 In the past food was produced locally - no need for

organized religious supervision
 Halal is simple; however, the industry is becoming more

complex
 Increase in trade needs  Increase in complexity of food processing

 Technological development and the diversification of

sources acquired globally for food processing and production
 Availability of numerous number of processed foods in the

market
 It is very challenging and increasingly difficult for Muslims

to ensure the halal status of food in the market.
 This trend has raised concerns among Muslim consumers

regarding new processed food.

 Adulteration is an issue of major concern in the food

trade and industry globally.
 Involves the replacement of high cost ingredients with

lower grade and cheaper substitutes.
 The result can be very attractive and lucrative for food

manufacturers or raw material suppliers.

White Fungus

Bird’s Nest Pigskin

Source : Suqin Sun, Tsinghua University, China

 Lard is an example of haram ingredient  Lard could be effectively blended with other vegetable oils to produce shortening. margarines and other specialty food oils  In some countries. adulteration with porcine products could be unintentional . food manufacturers choose to blend vegetable fats with lard to reduce production cost  In other instances.

‘Muslim Frozen Food Sausage Scandal’ 1997. lard in palm oil. Many cases were reported worldwide involving adulteration of haram or mushbooh ingredients in halal food  E. In the U. 1998. 2001  In Thailand.K.samples with halal label revealed that they were adulterated with pig DNA  In Indonesia.. Food Standards Agency conducted test for adulteration and authenticity of chicken using molecular biology techniques .g. undeclared gelatine 2001 etc . 1998 and MSG adulterated with enzyme derived from pig. the episodes on ‘Pig Fat Scare’.

Nearly half the samples contained traces of DNA from pigs and all but one of these were labelled as halal .

such as animal protein. are often added to help the meat retain the water.  Issue of transparency. even after cooking. making it appear larger and heavier than it really is.  Other ingredients. The water is added to the chicken to ‘bulk it up’.  It can also help to prevent the meat drying out when it is transported and stored. labelling .

 Non-halal (pork) moon cakes with halal logo  Pigs and chicken stored together  Issue on bread using doubtful oil [lard ?]  Brushes using pig’s bristle in cake and bread preparation  Sausages with non-halal casing. certificate and old halal logo expired halal  Fish feed with pig by-products .

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Halal Science: Scientific methodology to ensure Halal compliance according to Islamic religious requirements .

■ Authentication has become a major challenge in analysis of halal food ■ Reliable state-of-the-art scientific methods are urgently needed for detection of non-halal components (e.g porcine origin) in food products .

Dedicated Halal Science Laboratory for Food Analysis  Malaysia – Halal Products Research Institute (HPPI)  EPU has allocated a sum of RM10 million to develop this Halal analysis laboratory  Thailand – Halal Science Center. Chulalongkorn University (HSC) .

 Electronic Nose (E-nose) technology  Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy  Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)  Molecular Biology techniques .

Electronic Nose .

 An instrument. which comprises an array of electronic chemical sensors and appropriate pattern recognition system  Capable of recognizing simple or complex odor or smell  This technique was applied to monitor the presence of lard in food samples such as cooking oil  Qualitative identification of adulterated oil is possible by the characteristic 2-dimensional olfactory images called VaporPrint TM .

Pure RBD palm olein (pink) overlay with RBD palm olein adulterated with 5% lard (black) .SAW detector response vs time.

1% lard 3% lard 5% lard 7% lard 10% lard 100% lard .

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and give reliable results  It is possible to detect any adulteration with the characteristic aroma fingerprint of each sample (1% detection level)  It could fulfil the need for rapid detection of lard adulteration in food . E-nose is an alternative technology which offers easier operation. rapid determination (1 min).

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cake. Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of EMR with matter  IR has been used to provide information on the molecular composition and structure of a diverse range of materials such as fats and oils  Food samples (e.g. chocolate. biscuits) were analyzed to identify the differences in FTIR spectra profiles .

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy .

6 0.0 1164 0.4 0.8 0.6 1. ROOH (C=O) FFA 1463 (C=O) aldehydes 1654 2679 1238 1376 1116 (CH2)n rocking 722 -C=C-H trans bonds 967 Absorbance 1.8 1.4 (CH) -CH2 and -CH3 2924 2854 (C=O) ester 1746 Fingerprint region 1.2 (C=O) ketones 3000 2000 Wavenumber (cm-1) 1500 1000 500.0 0.2 (C-H) cis bonds 3004 (-OH) H2O.0 Example of FTIR Spectrum of an Oil .00 4000. ROH.1.

0 3000 2000 1500 Wavenumber (cm-1) 1000 600.0 .Absorbance (A) a b A G 4000.

0.10 0.0 1010 1000 990 980 970 960 950 940 929.30 0.20 0.25 0% lard 20% lard 40% lard 60% lard 80% lard 100% lard b 0.500 0.05 0.15 0.40 0.030 1018.45 0.35 0.0 Wavenumber (cm-1) .

3191x + 0.2462 30 R = 0.979 2 20 10 0 4 6 10 12 14 18 22 28 34 36 40 42 44 46 50 52 54 60 Actual weight of lard content in shortening (g) .FTIR Calibration Model 70 60 FTIR value of lard content in shortening (g) 50 40 y = 3.

 FTIR technique combined with chemometric analysis  It is able to detect and quantify the level of lard adulterated in food samples (3% detection limit)  Offers rapid (results in 2 min). reliable. and environmental friendly technique . accurate. simple.

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accurate and minimum amount of sample needed . Thermoanalytical technique for monitoring changes in physical or chemical properties of material by detecting heat changes  Thermogram profile show the presence of lard in food sample  Relatively simple.

A(GLD) A(0%) B(1%) B(CRLD) C(2%) C(BT) D(MT) D(3%) E(4%) E(CF) DSC cooling thermogram of different animal fats DSC cooling thermogram of RBDPO adulterated with genuine lard (increasing proportion) .

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 DNA technique is a favorite approach for species identification because DNA is relatively stable even after processing  Method for species identification from pork and lard samples using PCR analysis  The analysis yielded excellent results for identification of pig species in samples .

SPECIES IDENTIFICATION FOOD SAMPLES DNA EXTRACTION PCR-RFLP PCR AMPLIFICATION .

7 : Pig’s meat (pork) 10: Chicken’s fat 11. 12.M1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 M2 M1 : 100bp Ladder Marker 1 : Mutton’s meat ≈360bp 228bp 131bp 2 : Cow’s meat (beef) 3 : Chicken’s meat 4. 14 : Pig’s fat M2: 1kb Plus Marker Restriction Enzyme Analysis of PCR Amplified Cytochrome b Gene (raw meat and fat samples) . 5. 6. 13.

M A1 A2 A3 D1 D2 D3 K1 K2 P1 P2 500 bp ≈360 bp 228 bp 131 bp M-1Kb DNA ladder A1.pork sausages of different brands P1 and P2. A2 and A3.chicken sausages of different brands D1.beef sausages of different brands K1 and K2. D2 and D3.unknown products Restriction Enzyme Analysis of PCR Amplified Cytochrome b Gene (sausages) .

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Porcine-IDTM is codeveloped by Institute of Halal Food UPM and Olipro Biotechnology Sdn. . Bhd.

Brussels. Belgium 2009 . Anugerah Harta Intelek Negara 2009  Anugerah Eureka .

 Method for detection of pig derivatives qualitatively in the food samples using ELISA technique  The analysis yielded excellent results for detection of pig derivatives in samples . ELISA is used to determine the level of antibodies in a sample and useful because they are specific and are relatively simple to perform.

H1.beef.unknown sausages. F2. E5homemade biscuit with 1% lard. .ELISA Results 1 A 2 3 4 5 B C D E F G H A1. B3. D4.beef fat.biscuits with different brands. F5homemade biscuit with 50% lard. H4.lard.chicken sausages with different brands. B1 and C1.negative controls. B4 and C4. A5 and B5bread with different brands. H3 and A4pork sausages with different brands.mutton fat. F1.chicken fat. E4 and F4unknown casings.positive control. E3.beef sausages with different brands. G5homemade biscuits with 100% lard.chicken meat. D2. C2. A2 and B2-pork. A3. G2. G4. E2.mutton. C5 and D5. D1. G1. E1. H2. F3 and G3. C3 and D3.

THE WORK CONTINUES .

Biopotential Telemetry EEG & ECG Software receiver Power lab system Transmitter .

Stunning/ non-stunning Transmitter Receiver PowerLab Computer EEG and ECG results .

LECO 4D GC TOF MS .

LECO 4D GC TOF MS .

METABOLOMICS : VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN WHITE GRAPES .

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 No more bringing samples to lab  On-site determination.001 % or 0. one button. easy.04 gram for each kg)  Potential for use in international standards  Fish industry an example . one hour’  Contains a PCR unit .reports results (positive/negative)  Can be operated by untrained personnel  Accurate – proven. fast  Use of probe and primer  Determines presence of porcine DNA within 1 hour  ‘one step. (0.

Yaakob sempena Mihas 2009 di Kuala Lumpur. Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak menyampaikan anugerah ‘World Halal Research Summit 2009’ kepada Dr. .Perdana Menteri.

11 Mei – Pengarah Institut Penyelidikan Halal Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM).  Melalui kaedah Real-Time PCR (Polmerase Chain Reaction) bagi pengesanan DNA babi. kosmetik dan farmasateukal yang dilarang penggunaannya dalam syariah. SERDANG. Yaakob Bin Che Man telah diiktiraf sebagai saintis pertama yang menerima Anugerah Saintis Halal di ‘World Halal Research Summit 2009’  pengiktirafan itu berdasarkan kepelbagaian kajian dan penyelidikan yang dijalankan bagi mengesan produk yang mengandungi kehadiran sumber haram pada produk makanan. Belgium. Dr.  Kajian melibatkan kajian analisis makanan yang mengandungi gelatin. lemak dan daging babi dan alkohol yang terkandung dalam makanan. kumpulan penyelidikannya turut berjaya memenangi Anugerah Harta Intelek Negara 2009 (AHIN’09) dan juga Anugerah Eureka di Brussel. Prof. .

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 New methods of analysis developed are reliable for detection and traceability of non-halal component in food and other consumer products  It is hoped these scientific advances would contribute to the integrity of Halal certificates and further supporting Halal food trade and industry  There is still a lot to be done with regard to this effort . Halal science is crucial for providing evidence when needed in case of doubt.