o r t h e p a s t 2 2 y e a r s , a R us s o -Cr i mea n arc ha e o l og i c a l exp edi ti on has b e en ex c a v a t i n g t he f or t i f i e d s e t t l e m e n t o f Ar t e z i an al o n g w i t h a t ea m o f i nt e r nat i o nal v o lu n t eers . Th ere ha s b e e n a h uman p r esen ce he r e s in c e Preh i s t o r i c t i m es and th e lan d s cape a s w e s e e it no w h a s c h a n g ed ver y li t tl e s i n ce th e n , w i t h cha in s o f B r o nze A g e b arro w s ( sec o nd a n d thi rd m i l l e nn i u m BC ) al ig ned w it h d ir t r o a d s and t r a c ks c on ne cti n g th e co as t al r e g i o n s wit h t h e m o r e remo te i n t eri or o f t he K e r c h pen in s ul a . B y th e f i f t h c e n tu ry B C, w it h th e fou n d a t i o n of th e B os p o r a n k in gd o m, th is area b e c a m e an i m p o r t a n t e co n omi c and st rat eg i c b a s e of Im p e r i a l po w er, co l on i sed b y m i l i ta r y se tt le r s. Th e l arg er s et tl emen ts o c c u pi e d comm a n di ng e l ev ati o n s, id e al fo r d e f e n si b l e fo rtif i e d t own s r equ i ri n g a cl ear l in e o f si t e and c o m m un i c a ti on t o t h e ot h er reg i o n s o f the B o s po r a n s tat e. S it u at ed in t h e m i dd l e of th i s t e r r i t o r y an d co veri n g ap prox i m a t e l y se ve n h e c t a r e s A rte zian si ts h i gh ab ov e t h e su rro u n d i n g l a nd sca p e w el l pr o t ected b y t h e nat ur a l t e r r a i n . An a r e a o f 8 0 0 0 s qu are m etres h a s b e e n exc av a t e d s o f a r an d ar ch aeo lo g i call y, t h e s it e con ta i n s a c o m pl ex s t rati gr aph y t h at r e a c h e s to a d e p t h o f a ro un d si x met res and st r e t c h e s bac k o v e r t h ou san ds of y ears. H o we v e r, the m o s t i n f o r ma ti ve lay er i s t he b u r nt o n e whi c h r e p r e s e nt s t h e n ear d est ru cti o n o f t he se tt le m e n t a t t he t im e of t h e Bo s po ron / R o m a n war o f 44 - 4 5 AD . Lyin g 1 .2 0 m et res b e ne a t h the s ur f a c e , i t co n t ain s a w ealt h o f fi n d s s u c h a s h u n d r e d s o f t e r r a c o t t a f i g uri n e s (m an y c o m p l e t e ) , t h o u sa n d s o f c oi n s a n d d o me st i c u t e n s i l s , a n d t he r e m a i ns o f w e a p o n s b el o n g i n g to the defenders of the fortress. I t is no t c l e a r wh a t t h i s a n c i e n t f or t i fi c at i o n w a s o r i g i n a ll y c a l l e d b ut s o me h is t o r ic a l r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e t h i s m a y h a ve b ee n P a r os t a , m e n t io n e d b y t h e R o m a n au t h o r P l in y a n d t h e G r e e k g e o g r a p he r P t o l e my. Pa ro s t a , w h e n t r a n s l a t e d f r o m a n c i e n t P er s ia n , me an s ‘ s t a n d i n g a t t h e f r o n t’ a n d f r o m I n d o- A ry a n a s ‘ s i t u a t e d b y t h e m ou t h o f a r i ve r b y t h e p o r t ’ . C e r ta in l y i t s l oc a ti o n s u gg es t s th a t i t w a s o n t h e f r o nt l i n e o f a c o m p l ex s y s t em o f f o r t i f i c a t i o n s e nc i r c l e d b y b a n ks an d d i t c he s g u a r d i n g th e v i t a l l y i m p or t a n t c e n t re s o f t h e B os p o r a n k i n gd o m f r om a t t a c k by mar au d i n g n o m a d s f r o m t h e s t e p p e . I t w o ul d a ls o h a v e b e e n a n i d e a l pl a c e t o e x e r t c on t r o l o v er t h e s u r r o u nd i n g r e g i o ns , ho u s i ng t h e ki n g ’s g o v e r n o r, a m i l i t a r y g a r r i s o n , t a x c ol l e ct o r s a n d m e r c ha n t s . T h e f o r t i f i e d s e t t l e m e n t i s l a id o ut i n a r e c t i l i n e a r p l a n w i t h t he c en t ra l a re a c o n t a i n i ng t h e c i t a d e l. A r o un d th e e d g es ar e a n c i e n t a l t a r s t h a t a r e n o w r e p r e s en t e d b y fo u r a s h m o u n d s . T h r ou g h o u t it s 1 2 0 0- y ea r h i s t or y t h e f o r t r e s s a p p e a r s to h a v e b e e n r ep e at e dl y b u r n t d o wn du r i n g a t t a c k s a n d d a mag e d b y p o w e r f u l e a r t h qu a k e s , b u t w a s a l wa y s r e- b ui l t o r r e pa i r e d s o o n a f t e r.

continued 

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past horizons

Remai n s o f t h e o n e o f t he c it ad e l to we r s da ti ng f rom the second h a l f o f t h e f i r s t c e nt ur y A D

Structure forming part of the regular planning

T h e c i t a d e l c onsists of mighty rectangular When combined with the richness a n d v a r i e t y towers and walls constructed from large, rough- of the excavated finds and the q u a l i t y o f t h e h e w n s t o n e b l o cks dating from the turn of the architecture, there is clear evide n c e t h a t t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y B C to the first century AD. The inhabitants had attained a good s t a n d a r d o f t o w e r s a r e n o t able for their mathematically living. The business and domes t i c p r e m i s e s e x a c t i n g c o n s t ruction designed to provide grouped together in a regular a r r a n g e m e n t p r o t e c t i o n a g a i nst earthquake damage. The along the paved streets had ren d e r e d w a l l s f o r t r e s s i t s e l f was surrounded by a ditch built of stone and adobe with t i l e d r o o f s . ( t h r e e t o f i v e metres deep The residenti a l b u i l d i n g s a n d u p t o 1 2 m etres wide) contained water and w h i c h w a s p a r t ially faced sewerage drainage One of the rulers in w i t h s t o n e . A s ubterranean systems, and some this period wa s a might y drainage system consisting houses conta i n e d m a r b l e adversary of R ome, the King of Pontus, o f s q u a r e m a s o nry blocks classical architectural Mithridates VI Eupator w a s u s e d t o c o nduct water detailing. Th e o c c u p a n t s Dionysus. a w a y f r o m t he ditch. had spaciou s g r a n a r i e s Wi t h i n t h e w alls of the and large w i n e - m a k i n g c i t a d e l , f o u r wells, with premises with semia d e p t h o f u p to 15 metres, have now been basement areas and vessels dug i n t o t h e f l o o r e x c a v a t e d , t h r ee of which are faced with for wine storage. The populati o n w a s a l s o t i m b e r a n d o n e with stone. occupied in cattle rearing, poul t r y f a r m i n g , hunting and fishing, pottery m a n u f a c t u r e , O n e o f t h e r u l e rs in this period was a mighty weaving, copper smelting, iron w o r k a n d a d v e r s a r y o f Rome, the King of Pontus, glass blowing. In the hinterlan d a r e a t h e r e M i t hr i d a t e s V I Eupator Dionysus. The lower is evidence of agriculture sub d i v i s i o n s , f l o o r s o f t h e citadel housed impressive including ancient vineyards, f a r m s t e a d s b a r r a c k s d a t i n g from this period and these and vegetable plots. Also, still v i s i b l e a r e g r a n d b u i l d i n g s, situated on several terraces, a number of quarries for the e x t r a c t i o n o f w e r e e x t r e m e l y well planned. The walls building materials. w e r e c o n s t r u c t ed of a chequerboard pattern c o n s i s t i n g o f l a rge blocks with smaller stones The settlement’s necropolis oc c u p i e s o v e r p a c k e d i n b e t w een, an unusual feature in the 15 hectares of which around 3 0 0 0 s q u a r e n o r t h e r n B l a c k sea region. metres have been excavated. T h i s c o n s i s t s

past horizons

14

o f a p p r o x i m a t e ly 400 burials as well as seven The recovery of weapons, the r e m n a n t s o f m o n u m e n t a l b arrows with stone vaults for metal armour and the war wounds o f t h e b u r i e d t h e w e a l t h y e lite. The dead were buried testify to the existence of a stro n g m i l i t a r y i n co ff i n s o r sarcophagi, decorated with presence including a cavalry c o n t i n g e n t p a i n t e d g y p s u m mouldings, and placed in within the population. Statuett e s o f s t a t i c t h e g r a v e s w e r e sets of red and galloping h o r s e m e n , l a c q u e r a n d glass wares, images on gra v e s i n t h e s u c h a s d i s hes, bowls, strata of the fir s t c e n t u r i e s j u g s , g o b l e t s , embalming AD, the buria l o f h o r s e s v e s s e l s a n d s mall phials in the necro p o l i s , t h e f o r p r e c i o u s fragrances. presence of go o d s t a b l i n g T h e b u r i a l s o f women and and the large n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n c o n t a ined beads, horse bones fo u n d i n t h e b r o n z e b r a c e l e ts, earrings other strata pa i n t a v e r y a n d r i n g s , w h i le the adult clear picture o f t h i s . m a l e s w e r e buried with daggers, s w o rds, arrow Aside from t h e m i l i t a r y t i p s a n d m e t a l fittings for evidence it also appears that c l o t h i n g a n d equipment. the inhabitants e n j o y e d a A l s o e x c a v a t ed in the good level of ed u c a t i o n a n d n e c r o p o l i s w e r e the burials cultural contin u i t y, f o r t h e o f h o r s e s a n d d ogs. Horses settlement con t a i n s m a n y G l a s s wa re grave goods w e r e b u r i e d w i th iron curb thousands of e x a m p l e s o f c h a i n s a n d b u c kles, forming graffiti and i n s c r i p t i o n s p a r t o f t h e b r i dle and harness. Se veral of using the Greek alphabet with abbr e v i a t i o n s o f t h e m h a d t r a c es of serious battle wounds Greek words and names. The mate r i a l c u l t u r e i n c u r r e d d u r i n g their lives which appeared to of the period is also Greek in a p p e a r a n c e h a v e s u c c e s s f u lly healed. showing very little barbarian infl u e n c e .
continued 

Ceram i c s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e n e c ro p o l i s b u r i a l s

15

past horizons

fi nd out more about the Bosporan Kingdom

Th e D a n i s h N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n ’s C e n t r e f o r B l a c k Se a S t u d i e s p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h a n d inc l u d e s a g o o d i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e B o s p o r a n K i n g d o m a t : htt p : / / w w w. p o n t o s . dk

Exca v a t i o n s i n t h e s o u t h e r n a re a re v e a l i n g t h e regular plan structures dating to the 1st century AD

T h i s l o n g p e r i od of relative stability was to c o m e t o a n e n d , for around the fourth century A D t h e r e w a s a notable reduction in the s i z e o f t h e s e t tlement’s population and the s i t e o f A r t e z i a n fell into neglect. This was d u e t o w o r s e n ing environmental conditions a n d m i l i t a r y upheavals across the region, e v e n t u a l l y l e a ding to the extinction of the B o s p o r a n s t a t e hood system. F r o m o u t o f t h e steppe Khazars and Alans then a p p e a r e d . L i v i ng in yurts and small circular a d o be h o u s e s with cattle enclosures, their r e l i g i o n a n d l a nguage was entirely different to t h a t o f t h e i r p r edecessors, and so marked the b e g i n n i n g o f a new way of life in the region. P ro f e s s o r N i k o lai Vinokurov of Moscow State P e d a g o g i c a l U niversity has been the director o f t h e A r t e z i a n expedition since 1988, and h a s c a r r i e d o ut excavations on the site in c o - o p e r a t i o n with the Crimean Branch of t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Archaeology of the National S c i e n c e A c a d e my, Ukraine. O r i gi n a l t e x t translated from the Russian b y S o p h i e M amattah, John Sullivan and Ta t y a n a Va n L oo. past horizons

Get In v olv ed
The Artezian Archaeological Expedition invites both professionals and amateur s f rom all over the world to take part in the s ummer 2009 excavations. All excavation activities are supervised by qualified archaeologists who guide, ins truct and explain the work to volunteers and students. Professionals from a wide range of archaeological and historical backgrounds are also welcome, as is anyone interested in carrying out their own research. Cost: €50 per day Dates: 10 July - 25 August, 2009 During excavations, the expedition’s camp is located in the Crimean steppe. All volunteers are expected to bring along tents and s leeping bags to accommodate themselves whe n out in the field. For more information please contact Sergei Boriskin at: sboriskin15@yandex.ru

16

Advertising Feature

NORTH PENNINES ARCHAEOLOGY LIMITED &
NORTH PENNINES HERITAGE TRUST EDUCATION SERVICE

The 2009 Archaeological Fieldschool run by North Pennines Archaeology Limited and North Pennines Heritage Trust Education Service is due to commence on the 1st June, running through to the 2nd August 2009. 2009's Field School will continue to investigate the Jacobean Hall and Service Range at Dilston Castle (continued from 2007 and 2008 seasons), Northumberland. The project aims to provide archaeology students, and prospective entrants into archaeology courses at university, the opportunity to gain valuable fieldwork experience by participating in the project. Skills available to be taught are:  Topographical Surveying Techniques  Excavation Techniques  Archaeological Planning Techniques  Environmental and Finds Processing Techniques  Building Recording Techniques  Computer Aided Drawing (Digitising)  Geophysical Surveying Techniques Weekend events are planned throughout the season and include underground mine trips and field excursions.

Accommodation provided at Nenthead Mines Heritage Centre Bunkhouse Tuition and Supervision, Advice and Training Guided underground trips and trips to other sites of interest. Cost: £15/day for tuition; £70/week for accommodation. Fieldschool runs from 1st June-2nd August 2009 Contact: Andrew Wardlaw on 01434 382294 or e-mail: fieldschool@nparchaeology.co.uk Or visit the website http://fieldschool.nparchaeology.co.uk

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past horizons

Slievemore
Excavating a Bronze Age Platform

I

by stuart r athbone

n 2 0 0 8 e x c a vations began on what was believed to be a roundhouse platform at A c h i l l I s l a n d , We s t I r e l a n d. In fact, what Achill Archaeological Field School revealed was t h e r e m a i n s o f a s u b s t a ntial, stone-built, circular structure thought to date from the Ear l y o r M i d d l e B r o nz e A g e . S o now that a domestic structure seemed unlikely, what was its intend e d f u n c t i o n ? R o u n d h o u s e 1 is one of a pair o f circular s t r u c t u r e s l o c ated 50m apart on the 150m c o n t o u r o n t h e southern slopes of Slievemore M o u n t a i n . P r i or to investigation the site a p p e a r e d a s a level circular platform, with a s li g h t l y d i s hed interior and the top of a c i r c u l a r s t o n e wall visible in places around the p e r i m e t e r. W h i l s t t h e i n t e rior seemed a little unimpressive, t h e v i e w f r o m down slope was more dramatic a s t h e s c a l e o f the curving wall was clearly a p p a r e n t . T h e structure is built on steeplys l o pi n g g r o u n d overlooking the va lley floor f a r b e l o w, a n d equidistant between the two structures there is a curvilinea r p r e - b o g f i e l d wall running up the mountain, a p p a r e n t l y p a r t of a field system that divides th e s o u t h e r n s i d e of Slievemore into a series of l o n g s t r i p s . A total of six trenches were ex c a v a t e d a c r o s s the site and a complicated and m o n u m e n t a l l y proportioned structure has been r e v e a l e d . T h e structure is roughly circular in p l a n w i t h a n external diameter of approxima t e l y 11 m . I t i s defined by a substantial stone w a l l a n d h a s a n entrance at the south east. Th e s o u t h e r n a r c of the wall is particularly co m p l i c a t e d a n d consists of numerous compone n t s . T h e o u t e r perimeter of the wall is define d b y a r i n g o f

View to t h e s o u t h w e s t f ro m a b o v e R o u n d h o u s e 1 with Deserted Village structures visible in the background

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18

The southern wall of Roundhouse 1

s u b s t a n t i a l k e r bstones behind which i s a large d r y st o n e w a l l t hat stands up to 1.7m high and i s u p t o 2 . 2 m wide. The internal edge of the w a l l i s a l s o d e f ined by a second ring of large k e r b s t o n e s . T h e top of the wall is wide and l e v e l a n d a v ertically-sided, flat-bottomed t r e n c h r u n s t h r ough the middle of it which was 0 . 5 m w i d e a n d 0.7m deep where investigated. T h e s l o t c o n t a i ned a loose sandy clay fill with some charcoal. T h e k e r b s t o n e s, of varying sizes, included s o m e v e r y l a rge boulders. Sections of both

the inner and outer rings of ker b s t o n e s h a d fallen away from the wall, but as t h e w a l l h a d not subsequently collapsed it is su s p e c t e d t h a t the kerbstones were not actively r e t a i n i n g t h e wall.
continued 

Slievemore Achill Island

Ireland
Castlebar

Roundhouse 1

Roundhouse 2

North

Deserted Village

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past horizons

Hearth and postholes in the centre of the structure

T h e w a l l a t t h e north was generally similar in c o n s t r u c t i o n , b ut was shorter and n arrower. I t a g a i n c o n s i sted of internal and external r i n g s o f k e r b s t ones, but with a rubble core, r e t a i n e d b y d r y stone facing rather than the w e l l c o u r s e d s t one work seen at the south. T h e r e i s n o c o ntinuation of the central slot f e a t u r e a r o u n d the north of the build ing. The n o r t h e r n w a l l is approximately 1.4m wide a n d 0 . 8 m h i g h . A small exploratory trench

was placed over the wall at the w e s t o f t h e structure where there was a sugge s t i o n t h a t a n entrance may have been located. T h i s t r e n c h did not reveal the full width of t h e w a l l b u t showed that the entrance was a s e c o n d a r y feature relating to the use of the s t r u c t u r e a s an animal pen in the Early Mod e r n p e r i o d . The slot feature was present at t h e e a s t o f this trench but the wall otherwis e h a d m o r e in common with the smaller nort h e r n p a r t o f the wall than the larger southern p a r t .

Detail o f t h e s o u t h e rn w a l l

Detail of the northern wall

past horizons

20

A t r e n c h i n the centre of the structure r e v e a l e d a d e e p build up of peat within the i n t e r i o r o v e r l y ing a thin buried turf layer, c o m p l e t e w i t h preserved grass and frequent c h a r c o a l . U n d e rneath this turf was a spread of d a r k c h a r c o a l - rich material which covered a h e a r t h , t w o a d j acent postholes and a series of s m a l l s t a k e h o l e s. Samples from these features a r e b e i n g p r o c e ssed in order to obtain further r a d i o c a r b o n d a t es which should relate directly t o t h e u s e o f t h e structure.

date is terminus ante quem.

The structure is more architectur a l l y c o m p l e x than could have been imagined p r i o r t o t h e excavations and it is not entirel y c l e a r h o w a timber superstructure could be i n c o r p o r a t e d into the stone walls. Whilst th e r e a r e t w o postholes in the centre of the bu i l d i n g , t h e y could not have been used simulta n e o u s l y, a n d there is no evidence indicating th e p r e s e n c e o f an internal post ring closer to the p e r i m e t e r o f the structure. This suggests the su p e r s t r u c t u r e T h e s t r u c t u r e has a complicated entrance was supported by a solitary upri g h t p o s t a n d l o c a t e d a t t h e south east. The entrance is an the top of the dry stone wall. Th e a b s e n c e o f e l o n g a t e d s u n k en feature with a stone-lined b a s e a n d l a rg e stone slabs flanking the sides. A p ai r o f p i l l a r-like orthostats is present at e a c h e n d o f t h e entrance, with the western, i n n e r p a i r s l i ghtly taller than the eastern, o u t e r p a i r. A s il stone runs between the two s t o n e s o f t h e outer pair. Interestingly the e n t r a n c e f e a t u r e extends into the building’s i n t e r i o r a n d s o the inner pair of orthostats are a c t u a l l y i n t e r n al features. On either side of t h e e n t r a n c e t h ere is a large mass of rubble, s i m i l a r t o a c a i rn, retained by large boulders, a n d t h e e a s t e r n end of the entrance beyond t h e o r t h o s t a t s expands out, funnel-style, to j o i n w i t h t h i s material. A f i n a l f e a t u r e was found abutting the northern s i d e o f t h e n o r th wall and the northern side o f t h e c a i r n - l i k e material to the north of the e n t r a n c e . T h i s is a low platform of denselyp a c k e d r u b b l e measuring 1.2m in w idth and a t l e a s t 2 m i n length which is retained by a l a rg e s t o n e s l a b. The top surface of the rubble i s q u i t e l e v e l , and it is possible this feature o r i g in a l l y e x t e nded further to the east and w e s t b u t h a s s u bsequently collapsed. T h e a r t e f a c t a ssemblage from the structure w a s v e r y l i m i t ed, consisting of a fragment o f a f l i n t p l a n o-convex knife, a small flint s c r a p e r, a f r a g ment of a chert blade and a f e w p i e c e s o f flint debitage. No bones were r e c o v e r e d f r o m the site due to the highly a c i d i c n a t u r e o f the soil. A radiocarbon date o f 1 4 11 - 1 2 1 0 cal BC has been obtained from a p i e c e o f c h a rcoal from the preserved turf l a y e r w i t h i n t he structure’s interior, but as t h i s l a y e r h a s b een conclusively demonstrated t o p o s t d a t e t h e collapse of the structure, this

Looking along the entrance into the interior

the slot feature in the northern p a r t o f t h e wall is confusing if this feature w a s u s e d t o tie the roof into the walls. Exten d e d c o v e r e d entrances are frequently observe d a t B r o n z e Age roundhouses, but the entr a n c e t o t h i s structure was almost certainly no t c o v e r e d b y a roof as no postholes were loca t e d a l o n g i t s sides.
continued 

21

past horizons

Lookin g o v e r t h e n o r t h e r n c a i r n l i k e p ro j e c t i o n t owards the entrance

A p p r o a c h i n g t he building from the east a p e r s o n w o u l d have been channelled between t h e t w o h o r n - s haped projections of stone into t h e e n t r a n c e f e a ture proper, which was marked b y t w o o r t h o s t ats and a sil stone. Progress w o u l d h a v e b e en made along the stone-lined e n t r a n c e t h r o u gh the door of the building, b u t i n s t e a d o f opening out immediately, the e n t r a n c e c o n t i nued for a short distance and a s e c o n d , l a rg er pair of orthostats would be p a s s e d t h r o u g h before the interior space could b e p ro p e r l y a c c essed. The interior space would b e d o m i n a t e d by the central post supporting

the roof and the ring of large k e r b s t o n e s fronting the wall. The location of the structure so h i g h a b o v e the valley floor, the way in which t h e s o u t h e r n wall was apparently designed t o e n h a n c e visibility, the limited artefact ass e m b l a g e , t h e complex nature of the entrance a n d t h e h o r n like projections of cairn materia l a l l s u g g e s t this was not a standard domest i c b u i l d i n g . It is possible the structure and t h e a d j a c e n t building had a special function, s u c h a s c u l t houses or places in which religiou s o b s e r v a n c e were held. Further to the east a g r o u p o f megalithic tombs occupy a sim i l a r p o s i t i o n on the mountainside, and it is po s s i b l e t h e s e structures represent a continuat i o n o f r i t u a l activity at the same altitude. The preserved turf layer from w h i c h t h e radiocarbon date was obtained i s r e l e v a n t to this discussion. This turf cou l d n o t h a v e developed whilst the structure w a s r o o f e d , and indeed it was found to over l a y b o t h t h e kerbstones and the collapse fro m t h e w a l l , demonstrating its secondary n a t u r e . T h e presence of charcoal througho u t t h i s t u r f layer therefore indicates human a c t i v i t y a t t h e partially-collapsed ruins. That t h e s i t e w a s

T he pre s e r v e d t u r f l a y e r o v e r l y i n g t h e h e a r t h a n d postholes

past horizons

22

Get Inv olv ed
A c h i l l A r c h a e o l o g i c a l F i el d S c h o o l o ff e r s a ‘Bare Bones’ two week course in excavation and recording procedures on site. This course, available in 2009 is particularly suited to people who have a small amount of archaeological experience but wish to build on this while excavating Roundhouse 2. T h e B a re B o n e s c o u r s e i n c l u d e s b a s i c instruction and supervision in excavation/ planning/surveying while on-site. Dates: 15 - 26 June excavation of trenches at the north and east of Roundhouse 2. 3 - 14 August - excavation of trenches at the south and west of Roundhouse 2. Cost: €650 includes self-catering accommodation, local transport and one day tour of archaeological sites on Achill Island.
Places are limited to 20 people so this offer is available on a first come, first serve d basis.

For details on all the courses available s t i l l v i s i t e d r e g ularly enough to permeate the visit the website at: t u r f w i t h c h a r c oal is surely a reflection of its h t t p : / / w w w. a c h i l l - f i e l d s c h o o l . c om  f o r me r i m p o r t a nce, although the exact nature o f t h i s s e c o n d ary activity has not yet been established. design may be entirely coinc i d e n t a l b u t more light may be shed on S l i e v e m o r e ’s D u r i n g t h e e x cavations the team discussed purpose as the Achill Field Scho o l c o n d u c t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y that the structure was some its investigations this year into t h e a d j a c e n t f o r m o f m e g a l i thic tomb or unroofed circular structure. It is hoped the two exc a v a t i o n s w i l l e n c l o s u r e . T h e se interpretations now seem complement each other and prov i d e a b e t t e r u n l i k e l y, b u t the structure does contain understanding of when these stru c t u r e s w e r e n u m e r o u s e l e ments that have parallels in built, what their exact form w a s a n d w h a t t h e m e g a l i t h i c repertoire. In particular the activities took place within them . a p p ea r a n c e o f the entrance with its pairs of o r t h o s t a t s a n d the curving projections of Stuart Rathbone (BSc) joined A c h i l l F i e l d c a i r n - l i k e m a t e rial certainly bears a passing School in spring 2008. He went t o I re l a n d i n r e s e m b l a n c e t o some court tombs, passage 2001 and has worked on a wide r a n g e o f I r i s h t o m b s w i t h i n - t urned entrances, and the Clyde excavations including the massiv e B ro n z e A g e c a i r n s o f w e s t e rn Scotland. The overa ll design Village at Corrstown, County De r r y, a n d t h e o f a l o n g p a s sage through a circular cairn Viking settlement at Woodstown, Co. Waterford. i n t o a n o p e n - r oofed circular space lined with Forthcoming publications inclu d e a re v i e w k e r b s t o n e s i s also reminiscent of the Clava of transhumant farming practice s i n I re l a n d C a i r n s o f N o r t h East Scotland, and to some and Britain, and excavation repo r t s f ro m t h e d e g r e e e v e n F ourknocks 1 in County Meath, Bronze Age village at Corrstown ; a n u n u s u a l I r e l an d . Early Medieval enclosure at Cas t l e t o w n Ta r a 3; Bronze Age barrows, Iron Age d i t c h e s a n d I s i t p o s s i b l e t h at the builders of this structure an Early Medieval ringfort at Ga r re t s t o w n 2 ; were c o n s c i o usly imitating megalithic a Medieval farmstead at Trevet 1 a n d a B ro n z e a r c h i t e c t u r a l t hemes? The similarities in Age camp site at Pottlebane 1.

23

past horizons

Low Level Aerial Photography for Archaeology

Top: T h e re m a i n s o f a M o a i h e a d a m o n g s t t h e d e bris of an Ahu and its cobbled surfaced plaza Above: Vi e w o f t h e M o a i s t a t u e s a n d t h e A h u ( p l atform) they stand on Opposi t e , l e f t : T h e B a l l o w a l l B a r ro w i n C o r n w a ll, England

past horizons

24

photogr aphs and te xt by ada m stanford

“ O n e o u g h t t o be a bird in order to be a field a r c h a e o l o g i s t ” said John Peere WilliamsF r e e m a n t o E n glish archaeologist O. G. S. C r a w f o r d i n t h e years before the Great War. I n d e e d , a l l m o dern field archaeologists will a p p r e c i a t e t h e need to see the evidence on t h e g r o u n d f r o m a bird’s-eye view. Since the d e v e l o p m e n t o f aircraft and cameras during the p i o n e e r y e a r s of Crawford, colossal amounts o f d a t a h a v e , and are still being, gathered f o r t h e a r c h a e ological record, and studying a e r i al p h o t o g r a phs has now become standard p r a c t i s e f o r d e sk-based assessments. A i r c r a f t - b o r n e cameras yield a fantastic a m o u n t o f i n formation over larg e areas o f l a n d s c a p e , and for the discovery of new a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sites aerial survey is ideal. H o w e v e r, t h i s is compromised when trying t o r e c o r d i n d e tail the excavated features in s m a l l e r a r e a s . Conventional aircraft, fixed w i n g o r h e l i c o pter, are limited by altitude r e g u l a t i o n s a n d can usually fly no lower t h a n 5 0 0 f e e t above ground level. This is w h e re a l t e r n a t i ve methods have proved more e ff e ct i v e f o r s ite-specific and detailed low l e v e l a e r i a l p h o tography. I n 1 9 0 6 2 n d Lt. Philip Henry Sharpe RE p h o t o g r a p h e d Stonehenge from the basket o f a t e t h e r e d Royal Engineers’ hydrogen b a l l o o n . T h e relative stability and static p o s i ti o n a t l o w altitude allowed for recording o f t h e m o n u m ents detail, including its low e a r t h w o r k s , f o r the first time.

Aerial-Cam out in the field

Since then many other non-airc r a f t m e t h o d s have been employed with vary i n g d e g r e e s of success including raised pla t f o r m s w i t h extendable ladders, scaffolding t o w e r s a n d cherry pickers. Manoeuvring t h i s t y p e o f equipment around an excavation a r e a i s o f t e n tricky, and scaffolding requires c o n s i d e r a b l e effort and checking by qualifi e d p e r s o n n e l each time it is erected.
continued 

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T h e m e t h o d s just discussed involve the p h o t o g r a p h e r a ctually holding the camera to o p e r a t e i t , a n d from personal experie nce this c a n b e q u i t e a h air-raising experience. Stories r e c o u n t e d b y a r chaeologists from the good old d a y s t e l l o f a t t e mpts to get overhead shots by b a l a n c i n g o n t op of vehicles, being elevated i n m a c h i n e b u c kets or scaling the nearest high t r e e , w a l l o r b u ilding.

the low-tech and reasonably inex p e n s i v e k i t e s and blimps to the much more co s t l y r e m o t e controlled aircraft. Althoug h e x c e l l e n t results can potentially be achiev e d w i t h t h i s type of equipment it can be haza r d o u s a s t h e operator of the UAV is also at t e m p t i n g t o take the photographs. As well as t h e o b v i o u s safety implications, attaching a c a m e r a t o a moving and vibrating object c a n l e a d t o image quality issues such as ca m e r a s h a k e . R e m o t e c a m e r a operation is possible with the Normally with this type of equi p m e n t , o n l y u s e o f u n m a n n ed aerial vehicles (UAV), from compact lightweight cameras c a n b e u s e d

Stoneh e n g e a t s u n r i s e , t a k e n f ro m 2 0 m a b o v e t h e Avenue

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26

w h i c h r e s t r i c t s the photographic potential. B e t w e e n 1 9 7 0 a nd 1979 the Royal Commission o n t h e A n c i e n t and Historical Monuments of Wa l es ( R C A H MW) employed a new method o f p h o t o g r a p h y in the form of a telescopic m a s t s y s t e m c alled the ‘High-Spy’ camera. M o u n t e d o n t h e back of a Land Rover it enabled s a f e r e m o t e o peration of various cameras a t h e i g h t s e q u ivalent to scaffolding towers. O n e o f t h e m a i n benefits of this system was t h e e a s e i n w h ich camera positions could be

changed in a matter of minutes w i t h t h e L a n d Rover giving access to difficult t e r r a i n . W h e n the ‘High-Spy’ system needed r e n e w i n g t h e RCAHMW decided it was too cos t l y a n d c a m e to an agreement with the Royal C o m m i s s i o n in Scotland who used a trailer-mo u n t e d m a s t . This continued until the early 19 8 0 s . As a field archaeologist working for commercial units, rarely was there a safe a n d p r a c t i c a l way to photograph excavations f r o m o v e r head. This led me to investigate m e t h o d s t h a t
continued 

I was i n s p i r e d t o t a k e t h i s p i c t u r e o f S t o n e h e n g e after my interest in the monument was rekindled while working on the Stoneh e n g e R i v e r s i d e P r o j e c t i n 2 0 0 6 . I w a s c o ncerned that a lot is said about the stones, many photographs depicting the stones a n d t h e s k y, i g n o r i n g t h e w i d e r l a n d s c a p e and the rest of the monument. I planned my trip carefully so as to arrive before s u n r i s e a n d b e r e a d y w i t h t h e c a m e r a 2 0 m above the avenue. As the mist cleared, the sun crept over the horizon and warme d t h e s t o n e s , t h e b a n k a n d d i t c h c l e a r e r n ow with the oblique lighting. I waited for the sun and I spent the longest time I h a d e v e r d o ne b e f o r e j u s t l o o k i n g a t S t o nehenge. It was magical, frustrating and eerie all at the same time. After nearly t h r e e h o u r s o f t a k i n g p i c t u r e s I w a s f r e e z ing cold, but it was worth it.

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An Ea s t e r I s l a n d b o a t h o u s e t a k e n w i t h t h e l i g h t weight pole cam

m i g h t p r o v e m o re suitable. In 2006 after some e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n my company, Aerial-Cam, w a s c r e a t e d s p ecialising in low-level aerial photography using the mast system. Delivering v e r y h i g h q u a l ity images from a variety of h e i g h t s u s i n g a telescopic mast mounted on a L a n d R o v e r, Aerial-Cam is a safe, low-cost a n d a c c u r a t e method, differing considerably t o p h o t o g r a p h y taken from aircraft. Greater d e t a i l a n d a c c u r acy is achieved at heights up to 2 2 me t r e s a b o v e ground level. The equipment a l l o w s f o r p r ecise photographic recording d u e t o t h e s t a b i lity and control of the camera past horizons

mounted on the mast, which ac t s a s a v e r y large monopod in still weather a n d a t r i p o d (when guyed) in windy conditio n s . C a m e r a set-up locations can quickly be c h a n g e d a n d multiple angles achieved on exca v a t i o n s i t e s or around buildings. Where vehicle access is an issue, a l i g h t w e i g h t tripod-mounted mast system i s e m p l o y e d which can be easily carried to r e m o t e s i t e s or erected inside buildings, such a s c h u r c h e s . This has all the advantages of the L a n d R o v e r mounted system but with slightly l e s s p o t e n t i a l

28

Get In v ov led
Anglesey Rock-Art Project Field School Llwydiarth Esgob Stone A recent photographic survey (Nash & Stanford 2009) has indicated that there is in fact much more to the art on the Llwydiarth Esgob Stone than previously thought. As well as the possibility of below-ground rock-art, the survey may have revealed distinct similarities with art of the Boyne Valley, thus strongly adding further to the suggestion of an Irish influence for the rock-art found in Anglesey and north Wales. The group is investigating the possibility of further art below the present ground level and wishes to record the panel complete. The stone may also have been removed from a now-destroyed, unknown monument nearby, so this will also be investigated. Rock-art surveys and recording at other monuments on Anglesey, including Barclodiad y Gawres where art has been discovered in recent photographic surveys, will also take place, as well as field tours of the many fascinating monuments on Anglesey. Techniques covered are excavation and recording, special methods of photographic and other non/minimal contact recording of megalithic rock-art. There will be camping on site with water, toilet and shower facilities, and apart from the project supper/ BBQ evening, it will be self-catering. Transport to and from the project is at your own expense, but it may be possible to arrange pick-ups at the ferry terminal or train station in Holyhead. Cost: £115 Dates: 18-22 June 2009 (book early as places are limited). Contact Adam: adam@aerial-cam.co.uk http://www.aerial-cam.co.uk/index.html http://www.archaeology-safaris.co.uk  

fo r he i g h t a n d stability in windy conditions. In fa c t t h e p o r table mast system was used in Ja n u a r y 2 0 0 9 t o aid my photography work as p a rt o f t h e R a p a Nui (Easter Island) Landscapes o f Co n s t r u c t i o n Project, where it proved i n v a l u a b l e w h en creating the photographic re c o r d . In j u s t u n d e r t h ree years since settin g up the A e ri a l - C a m s y stem providing the service t o co m m e r c i a l archaeologists, uni versities a n d s p e c i a l p r ojects, a range of sit es from p re h i s t o r y t o industrial have been worked

on and consistently excellent r e s u l t s h a v e been achieved. Archaeological ex c a v a t i o n i s a destructive process and the ev i d e n c e w i l l only be available for a relatively b r i e f t i m e , so it is imperative to ensure the p h o t o g r a p h i c record is of the highest quality p o s s i b l e . Adam Stanford is the director of A e r i a l - C a m . He also runs Archaeological Saf a r i s r u n n i n g field trips and field schools, and i s i n v o l v e d in the Anglesey Rock-Art Field Sc h o o l , d e t a i l s of which can be seen above.

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Inclusive Accessi
by tim phillip s and r oberta gilchrist

T

he emphasis on fieldwork in archaeology has given the discipline a macho image and is often seen as something carried out only by fit and supposedly ‘able-bodied’ people. Does this really have to be the case, should people with disabilities be excluded? Fieldwork t r a i n i n g i s a k e y c o m p o n e n t o f a n u n d e rg r a d u a t e degree in archaeology and through participation students gain not only practical skills, but also a number of ‘transferable’ skills that are increasingly valued by employers. These include team-working, communication, self-motivation, analytical ability and a number of other key competencies. Over the past few years, the Department of Archaeology at the University of Reading has devised various strategies to include the growing

A vis u a l l y - i m p a i re d s t u d e n t i d e n t i f i e s f i n d s b y t ouch.

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30

ble Archaeology
n u m ber of disabled students in its f i e l d w o r k t r a i n ing programme. Archaeology depart m e n t s i n o t h e r universities have also reported an in c r e a s e i n d i s a bled people taking up courses. This p r o m p t e d t h e c onception of a new project, to dev e l o p t h e p r o v ision of anticipatory support for d i s a b l e d s t u d e nts involved in fieldwork training: I n c l u s i v e , A c c e ssible, Archaeology (IAA). Fieldwork i n v o l ves the acquisition and developm e n t o f a n u m ber of skill s, s o this support a c t u ally has the p o t e ntial to be used b y a l l students. P r o v iding support of this nature c a n actually be more difficult t h a n it sounds. A n a rchaeological e x c a vation is a d y n a mic place. I ts p h y s ical nature and appearance – a nd the work p r i o r ities involved – c hange fro m T h e u s u a l p e rc e p t i o n of disability. d a y to day, if not a d j u s t e d t o a re a s o n a b le height. h o u r by hour. The u s u a l methods of i n c l u sion are much more difficult to appl y i n s u c h a n e n vironment. Added to this, students’ s k i l l s a n d a b i l i ties vary wi ldly, and these will cha n g e a n d d e v e lop over time as they gain more exp e r i e n c e . A l l o f this poses quite a challenge for d i r e c t o r s : h o w can they anticipate the specific n e e d s o f e v e r y individual student who might po t e n t i a l l y b e p resent on fi eldwork training? Mor e o v e r, i n w h a t may be a totally new environ m e n t f o r t h e m , can a stude nt be expected to fully a n t i c i p a t e b e f o rehand what their needs may be? R a t h er than focusing on what people c a n n o t d o , t he IAA pro ject team took a more p o s i t i v e a p p r oach. It decided to identify what abi l i t i e s a r e a c t u ally required to carry out the princi p a l t a s k s i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i e l d w o r k . Wo r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h occupational therapists and access consultants, the archaeologists investigated the practical archaeological skills that students acquire during fieldwork training. Through observation, the team r e c o r d e d t h e p h y s i c a l a n d c o g n i t i ve d e m a n d s o f e a c h a c t i v i t y. T h e n t h e y i d e n t i f i e d a n u m b e r o f everyday activities that closely resemble each of the archaeological tasks. They also identified the transferable skills a c q ui r e d t h r o u g h fieldwork. From this information, a selfevaluation toolkit was developed, known as the Archaeological Skills SelfE v a lu a t i o n To o l k i t (ASSET). The idea behind the toolkit is that it e n a bl e s s t u d e n t s to gain an idea of their ‘potential’ a b i l it i e s a n d s k i l l s Note how the tripod legs have been before embarking on fieldwork. The toolkit helps them to evaluate their ability to perform a series of tasks that closely resemble the archaeological t a s k s . A f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g a n y a r e a s o f d i ff i c u l t y, a support strategy can be devised and put in place before fieldwork takes place. Therefore, there is less pressure on the fieldwork director to anticipate a n d p r e p a r e f o r e v e r y e v e n t u a l i t y. F or t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e t o o l k i t a l l o w s t h e m t o i d e n t i f y th e i r s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s a n d t o t a rg e t a r e a s t h a t n e e d developing. After participating in fieldwork, the toolkit can be used to re-evaluate ‘actual’ abilities in the light of practical experience. Because abilities and skills are evaluated at v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f d i ff i c u l t y, t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t c a n b e t r a c k e d o v e r t i m e b y r e p e a t e d l y u s i n g A S S E T.
continued 

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C o n s idering the increasing importance p l a c e d o n t h e d evelopment of skills in higher educa t i o n , t h e t o o l kit is highly valuable. It can be integr a t e d i n t o s t u d e nt programmes of Professional Dev e l o p m e n t P l a n ning, which emphasise the need to i d e n t i f y a n d develop a range of different skills. O n e notable benefit of ASSET is its eas e o f u s e . S t u d ents simply have to answer questio n s a b o u t t h e i r ability to carry out a series of e v e r y d a y t a s k s at varying levels of difficulty. A S S E T t h e n automatically produces a summary o f t h e i r p o t e ntial to successfully carry out p a r t i c u l a r a r c h aeological tasks, which can then b e t e s t e d i n t h e field. Following fieldwork, stude n t s f e e d i n f o r mation into the toolkit to log the i r a c t u a l a b i l i ty in carrying out specific tasks. B e c a u s e a b i l i ties can be evaluated at different le v e l s , t h e t o o l kit can be used on subsequent occas i o n s a n d t h e d evelopment of abilities and skills eff e c t i v e l y t r a c k ed. This applies to all students, not j u s t t h o s e w h o are seen as ‘disabled’. A s well as deve loping ASSET, the pro j e c t a l s o p r o d uced a set of good practice guide l i n e s f o r i n c l u ding disabled students in archa e o l o g i c a l f i e l d work training. These are based p a r t l y o n t h e observations of the project team, b u t t h e m a i n sources of information were influ e n c e d b y t h e experiences of archaeology departm e n t s a n d d i s a bled archaeology students, drawing o n t h e g o o d practice already being carried out. Wi t h t h e i n c r e asing publi c interest in archaeol o g y, t h i s p u b l ication also contains guidelines fo r m a k i n g a n e xcavation accessible to visitors.

Par ticipa te in the p roject and g iv e y our v iew s
Di s a bi l i t y a n d t h e A rc h a e olo g ic a l P rofe s sion (DAP) Following on from the IAA project, Archaeology at the University of Reading have been commissioned by English Heritage to carry out a project looking at disability within the archaeological profession working in close consultation with the Institute for A r c h a e o l o g i s t s ( I f A ) a s a m a j o r s t a k e h o l d e r. The brief is to produce good practice guidelines for the employment of disabled archaeologists in the profession. These are to be based on the good practices already being followed by employers and employees. The guidelines will be published as an IfA P r o f e s s i o n a l P a p e r. The project team is looking for participants w i l l i n g t o t e l l t h e i r s t o r y, w h e t h e r t h i s b e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e . We a r e v e r y e a g e r t o talk to anyone who has had experiences of d i s a b i l i t y w i t h i n a r c h a e o l o g y, e i t h e r a t a personal level, with the people they have worked alongside or supervised, interviewed o r e m p l o y e d . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d in t a l k i n g t o people about all aspects, including the less obvious things such as dyslexia, diabetes, asthma, RSI and so forth. All the information will be used anonymously and presented in s u c h a w a y t h a t n o i n d i v i d u a l o r o rg a n i s a t i o n can be identified. The participants will also be invited to comment on the draft of the guidelines. If you are interested in participating in this project, please contact: D r Ti m P h i l l i p s
T: 0118 3788293 E: t.j.phillips@reading.ac.uk

ASSET is available as a free reso u r c e on the project website, and is suppo r t e d by a selection of case studies a n d supplementary project information:
http://www.br itarch.ac.uk/accessible 

The good practice guidelines are avai l a b l e f rom The Higher Education Acade m y ’s Subject Centre for History, Classic s a n d Archaeology:
http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/hca/ archaeology/features_resources/guides 

The IAA project was funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and carried out by Archaeology at the Reading and Bournemouth Universities and the Research Group for Inclusive Environments at Reading. Support was provided by the following stakeholders: • Institute for Archaeologists • Council for British Archaeology • English Heritage • Oxford Archaeology • The Higher Education Academy’s Subject Centre for History, Classics and Archaeology

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32

Advertising Feature

U

Birmingham provides the ideal footing for anyone wanting to begin a career in archaeology or the heritage environment. Along with diverse skills and opportunities provided, I also got to experience city life in Britain’s second city. Thanks to the course, I have been employed in archaeology since I graduated in 2007. Emma Sautejeau, MA Practical Archaeology

B
past horizons

The Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity offer a range of postgraduate and professional training courses aimed to provide you with the skills you need to work in the heritage environment today. From project management techniques in archaeology to the visualisation of past environments, we aim to give you practical experience in the diverse range of techniques and approaches available to heritage practitioners. All of the courses we offer can be tailored to your individual interests and needs, and can be delivered full-time or part-time degrees. Campus-based programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments MSc in Environmental Archaeology & Palaeoenvironments MA in Conflict Archaeology M Phil (B) in Archaeological Practice Distance Education programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology (DE) MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments (DE) To find out more, go to http://www.iaa.bham.ac.uk/Postgraduate/ or email us at archpgrad@lists.bham.ac.uk

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Emma holding a medieval leather shoe recovered from excavations in Birmingham

Georef e re n c i n g ro c k- a r t u s i n g d i g i t a l p h o t o g r a p hy, a simple and cheap method for scaling out-of-reach rock-art using techni q u e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t e n e m p l o y e d i n b u ildings recording

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34

Wor l d R o c k-A r t , Land s c a p e s a n d Creat i v i t y
by barry le wis

R

o c k - a r t sites are to be found s c a t t e r ed across the world and a l t o g e t her they contain millions o f i m a g e s o f i n dividual or group ide ntity, m o s t o f w h i c h were created from around 3 0 , 0 0 0 y e a r s a g o. As paintings, drawings, e n g r a v i n g s , p r i nts, stencils and beeswax d e s i g n s , r o c k - a r t seems to have captured our i m a g i n a t i o n s i n ce the late 18th century. S u r p r i s i n g l y, r ock-art remained marginal t o a r c h a e o l o g y until the early 1980s, only r e c e n t l y e m e rg ing as an area of serious scientific research. Now interest has reached t h e p o i n t w h e r e rigorous methodologies h a v e b e e n d e veloped, with ideas of o r i g i n a n d m e aning discussed regularly i n a ca d e m i c j o urnals and new discoveries r e p o r t e d i n t h e mainstream media. I n o r d e r t o equip people with the s k i l l s n e c e s s a ry to investigate rocka r t m o r e t h o r o ughly and to addres s the i s s u es s u r r o u n ding its preservation and p r e s e n t a t i o n , a five-day course ran in 2 0 0 8 c a l l e d World Rock Art, Landscapes a n d C r e a t i v i t y, based at the University o f N o t t i n g h a m campus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
continued 

The approach to Gua Tambun

35

past horizons

A n i n t e n s i v e a n d challenging course, i t was led b y r e n o w n e d e x perts from Australia, Malaysia a n d t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, and covered many t o p i cs f r o m c u r rent interpretation theories to m o d e r n m e t h o ds of non-invasive recording w h i c h c o u l d p r ove suitable for studyi ng rocka r t a n y w h e r e i n the world. Students attending t h e c o u r s e a l s o had the opportunity to visit M a l a y s i a ’s m o st spectacular known rock-art s i t e , G u a Ta m b un (Tambun Cave).

to the site had everyone reachi n g f o r t h e i r water bottles but the effort was w o r t h i t f o r the chance to view, study and d i s c u s s t h e s e wonderful drawings which incl u d e h u m a n , abstract and animal motifs. Here t h e s t u d e n t s were taught to look at the vario u s r e c o r d i n g approaches that could be adapted t o s u i t t h e challenging terrain, such as takin g s u c c e s s f u l digital photographs. They were a l s o a s k e d to consider what the future threa t s t o t h e s i t e might be and what management str a t e g i e s c o u l d Ly i n g i n t h e P e r ak region of Peninsula Malaysia possibly be employed to protect, c o n s e r v e a n d o n a l a rg e l i m e stone formation called Gunong present the art to the public. P a n j a n g ( t h e Long Mountain), Gua Tambun c o n s i s t s o f a high, slightly concave, wall The course itself was designed to s u i t a b r o a d c o n t a i n i n g p i g ment art and drawings which range of interested students. Com i n g f r o m a l l w e r e f i r s t d i s c overed by Lt. R.L. Rawlings of over the world their backgrounds r a n g e d f r o m t h e B r i t i s h a r m y while stationed in Malaysia heritage management professional s , u n i v e r s i t y i n 1 9 5 9 . T h e floor of the shelter has been graduates, PhD students to lay p e o p l e . T h e q u a r r i e d a w a y some time in the past leaving teaching team was led by Professo r P a u l Ta ç o n t h e a r t s t r a n d e d almost impossibly high from of Griffith University, Queenslan d , A u s t r a l i a , t h e u n e v e n g r o und surface. In the heat and who has built up many years o f k n o w l e d g e h u m id i t y, t h e short walk and steep pull up and experience in this field, pa r t i c u l a r l y i n past horizons

36

A b o r i g i n a l r o c k-art. He has recently been p a r t o f t h e r e s earch team working alongside A b o r i g i n a l e l d ers to investigate contact art i n Ar n h e m L a nd, northern Australia, where m a n y c a v e s h e l ters have been found to contain d e p i c t i o n s o f modern inventions such as s h i p s , c a r s a n d bicycles. Other contributors t o t he c o u r s e w ere Dr. George Nash of Bristol U n i v e r s i t y b r i nging with him expertise in E u r op e a n r o c k - art, and Dr. Sally May also of G r i ff i t h U n i v e r sity (now Australian National U n i v e r s i t y ) w ho shared her knowledge on m a n a g e m e n t o f rock-art sites.

Professor Mohd Mokhtar Saidin o f U n i v e r s i t i Sains Malaysia (USM) talked a b o u t h i s pioneering work recording rock- a r t i n S a b a h , northern Borneo, and Peninsula M a l a y s i a a s part of the first scientific Malays i a n r o c k - a r t project, and discussed new disc o v e r i e s t h a t were made during his expeditio n s i n t o t h e jungle to find and map sites. T h i s w o r k i s still in its early stages but is alrea d y p r o d u c i n g much new data including charco a l d r a w i n g s and cave engravings depicting hu m a n f i g u r e s with distinctive triangular bodies .
continued 

A b o v e : C o l o n i a l p e r i o d c o n t a c t art in the Lenggong Valley M a i n : T h e P e r a k r i v e r s w e e p i n g through the dense jungle of Peninsula Malaysia

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T h e w a r m e v e nings were spent relaxing over a c o l d b e e r a n d sampling the fine Asian and M a l a y c u i s i n e on offer from the lively street s t a l l s a r o u n d B ukit Bintang, something which p r o v e d a p o p u l ar end to the day.

with the exciting potential to d i s c o v e r a n d record previously undiscovere d r o c k - a r t . There is also the chance to loo k a t c o l o n i a l contact art which is known to e x i s t a t a f e w sites in the valley, some depic t i n g i m a g e s such as motor cars. This field school provides a n e x c e l l e n t opportunity to learn from so m e o f t h e world’s leading experts and w i l l c h a l l e n g e the participants on many levels. I t i s a l s o a chance to meet people from all ov e r t h e w o r l d and share ideas about a common p a s s i o n , i n a country that has some great exam p l e s o f r o c k art to offer us. Barry Lewis is a project office r a t Tre n t & Peak Archaeology, University of N o t t i n g h a m , UK, and is the co-ordinator for th e M a l a y s i a n rock-art field school for 2009.

Obser v i n g 7 4 , 0 0 0 - y e a r- o l d v o l c a n i c To b a a s h d e posits

I n o r d e r t o b u ild upon the success of this s h o r t f i e l d s c h ool, a longer course will take place in 2009. Trent & Peak Archaeology i n c o n j u n c t i o n with USM will be greatly e x p a n d i n g t h e range of skills previously o ff e re d . T h i s time the field school will be l o c a t e d i n t h e north of Peninsula Malaysia on t h e b e a u t i f u l i sland of Penang and the classb a s e d e l e m e n t will be taught at USM. This will i n c l u d e a d e t a i l ed introduction to rock-art and c u r r e n t r e c o r d i ng methodologies, working with i n d i g e n o u s g r o ups and local communities, and t h e co n s e r v a t i o n and management of sites. T h e r e w i l l b e a strong field-based element t o t h e 2 0 0 9 c o urse and this will take place i n t he P e r a k r e gion’s Lenggong Valley which h a s s o m e o f Malaysia’s, and east Asia’s, o l d e s t s i t e s ; K o ta Tampan (c. 75,000 - 30,000 y e a r s o l d ) a n d Bukit Jawa (c. 200,0 00 years old). E a r l i e r Palaeolithic occupation and a c t i v i t y c e a s e d in the Lenggong Valley with t h e er u p t i o n o f Mount Toba 74,000 years ago, a s u p e r v o l c a n o that deposited a thick layer o f a s h ( u p t o n ine metres thick in so me parts o f Ma l a y s i a ) , s ome of which is still visible in p a r t s o f t h e v a l ley today. T h e t e r r a i n o f the Lenggong Valley which is c o v e r e d i n d e n s e jungle will certainly provide t h e fi e l d s c h o o l with many challenges, along past horizons

Get Inv olv ed

Dates: 3 - 13 September, 2009, inclusive Costs: UK and EU student tuition fees, £670 International student tuition fees, £1150 Plus fieldwork and accommodation co sts, £385 The total cost includes accommodation (for 10 nights), lunches during the class based element (in Penang) and all meals during the fieldwork, transfers between Penang and the Lenggong Valley, and all field trips. Contact: Barry Lewis
Barry.lewis@nottingham.ac.uk

Webpage: www.nottingham.ac.uk/tpa/field_school 

Professor Taçon teaching the group at Gu a Tambun

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Recipes for Archaeologists
‘Hands up, all you c h o c o h o l i c s ! ’ i s a call that would pr o d u c e a f o r e s t o f hands in the dining r o o m o f e v e r y d i g I’ve ever attended. suggest the earth in which the team s e a r c h e s f o r a n c i e n t t r u t h s. It is extremely rich and so it goes a long w a y. A n y r e a s o n a b l y c o mp e t e n t f i e l d cook can make this special occasion cake providing the kitchen has a small h a n d h e l d e l e c t r i c m i x e r. T h e a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o u s e a l a rg e w h i s k a n d s t r o n g m u s c l e s . A n d l e t ’s n o t f o rg e t t h a t a n o v e n i s a n o t h e r e s s e n t i a l piece of equipment in the making of this cake. Those sad cooks who have to make do with a couple of gas burners c a n f o rg e t a b o u t the recipe that follows. This cake is so good that fraud has sometimes been suspected when a suspicious string of birthdays has occurred. If that happens, the cook may have to start checking passports for birthdates. I’ve learned that there are people out there who are so addicted to chocolate that nothing will stand in the way of a good feast of their favourite food. Somewhere along the way I’ve heard o f a T- s h i r t t h a t b e a r s t h e t e x t : ‘ H a n d o v e r t h e c h o c o l a t e a n d n o -o n e w i l l g e t hurt’. The field cook can usually count on leftovers to help him or her out on the following day but I have to report that with this cake leftovers are not going to happen. This is death by chocolate, c o ff e e a n d h a z e l n u t s – w h o c o u l d a s k for a nicer way to go?

Annie Evans The Dig Cook

It’s not a call I wou l d m a k e e v e r y d a y but when the work’s h a r d a n d t h e d a y s are hot the team ne e d s a n o c c a s i o n a l treat. That’s when I dive i n t o m y t r u s t y o l d recipe book and flick t o t h e p a g e w h e r e my shard cake is li s t e d . I a l s o m a k e this cake as a treat for members of the team who are having birthdays. The reason why I called it a shard cake was to make it special for archaeologists. The shards are large flakes of chocolate, i n s e r t e d vertically into the cream on top of an absolutely luscious cake made from hazeln u t s , c o ff e e a n d chocolate. The blen d o f t h o s e t h r e e wonderful ingredie n t s p r o d u c e s a flavour made in h e a v e n . I t ’s s o o o good! Comparisons with o t h e r e c s t a t i c experiences general l y c o m e d o w n i n favour of this cake b u t b e s t n o t t o go into details in t h i s c l e a n , f a m i l y magazine! A little bit of experim e n t i n g w i t h a t h i n layer of chocolate m e l t e d i n t o a f l a t pan and then broken i n t o i r r e g u l a r l y shaped large chun k s p r o d u c e d t h e shards while the coff e e a n d c h o c o l a t e that make up the b o d y o f t h e c a k e

The Dig Cook’s website
http://www.digcook.com 

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Shard Ca k e
I N G R EDIENTS - CAKE 5 0 0 g hazelnuts, toasted and skins r e m o v ed (tip: put toasted, cooled h a z e l n uts in a pap er bag and shake and r u b v i gorously through the bag. Tip t h e m onto a tray and blow the skins a w a y – but do it outside!) O n e c up of cocoa powder (good Dutch is best) 1 2 l a rge egg whites 3 c u p s caster sugar 2 0 0 g dark cooking chocolate for shards I N G R EDIENTS – FILLING 4 c u p s cream 3 t a b l e spoons good quality instant coffee dis s o l v e d i n 3 t e aspoons of boiling water and cooled ¾ c u p icing sugar ¼ c u p hazelnut liqueur (optional but good ) M E T H OD FOR THE CAKE P r o c e ss hazelnuts with cocoa powder in a f o o d p r o c e s sor until roughly chopped. Altern a t i v e l y r o u g h l y chop hazelnuts and mix with c o c o a p o w d e r and set aside. T h e r e must be no trace of yolk in with t h e e g g w h i t e s so I always break each egg and sepa r a t e t h e w h i t e into a small bowl and then put all t h e e g g w h i t e s in a bowl together. Make sure yo u r e g g b e a t e r has no traces and bowls have no tr a c e s o f f a t . I l ike the egg whites to be cold before I b e a t t h e m with a pinch of salt until stiff peak s f o r m , t h e n a dd the caster sugar, ¼ cup at a tim e , a n d b e a t u ntil the egg whites have tripled in v o l u m e a n d a r e quite thick and glossy. G e n t l y fold the hazelnut mixture into t h e e g g w h i t e s . Spoon mixture into the three prepa r e d t i n s o r o n t o the pizza plates and bake at 150 d e g r e e s c e n t i g rade for 40 minutes. Cool in the tin s .

For 25 people 3 large cake tins (30cm diameter), well-oiled and lined with baking paper, or three large pizza trays, ditto

METHOD FOR FILLING B e a t c r e a m w i t h d i s s o l v e d c o ff e e a n d i c i n g s u g a r u n t i l s t i ff . S a n d w i c h m e r i n g u e l a y e r s with half the cream mixture. Spread remaining cream over the top and sides. Decorate with chocolate shards and refrigerate 12 – 24 hours before serving. M E T H O D F O R C H O C O L AT E S H A R D S Spread aluminium foil smoothly over two oven trays and lightly oil. Melt chocolate i n a b o w l o v e r s i m m e r i n g h o t w a t e r ( d o n ’t allow water to come in contact with the melting chocolate). Spread in a thin layer over the two trays. Refrigerate until set, then break into irregular shards about 10cm long. These are pressed into the cream on top of the cake so that they stand up.

NOTE: Leftover egg yolks can be used for m a k i n g p a s t r y, c u s t a r d , m a y o n n a i s e e t c . L e t ’s n o t t h r o w a w a y g o o d i n g r e d i e n t s !

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I

Rev iew
from Sam Moorhead of the Portable Antiquities Scheme, who has built up an interesting theory from coins found mainly by metal detectorists. We t h e n c h a n g e d g e a r y e t a g a i n , a n d w e r e p l u n g e d into the past with the remarkable Steve Mithen a s h e p r e s e n t e d h i s s t u d i e s o f t h e e m e rg e n c e of farming at the very origins of the Neolithic. Next, we were introduced to 700,000 BP Britain. Evidence is being pulled from mud and gravel by dedicated archaeologists pushing technology and endurance to the limits, and anyone that can shift eight tonnes of sediment to find eight vole jawbones, deserves a medal for their staying p o w e r. L u n c h w a s i n t h e N a t i o n a l M u s e u m C a r d i ff w h i c h w a s a l i v e w i t h c h i l d r e n p u t t i n g S t e v e M i t h e n ’s book Singing Neanderthals to the test. Then, in the plush velvet Museum theatre something special happened. Professor Brian F a g a n ’s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ) powerpoint failed to work and there, like some Homeric poet s t o r y t e l l e r, h e p r o c e e d e d t o t e l l us of the past and of our own f u t u r e , t h r o w i n g f ac t s , d a t e s a n d n a m e s a s h e t o o k us o n a j o u r n e y o f s u s t a i n a b i l i t y, c l i m a t e c h a n g e and left us with a little bit of h o p e f o r t h e h u m a n r a c e . Wi t h such sustained applause we feared he was going to be asked for an encore for we had no time to s p a r e a s w e r a c e d ba c k t o C a r d i ff University for the final session. This brought us back with a bump. Looking at the dangers to heritage, and the sustainability of the archaeological profession itself, it proved to be a lively discussion brought to a close only by time itself. It was a pity because if this Archaeology Festival had proved one thing it was the need for more events like this to bring together those who are amateur and those who are professional who share one thing in common: a l o v e o f a r c h a e o l o g y. The venue is set for the 2010 Archaeology Festival a n d w e d o n ’t n e e d a s e c o n d i n v i t a t i o n . We h o p e to see you there at the British Museum in London for yet another inspiring line-up of speakers.

t is not ofte n that a conference liv e s u p t o i ts expectations, but the Archaeology F e s t i v a l i n Cardiff, Wales, in February, ma n a g e d t o d o j ust that. Th e conference was orga n i s e d b y C u r rent Archaeology magazine, and f o l l o w i n g a n i nvitation fr om the editor, Lisa We s t c o t t , w e j umped at the chance to attend a n e v e n t t h a t provided a platform to present c u r r e n t a r c h aeological research in a manner that w a s b o t h a c c e ssible and entertaining. A r r i ving with minutes to spare before the f i r s t s e t o f l e c t u res at Cardiff University (the confer e n c e w a s s p l i t between this venue and the National M u s e u m C a r d iff), we kicked off with the Romans a n d w e r e t a k e n through the recent excavations at C a e r l e o n i n Wales, moved on apace to Hadrian’s Wa l l a n d f i n a l ly ended up on the other side of th e R o m a n E m p i re with a remarkable lecture o n t he Siege of Dura Europos in S y r i a . Here, the power play of R o m an and Sassanian politics is f o c u ssed into a s ingle moment in a s i e ge tunnel, with a small group o f s a ppers who battled and died i n t he dark co nfined passage. To w a rds the end you could smell t h e fire and feel the horror of t h e s e final moments. T h e afternoon session moved a w a y from the Romans and took u s b ack into a relatively new area o f s tudy: the enigmatic Copper A g e or Chalcolithic of Britain. D e a l ing mainly with the Wiltshire a r e a of south England, the latest s t u d i es were presented by Dr. S t u a rt Needham of National M u s e um Wales. The highlight of t h e d ay, though, was guest speaker B e t t a ny Hughes who captivated the audie n c e w i t h h e r p ersonal fifteen year investigation on t h e r e a l H e l e n of Troy. Ever the professional, s h e h e l d t h e audience spellbound, but drew ever y s t r a n d t o g e t her in a finale that shocked, intrig u e d a n d q u e s tioned. T h e following day we awaited the next s e r i e s o f s e m i nars with a sense of anticipation. Af t e r a l o o k a t t h e relationship between the barbarian s a n d t h e f a l l of the Roman Empire by Peter Guest o f C a r d i ff U n i v ersity, we heard about startling new e v i d e n c e c o n c erning the end of Roman occupation i n B r i t a i n

past horizons

42

Join an i nternational team of archaeologists and o t h e r scholars in the 18th year of ongoing investigation o f t h e ancient Maya in northwest Belize in the summer of 2 0 0 9 .
The Blue Creek project is a long-term effort to understand comprehensively the structure of an ancient Maya city and its neighbours. Blue Creek was a medium-sized community of 20,000 people with a large public precinct surrounded by numerous, well-defined residential and agricultural components. The project is focused upon the interaction between these components as well as the dynamics of the city’s growth and collapse. Blue Creek was a wealthy community with inordinate access to exotic goods which came into the community due to their enormous agricultural resources. Despite its resources and power, Blue Creek, like much of the region, was largely abandoned at the end of the Classic period at around AD 850. We welcome both student and non-student participants. Participants will receive training i n field and laboratory techniques as well as receiving a ‘crash course’ on the Maya and archaeological methodology. Our research station has 35 small, residential cabanas, a laboratory building, a main building with a dining hall, and men’s and women’s restrooms and showers, etc. While all meals are hearty and provided within the overall cost, special diets can also be accommodated. All equipment and supplies are provided. Participants will be met at the international airport and driven to the research station. In 2009, we will return to continue excavations in an elite residential area (Rosita) and in the agricultural field systems surrounding the site. Additionally, we will continue our new excavations at th e nearby centres of Bedrock and Nojol Nah.

There are four two week sessions and you are welcome to join any or all of them. Session 1: Monday May 25 - Sunday June 7 Session 2: Monday June 8 - Sunday June 21 Session 3: Monday June 29 - Sunday July 12 Session 4: Monday July 13 - Sunday July 2 6 For more information See our website: http://www.mayaresearchprogram.org/ Request our particpant Guide and 2008 Annual Report of Investigations by email ( mrp@mrpmail.co m )

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Interes ted In... R o c k - A rt
E n c ulturating Environments: Rock-Ar t a n d E n v i ro n m e n t i n S o u t h - C e n t r a l C a l i f o r n i a A f i e ld school focussing on some of the m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r r o c k - a r t s i t e s i n We s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . L o c a ted in the beautiful foothill landsc a p e s o f t h e Wi n d Wo l v e s n a t u r e p r e s e r v e i n t h e Te h a c h a p i M o u ntains. Included will be an excavati o n o f a q u a r r y s i t e c o n t a i n i n g b l u e a n d g r e e n m i n e r a l s e a m s u s e d to create the magnificent local rock - a r t . A c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o j e c t p a r t n e r i n g U C L A , U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d t he Universities of Central Lancashi r e a n d S o u t h a m p t o n , U K . D a t e s: 28 June - 1 August 2009. Further d e t a i l s , i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n s c h o l a r s h i p s, c a n b e f o u n d
at: http://www.archaeology.ucla.edu/WindWolves/overview.htm 

F i e l d Sc h o o l s

F i e l d Methods in Rock-Art A f i e ld school for undergraduate and gra d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g y o f t h e L o w e r P e c o s , Te x a s . L e a r n rock-art recording techniques and d a t a a n a l y s i s , f i e l d r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , i n t e r p r e t i v e m e t h o d s a n d t h e o r ies, field laboratory procedures, and m a p p i n g . D a t e s: 11-29 May 2009. Further details, i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n s c h o l a r s h i p s , c a n b e f o u n d a t :
http://www.shumla.org 

G l o b a l R o c k - A rt D i ff e r e n t m e t h ods of investigation, interpretation and new discoveries, scientific d e v e l o p m e n t a n d th e d y n a m i cs of cultural creation and distribution will be related and compa r e d . D a t e s : 2 9 J u n e - 3 July 2009 at Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí, Brazil. h t t p : / / w w w. g l o balrockart2009.ab-arterupestre.org.br/index.html A R A R A 2 0 0 9 i n Bakersfield, Califo rnia T h e m o u n t a i n s surrounding Bakersfield contain a rich and varied collection of cultu r a l r e s o u r c e s f r o m s e v e r a l d i fferent Native Americ an groups, including Chumash and Yokuts. B e t w e e n t h e S a n J o a q u i n Va lley and the Santa Barbara coastline is an area which, until recen t l y, h a s b e e n r e l a t i v e l y u n d i sturbed by archaeologists. The results of recent research into t h e ‘ s p a c e i n b e t we e n ’ w i l l b e one of the highlights of the 2009 conference. Dates: 22-25 Ma y 2 0 0 9 h t t p : / / w w w. a r a ra.org/Conference_2009.html

C o n f ere n ce s

T h e A m e r i c a n Rock-Art Research Association (ARARA) A d i v e r s e c o m munity of members with wide-ranging interests who are dedica t e d t o r o c k a r t p r e s e r v a t i o n, research, and education. The intent is to communicate to a bro a d a u d i e n c e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of rock art as a non-renewable resource of enduring cultural v a l u e , a n d a n i m p o r t a n t e x p r ession of our shared cultural heritage. h t t p :/ / w w w. a r a ra.org/index.htm A u s t r a l i a n R o ck-Art Research Association (AURA) A U R A i s d e d i cated to the study and preservation of rock-art in Australia and a r o u n d t h e w o r l d , a n d t o t he promotion of indigenous custodianship of traditional cultural h e r i t a g e . h t t p :/ / m c 2 . v i c n et.net.au/home/aura/web/index.html past horizons

Ass o ci a t i o n s

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D ig In

A selection of ar chaeological pr ojects ar ound the world

british vir gin isl ands - r oad harbour shipwreck pr oject After initial practical training, spend 10 days on SCUBA exposing and recording a previously unknown 18th century shipwreck based in Road Harbour. Cost: £1200 (does not include airfare). Dates: 16 - 30 May and 30 May - 13 June 2009 Email Kimberly Monk, University of Bristol: k.monk@bris.ac.uk scotl and - hillforts of str athdon Specifically designed by Murray Cook (formerly of AOC Archaeology) to undertake keyhole excavation across a series of hillforts in Aberdeenshire, in order to collect dating evidence. Training in the field will be given. Email Murray Cook: murraycook35@hotmail.co.uk Cost: £300 (includes food and accommodation). Dates: 18 - 31 July 2009 pol and - mortuary ar chaeology The project offers a journey into the Slavic past and the Mediaeval history of central Europe, as well as lab/field practicals in human osteology and mortuary archaeology. Cost: see website to receive information pack, or email directly. Web: http://www.slavia.org Dates: 22 June - 16 August (available as two week sessions) portugal - crem ation urns fr om the ir on age necr opolis of ter a This programme will focus on the excavation of urns, already taken from the site, and the proper recording , excavation methodologies and identification of individuals and remains. Cost: €1500. Dates: 6 - 31 July 2009 Web: http://portanta.com bulgaria - a byzantine cold ca se file Excavation of a Byzantine Syrian church, unique in the Balkans. There is one field school available which will teach excavation techniques and is suitable for beginners. Cost: €1299. Dates: 4 - 18 July 2009 Web: http://www.bhfieldschool.org/bh2007varexc09.html engl and - north pennines ar chaeology field school The project aims to provide archaeology students, and prospective entrants into archaeology courses at university, the opportunity to gain valuable fieldwork experience. Cos t: £75 per week for tuition plus £10 membership fee. Dates: 1 June - 31 July 2009 Web: http://www.nparchaeology.co.uk/fieldschool/index.html canada - fortress of louisbour g Two five-day field sessions focusing on the De la Valliere property which was occupied by French, British and New Englanders between 1720 and 1758. Cost: $650 CDN per five-day session. Dates: 10 - 14 and 17 - 21 August 2009 Web: http://fortressoflouisbourg.ca/ArchaeologyE greece - e xcavation at ar gilos Argilos is one of the earliest Greek colonies in the north Aegean area. Students participate in all aspects of the archaeological process, assisted by trained professionals. Cost: $1650 CDN for two-week session. Dates: 14 June - 11 July 2009 Web: http://www.argilos.org/FieldSchool.html isr ael - nahal m ahanayim outlet The site is dated to the early stage of the Levantine Mousterian ca. 200,000 years before present. Numerous animal bones have been found along with a fragment of a human skull. Dates: Autumn 2009 Cost: Email Dr. Gonen Sharon at gonensharon@mail.huji.ac.il more pr ojects can be found at http://www.pasthorizons.com/worldprojects 

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Profile
A

dam Stanford is based in Worcestersh i r e a n d i s t h e d i r e c t o r o f Archaeology Safaris Ltd and Aerial- C a m . A d a m s p e c i a l i s e s i n a ll aspects of archaeological photog r a p h y, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e l o w level aerial photography of excavati o n s , a n c i e n t m o n u m e n t s a n d historic buildings. His own research i s o n p r e h i s t o r i c r o c k a r t , and its recording and interpretati o n u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f p h o t ographic and other survey methods, a s w e l l a s c o n d u c t i n g f i e l d trips around the United Kingdom a n d E u r o p e . Have you had any near-death experiences? A bit of a battle with cancer in my twenties and a few motorbike near misses, but the one that hurt the most was a late opening and bad landing when sky-diving in the USA. What gets you out of bed in the morning? The need for a cup of tea? Do you have any heroes or heroines? Not really but here is a good quote from someone with fortitude: “The most effective way to do it, is to do it.” Amelia Earhart 1897 – 1937. What historical character would you have liked to meet? Jesus or Brian, either would be great. What is your current obsession? Cooking whilst under the influence of red wine. How do you relax? By talking with my wife, while cooking under the influence of red wine. What is you best work achievement so far? Staying in business and doing what I am passionate about. Have you ever volunteered on an archaeological site? Yes, and still work for free on special projects (see the last answer), which is amazing in light of this one. What do you see out of your window just now? Rain, the corner of the neighbouring pub, an apple tree and the pen where our chickens live. What new skill would you like to learn? Hovering effortlessly at altitudes of my choosing. If you weren’t an archaeologist what would you do instead? I can’t imagine not driving a Landrover, getting muddy, playing with lots of different bits of technology and trying to figure out what is/was going on. So another job involving all of that, but without getting shot at.

Your first archaeological experience? We lived in Ripon, North Yorkshire, when I was about 7 or 8. My father took me up onto the moors walking and I remember looking at the humps and bumps of a lost village. As the rain came in over the dry stone wall that we crouched by, I didn’t know what I was looking at or why I liked it, but the memory of the landscape and the fruit polos we ate to cheer us up, has stuck with me ever since. Have you a particular site that you enjoy photographing? I don’t think I have a favourite, but I have had a lot of fun at Stonehenge and some amazing results with the Stonehenge Riverside Project 2008 team, Woodhenge, and lots of glow-sticks at night. What is the worst job you’ve done? When on a training course in the Brecon Beacons my trench hit bedrock after 18 inches then filled with water. It was a long, cold and miserable few days. Despite this, I stayed in the Army for 10 years! What book are you reading right now? Last book: Easter Island by Jennifer Vanderbes Current book: Toast by Nigel Slater Next book: Don’t Sleep, There are Snakes by Daniel Everett Top three essential items for travelling? Camera, credit card, PG Tips Monkey – he loved it on Easter Island. What did you feel coming face-to-face with the Rapa Nui statues? Hot. Nothing you see or read quite prepares you for the scale of what the Rapa Nui did. The island is wrapped in platforms for statues, the Rano Raraku volcano Moai statue quarry is just stunning, and the quality and huge quantity of work they undertook is outstanding. My imagination got really fired up, the landscape is stuffed with archaeology of a very recent Neolithic. Nothing but a cold ‘Black Lager ’ could cool me down at the end of each day. What country do you enjoy visiting and why? Italy - the food, the wine, the beautiful and delicious everything.

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Fun Page... archaeology can be fun...honest
Fish Guys
- a short film by Trey Stokes

If you are viewing this magazine on SCRIBD, then you will not be able to see the video. You can view it on either the full flip page version of the magazine: www.pasthorizons.com/magazine OR: on our dedicated video website: http://www.pasthorizons.tv/tv/view/283/fish-guys/

Fish Guys was made for the Extreme Filmmaker 48-Hour film contest, and was shot and edited in 48 hours by Trey Stokes. Based on a true story, the video was shot in the Fish Collection at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. This is a cult classic for archaeologists and lab people! To visit the website of Trey Stokes:

http://www.treystokes.co m

The p r o f e s s o r n e e d e d m o r e p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e l a s e r s c a n n e r

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past horizons

PAST HORIZONS
Journal of Volunteer Archaeology

Share your Projects with the World
Past Horizons is a unique online publication aimed at anyone who has an interest in archaeology and heritage conservation. Our remit is to inform people about projects around the world where you can participate either as volunteers with no previous experience, students looking for more fieldwork experience or professionals who need a break on an exciting excavation. Articles are written by project organisers or the participants in the project giving unique insights into what to expect. Topics range from the discovery of mysterious features in Cornwall to rock art survey in Nicaragua, restoring Ottoman period houses in Albania and surveys in the deserts of Jordan. We encourage PhD students to contribute stories about projects they are involved in, such as the recent article on Rwandan archaeology from two University College London researchers. Using the latest technology, with Pageflip, embedded videos and sounds, as well as live weblinks, this is an online magazine like no other, so log on to Past Horizons today and get involved in a world of archaeology and heritage conservation.

past horizons

If you want to write an article for Past Horizons, contact us at: editor@pasthorizons.com

Free to view at

www.pasthorizons.com/magazine
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